Lithium: Wikis

  
  
  
  

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heliumlithiumberyllium
H

Li

Na
Appearance
silvery white (seen here in oil)
General properties
Name, symbol, number lithium, Li, 3
Pronunciation /ˈlɪθiəm/, LI-thee-əm
Element category alkali metal
Group, period, block 12, s
Standard atomic weight 6.941(2)g·mol−1
Electron configuration 1s2 2s1
Electrons per shell 2, 1 (Image)
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 0.534 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 0.512 g·cm−3
Melting point 453.69 K, 180.54 °C, 356.97 °F
Boiling point 1615 K, 1342 °C, 2448 °F
Critical point (extrapolated)
3223 K, 67 MPa
Heat of fusion 3.00 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 147.1 kJ·mol−1
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) 24.860 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 797 885 995 1144 1337 1610
Atomic properties
Oxidation states +1, -1
(strongly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 0.98 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 520.2 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 7298.1 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 11815.0 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 152 pm
Covalent radius 128±7 pm
Van der Waals radius 182 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure body-centered cubic
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 92.8 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 84.8 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 46 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 6000 m/s
Young's modulus 4.9 GPa
Shear modulus 4.2 GPa
Bulk modulus 11 GPa
Mohs hardness 0.6
CAS registry number 7439-93-2
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of lithium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
6Li 7.5% 6Li is stable with 3 neutrons
7Li 92.5% 7Li is stable with 4 neutrons
6Li content may be as low as 3.75% in
natural samples. 7Li would therefore
have a content of up to 96.25%.
Lithium is a soft, silver-white metal that belongs to the alkali metal group of chemical elements. It is represented by the symbol Li, and it has the atomic number 3. Under standard conditions it is the lightest metal and the least dense solid element. Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive, corroding quickly in moist air to form a black tarnish. For this reason, lithium metal is typically stored under the cover of petroleum. When cut open, lithium exhibits a metallic luster, but contact with oxygen quickly turns it back to a dull silvery gray color. Lithium in its elemental state is highly flammable.
According to one cosmogenic theory, lithium was one of the few elements synthesized in the Big Bang, albeit in relatively small quantities. Since its current estimated abundance in the universe is vastly less than that predicted by physical theories, the processes by which new lithium is created and destroyed, and the true value of its abundance,[1] continue to be active matters of study in astronomy.[2][3][4] The nuclei of lithium are relatively fragile: the two stable lithium isotopes found in nature have lower binding energies per nucleon than any other stable compound nuclides, save deuterium, and helium-3 (3He).[5] Though very light in atomic weight, lithium is less common in the solar system than 25 of the first 32 chemical elements.[6]
Because of its high reactivity, lithium only appears naturally in the form of compounds. Lithium occurs in a number of pegmatitic minerals, but is also commonly obtained from brines and clays. On a commercial scale, lithium metal is isolated electrolytically from a mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride.
Trace amounts of lithium are present in the oceans and in some organisms, though the element serves no apparent vital biological function in humans. The lithium ion Li+ administered as any of several lithium salts has proved to be useful as a mood stabilizing drug due to neurological effects of the ion in the human body. Lithium and its compounds have several industrial applications, including heat-resistant glass and ceramics, high strength-to-weight alloys used in aircraft, and lithium batteries. Lithium also has important links to nuclear physics. The transmutation of lithium atoms to tritium was the first man-made form of a nuclear fusion reaction, and lithium deuteride serves as a fusion fuel in staged thermonuclear weapons.

Contents

Characteristics

Physical

Lithium pellets (covered in white lithium hydroxide)
Like the other alkali metals, lithium has a single valence electron that is easily given up to form a cation.[7] Because of this, it is a good conductor of both heat and electricity and highly reactive, though it is the least reactive of the alkali metals due to the proximity of its valence electron to its nucleus.[7]
Lithium is soft enough to be cut with a knife, and it is the lightest of the metals of the periodic table. When cut, it possesses a silvery-white color that quickly changes to gray due to oxidation.[7] It also has a low density (approximately 0.534 g/cm3) and thus will float on water, with which it reacts easily. This reaction is energetic, forming hydrogen gas and lithium hydroxide in aqueous solution.[7] Because of its reactivity with water, lithium is usually stored under cover of a dense hydrocarbon, often petroleum jelly; though the heavier alkaline metals can be stored in less dense substances, such as mineral oil, lithium is not dense enough to be fully submerged in these liquids.[8]
Lithium possesses a low coefficient of thermal expansion and the highest specific heat capacity of any solid element. .Lithium is superconductive below 400 μK at standard pressure[9] and at higher temperatures (more than 9 kelvins) at very high pressures (over 200,000 atmospheres)[10] At cryogenic temperatures, lithium, like sodium, undergoes diffusionless phase change transformations.^ The Volt's battery pack is made up of multiple linked battery modules and more than 200 battery cells.
  • GM Builds First Lithium-ion Battery for Chevrolet Volt - -- GM is the first major automaker to manufacture an advanced lithium-ion battery pack in the U.S. -- Brownstown Township to be first high-volu 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.search-autoparts.com [Source type: News]

At 4.2K it has a rhombohedral crystal system (with a nine-layer repeat spacing)[11]; at higher temperatures it transforms to face-centered cubic and then body-centered cubic. At liquid-helium temperatures (4 K) the rhombohedral structure is the most prevalent.

Chemical

In moist air, lithium metal rapidly tarnishes to form a black coating of lithium hydroxide (LiOH and LiOH·H2O), lithium nitride (Li3N) and lithium carbonate (Li2CO3, the result of a secondary reaction between LiOH and CO2).[12]
When placed over a flame, lithium gives off a striking crimson color, but when it burns strongly the flame becomes a brilliant silver. .Lithium will ignite and burn in oxygen when exposed to water or water vapours.^ Lithium will ignite and burn when exposed to water and water vapours in Oxygen.
  • Lithium 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The good news is: they burn hydrogen with oxygen to produce electricity, and only water vapor is the byproduct.
  • Lithium • Hubbert Peak of Oil Production 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.hubbertpeak.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Lithium • The Coming Global Energy Crisis 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.energycrisis.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Metallic lithium will react with nitrogen , oxygen , and water vapor in air.
  • Lithium (Li) - Chemical properties, Health and Environmental effects 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.lenntech.com [Source type: Reference]

[13]
Lithium metal is flammable, and it is potentially explosive when exposed to air and especially to water, though less so than the other alkali metals. The lithium-water reaction at normal temperatures is brisk but not violent, though the hydrogen produced can ignite. As with all alkali metals, lithium fires are difficult to extinguish, requiring dry powder fire extinguishers, specifically Class D type (see Types of extinguishing agents). Lithium is the only metal which reacts with nitrogen under normal conditions.

