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Lithium-ion battery
Lithium-Ionen-Accumulator.jpg
Varta Lithium-ion battery, Museum Autovision, Altlussheim, Germany
Energy/weight 100-160 W·h/kg[1]
Energy/size 250-360 W·h/L[1]
Power/weight ~250-~340 W/kg[2]
Charge/discharge efficiency 80-90%[3]
Energy/consumer-price 1.5 Wh/US$[4]
Self-discharge rate 8% at 21 °C
15% at 40 °C
31% at 60 °C
(per month)[5]
Time durability (24-36) months
Cycle durability ~1200 cycles[6]
Nominal cell voltage 3.6 / 3.7 V
Cylindrical 18650-cell before closing
.A lithium-ion battery (sometimes Li-ion battery) is a type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge, and reversely when charged.^ It will use lithium-ion (li-ion) technology.
  • Car Batteries: Acid-Lead vs. Lithium Ion ~ Chris Pirillo 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC chris.pirillo.com [Source type: General]

^ How to charge Lithium Batteries.
  • How to charge Lithium Batteries. 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.powerstream.com [Source type: Academic]

^ V Lithium Ion Battery Packs & Chargers 7.4 Volt battery packs in shrink with li-on charger .
  • LITHIUM ION BATTERIES, 18650 SAMSUNG, LG, PANASONIC. 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.megabatteries.com [Source type: General]

.During discharge the negative electrode is the anode where oxidation takes place and during charge it turns into the cathode where reduction takes place.^ During discharging, the ions flow back from the negative electrode to the positive electrode.
  • How lithium-ion batteries work: How does a rechargeable battery work? A simple introduction 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.explainthatstuff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anodes have a negative charge, while cathodes have a positive charge.
  • How Do Lithium Ion Laptop Batteries Work? - Associated Content - associatedcontent.com 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ The opposite reaction takes place during discharging.

.This functional meaning of the words anode and cathode is however widely ignored in the slang of battery-specialists: "anode" means negative electrode and "cathode" means positive electrode, and this somewhat abusive practice is followed in the present article.^ Also, the researchers are examining alternative anode materials (negative electrodes) for the batteries.
  • PNNL: Research Highlights: The Joys and Failures of Lithium-Ion Batteries 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.pnl.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Anodes have a negative charge, while cathodes have a positive charge.
  • How Do Lithium Ion Laptop Batteries Work? - Associated Content - associatedcontent.com 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ The basic design of a battery includes two electrodes, an anode and a cathode.
  • Battery Education: Lithium ion Rechargeable Batteries 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.batteryeducation.com [Source type: Reference]

.Different types of lithium-ion batteries use different chemistry and have different performance, cost, and safety characteristics.^ The use of lithium-ion battery .
  • The use of lithium-ion battery - KATC Blog post - Always Online 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC community.katc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "This considerably enhances the safety of lithium-ion batteries.
  • Scientists Create Non-flammable Lithium-ion Battery - Tom's Hardware 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.tomshardware.com [Source type: General]
  • Scientists create non-flammable lithium-ion battery | TG Daily 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.tgdaily.com [Source type: General]

^ Polyimide-based lithium ion battery .
  • Polyimide-based lithium ion battery - Google Patent Search 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

.Unlike primary lithium batteries, lithium-ion cells use an intercalated lithium compound as the electrode material instead of metallic lithium.^ The use of lithium-ion battery .
  • The use of lithium-ion battery - KATC Blog post - Always Online 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC community.katc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It will use lithium-ion (li-ion) technology.
  • Car Batteries: Acid-Lead vs. Lithium Ion ~ Chris Pirillo 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC chris.pirillo.com [Source type: General]

^ Notebook battery - 1 x lithium ion 6-cell 5200 mAh More .
  • Shopzilla - Find low prices on Acer Lc.btp00.017 Lithium Ion Notebook Battery in Computers & Software 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.shopzilla.com [Source type: General]

.Lithium ion batteries are common in consumer electronics.^ The use of lithium-ion battery .
  • The use of lithium-ion battery - KATC Blog post - Always Online 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC community.katc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polyimide-based lithium ion battery .
  • Polyimide-based lithium ion battery - Google Patent Search 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Lithium ion Batteries Explode?
  • Battery Education: Lithium ion Batteries Explode? 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.batteryeducation.com [Source type: General]

.They are one of the most popular types of battery for portable electronics, with one of the best energy-to-weight ratios, no memory effect, and a slow loss of charge when not in use.^ No memory effect.
  • Nokia BL-4C Lithium Ion 720 mAh Battery for Sale 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC shopping.aol.com [Source type: General]
  • How to rebuild a Li-Ion battery pack 18 September 2009 7:24 UTC www.electronics-lab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No memory effect, but they will require a charger that can deal with them.
  • Alkaline, Nimh, Lithium, Lithium-ion Batteries - Groundspeak Forums 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC forums.groundspeak.com [Source type: General]

^ Another added bonus to using a lithium-ion battery is that they have no memory effect.
  • The Positives and Negatives of Lithium-Ion Batteries - Associated Content - associatedcontent.com 12 September 2009 12:21 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.In addition to uses for consumer electronics, lithium-ion batteries are growing in popularity for defense, automotive, and aerospace applications due to their high energy density.^ The use of lithium-ion battery .
  • The use of lithium-ion battery - KATC Blog post - Always Online 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC community.katc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ China 3.6V Lithium Ion Battery .
  • China Lithium-ion battery pack Manufacturers 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Makita 18V Lithium Ion Battery .
  • Makita 18V Lithium Ion Battery - Makita 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC bcfast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] .However, certain kinds of mistreatment may cause conventional Li-ion batteries to explode.^ LI-ion batteries.
  • Rebuilding a netBook's Lithium-Ion Battery 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC linux-7110.sourceforge.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Home / NNTN4497 Li-ion Battery .
  • NNTN4497 Li-ion Battery 18 September 2009 7:24 UTC www.talktwoway.com [Source type: General]

^ Lithium ion Batteries Explode?
  • Battery Education: Lithium ion Batteries Explode? 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.batteryeducation.com [Source type: General]

Contents

Charge and discharge

.During discharge, the current flowing within the battery is carried by the movement of Li+ ions from the negative to the positive electrode, through the non-aqueous electrolyte and separator diaphragm.^ Li-ion batteries work by separating its positive and negative sides by a thin layer, called an electrolyte .
  • HowStuffWorks "Lithium-ion Battery Safety Concerns" 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC auto.howstuffworks.com [Source type: General]