Lithium compounds

Lithium has a diagonal relationship with magnesium, an element of similar atomic and ionic radius. Chemical resemblances between the two metals include the formation of a nitride by reaction with N2, the formation of an oxide when burnt in O2, salts with similar solubilities, and thermal instability of the carbonates and nitrides.[12]

Isotopes

Naturally occurring lithium is composed of two stable isotopes, 6Li and 7Li, the latter being the more abundant (92.5% natural abundance).[7][8][14] Both natural isotopes have anomalously low nuclear binding energy per nucleon compared to the next lighter and heavier elements, helium and beryllium, which means that alone among stable light elements, lithium can produce net energy through nuclear fission. Seven radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable being 8Li with a half-life of 838 ms and 9Li with a half-life of 178.3 ms. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are shorter than 8.6 ms. The shortest-lived isotope of lithium is 4Li, which decays through proton emission and has a half-life of 7.58043 × 10−23 s.
7Li is one of the primordial elements (or, more properly, primordial isotopes) produced in Big Bang nucleosynthesis. A small amount of both 6Li and 7Li are produced in stars, but are thought to be burned as fast as it is produced.[15] Additional small amounts of lithium of both 6Li and 7Li may be generated from solar wind, cosmic rays, and early solar system 7Be and 10Be radioactive decay.[16] 7Li can also be generated in carbon stars.[17]
Lithium isotopes fractionate substantially during a wide variety of natural processes,[18] including mineral formation (chemical precipitation), metabolism, and ion exchange. Lithium ions substitute for magnesium and iron in octahedral sites in clay minerals, where 6Li is preferred to 7Li, resulting in enrichment of the light isotope in processes of hyperfiltration and rock alteration. The exotic 11Li is known to exhibit a nuclear halo.

History and etymology

Petalite (LiAlSi4O10, which is lithium aluminium silicate) was first discovered in 1800 by the Brazilian chemist José Bonifácio de Andrade e Silva, who discovered this mineral in a mine on the island of Utö, Sweden.[19][20][21] However, it was not until 1817 that Johan August Arfwedson, then working in the laboratory of the chemist Jöns Jakob Berzelius, detected the presence of a new element while analyzing petalite ore.[22][23][24] This element formed compounds similar to those of sodium and potassium, though its carbonate and hydroxide were less soluble in water and more alkaline.[25] Berzelius gave the alkaline material the name "lithos", from the Greek word λιθoς (transliterated as lithos, meaning "stone"), to reflect its discovery in a solid mineral, as opposed to sodium and potassium, which had been discovered in plant tissues. The name of this element was later standardized as "lithium".[7][20][24] Arfwedson later showed that this same element was present in the minerals spodumene and lepidolite.[20] In 1818, Christian Gmelin was the first man to observe that lithium salts give a bright red color in flame.[20] However, both Arfwedson and Gmelin tried and failed to isolate the element from its salts.[20][24][26] This element, lithium, was not isolated until 1821, when William Thomas Brande isolated the element by performing electrolysis on lithium oxide, a process that had previously been employed by the chemist Sir Humphry Davy to isolate the alkali metals potassium and sodium.[8][26][27] Brande also described some pure salts of lithium, such as the chloride, and he performed an estimate of its atomic weight. In 1855, larger quantities of lithium were produced through the electrolysis of lithium chloride by Robert Bunsen and Augustus Matthiessen.[20] The discovery of this procedure henceforth led to commercial production of lithium metal, beginning in 1923 by the German company Metallgesellschaft AG, which performed an electrolysis of a liquid mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride.[20][28]
The production and use of lithium underwent several drastic changes in history. The first major application of lithium became high temperature grease for aircraft engines or similar applications in World War II and shortly after. .This small market was supported by several small mining operations mostly in the United States.^ GM's largest national market is the United States , followed by China , Brazil , the United Kingdom , Canada , Russia and Germany .
  • GM Builds First Lithium-ion Battery for Chevrolet Volt - -- GM is the first major automaker to manufacture an advanced lithium-ion battery pack in the U.S. -- Brownstown Township to be first high-volu 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.search-autoparts.com [Source type: News]

The demand for lithium increased dramatically when in the beginning of the cold war the need for the production of nuclear fusion weapons arose and the dominant fusion material tritium had to be made by irradiating lithium-6. The United States became the prime producer of lithium in the period between the late 1950s and the mid 1980s. At the end the stockpile of lithium was roughly 42,000 tons of lithium hydroxide. The stockpiled lithium was depleted in lithium-6 by 75% .[29]
Lithium was used to decrease the melting temperature of glass and to improve the melting behavior of aluminium oxide when using the Hall-Héroult process.[30][30] These two uses dominated the market until the middle of the 1990s. After the end of the nuclear arms race the demand for lithium decreased and the sale of Department of Energy stockpiles on the open market further reduced prices.[29] Then, in the mid 1990's several companies started to extract lithium from brine; this method proved to be less expensive than underground or even open pit mining. Most of the mines closed or shifted their focus to other materials as only the ore from zoned pegmatites could be mined for a competitive price. For example, the US mines near Kings Mountain, North Carolina closed before the turn of the century. The use in lithium ion batteries increased the demand for lithium and became the dominant use in 2007.[29] New companies have expanded brine extraction efforts to meet the rising demand.[31]

Occurrence

Lithium is about as common as chlorine in the Earth's upper continental crust, on a per-atom basis.
Lithium mine production (2008) and reserves in metric tonnes[32]
Country Production Reserves Reserve base
 Argentina 3,200 Not available Not available
 Australia 6,900 170,000 220,000
 Bolivia 0 0 5,400,000
 Brazil 180 190,000 910,000
 Canada 710 180,000 360,000
 Chile 12,000 3,000,000 3,000,000
 People's Republic of China 3,500 540,000 1,100,000
 Portugal 570 Not available Not available
 United States Withheld 38,000 410,000
 Zimbabwe 300 23,000 27,000
World total 27,400 4,100,000 11,000,000

Astronomical occurrence

According to modern cosmological theory, both stable isotopes of lithium—6Li and 7Li—were among the 3 elements synthesized in the Big Bang. Though the amount of lithium generated in Big Bang nucleosynthesis is dependent upon the number of photons per baryon, for accepted values the lithium abundance can be calculated, and there is a "cosmological lithium discrepancy" in the universe: older stars seem to have less lithium than they should, and some younger stars have far more. The lack of lithium in older stars is apparently caused by the "mixing" of lithium into the interior of stars, where it is destroyed.[1] Furthermore, lithium is produced in younger stars. Though it transmutes into two atoms of helium due to collision with a proton at temperatures above 2.4 million degrees Celsius (most stars easily attain this temperature in their interiors), lithium is more abundant than predicted in later-generation stars, for causes not yet completely understood.[8]
Though it was one of the 3 first elements to be synthesized in the Big Bang, lithium, as well as beryllium and boron are markedly less abundant than the elements with either lower or higher atomic number. This is due to the low temperature necessary to destroy lithium, and a lack of common processes to produce it.[33]
Lithium is also found in brown dwarf stars and certain anomalous orange stars. Because lithium is present in cooler, less-massive brown dwarf stars, but is destroyed in hotter red dwarf stars, its presence in the stars' spectra can be used in the "lithium test" to differentiate the two, as both are smaller than the Sun.[8][34][35] Certain orange stars can also contain a high concentration of lithium. Those orange stars found to have a higher than usual concentration of lithium (such as Centaurus X-4) orbit massive objects—neutron stars or black holes—whose gravity evidently pulls heavier lithium to the surface of a hydrogen-helium star, causing more lithium to be observed.[8]

Occurrence on Earth

Lithium is widely distributed on Earth but does not naturally occur in elemental form due to its high reactivity.[7] Estimates for crustal content range from 20 to 70 ppm by weight.[12] In keeping with its name, lithium forms a minor part of igneous rocks, with the largest concentrations in granites. Granitic pegmatites also provide the greatest abundance of lithium-containing minerals, with spodumene and petalite being the most commercially viable sources.[12] A newer source for lithium is hectorite clay, the only active development of which is through the Western Lithium Corporation in the United States.[36]
According to the Handbook of Lithium and Natural Calcium, "Lithium is a comparatively rare element, although it is found in many rocks and some brines, but always in very low concentrations. There are a fairly large number of both lithium mineral and brine deposits but only comparatively a few of them are of actual or potential commercial value. Many are very small, others are too low in grade."[37] At 20 mg lithium per kg of Earth's crust [38], lithium is the 25th most abundant element. Nickel and lead have the about the same abundance.
The largest reserve base of lithium is in the Salar de Uyuni area of Bolivia, which has 5.4 million tons. According to the US Geological Survey, the production and reserves of lithium in metric tons are as follows[32][39]:
Contrary to the USGS data in the table, other estimates put Chile's reserve base at 7,520,000 metric tons of lithium, and Argentina's at 6,000,000 metric tons.[40]
Seawater contains an estimated 230 billion tons of lithium, though at a low concentration of 0.1 to 0.2 ppm.[41]

Production

Lithium mine, Salar del Hombre Muerto, Argentina. The brine in this salar is rich in lithium, and the mine concentrates the brine by pumping it into solar evaporation ponds. 2009 image from NASA’s EO-1 satellite
Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia
Since the end of World War II lithium metal production has greatly increased. The metal is separated from other elements in igneous minerals such as those above. Lithium salts are extracted from the water of mineral springs, brine pools and brine deposits.
The metal is produced electrolytically from a mixture of fused lithium chloride and potassium chloride. In 1998 it was about 95 US$ / kg (or 43 US$/pound).[42]
Deposits of lithium are found in South America throughout the Andes mountain chain. Chile is the leading lithium metal producer, followed by Argentina. .Both countries recover the lithium from brine pools.^ In the United States Lithium is similarly recovered from brine pools in Nevada.
  • Lithium 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Both countries recover the Lithium from brine pools.
  • Lithium 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Lithium is presently being recovered from brines of Searles Lake, in California, and from those in Nevada.
  • Lithium 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]

In the United States lithium is recovered from brine pools in Nevada.[43] Nearly half the world's known reserves are located in Bolivia, a nation sitting along the central eastern slope of the Andes. In 2009 Bolivia is negotiating with Japanese, French, and even Korean firms to begin extraction.[44] .According to the US Geological Survey, Bolivia's Uyuni Desert has 5.4 million tons of lithium, which can be used to make batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles.^ GM announced last August a $43-million investment to prepare the 160,000-square-foot, landfill-free facility for production of lithium-ion battery packs for the Volt and other electric vehicles with extended-range capabilities.
  • GM Builds First Lithium-ion Battery for Chevrolet Volt - -- GM is the first major automaker to manufacture an advanced lithium-ion battery pack in the U.S. -- Brownstown Township to be first high-volu 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.search-autoparts.com [Source type: News]

^ This spring, GM will begin shipping batteries to GM's Detroit - Hamtramck plant, the assembly location for the Volt, for use in production validation vehicles.
  • GM Builds First Lithium-ion Battery for Chevrolet Volt - -- GM is the first major automaker to manufacture an advanced lithium-ion battery pack in the U.S. -- Brownstown Township to be first high-volu 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.search-autoparts.com [Source type: News]

[44][45]
China may emerge as a significant producer of brine-source lithium carbonate around 2010. There is potential production of up to 55,000 tons per year if projects in Qinghai province and Tibet proceed.[46]
The total amount of lithium recoverable from global reserves has been estimated at 35 million tonnes, which includes 15 million tons of the known global lithium reserve base.[47]
In 1976 a National Research Council Panel estimated lithium resources at 10.6 million tons for the Western World.[48] With the inclusion of Russian and Chinese resources as well as new discoveries in Australia, Serbia, Argentina and the United States, the total had nearly tripled by 2008.[49][50]

Applications

Because of its specific heat capacity, the highest of all solids, lithium is often used in coolants for heat transfer applications.
In the later years of the 20th century lithium became important as an anode material. Used in lithium-ion batteries because of its high electrochemical potential, a typical cell can generate approximately 3 volts, compared with 2.1 volts for lead/acid or 1.5 volts for zinc-carbon cells. Because of its low atomic mass, it also has a high charge- and power-to-weight ratio.
Lithium is also used in the pharmaceutical and fine-chemical industry in the manufacture of organolithium reagents, which are used both as strong bases and as reagents for the formation of carbon-carbon bonds. Organolithiums are also used in polymer synthesis as catalysts/initiators[51] in anionic polymerization of unfunctionalised olefins.[52][53][54]
Lithium-6 is valued as a source material for tritium production and as a neutron absorber in nuclear fusion. Natural lithium contains about 7.5 percent lithium-6. Large amounts of lithium-6 have been produced by isotope separation for use in nuclear weapons. Lithium-7 gained interest for use in nuclear reactor coolants.