^ The electrolyte has to wet the separator, soak in, and wet the electrodes.
  • Materials and Processing for lithium-ion Batteries 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.tms.org [Source type: Academic]

^ LI-ion batteries.
  • Rebuilding a netBook's Lithium-Ion Battery 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC linux-7110.sourceforge.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]
.During charging, an external electrical power source (the charging circuit) applies a higher voltage (but of the same polarity) than that developed by the battery chemistry, forcing the current to pass in the reverse direction.^ Battery Packs have on-board charging circuits.
  • Lithium-Ion Battery Packs suit cordless power tools., Metabo Corp. 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC news.thomasnet.com [Source type: News]

^ This battery is powerful and charges quickly.
  • Power Tools / Milwaukee 48-11-2830 V28 Lithium-Ion Battery-Pack 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.world-tools.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The battery cells are connected in series, and all cells are charged with the same current.
  • Achieving cell balancing for lithium-ion batteries - Electronic Products 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www2.electronicproducts.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Achieving cell balancing for lithium-ion batteries - Electronic Products 22 September 2009 22:37 UTC www2.electronicproducts.com [Source type: Reference]

.The lithium ions then migrate from the positive to the negative electrode, where they become embedded in the porous electrode material in a process known as intercalation.^ Lithium Titanium Oxide negative electrode (nLTO) material.

^ During discharging, the ions flow back from the negative electrode to the positive electrode.
  • How lithium-ion batteries work: How does a rechargeable battery work? A simple introduction 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.explainthatstuff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The electrodes in lithium-ion cells are always solid materials.
  • Materials and Processing for lithium-ion Batteries 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.tms.org [Source type: Academic]

Construction

.The three primary functional components of a lithium-ion battery are the anode, cathode, and electrolyte.^ The use of lithium-ion battery .
  • The use of lithium-ion battery - KATC Blog post - Always Online 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC community.katc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lithium ion battery with lithium iron phosphates cathode .
  • Lithium ion battery with lithium iron phosphates cathode 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.efirstpower.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Components of lithium ion batteries could also be recycled.
  • Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center: Hybrid Electric Vehicle Energy Storage Systems 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.afdc.energy.gov [Source type: Reference]

.The anode of a conventional Li-ion cell is made from carbon, the cathode is a metal oxide, and the electrolyte is a lithium salt in an organic solvent.^ It will use lithium-ion (li-ion) technology.
  • Car Batteries: Acid-Lead vs. Lithium Ion ~ Chris Pirillo 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC chris.pirillo.com [Source type: General]

^ This can be provided by a single Li-ion cell.
  • Li-ion Lithium Ion Battery Technology Overview :: Radio-Electronics.Com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.radio-electronics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lithium Ion 9-cell Notebook Battery .
  • Toshiba Lithium Ion 9-cell Notebook Battery - PA3535U-1BRS - Buy.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.buy.com [Source type: General]

[9]
.Commercially, the most popular material for the anode is graphite.^ Commercially, the most popular material for the anode is graphite.
  • PhysOrg.com - lithium ion battery 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: News]

^ The cathode utilizes nickel cobalt aluminum (NCA) active material; the anode is graphite based.
  • Johnson Controls Inc. | Lithium-ion 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.johnsoncontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The marriage of silicon and graphite may improve the specific capabilities of commercial graphite anode materials up to 400% " - Jim Wang, Manager of the Analytical Materials Science Department at Sandia.
  • Electric Vehicles UK 22 September 2009 22:37 UTC www.evuk.co.uk [Source type: News]

.The cathode is generally one of three materials: a layered oxide (such as lithium cobalt oxide), one based on a polyanion (such as lithium iron phosphate), or a spinel (such as lithium manganese oxide).^ Lithium Cobalt oxide .
  • Sony Global - Press Release - SONY's NEW NEXELION HYBRID LITHIUM ION BATTERIES 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.sony.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cathode is generally one of three materials: a layered oxide, such as lithium cobalt oxide, one based on a polyanion, such as lithium iron phosphate, or a spinel, such as lithium manganese oxide, although materials such as TiS2 (titanium disulfide) were originally used.
  • PhysOrg.com - lithium ion battery 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: News]

^ Based on Lithium Cobalt Oxide as the cathode, Grapite as the anode and Lithium salt as the electrolyte.

[10]
.The electrolyte is typically a mixture of organic carbonates such as ethylene carbonate or diethyl carbonate containing complexes of lithium ions[11].^ Lithium-ion battery electrolytes invention .
  • Lithium-ion battery electrolytes invention 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.freshpatents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ More heat for Lithium-ion batteries * Safer Electrolytes for Lithium-ion Cells Blending low flammability liquid oligomers and polymers with ethylene carbonate have been found to produce cells which are either nonflammable or self extinguishing.

^ Toshiba's New Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Battery Recharges in Only One Minute - A breakthrough technology applied to the negative electrode uses new nano-particles to prevent organic liquid electrolytes from reducing during battery recharging.
  • Directory:Lithium Ion Batteries - PESWiki 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: General]

.These non-aqueous electrolytes generally use non-coordinating anion salts such as LiPF6, LiAsF6, LiClO4, LiBF4 and lithium triflate.^ The electrolyte is typically a combination of lithium salts, such as LiPF 6 , LiBF 4 , or LiClO 4 , in an organic solvent, such as ether.
  • PhysicsCentral: Lithium-ion batteries 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.physicscentral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery .
  • Polyimide-based lithium ion battery - Google Patent Search 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The VL6P cell uses a LiNi x Co y Al z O 2 cathode material paired with low-cost graphite anodes, and proprietary electrolyte mixtures based on alkylcarbonates and LiPF 6 salt with vinylene carbonate additive.
  • Green Car Congress: Johnson Controls-Saft Announces Second Lithium-Ion Hybrid Battery Production Contract 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.greencarcongress.com [Source type: General]

.Depending on the choice of material for the anode, cathode, and electrolyte, the voltage, capacity, life, and safety of a lithium-ion battery can change dramatically.^ "This considerably enhances the safety of lithium-ion batteries.
  • Scientists Create Non-flammable Lithium-ion Battery - Tom's Hardware 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.tomshardware.com [Source type: General]

^ China 3.6V Lithium Ion Battery .
  • China Lithium-ion battery pack Manufacturers 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A PSPICE macromodel for lithium-ion batteries .
  • Citations: A PSPICE Macromodel for Lithium-Ion Batteries - Gold (ResearchIndex) 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Recently, novel architectures have been employed to improve the performance of these batteries.^ This will improve battery performance.
  • How to Charge a Lithium Ion Battery | eHow.com 12 September 2009 12:21 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ Recently novel architectures have been employed to improve the performance of these batteries.
  • PhysOrg.com - lithium ion battery 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: News]

^ As with Nissan Leaf, Durability is achieved by employing an additional frame for the battery pack to significantly improve the Ravidity of the platform.
  • Toyota Tests And Rejects Lithium-ion Batteries For The Prius | Alternative Energy Stocks 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: News]

.Pure lithium, like sodium, is very reactive.^ Safety Because lithium is a reactive element, safety concern is very important.