Medical use

Lithium salts were used during the 19th century to treat gout. Lithium salts such as lithium carbonate (Li2CO3), lithium citrate, and lithium orotate are mood stabilizers. They are used in the treatment of bipolar disorder since, unlike most other mood altering drugs, they counteract both mania and depression. Lithium can also be used to augment antidepressants. Because of Lithium's nephrogenic diabetes insipidus effects, it can be used to help treat the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone hypersecretion (SIADH). It was also sometimes prescribed as a preventive treatment for migraine disease and cluster headaches.[55]
The active principle in these salts is the lithium ion Li+. Although this ion has a smaller diameter than either Na+ or K+, in a watery environment like the cytoplasmic fluid, Li+ binds to the oxygen atoms of water, making it effectively larger than either Na+ or K+ ions. How Li+ works in the central nervous system is still a matter of debate. Li+ elevates brain levels of tryptophan, 5-HT (serotonin), and 5-HIAA (a serotonin metabolite). Serotonin is related to mood stability. Li+ also reduces catecholamine activity in the brain (associated with brain activation and mania), by enhancing reuptake and reducing release. Therapeutically useful amounts of lithium (~ 0.6 to 1.2 mmol/l) are only slightly lower than toxic amounts (>1.5 mmol/l), so the blood levels of lithium must be carefully monitored during treatment to avoid toxicity.
Common side effects of lithium treatment include muscle tremors, twitching, ataxia[56] and hypothyroidism. Long term use is linked to hyperparathyroidism[57], hypercalcemia (bone loss), hypertension, damage of tubuli in the kidney, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (polyuria and polydipsia) and/or glomerular damage - even to the point of uremia[58], seizures[59] and weight gain.[60] Some of the side-effects are a result of the increased elimination of potassium.
There appears to be an increased risk of Ebstein (cardiac) Anomaly in infants born to women taking lithium during the first trimester of pregnancy.
According to a study in 2009 at Oita University in Japan and published in the British Journal of Psychiatry, communities whose water contained larger amounts of lithium had significantly lower suicide rates[61][62][63][64] but did not address whether lithium in drinking water causes the negative side effects associated with higher doses of the element.[65]

Other uses

The red lithium flame leads to lithium's use in flares and pyrotechnics

Precautions

Lithium ingots with a thin layer of black oxide tarnish
Lithium metal is corrosive and requires special handling to avoid skin contact. Breathing lithium dust or lithium compounds (which are often alkaline) initially irritate the nose and throat, while higher exposure can cause a buildup of fluid in the lungs, leading to pulmonary edema. The metal itself is a handling hazard because of the caustic hydroxide produced when it is in contact with moisture. Lithium is safely stored in non-reactive compounds such as naphtha.[69]
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
Fire diamond for lithium metal

Regulation

Some jurisdictions limit the sale of lithium batteries, which are the most readily available source of lithium metal for ordinary consumers. Lithium can be used to reduce pseudoephedrine and ephedrine to methamphetamine in the Birch reduction method, which employs solutions of alkali metals dissolved in anhydrous ammonia.
Carriage and shipment of some kinds of lithium batteries may be prohibited aboard certain types of transportation (particularly aircraft) because of the ability of most types of lithium batteries to fully discharge very rapidly when short-circuited, leading to overheating and possible explosion in a process called thermal runaway. Most consumer lithium batteries have thermal overload protection built-in to prevent this type of incident, or their design inherently limits short-circuit currents. Internal shorts have been known to develop due to manufacturing defects or damage to batteries that can lead to spontaneous thermal runaway.[70]