.It will vigorously react with water to form lithium hydroxide and hydrogen gas is liberated.^ But hydrogen gas may be generated by the reaction of water and lithium, forming a potentially explosive mixture.
  • Lithium-ion Batteries | Enginer | Hybrid Plug In, Plugin 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.enginer.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note that, the preparation of materials for the lithium battery and the assembly of the battery described above are desirably carried out in dry air from which a water content is sufficiently removed or in a dry inert gas.
  • United States Patent: 7378189 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC patft1.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ The latter reacts with the lithium metal from the anode and it forms an insulating layer of lithium sulphide (Li 2 S) in the electrolyte which deteriorates drastically the battery functioning and performances.
  • Lithium-ion Batteries - MDPI 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.mdpi.com [Source type: Academic]

.Thus a non-aqueous electrolyte is used, and water is rigidly excluded from the battery pack by using a sealed container.^ Non-aqueous secondary battery .
  • Lithium-ion battery - Google Patent Search 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Non-aqueous electrolytic solution secondary battery .
  • Lithium-ion battery - Google Patent Search 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery .
  • Polyimide-based lithium ion battery - Google Patent Search 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

History

.Lithium-ion batteries were first proposed by M.S. Whittingham (Binghamton University), at Exxon, in the 1970s.^ The use of lithium-ion battery .
  • The use of lithium-ion battery - KATC Blog post - Always Online 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC community.katc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polyimide-based lithium ion battery .
  • Polyimide-based lithium ion battery - Google Patent Search 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Lithium Ion Battery for CF-27 .
  • Lithium Ion Battery for CF-27 - Compare prices, reviews, user opinions - Shopper.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC computershopper.com.com [Source type: General]

[12] .Whittingham used titanium(II) sulfide as the cathode and lithium metal as the anode.^ Depending on the choice of material for the anode, cathode, and electrolyte the voltage, capacity, life, and safety of a lithium ion battery can change dramatically.
  • PhysOrg.com - lithium ion battery 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: News]

^ This can cause lithium to adhere (plate) to the anode and oxygen to be generated at the cathode, producing an extremely flammable mixture.
  • How to Charge a Lithium Ion Battery | eHow.com 12 September 2009 12:21 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ The cathode is generally one of three materials: a layered oxide, such as lithium cobalt oxide, one based on a polyanion, such as lithium iron phosphate, or a spinel, such as lithium manganese oxide, although materials such as TiS2 (titanium disulfide) were originally used.
  • PhysOrg.com - lithium ion battery 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: News]

.The electrochemical properties of the lithium intercalation in graphite were first discovered in 1980 by Rachid Yazami et al.^ A table of common forms of the Lithium-complex ions can be found on the first page of: http://www.sei.co.jp/tr_e/t_technical_e_pdf/53-16.pdf (Source: Masatoshi, et.al.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ The energy density and electrochemical performance of lithium ion batteries is strongly dependant on the properties of cathode materials, anode materials and electrolytes.
  • Lithium-ion Batteries - MDPI 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.mdpi.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Graphite has been commonly used as the commercial anode material due to its excellent electrochemical properties.
  • Lithium-ion Batteries - MDPI 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.mdpi.com [Source type: Academic]

at the .Grenoble Institute of Technology (INPG) and French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) in France.^ December 2007 Mostafa A. El-Sayed Most Cited Catalyst Scientific Research Mostafa A. El-Sayed at the Georgic Technology Laser Dynamics Laboratory is the undisputed leader in catalyst scientific research.
  • Worldwide Nanotechnology Thin Film Lithium-Ion Battery Market Shares, Strategies, and Forecasts, 2009-2015 - market research report on Reportlinker 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.reportlinker.com [Source type: Academic]

^ According to Yingli Solar Technologies Research Institute introduced the Wang Yuan, photovoltaic technology and vehicle technology combination will become the future trend of development of new energy vehicles.

^ A123Systems’ batteries use proprietary nanoscale electrode technology built on research at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and exclusively licensed from MIT. .
  • Green Car Congress: A123Systems Launches New Higher-Power, Faster Recharging Li-Ion Battery Systems 18 September 2009 7:24 UTC www.greencarcongress.com [Source type: General]

.They showed the reversible intercalation of lithium into graphite in a lithium/polymer electrolyte/graphite half cell.^ Lithium polymer electrochemical cells .
  • Polyimide-based lithium ion battery - Google Patent Search 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Polymer-gel lithium ion battery - Google Patent Search 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Looking for Lithium Polymer cells?
  • Robot MarketPlace - Custom Lithium Ion Batteries 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.robotmarketplace.com [Source type: General]

^ More heat for Lithium-ion batteries * Safer Electrolytes for Lithium-ion Cells Blending low flammability liquid oligomers and polymers with ethylene carbonate have been found to produce cells which are either nonflammable or self extinguishing.

.Their work was published in 1982 and 1983.[13][14] It covered both the thermodynamics (staging) and the kinetics (diffusion) aspects of the lithium intercalation into graphite together with reversibility.^ These tests - both on the road and in the lab - have provided invaluable insight into lithium-ion battery technology.
  • GM Chooses LG Chem to Supply Chevy Volt’s Lithium-ion Batteries and Will Build the Packs Themselves | GM-VOLT : Chevy Volt Electric Car Site 22 September 2009 22:37 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This moving mechanism is primarily based on diffusion processes: delivering lithium ions to the surface of the anode, transitioning to and diffusion through the electrolyte, and transitioning to and diffusion into the cathode.
  • Materials and Processing for lithium-ion Batteries 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.tms.org [Source type: Academic]

^ By Pete Huang   |  Published 7/10/2009 How Do Lithium Ion Laptop Batteries Work?
  • Lithium Ion Batteries - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.Primary lithium batteries in which the anode is made from metallic lithium pose safety issues.^ Lithium, however, is an unstable metal, so Lithium-Ion batteries are made from Lithium ions from chemicals.
  • Lithium-Ion battery definition - Small Business Computing Online Dictionary of IT Terms: Powered by Webopedia 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC sbc.webopedia.com [Source type: General]
  • Lithium-Ion battery definition - Small Business Computing Online Dictionary of IT Terms: Powered by Webopedia 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC sbc.webopedia.com [Source type: General]
  • Lithium-Ion battery - Webopedia.com 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC winplanet.webopedia.com [Source type: General]
  • Lithium-Ion battery - Webopedia.com 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC ecrmguide.webopedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Lithium-Ion battery - Inside ID Online Glossary of Identity Management Terminology 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC insideid.webopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Primary lithium batteries (220) .
  • Polymer Lithium Ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 12 September 2009 12:21 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

^ Polyimide-based lithium metal battery .
  • Polyimide-based lithium ion battery - Google Patent Search 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

.As a result, lithium-ion batteries were developed in which the anode, like the cathode, is made of a material containing lithium ions.^ The use of lithium-ion battery .
  • The use of lithium-ion battery - KATC Blog post - Always Online 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC community.katc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ China 3.6V Lithium Ion Battery .
  • China Lithium-ion battery pack Manufacturers 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Everything thus depends on the pace of development of lithium-ion batteries.
  • IEEE Spectrum: Lithium Batteries for Hybrid Cars 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC spectrum.ieee.org [Source type: News]

.In 1981, Bell Labs developed a workable graphite anode[15] to provide an alternative to the lithium battery.^ M Moltech Corporation Provider of research and development of lithium-polymer batteries.
  • Lithium Batteries: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ Lithium ion batteries - Provider Wiki .
  • Lithium ion batteries - Provider Wiki 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC prowiki.isc.upenn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Manufacturer of lithium batteries and provider of materials research and development services.
  • Lithium Batteries: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

.Following groundbreaking cathode research by a team led by John Goodenough,[16] the first commercial lithium-ion battery was released by Sony in 1991. The cells used layered oxide chemistry, specifically lithium cobalt oxide.^ The use of lithium-ion battery .
  • The use of lithium-ion battery - KATC Blog post - Always Online 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC community.katc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It will use lithium-ion (li-ion) technology.
  • Car Batteries: Acid-Lead vs. Lithium Ion ~ Chris Pirillo 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC chris.pirillo.com [Source type: General]

^ Notebook battery - 1 x lithium ion 6-cell 5200 mAh More .
  • Shopzilla - Find low prices on Acer Lc.btp00.017 Lithium Ion Notebook Battery in Computers & Software 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.shopzilla.com [Source type: General]

.These batteries revolutionized consumer electronics.^ Remember there have been issues with lithium-ion batteries in the consumer electronics, these batteries can get "hot" during use and their lithium-ion liquids are highly flammable !
  • Lithium-ion Hybrid battery technology replaced by Silver-Zinc techology? - GreenHybrid - Hybrid Cars 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.greenhybrid.com [Source type: General]

^ Wonder if versions of this battery will also find their way into smaller consumer electronics devices such as laptops, camera, camcorders, etc.
  • New Lithium-Ion Battery Recharges To 90% Capacity In 5 Minutes 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.metaefficient.com [Source type: General]

^ To clear up these annoyances and conflicting theories, I called up Isidor Buchmann, the CEO of Cadex Electronics, a Canadian company that makes battery-testing equipment.
  • Lithium-ion battery preservation 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.sindark.com [Source type: General]

.In 1983, Michael Thackeray, John Goodenough, and coworkers identified manganese spinel as a cathode material.^ To solve those issues, Dr. John Goodenough and his team at University of Texas patented as potential cathode material LiFePO4 as a potential cathode in 1996.
  • LiFePO4 Lithium batteries EV battery Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries electric vehicle ebike electric car battery 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.iloveebikes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cathodes vary by manufacturer, but A123 uses iron nanophosphate, and LG Chem a manganese spinel.
  • Lithium-ion Battery Separators 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

^ The cathode is generally one of three materials: a layered oxide, such as lithium cobalt oxide, one based on a polyanion, such as lithium iron phosphate, or a spinel, such as lithium manganese oxide, although materials such as TiS2 (titanium disulfide) were originally used.
  • PhysOrg.com - lithium ion battery 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: News]

[17] .Spinel showed great promise, since it is a low-cost material, has good electronic and lithium ion conductivity, and possesses a three-dimensional structure which gives it good structural stability.^ The electrolyte conducts ions but is an insulator to electrons.
  • Materials and Processing for lithium-ion Batteries 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.tms.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Recharge electronics with lithium-ion batteries .
  • Lithium Batteries: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ Materials and Processing for lithium-ion Batteries .
  • Materials and Processing for lithium-ion Batteries 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.tms.org [Source type: Academic]

.Although pure manganese spinel fades with cycling, this can be overcome with additional chemical modification of the material.^ The cathode is generally one of three materials: a layered oxide, such as lithium cobalt oxide, one based on a polyanion, such as lithium iron phosphate, or a spinel, such as lithium manganese oxide, although materials such as TiS2 (titanium disulfide) were originally used.
  • PhysOrg.com - lithium ion battery 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: News]

^ In addition, LiMn.sub.2O.sub.4 having a spinel structure is known, but the material has a low theoretical capacity of 150 mAh/g.
  • United States Patent: 7378189 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC patft1.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ In addition to the added safety, the raw material cost for manganese is lower than cobalt.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries power the new millennium? 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.buchmann.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] .Manganese spinel is currently used in commercial cells.^ The cathodes vary by manufacturer, but A123 uses iron nanophosphate, and LG Chem a manganese spinel.
  • Lithium-ion Battery Separators 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

^ The A123 cell employs a “nano-phosphate” cathode, while LG Chem uses a manganese-spinel chemistry.
  • GM to Test Lithium-Ion Batteries for Chevy Volt - 2008-06-23 00:00:00 | Design News 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.designnews.com [Source type: News]

^ For the Volt, CPI is using manganese-spinel (LiMnO 2 ) which features high stability and resistance to thermal runaway.
  • Green Car Congress: Profile: Li-ion Provider Compact Power, Inc. Focusing on the Automotive and Vehicle Markets 18 September 2009 7:24 UTC www.greencarcongress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19]
.In 1989, Arumugam Manthiram and John Goodenough of the University of Texas at Austin showed that cathodes containing polyanions, eg.^ It’s called LiFePO4 developed 10 years ago by Dr. Goodenough @ the University of Texas.
  • GM-Volt.com: Interview with Dr. Cui, Inventor of Silicon Nanowire Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