See also

References

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  2. ^ Sackmann, I.J. and Boothroyd, A. I. (1995). "Lithium Creation In Giant Stars". Proc. of IAU General Assembly "Lithium Joint Discussion 11", ed. F. Spite and R. Pallavicini, Memorie della Societa Astronomica Italiana 66: 403–412. http://www.cita.utoronto.ca/~boothroy/lijd11.html. 
  3. ^ Marochnik, L, S; et al. (1996). The Milky Way Galaxy. Taylor & Francis. pp. 42–46. ISBN 2881249310. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=uRgWHDGpKZIC&printsec=frontcover#PPA42,M1. 
  4. ^ Suzuki, Takeru Ken et al. (2000). "Primordial Lithium Abundance as a Stringent Constraint on the Baryonic Content of the Universe". Astrophysics journal 540: 99–103. doi:10.1086/309337. 
  5. ^ File:Binding energy curve - common isotopes.svg shows binding energies of stable nuclides graphically; the source of the data-set is given in the figure background.
  6. ^ Numerical data from: Lodders, Katharina (2003). "Solar System Abundances and Condensation Temperatures of the Elements". The Astrophysical Journal 591: 1220–1247. doi:10.1086/375492.  Graphed at File:SolarSystemAbundances.jpg
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Krebs, Robert E. (2006). The History and Use of Our Earth's Chemical Elements: A Reference Guide. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-33438-2. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f Emsley, John (2001). Nature's Building Blocks. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198503415. 
  9. ^ Tuoriniemi, J; Juntunen-Nurmilaukas, K; Uusvuori, J; Pentti, E; Salmela, A; Sebedash, A (2007). "Superconductivity in lithium below 0.4 millikelvin at ambient pressure.". Nature 447 (7141): 187–9. doi:10.1038/nature05820. PMID 17495921. 
  10. ^ Struzhkin, Vv; Eremets, Mi; Gan, W; Mao, Hk; Hemley, Rj (2002). "Superconductivity in dense lithium.". Science 298 (5596): 1213–5. doi:10.1126/science.1078535. PMID 12386338. 
  11. ^ Overhauser, A. W. (1984). "Crystal Structure of Lithium at 4.2 K". Physical Review Letters 53: 64–65. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.53.64. 
  12. ^ a b c d "Lithium and lithium compounds". Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. 2004. doi:10.1002/0471238961.1209200811011309.a01.pub2. 
  13. ^ Kirchoff, Gustav; Bunsen, Robert. "Chemical Analysis By Observation of Spectra". University of Pittsburgh. http://www.pitt.edu/~alw11/InterestInfo/Articles/Bunsen%20and%20Kirchoff.pdf. Retrieved 2009-11-05. 
  14. ^ "Isotopes of Lithium". Berkeley National Laboratory, The Isotopes Project. http://ie.lbl.gov/education/parent/Li_iso.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-21. 
  15. ^ Asplund, M. et al. (2006). "Lithium Isotopic Abundances in Metal-poor Halo Stars". The Astrophysical Journal 644: 229. doi:10.1086/503538. 
  16. ^ Chaussidon, M.; Robert, F.; McKeegan, K.D. (2006). "Li and B isotopic variations in an Allende CAI: Evidence for the in situ decay of short-lived 10Be and for the possible presence of the short−lived nuclide 7Be in the early solar system" (free download pdf). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70 (1): 224–245. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2005.08.016. http://sims.ess.ucla.edu/PDF/Chaussidon_et_al_Geochim%20Cosmochim_2006a.pdf. 
  17. ^ Denissenkov, P. A.; Weiss, A. (2000). "Episodic lithium production by extra-mixing in red giants". Astronomy and Astrophysics 358: L49–L52. Bibcode2000A&A...358L..49D. 
  18. ^ Seitz, H.M.; Brey, G.P.; Lahaye, Y.; Durali, S.; Weyer, S. (2004). "Lithium isotopic signatures of peridotite xenoliths and isotopic fractionation at high temperature between olivine and pyroxenes". Chemical Geology 212 (1-2): 163–177. doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2004.08.009. 
  19. ^ "Petalite Mineral Information". http://www.mindat.org/min-3171.html. Retrieved 10 August 2009. 
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  22. ^ "Johan August Arfwedson". Periodic Table Live!. http://www.chemeddl.org/collections/ptl/ptl/chemists/bios/arfwedson.html. Retrieved 10 August 2009. 
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  24. ^ a b c van der Krogt, Peter. "Lithium". Elementymology & Elements Multidict. http://www.vanderkrogt.net/elements/elem/li.html. Retrieved 2008-09-18. 
  25. ^ Clark, Jim (2005). "Compounds of the Group 1 Elements". http://www.chemguide.co.uk/inorganic/group1/compounds.html. Retrieved 10 August 2009. 
  26. ^ a b Per Enghag (2004). Encyclopedia of the Elements: Technical Data - History - Processing - Applications. Wiley. pp. 287–300. ISBN 978-3527306664. 
  27. ^ "Timeline science and engineering". DiracDelta Science & Engineering Encyclopedia. http://www.diracdelta.co.uk/science/source/t/i/timeline/source.html. Retrieved 2008-09-18. 
  28. ^ Green, Thomas (2006-06-11). "Analysis of the Element Lithium". echeat. http://www.echeat.com/essay.php?t=29195. 
  29. ^ a b c "Commodity Report 1994: Lithium". http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/lithium/450494.pdf. 
  30. ^ a b Deberitz, JüRgen; Boche, Gernot (2003). "Lithium und seine Verbindungen - Industrielle, medizinische und wissenschaftliche Bedeutung". Chemie in unserer Zeit 37: 258. doi:10.1002/ciuz.200300264. 
  31. ^ Kogel, Jessica Elzea (2006). "Lithium". Industrial minerals & rocks: commodities, markets, and uses. Littleton, Colo.: Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration. pp. 599. ISBN 9780873352338. http://books.google.com/books?id=zNicdkuulE4C&pg=PA600&lpg=PAPA599. ).
  32. ^ a b U.S. Geological Survey, 2009, Mineral commodity summaries 2009: U.S. Geological Survey, 195 p. Page 95.
  33. ^ "Element Abundances". http://web.archive.org/web/20060901133923/http://www.astro.wesleyan.edu/~bill/courses/astr231/wes_only/element_abundances.pdf. Retrieved 2009-11-17. 
  34. ^ Cain, Fraser. "Brown Dwarf". Universe Today. http://www.universetoday.com/guide-to-space/stars/brown-dwarf. Retrieved 2009-11-17. 
  35. ^ "L Dwarf Classification". http://www-int.stsci.edu/~inr/ldwarf3.html. Retrieved 2009-11-17. 
  36. ^ Moores, S. (June 2007). "Between a rock and a salt lake". Industrial Minerals 477: 58. 
  37. ^ Handbook of Lithium and Natural Calcium, Donald Garrett, Academic Press, 2004, cited in The Trouble with Lithium 2
  38. ^ Taylor, S.R.; McLennan, S.M.; The continental crust: Its composition and evolution, Blackwell Sci. Publ., Oxford, 330 pp. (1985). Cited in Abundances of the elements (data page)
  39. ^ Lithium_Microscope
  40. ^ Clarke, G.M. and Harben, P.W., "Lithium Availability Wall Map". Published June 2009. Referenced at International Lithium Alliance
  41. ^ "Lithium Occurrence". Institute of Ocean Energy, Saga University, Japan. http://www.ioes.saga-u.ac.jp/ioes-study/li/lithium/occurence.html. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  42. ^ Ober, Joyce A. "Lithium" (pdf). United States Geological Survey. pp. 77–78. http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/lithium/450798.pdf. Retrieved 2007-08-19. 
  43. ^ Hammond, C. R. (2000). The Elements, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition. CRC press. ISBN 0849304814. 
  44. ^ a b Simon Romero (February 2, 2009). "In Bolivia, a Tight Grip on the Next Big Resource". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/03/world/americas/03lithium.html?ref=world. 
  45. ^ "USGS Mineral Commodities Summaries 2009". USGS. http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/mcs/2009/mcs2009.pdf. 
  46. ^ "The Trouble With Lithium 2" (PDF). Meridian International Research. May 28, 2008. http://www.meridian-int-res.com/Projects/Lithium_Microscope.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-07. 
  47. ^ "The Trouble with Lithium" (PDF). Meridian International Research. 2007. http://www.meridian-int-res.com/Projects/Lithium_Problem_2.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-07. 
  48. ^ Evans, R.K. (1978). Lithium Reserves and Resources, Energy, Vol 3. Pergamon Press. 
  49. ^ Evans, R.K. (2008). "An Abundance of Lithium". http://www.worldlithium.com/Abstract.html. Retrieved 2009-07-07. 
  50. ^ Evans, R.K. (2008). "An Abundance of Lithium Part 2". http://www.worldlithium.com/AN_ABUNDANCE_OF_LITHIUM_-_Part_2.html. Retrieved 2009-07-07. 
  51. ^ "Organometallics". http://www.sriconsulting.com/CEH/Public/Reports/681.7000/. 
  52. ^ Yurkovetskii, A. V.; Kofman, V. L.; Makovetskii, K. L. (2005). "Polymerization of 1,2-dimethylenecyclobutane by organolithium initiators". Russian Chemical Bulletin 37: 1782–1784. doi:10.1007/BF00962487. 
  53. ^ Quirk, Roderic P.; Cheng, Pao Luo (1986). "Functionalization of polymeric organolithium compounds. Amination of poly(styryl)lithium". Macromolecules 19: 1291. doi:10.1021/ma00159a001. 
  54. ^ Stone, F. G. A.; West, Robert (1980). Advances in organometallic chemistry. Academic Press. p. 55. ISBN 0120311186. http://books.google.com/books?id=_gai4kRfcMUC&printsec=frontcover#PPA55,M1. 
  55. ^ Peatfield, R. C. (1981). "Lithium in migraine and cluster headache: a review.". J. R. Soc Med. 74 (6): 432–436. PMID 7252959. 
  56. ^ Newman, P. K.; Saunders, M (1979). "Lithium neurotoxicity.". Postgraduate Medical Journal 55 (648): 701. doi:10.1136/pgmj.55.648.701. PMID 537955. 
  57. ^ Prasad, A. (1984). "Chronic lithium intake and hyperparathyroidism". European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 27 (4): 499. doi:10.1007/BF00549602. PMID 6519159. 
  58. ^ Bendz, H.; A; B; M; S (1994). "Kidney damage in long-term lithium patients: A cross-sectional study of patients with 15 years or more on lithium". Nephrol Dial Transplant 9 (9): 1250–1254. PMID 7816284. http://ndt.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/9/9/1250. 
  59. ^ Stone, K. A. (1999). "Lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus". The Journal of the American Board of Family Practice 12 (1): 43–47. PMID 10050642. http://www.jabfm.org/cgi/content/abstract/12/1/43. 
  60. ^ "Weight Gain and Bipolar Disorder Treatment". PsychEducation.org. November 2007. http://www.psycheducation.org/hormones/Insulin/weightgain.htm. 
  61. ^ "Lithium in drinking water may boost mood". Science News (United Press International). May 1, 2009 at 11:41 PM. http://www.upi.com/Science_News/2009/05/01/Lithium-in-drinking-water-may-boost-mood/UPI-66841241235675/. Retrieved 2009-05-02. 
  62. ^ Alleyne, Richard (10:01AM BST 01 May 2009). "Natural levels of lithium in drinking water help reduce suicides". Health: Health News (Telegraph). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/healthnews/5251365/Natural-levels-of-lithium-in-drinking-water-help-reduce-suicides.html. Retrieved 2009-05-02. 
  63. ^ "Scientists Find Correlation Between Lithium in Drinking Water and Reduced Suicide Rates". shortnews.com. 05/02/2009 03:41 PM. http://www.shortnews.com/start.cfm?id=78524. Retrieved 2009-05-02. 
  64. ^ Ohgami, H.; Terao, T; Shiotsuki, I; Ishii, N; Iwata, N (2009). "Lithium levels in drinking water and risk of suicide". The British Journal of Psychiatry (The Royal College of Psychiatrists) 194 (5): 194: 464–465. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.108.055798. PMID 19407280. http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/abstract/194/5/464. 
  65. ^ "Lithium in water 'curbs suicide'". Health:Medical Notes. BBC. 09:22 GMT, Friday, 1 May 2009 10:22 UK. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/8025454.stm. Retrieved 2009-05-02. 
  66. ^ "You’ve got the power: the evolution of batteries and the future of fuel cells" (PDF). Toshiba. http://nl.computers.toshiba-europe.com/Contents/Toshiba_nl/NL/WHITEPAPER/files/TISBWhitepapertech.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-17. 
  67. ^ Ernst-Christian, K. (2004). "Special Materials in Pyrotechnics: III. Application of Lithium and its Compounds in Energetic Systems". Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 29 (2): 67–80. doi:10.1002/prep.200400032. 
  68. ^ Hughes, T.G.; Smith, R.B. and Kiely, D.H. (1983). "Stored Chemical Energy Propulsion System for Underwater Applications". Journal of Energy 7 (2): 128–133. doi:10.2514/3.62644. 
  69. ^ Furr, A. K. (2000). CRC handbook of laboratory safety. Boca Raton: CRC Press. pp. 244–246. ISBN 9780849325236. http://books.google.com/books?id=Oo3xAmmMlEwC&pg=PA244. 
  70. ^ Samuel C. Levy and Per Bro. (1994). Battery hazards and accident prevention. New York: Plenum Press. pp. 15–16. ISBN 9780306447587. http://books.google.com/books?id=i7U-0IB8tjMC&pg=PA15. 