^ Arumugam Manthiram , a professor of materials engineering at the University of Texas at Austin, has demonstrated that a microwave-based method for making lithium iron phosphate takes less time and uses lower temperatures than conventional methods, which could translate into lower costs.
  • Technology Review: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Less 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

^ ActaCell’s devices, which it expects to have a longer cycle life at lower costs than the competition, are based on technology developed at the University of Texas at Austin.
  • 13 Battery Startups Hitting the Road With Lithium-ion 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC earth2tech.com [Source type: News]

sulfates, produce higher voltages than oxides due to the inductive effect of the polyanion.[20]
.In 1996, Akshaya Padhi, John Goodenough and coworkers identified the lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) and other phospho-olivines (lithium metal phosphates with olivine structure) as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries.^ China 3.6V Lithium Ion Battery .
  • China Lithium-ion battery pack Manufacturers 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lithium ion battery with lithium iron phosphates cathode .
  • Lithium ion battery with lithium iron phosphates cathode 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.efirstpower.com [Source type: Academic]

^ L48200FP Lithium iron phosphate battery pack (48V20Ah) .
  • Lithium ion battery with lithium iron phosphates cathode 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.efirstpower.com [Source type: Academic]

[21] .LiFePO4 is superior over other cathode materials in terms of cost, safety, stability and performance, and is most suitable for large batteries for electric automobiles and other energy storage applications such as load saving, where safety is of utmost importance.^ Batteries and energy storage .
  • lithium-ion batteries posts - Green Tech - CNET News 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: News]
  • batteries posts - Green Tech - CNET News 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: News]

^ LiFePO 4 : The most thermally stable, but with lower voltage and lower energy.
  • Green Car Congress: Prospects for Lithium-ion Batteries in Automotive Applications from AABC Week 22 September 2009 22:37 UTC www.greencarcongress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The unknown is who has the superior battery in terms of lifetime costs of the vehicle.
  • Nissan to mass produce lithium ion batteries 22 September 2009 22:37 UTC www.leftlanenews.com [Source type: General]

.It is currently being used for most lithium-ion batteries powering portable devices such as laptop computers and power tools.^ Lithium-ion power tool batteries may power next generation of electric cars .
  • Lithium-ion power tool batteries may power next generation of electric cars 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.naturalnews.com [Source type: General]

^ Do not use the battery to power any other device.
  • Lithium Ion battery pack, Lithium ion cell, Li Ion cell, Li ion battery, protection circuit pcm 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ibt-power.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Polyimide-based lithium ion battery .
  • Polyimide-based lithium ion battery - Google Patent Search 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

[citation needed]
.In 2002, Yet-Ming Chiang and his group at MIT published a paper in which they showed a dramatic improvement in the performance of lithium batteries by boosting the material's conductivity by doping it with aluminum, niobium and zirconium, though at the time, the exact mechanism causing the increase became the subject of a heated debate.^ A momentary improvement in performance is noticeable when heating up the battery.
  • How to prolong lithium-based batteries 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.batteryuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Materials and Processing for lithium-ion Batteries .
  • Materials and Processing for lithium-ion Batteries 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.tms.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Google “Stanford Lithium battery” After they published, the battery was never in the news again.
  • 100-Fold Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

[22]
.In 2004, Chiang again increased performance by utilizing iron-phosphate particles of less than 100 nm in diameter.^ Do not exceed a 350F soldering iron temp and work swiftly; using a soldering time of less than 5 seconds.
  • lithium ion batteries | Popular Science 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.popsci.com [Source type: General]

^ The new batteries feature 40% higher performance and 40% less weight than traditional rechargeable batteries.
  • Lithium-Ion Battery Packs suit cordless power tools., Metabo Corp. 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC news.thomasnet.com [Source type: News]

^ If your argument is that GM is less capable of ironing out these kinks than a specialized supplier would be, you have a point there.
  • GM Builds First Volt Lithium-Ion Battery - KickingTires 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC blogs.cars.com [Source type: General]

.This miniaturized the particle density by almost a hundredfold, increased the surface area of the electrode and improved the battery's capacity and performance.^ In the last 150 years, battery performance has improved only about eightfold (or less, depending how it's measured).
  • Wired 14.11: Building a Better Battery 22 September 2009 22:37 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ QuantumSphere, a six-year-old company based in Santa Ana, California, said its new technology involves a "novel electrode structure" in which the battery electrode material is enriched with "nano lithium particles" that increase the battery's fuel source.
  • "Firm Files Patent for Range-Extending Technology for Lithium-Ion Batteries" Green Car Advisor 22 September 2009 22:37 UTC blogs.edmunds.com [Source type: News]

^ Woga, the term "nanotechnology" as used in the battery industry typically means that the materials are ground extremely fine to maximize the reactive surface area and minimize waste.
  • DOE Reports That Lithium-ion Batteries Are Not Ready for Prime Time | Alternative Energy Stocks 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Commercialization of the iron-phosphate technology led to a competitive market and a patent infringement battle between Chiang and Goodenough.^ The study also includes a revenue analysis, market share analysis, competitive structure overview, as well as market and technology trends.
  • World Secondary Lithium-ion Battery Markets 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.frost.com [Source type: News]

^ Valence Technology developed and markets the industry's first commercially available, safe, large-format family of lithium phosphate rechargeable batteries.
  • EV WORLDwire: Valence Debuts Large-format Lithium Ion Batteries 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC evworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Khosla sees government subsidies in the U.S. and Europe as a key to bringing many clean technologies to the global market at competitive cost.
  • Vinod Khosla On Why Lithium-ion Batteries Are Overhyped 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC earth2tech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22]

Electrochemistry

.The three participants in the electrochemical reactions in a lithium-ion battery are the anode, cathode, and electrolyte.^ The conventional lithium ion battery exploded.
  • Green Car Congress: Prospects for Lithium-ion Batteries in Automotive Applications from AABC Week 22 September 2009 22:37 UTC www.greencarcongress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Advanced Lithium-ion Batteries Requirements .
  • Worldwide Nanotechnology Thin Film Lithium-Ion Battery Market Shares Strategies, and Forecasts 12 September 2009 12:21 UTC www.electronics.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Rechargeable Polymer Lithium - ion Battery ...
  • lithium ion battery, lithium ion battery Manufacturers & Suppliers 12 September 2009 12:21 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

.Both the anode and cathode are materials into which, and from which, lithium can migrate.^ The cathode utilizes nickel cobalt aluminum (NCA) active material; the anode is graphite based.
  • Johnson Controls Inc. | Lithium-ion 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.johnsoncontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Depending on the choice of material for the anode, cathode, and electrolyte the voltage, capacity, life, and safety of a lithium ion battery can change dramatically.
  • PhysOrg.com - lithium ion battery 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: News]

^ Lithium ion batteries are not to be confused with lithium batteries, the key difference being that lithium batteries are primary batteries containing metallic lithium while lithium-ion batteries are secondary batteries containing an intercalation anode material.
  • PhysOrg.com - lithium ion battery 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: News]

.The process of lithium moving into the anode or cathode is referred to as insertion (or intercalation ), and the reverse process, in which lithium moves out of the anode or cathode is referred to as extraction (or deintercalation).^ The lithium ion moves from the anode to the cathode during discharge and in reverse, from the cathode to the anode, when charging.
  • Canon NB-4L Rechargeable Lithium-ion Battery(CANNB4L) and other affordable Camera Batteries at 6ave.com. 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.6ave.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lithium ion moves from the anode to the cathode during discharge and from the cathode to the anode when charging.
  • Car Batteries: Acid-Lead vs. Lithium Ion ~ Chris Pirillo 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC chris.pirillo.com [Source type: General]

^ Depending on the choice of material for the anode, cathode, and electrolyte the voltage, capacity, life, and safety of a lithium ion battery can change dramatically.
  • PhysOrg.com - lithium ion battery 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: News]

.When a lithium-based cell is discharging, the lithium is extracted from the anode and inserted into the cathode.^ A lithium ion electrochemical cell based on lithium-metal oxide as cathode and graphite as anode.
  • Materials and Processing for lithium-ion Batteries 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.tms.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The VL6P cell uses a LiNi x Co y Al z O 2 cathode material paired with low-cost graphite anodes, and proprietary electrolyte mixtures based on alkylcarbonates and LiPF 6 salt with vinylene carbonate additive.
  • Green Car Congress: Johnson Controls-Saft Announces Second Lithium-Ion Hybrid Battery Production Contract 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.greencarcongress.com [Source type: General]

^ The cathode utilizes nickel cobalt aluminum (NCA) active material; the anode is graphite based.
  • Johnson Controls Inc. | Lithium-ion 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.johnsoncontrols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the cell is charging, the reverse process occurs: lithium is extracted from the cathode and inserted into the anode.^ The lithium ion moves from the anode to the cathode during discharge and in reverse, from the cathode to the anode, when charging.
  • Canon NB-4L Rechargeable Lithium-ion Battery(CANNB4L) and other affordable Camera Batteries at 6ave.com. 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.6ave.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lithium ion moves from the anode to the cathode during discharge and from the cathode to the anode when charging.
  • Car Batteries: Acid-Lead vs. Lithium Ion ~ Chris Pirillo 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC chris.pirillo.com [Source type: General]

^ Depending on the choice of material for the anode, cathode, and electrolyte the voltage, capacity, life, and safety of a lithium ion battery can change dramatically.
  • PhysOrg.com - lithium ion battery 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: News]

.Useful work can only be extracted if electrons flow through a (closed) external circuit.^ In simple applications using only a single Li-ion cell, the electronic control circuit must protect the cell by shutting off the load when the cell voltage drops below 3.2 V and limiting the voltage during charging to less than 4.2 V. .
  • Achieving cell balancing for lithium-ion batteries - Electronic Products 22 September 2009 22:37 UTC www2.electronicproducts.com [Source type: Reference]

^ While the BQ-390 chargers seem to work well, I only use them when traveling when the MaHa chargers are not available to me, or as charge boosters.
  • Alkaline, Nimh, Lithium, Lithium-ion Batteries - Groundspeak Forums 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC forums.groundspeak.com [Source type: General]

^ The Fraunhofer Institute is using a redox flow battery, a type of cell that uses two electrolytic fluids exchanging protons through a membrane.
  • batteries posts - Green Tech - CNET News 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: News]

.The following equations are written in units of moles, making it possible to use the coefficient x.^ In addition, the high ion and electron mobility of the thin layer makes it possible to use a new active material and a new chemical reaction for lithium-ion batteries.
  • Technology Review: Higher-Capacity Lithium-Ion Batteries 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

^ It is much to the benefit of utilities to ‘flatten’ the load curve as much as possible, even in the daytime, to make maximum use of their capital facilities.
  • 100-Fold Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

The cathode half-reaction (with charging being forwards) is: [23]
\mathrm{LiCoO_2} \leftrightarrows \mathrm{Li}_{1-x}\mathrm{CoO_2} + x\mathrm{Li^+} + x\mathrm{e^-}
The anode half reaction is:
x\mathrm{Li^+} + x\mathrm{e^-} + 6\mathrm{C} \leftrightarrows \mathrm{Li_xC_6}
The overall reaction has its limits. Overdischarge will supersaturate lithium cobalt oxide, leading to the production of lithium oxide,[24] possibly by the following irreversible reaction:
\mathrm{Li^+} + \mathrm{LiCoO_2} \rightarrow \mathrm{Li_2O} + \mathrm{CoO}
Overcharge up to 5.2 V leads to the synthesis of cobalt(IV) oxide, as evidenced by x-ray diffraction[25]
 \mathrm{LiCoO_2} \rightarrow \mathrm{Li^+} + \mathrm{CoO_2}
.In a lithium-ion battery the lithium ions are transported to and from the cathode or anode, with the transition metal, Co, in LixCoO2 being oxidized from Co3+ to Co4+ during charging, and reduced from Co4+ to Co3+ during discharge.^ Don't completely discharge a lithium-ion battery; this can ruin it.
  • Lithium Batteries: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ It will use lithium-ion (li-ion) technology.
  • Car Batteries: Acid-Lead vs. Lithium Ion ~ Chris Pirillo 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC chris.pirillo.com [Source type: General]

^ China 3.6V Lithium Ion Battery .
  • China Lithium-ion battery pack Manufacturers 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Cathodes