External links


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

Lithium (Li) is the third element on the periodic table. It is a metal, and commonly used in batteries.

Physical Constants

Molecular Weight = 6.94 g·mol-1
Melting Point = 179°C
Boiling Point = 1336°C
Density = 0.534 g·mL-1[1]

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.LITHIUM [[[symbol]] Li, atomic weight 7.00 (0=16)], an alkali metal, discovered in 1817 by J. A. Arfvedson (Ann.^ [Gr.,=stone], metallic chemical element; symbol Li; at.
  • Lithium (chemistry) - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: General]

^ Name: Lithium Symbol: Li Atomic Number: 3 Atomic Weight: 6.941000 Family: Alkali Metals CAS RN: 7439-93-2 Description: A silvery white/ grey metal.
  • Lithium 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Lithium (pronounced /ˈlɪθiəm/, LITH-ee-əm) is a soft, silver-white metal that belongs to the alkali metal group of chemical elements.
  • Lithium (chemistry) - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: General]
  • Lithium - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: General]

chim. phys.
ro, p. 82). .It is only found in combination, and is a constituent of the minerals petalite, triphyline, spodumene and lepidolite or lithia mica.^ Arfwedson found the new element within the minerals Spodumene and Lepidolite in the Petalite ore that he was analyzing during a routine investigation of some minerals from a mine on the island Uto in Sweden.
  • Lithium 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Lithium is the thirty-first most abundant element, contained particularly in the minerals Spodumene, Lepidolite, Petalite, and Amblygonite.
  • Lithium 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It does not occur free in nature; combined is is found in small units in nearly all igneous rocks and in the waters of many mineral springs.
  • Lithium 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]

.It occurs in small quantities in sea, river and spring water, and is also widely but very sparingly distributed throughout the vegetable kingdom.^ On Earth, Lithium is widely distributed, but because of its reactivity does not occur in its free form.
  • Lithium 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It does not occur free in nature; combined is is found in small units in nearly all igneous rocks and in the waters of many mineral springs.
  • Lithium 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]

.It may be obtained (in the form of its chloride) by fusing lepidolite with a mixture of barium carbonate and sulphate, and potassium sulphate (L. Troost, Comptes rendus, 18 5 6, 43, p.^ The metal is produced electrolytically from a mixture of fused Lithium and Potassium Chloride.
  • Lithium 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]

921). .The fused mass separates into two layers, the upper of which contains a mixture of potassium and lithium sulphates; this is lixiviated with water and converted into the mixed chlorides by adding barium chloride, the solution evaporated and the lithium chloride extracted by a mixture of dry alcohol and ether.^ Lithium chemistry #01 - lithium into water...
  • Lithium (chemistry) - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: General]

^ The metal is produced electrolytically from a mixture of fused Lithium and Potassium Chloride.
  • Lithium 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Commercial production of Lithium metal was achieved in 1923 by the German company Metallgesellschaft through using electrolysis of molten Lithium Chloride and Potassium Chloride.
  • Lithium 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]

.The metal may be obtained by heating dry lithium hydroxide with magnesium (H. N. Warren, Chem.^ Today, larger amounts of the metal are obtained through the electrolysis of Lithium Chloride (LiCl).
  • Lithium 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Lithium metal is used as a catalyst in some types of methamphetamine production, particularly in illegal amateur “meth labs.” Lithium Hydroxide is an efficient and lightweight purifier of air.
  • Lithium 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Lithium Hydroxide (LiOH) is an important compound of Lithium obtained from Lithium Carbonate (Li 2 CO 3 ).
  • Lithium 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]

News,
1896, 74, p. 6). L. Kahlenberg (Jour. phys. Chem., 3, p. .601) obtained it by electrolysing the chloride in pyridine solution, a carbon anode and an iron or platinum cathode being used.^ In a traditional lithium-ion battery, lithium ions flow between a negatively charged anode, usually graphite, and the positively charged cathode, usually cobalt oxide or lithium iron phosphate.