Cathode Material Average Voltage Gravimetric Capacity Gravimetric Energy
LiCoO2 3.7 V 140 mA·h/g 0.518 kW·h/kg
LiMn2O4 4.0 V 100 mA·h/g 0.400 kW·h/kg
LiNiO2 3.5 V 180 mA·h/g  ? kW·h/kg
LiFePO4 3.3 V 150 mA·h/g 0.495 kW·h/kg
Li2FePO4F 3.6 V 115 mA·h/g 0.414 kW·h/kg
LiCo1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2 3.6 V 160 mA·h/g 0.576 kW·h/kg
Li(LiaNixMnyCoz)O2 4.2 V 220 mA·h/g 0.920 kW·h/kg

Anodes

Anode Material Average Voltage Gravimetric Capacity Gravimetric Energy
Graphite (LiC6) 0.1-0.2 V 372 mA·h/g 0.0372-0.0744 kW·h/kg
Hard Carbon (LiC6) ? V ? mA·h/g ? kW·h/kg
Titanate (Li4Ti5O12) 1-2 V 160 mA·h/g 0.16-0.32 kW·h/kg
Si (Li4.4Si)[26] 0.5-1 V 4212 mA·h/g 2.106-4.212 kW·h/kg
Ge (Li4.4Ge)[27] 0.7-1.2 V 1624 mA·h/g 1.137-1.949 kW·h/kg

Electrolytes

.The cell voltages given in the section above are larger than the potential at which aqueous solutions would electrolyze.^ Lower battery cell voltages generally mean lower battery pack watt-hour potential, although Dueber said silver-zinc batteries make up for lower voltage with greater energy-density potential by volume than lithium-ion batteries have.
  • Lithium-Ion Batteries to Survive Notebooks' Flames - News news from Channel Insider 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.channelinsider.com [Source type: News]

^ Why do we 'know/understand' that the use of higher capacity cells will do nothing more than yield a longer operation time for the given product we use it in.
  • Alkaline, Nimh, Lithium, Lithium-ion Batteries - Groundspeak Forums 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC forums.groundspeak.com [Source type: General]

^ If one cell has a lower voltage than the others, it's possible for the pack as a whole to operate while a cell is below it's lower threshold of about 2.8-3v effectively destroying that cell.
  • 11.1V 1800mAH LiPo Lithium Small Battery 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.airsplat.com [Source type: General]

Therefore, nonaqueous solutions are used.
.Liquid electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries consist of lithium salts, such as LiPF6, LiBF4 or LiClO4 in an organic solvent, such as ethylene carbonate.^ China 3.6V Lithium Ion Battery .
  • China Lithium-ion battery pack Manufacturers 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The conventional lithium ion battery exploded.
  • Green Car Congress: Prospects for Lithium-ion Batteries in Automotive Applications from AABC Week 22 September 2009 22:37 UTC www.greencarcongress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rechargeable Polymer Lithium - ion Battery ...
  • lithium ion battery, lithium ion battery Manufacturers & Suppliers 12 September 2009 12:21 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

.A liquid electrolyte conducts lithium ions, acting as a carrier between the cathode and the anode when a battery passes an electric current through an external circuit.^ Lithium ion batteries/packs (547) .
  • Polymer Lithium Ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 12 September 2009 12:21 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

^ Keep the lithium-ion battery cool.

^ Posts Tagged ‘lithium-ion battery’ .
  • Lithium-ion Battery | Zoomi Life 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.zoomilife.com [Source type: General]

Typical conductivities of liquid electrolyte at room temperature (20 °C) are in the range of 10 mS/cm (1 S/m), increasing by approximately 30–40% at 40 °C and decreasing by a slightly smaller amount at 0 °C.[28]
.Unfortunately, organic solvents are easily decomposed on anodes during charging.^ However, solid electrolytes and organic solvents are easily decomposed on anodes during charging, thus preventing battery activation.
  • Battery Power/Lithium Ion Batteries - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Nevertheless, when appropriate organic solvents are used for electrolytes, the electrolytes are decomposed and form a solid electrolyte interface at first charge that is electrically insulating and high Li-ion conducting.
  • Battery Power/Lithium Ion Batteries - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ The anode is made from carbon , the cathode is a metal oxide , and the electrolyte is a lithium salt in an organic solvent .
  • Battery Power/Lithium Ion Batteries - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.However, when appropriate organic solvents are used as the electrolyte, the solvent is decomposed on initial charging and forms a solid layer called the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI),[29] which is electrically insulating yet sufficiently conductive to lithium ions.^ It will use lithium-ion (li-ion) technology.
  • Car Batteries: Acid-Lead vs. Lithium Ion ~ Chris Pirillo 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC chris.pirillo.com [Source type: General]

^ Nevertheless, when appropriate organic solvents are used for electrolytes, the electrolytes are decomposed and form a solid electrolyte interface at first charge that is electrically insulating and high Li-ion conducting.
  • Battery Power/Lithium Ion Batteries - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ The electrolyte conducts ions but is an insulator to electrons.
  • Materials and Processing for lithium-ion Batteries 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.tms.org [Source type: Academic]

.The interphase prevents decomposition of the electrolyte after the second charge.^ The interface prevents decomposition of electrolytes after the second charge.
  • Battery Power/Lithium Ion Batteries - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ However, solid electrolytes and organic solvents are easily decomposed on anodes during charging, thus preventing battery activation.
  • Battery Power/Lithium Ion Batteries - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

For example, ethylene carbonate is decomposed at a relatively high voltage, 0.7 V vs. lithium, and forms a dense and stable interface.[citation needed]

Advantages and disadvantages

Advantages

.
  • Lithium-ion batteries come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes so as to efficiently fit the devices they power.
  • Lithium-ion batteries are often much lighter than other energy-equivalent secondary batteries.^ Lithium ion batteries/packs (547) .
    • Polymer Lithium Ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 12 September 2009 12:21 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Keep the lithium-ion battery cool.
    • Lithium Ion Batteries 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.batteryheads.com [Source type: General]
    • Lithium Ion Battery Chargers 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.batteryheads.com [Source type: General]
    • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Total Secondary Lithium-ion Battery Market 1.
    • World Secondary Lithium-ion Battery Markets 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.frost.com [Source type: News]

    [30] .A key advantage of using lithium-ion chemistry is the high open circuit voltage that can be obtained in comparison to aqueous batteries (such as lead acid, nickel-metal hydride and nickel-cadmium).^ It will use lithium-ion (li-ion) technology.
    • Car Batteries: Acid-Lead vs. Lithium Ion ~ Chris Pirillo 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC chris.pirillo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ China 3.6V Lithium Ion Battery .
    • China Lithium-ion battery pack Manufacturers 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A lithium-ion battery is rechargeable and used in most large electronics.
    • Lithium Batteries: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