0. Ruff and 0. Johannsen (Zeit. elektrochem., 1906, 55, p. 537) electrolyse a mixture of bromide and chloride which melts at 520°. It is a soft, silvery 1 Mommsen in C.I.L. x. 343 does not accept this statement, but an inscription found in 1885 confirms it.
white metal, which readily tarnishes on exposure. .Its specific gravity is 0.59, and it melts at r80° C. It burns on ignition in air, and when strongly heated in an atmosphere of nitrogen it forms lithium nitride, Li 3 N. It decomposes water at ordinary temperature, liberating hydrogen and forming lithium hydroxide.^ Lithium Hydroxide absorbs the Carbon Dioxide from the air by reacting with it to form Lithium Carbonate.
  • Lithium 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Even better materials for this purpose include Lithium Peroxide (Li 2 O 2 ) that, in presence of moisture, not only absorb carbon dioxide to form Lithium Carbonate, but also release oxygen.
  • Lithium 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Lithium has only about half the specific gravity of water, giving solid metal Lithium sticks the odd heft of a light/medium wood, such as pine.
  • Lithium 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]

.Lithium hydride, LiH, obtained by heating the metal in a current of hydrogen at a red heat, or by heating the metal with ethylene to 700° C. (M. Guntz, Comptes rendus, 1896, 122, p.^ Chile is currently the leading Lithium metal producer in the world, with Argentina following.
  • Lithium 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Today, larger amounts of the metal are obtained through the electrolysis of Lithium Chloride (LiCl).
  • Lithium 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.3rd1000.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The current generation of lithium ion batteries is not any cheaper than nickel metal hydride.
  • Expert: Lithium Ion Batteries Will Help Hybrids More Than Electric Cars | Hybrid Cars 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.hybridcars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

2 44; 12 3, p. 1273) is a white solid which inflames when heated in chlorine. With alcohol it forms lithium ethylate, LiOC 2 H 6, with liberation of hydrogen. Lithium oxide, Li 2 O, is obtained by burning the metal in oxygen, or by ignition of the nitrate. .It is a white powder which readily dissolves in water to form the hydroxide, LiOH, which is also obtained by boiling the carbonate with milk of lime.^ LiOH Lithium Hydroxide, solution Lithium Iodide, anhydrous Lithium iso-Propoxide, powder Lithium lodide, anhydrous Lithium Metaborate Lithium Metal Lithium Metal, Battery Grade Lithium Metasilicate Lithium Methoxide Lithium Methoxide, typ.
  • Home: Chemetall Lithium Division - The Lithium Company - The Lithium Supplier 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.chemetalllithium.com [Source type: Academic]

^ ESKALITH contains lithium carbonate, a white, light alkaline powder with molecular formula Li2CO3 and molecular weight 73.89.
  • Eskalith (Lithium Carbonate) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It forms a white caustic mass, resembling sodium hydroxide in appearance. It absorbs carbon dioxide, but is not deliquescent. .Lithium chloride LiC1, prepared by heating the metal in chlorine, or by dissolving the oxide or carbonate in hydrochloric acid, is exceedingly deliquescent, melts below a red heat, and is very soluble in alcohol.^ Parallel studies were carried out with lithium carbonate and lithium chloride.
  • Lithium supplement information by Ray Sahelian, M.D. Lithium orotate benefit 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Comparing Lithium Carbonate, Lithium Chloride, and Lithium Orotate Lithium orotate, carbonate and chloride: pharmacokinetics, polyuria in rats.
  • Lithium supplement information by Ray Sahelian, M.D. Lithium orotate benefit 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polyuria and polydipsia developed more slowly in rats given lithium orotate than in those given lithium carbonate or lithium chloride, perhaps due to an effect of the orotate anion.
  • Lithium supplement information by Ray Sahelian, M.D. Lithium orotate benefit 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lithium carbonate, Li 2 CO 3, obtained as a white amorphous precipitate by adding sodium carbonate to a solution of lithium chloride, is sparingly soluble in water.^ M) Lithium Bromide, solution 54 % LiBr in water (without inhibitor) (other concentrations upon request) Lithium Carbonate, „fines“ Lithium Carbonate, „Granules" Lithium Carbonate, High Grade Lithium Carbonate, Pharmaceutical Grade Lithium Carbonate, tech.
  • Home: Chemetall Lithium Division - The Lithium Company - The Lithium Supplier 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.chemetalllithium.com [Source type: Academic]
  • China: Chemetall Lithium Division - The Lithium Company - The Lithium Supplier 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.chemetalllithium.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Parallel studies were carried out with lithium carbonate and lithium chloride.
  • Lithium supplement information by Ray Sahelian, M.D. Lithium orotate benefit 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Comparing Lithium Carbonate, Lithium Chloride, and Lithium Orotate Lithium orotate, carbonate and chloride: pharmacokinetics, polyuria in rats.
  • Lithium supplement information by Ray Sahelian, M.D. Lithium orotate benefit 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lithium phosphate, Li 3 PO 4, obtained by the addition of sodium phosphate to a soluble lithium salt in the presence of sodium hydroxide, is almost insoluble in water.^ The less sodium, or salt, in the body, the less Lithium is excreted, and the greater chance of Lithium buildup to toxic levels.

^ The less sodium, or salt, in the body, the less lithium is excreted, and the greater chance of lithium buildup to toxic levels.

^ This drug is a type sodium and I swear I felt like I was choking to death from salt, I drank gallons of water feeling as if it were necessary to stay alive.

Lithium ammonium, LiNH 3, is obtained by passing ammonia gas over lithium, the product being heated to 70° C. in order to expel any excess of ammonia. It turns brown-red on exposure to air, and is inflammable. It is decomposed by water evolving hydrogen, and when heated in vacuo at 50°-60° C. it gives lithium and ammonia. With ammonia solution it gives hydrogen and lithiamide, LiNH 2 (H. Moissan, ibid., 1898, 127, p. 685). .Lithium carbide, L12C2, obtained by heating lithium carbonate and carbon in the electric furnace, forms a transparent crystalline mass of specific gravity 1.65, and is readily decomposed by cold water giving acetylene (H. Moissan, ibid., 1896, 122, p.^ Today, lithium is administered to patients as a lithium salt, usually as lithium carbonate or lithium citrate, which is taken by mouth in capsule, tablet, or syrup form.

^ The lithium carbonate treatment was administrated with drinking water containing lithium carbonate (0.2 mg/ml).

^ Is a good electrical conductor attractive for lithium ion batteries and could be used to make transparent conductive coatings for solar cells and displays.

362).
Lithium is detected by the faint yellow line of wave-length 6104, and the bright red line of wave-length 6708, shown in its flame spectrum. It may be distinguished from sodium and potassium by the sparing solubility of its carbonate and phosphate. .The atomic weight of lithium was determined by J. S. Stas from the analysis of the chloride, and also by conversion of the chloride into the nitrate, the value obtained being 7.03 (0 =16).^ Lithium is an element of the alkali-metal group with atomic number 3, atomic weight 6.94 and an emission line at 671 nm on the flame photometer.
  • Eskalith (Lithium Carbonate) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With an atomic weight of 6.941 Lithium is number three in the periodic table of the elements.
  • Home: Chemetall Lithium Division - The Lithium Company - The Lithium Supplier 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.chemetalllithium.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Trial data being collected include the patient's diet, exercise habits, weight, stress factors and overall lifestyle as variables to display glucose values.
  • Breaking News!! AMCG "Amico Games Corp. Anticipates Substantial Growth in 2010 and 2011" : Sign Up For Our Alerts!! 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.tmcnet.com [Source type: News]

.The preparations of lithium used in medicine are: Lithii Carbonis, dose 2 to 5 grs.; Lithii Citras, dose 5 to io grs.; and Lithii Citras effervescens, a mixture of citric acid, lithium citrate, tartaric acid and sodium bicarbonate, dose 60 to 120 grs.^ Some companies use only the chemical name, that is, lithium carbonate or lithium citrate.

^ Over 60% of cell phones and 90% of laptops use lithium batteries.
  • Breaking News!! AMCG "Amico Games Corp. Anticipates Substantial Growth in 2010 and 2011" : Sign Up For Our Alerts!! 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.tmcnet.com [Source type: News]

^ Lithium bicarbonate is a medication used to treat psychiatric disorders; it also influences thyroid production and release of hormones.

Lithium salts render the urine alkaline and are in virtue of their action diuretic. .They are much prescribed for acute or chronic gout, and as a solvent to uric acid calculi or gravel, but their action as a solvent of uric acid has been certainly overrated, as it has been shown that the addition of medicinal doses of lithium to the blood serum does not increase the solubility of uric acid in it.^ The doctor determines how much lithium a patient needs by taking a sample of blood from time to time.

^ Recent studies suggest lithium can be used in the treatment of acute brain injuries (e.g., ischemia) and chronic neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, tauopathies, and Huntington's disease).
  • Lithium supplement information by Ray Sahelian, M.D. Lithium orotate benefit 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The blood is analyzed to determine how much lithium is present.

.In concentrated or large doses lithium salts cause vomiting and diarrhoea, due to a gastro-enteritis set up by their action.^ Large changes in the amount of salt in your diet may change your lithium blood levels.
  • Eskalith (Lithium Carbonate) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ N.B. : Blood samples for serum lithium determinations should be drawn immediately prior to the next dose when lithium concentrations are relatively stable (i.e., 8 to 12 hours after the previous dose).
  • Eskalith (Lithium Carbonate) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In medicinal use they should therefore be always freely diluted.^ It is therefore important that patients and their families be cautioned to watch for early toxic symptoms and to discontinue the drug and inform the physician should they occur.
  • Eskalith (Lithium Carbonate) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 13 January 2010 10:57 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]



Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also lithium

German

Chemical Element: Li (atomical number 3)

Pronunciation

Noun

Lithium n
  1. lithium

Simple English

[[File:|right|thumb|Lithium]] Lithium (symbol Li) is the third chemical element in the periodic table. This means that it has 3 protons in its nucleus and 3 electrons around it. Its atomic number is 3. Its mass number is 6.94. It has two common isotopes, 6Li and 7Li. 7Li is more common. 92.5% of lithium is 7Li. Lithium is a soft silvery metal that is very reactive. It is used in lithium batteries and certain medicines.

Contents

Properties

Physical properties

Lithium is one of the alkali metals. Lithium is a silvery solid metal (when freshly cut). It is very soft. Thus it can be cut easily with a knife. It melts at a low temperature. It is very light, similar to wood. It is the least dense metal and the least dense element in a solid or liquid state. It can hold more heat than any other solid element. It conducts heat and electricity easily.

Chemical properties

It will react with water, giving off hydrogen to form a basic solution (lithium hydroxide). Because of this, lithium must be stored in petroleum jelly. Sodium and potassium can be stored in oil but lithium cannot because it is so light. It will just float on the oil and not be protected by it.

Lithium also reacts with halogens. It can react with nitrogen gas to make lithium nitride. It reacts with air to make a black tarnish and then a white powder of lithium hydroxide and lithium carbonate.

Chemical compounds

See also: Lithium compounds
File:Flammenfä
Flame test for lithium

Lithium forms chemical compounds with only one oxidation state: +1. Most of them are white and unreactive. They make a bright red color when heated in a flame. They are a little toxic. Most of them dissolve in water. Lithium carbonate is less soluble in water than the other alkali metal carbonates like sodium carbonate.

Occurrence

It does not occur as an element in nature. It only is in the form of lithium compounds. The ocean has a large amount of lithium in it. Certain granites have large amounts of lithium. Most living things have lithium in them. There are some places where much lithium is in the salt. Some silicates have lithium in them.

History

Lithium (Greek lithos, meaning "stone") was discovered by Johann Arfvedson in 1817. In 1818, Christian Gmelin observed that lithium salts give a bright red color in flame. W.T. Brande and Sir Humphrey Davy later used electrolysis on lithium oxide to isolate the element. Lithium was used first in greases. Then nuclear weapons became a big use of lithium. Lithium was also used to make glass melt easier and make aluminium oxide melt easier in making aluminium. Now lithium is used mainly in batteries.

It was apparently given the name "lithium" because it was discovered from a mineral, while other common alkali metals were first discovered in plant tissue.

Preparation

It is made by getting lithium chloride from pools and springs. The lithium chloride is melted and electrolyzed. This makes liquid lithium and chlorine.

Uses

As an element

Its main use is in batteries. Lithium is used as an anode in the lithium battery. It has more power than batteries with zinc, like alkaline cells. Lithium ion batteries also have lithium in them, though not as an element. It is also used in heat transfer alloys. Lithium is used to make organolithium compounds. They are used for very strong bases.

In chemical compounds

Lithium compounds are used in some drugs known as mood stabilizers. Lithium niobate is used in radio transmitters in cell phones. Some lithium compounds are also used in ceramics. Lithium chloride can absorb water from other things. Some lithium compounds are used to make soap and grease.

Safety

Lithium reacts with water, making irritating smoke and heat. It is not as dangerous as the other alkali metals. Lithium hydroxide is very corrosive.

Isotopes

There are 5 isotopes of Lithium having respectively 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 neutrons in the nucleus. The most common isotope in nature is 3Li7 which makes up 92.58 % of the total. The second isotope which is widely available is 3Li6 which makes up 7.42 % of the total. The other 3 isotopes exist in very small quantities. The atomic mass of Lithium is 6.939.

See also

frr:Lithium



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 16, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Lithium, which are similar to those in the above article.








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