    [31] .This is desirable because it increases the amount of power that can be transferred at a lower rate of current.
  • Lithium-ion batteries do not suffer from the memory effect.^ China 3.6V Lithium Ion Battery .
    • China Lithium-ion battery pack Manufacturers 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Li-ion batteries do not suffer from the memory effect .
    • Battery Power/Lithium Ion Batteries - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The High energy power lithium ion battery ...
    • lithium ion battery, lithium ion battery Manufacturers & Suppliers 12 September 2009 12:21 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

    .They also have a self-discharge rate of approximately 5-10% per month, compared to over 30% per month in common nickel metal hydride batteries, approx.^ They also have a low self-discharge rate of approximately 5% per month, compared with over 30% per month in nickel metal hydride batteries and 20% per month in nickel cadmium batteries.
    • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Self-discharge rate .
    • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ They also have a low self-discharge rate of approximately 5% per month.
    • "Training" lithium ion batteries - Pocketables Forum 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC forum.pocketables.net [Source type: General]

    .1.25% per month for Low Self-Discharge NiMH batteries and 10% per month in nickel-cadmium batteries.^ AAA 950 mAh NiMH AccuLoop Battery (Low Discharge) .
    • BATTERIES WITH TABS, LITHIUM ION, NICD, NIMH. 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.megabatteries.com [Source type: General]
    • LITHIUM ION BATTERIES, 18650 SAMSUNG, LG, PANASONIC. 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.megabatteries.com [Source type: General]
    • BATTERY CHARGERS, NIMH, NICAD, LITHIUM ION, CONSUMER AND INDUSTRIAL. 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.megabatteries.com [Source type: General]

    ^ They also have a low self-discharge rate of approximately 5% per month, compared with over 30% per month in nickel metal hydride batteries and 20% per month in nickel cadmium batteries.
    • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ AA 2100 mAh NiMH Hybrio Battery (Low Discharge) .
    • BATTERY CHARGERS, NIMH, NICAD, LITHIUM ION, CONSUMER AND INDUSTRIAL. 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.megabatteries.com [Source type: General]

    [32] .According to one manufacturer, Li-ion cells (and, accordingly, "dumb" Li-ion batteries) do not have any self-discharge in the usual meaning of this word.^ Li-ion battery (PACK), BATTERY ,cell we make the cell and packing by ourself.
    • Li-Ion Battery, Li-Ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers 18 September 2009 7:24 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

    ^ These were early Li-ion batteries.
    • "Training" lithium ion batteries - Pocketables Forum 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC forum.pocketables.net [Source type: General]

    ^ Lithium-ion battery packs manufacturers .
    • Lithium ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • 3.6V Lithium Ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Lithium ion Battery China Manufacturers 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chinasuppliers.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Polymer Lithium Ion Battery China Manufacturers 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.chinasuppliers.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [23] .What looks like a self-discharge in these batteries is a permanent loss of capacity (see below).^ This drain is the most important source of self-discharge in these batteries.
    • Battery Power/Lithium Ion Batteries - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ What looks like a self-discharge in these batteries is a permanent loss of capacity, described in more detail below.
    • Battery Power/Lithium Ion Batteries - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Over-discharging Normally, LiPo batteries start to discharge at 4.2V and terminate at a cut-off voltage of 3.0V. Discharging these batteries to a point below 2.5V per cell causes permanent damage to the cells, and this must be avoided.
    • Lithium Ion / Lithium Polymer batteries. Fast charge / high discharge high current lithium polymer lipo batteries for RC 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.batterywholesaler.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

    On the other hand, "smart" Li-ion batteries do self-discharge, mainly due to the small constant drain of the built-in voltage monitoring circuit.

Disadvantages of traditional Li-ion technology

Shelf life

.
  • A disadvantage of lithium-ion cells is their poor cycle life: upon every charge or recharge, deposits form inside the electrolyte that inhibit lithium ion transport.^ Rechargeable Polymer Lithium - ion Battery ...
    • lithium ion battery, lithium ion battery Manufacturers & Suppliers 12 September 2009 12:21 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Recharge Lithium Ion Battery with 24V .

    ^ Lithium - ion Rechargeable Battery Pack .

    .Over time, the capacity of the cell diminishes.^ Over time, the actual battery capacity decreases due to electrochemical inefficiencies within each cell.
    • Understanding Lithium-Ion and Smart Battery Technology HP Pavilion Notebook PCs - HP Customer Care (United States - English) 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC h10025.www1.hp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Keeping the capacity levels the same in all cells over time helps them age in unison.
    • Managing high-voltage lithium-ion batteries in HEVs | EDNAsia.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ednasia.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This allows the cell to have more than 10 times the capacity of today's lithium-ion battery.

    .The increase in internal resistance affects the cell's ability to deliver current.^ By increasing the effective electrode area — thus decreasing the internal resistance of the battery — the current can be increased during both use and charging.
    • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Indeed it may be necessary to apply excessive volage to overcome internal resistance with current limiting.
    • What's Wrong With Lithium-Ion Batteries? (Made By Monkeys) 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.electronicsweekly.com [Source type: General]

    ^ These are notorious for arcing which is bad for current flow and basically increases resistance.
    • 11.1V 1800mAH LiPo Lithium Small Battery 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.airsplat.com [Source type: General]

    .This problem is more pronounced in high-current applications.^ The speeds could be increased if the manufacturers were to change the gear ratio, which is currently designed for urban settings and motocross, for which acceleration is more important than sustained high speed.

    ^ It shows how well NiMH batteries perform in high current applications.
    • Alkaline, Nimh, Lithium, Lithium-ion Batteries - Groundspeak Forums 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC forums.groundspeak.com [Source type: General]

    ^ On the other hand, some high current applications may benefit from a NiMH's discharge characteristics.
    • Alkaline, Nimh, Lithium, Lithium-ion Batteries - Groundspeak Forums 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC forums.groundspeak.com [Source type: General]

    .The increasing capacity hit means that a full charge in an older battery will not last as long as one in a new battery (although the charging time required decreases proportionally, as well).
  • Also, high charge levels and elevated temperatures (whether resulting from charging or being ambient) hasten permanent capacity loss for lithium-ion batteries.^ CO2 levels rise AFTER temperature increase.
    • New Panasonic Lithium-Ion Battery to Power Up a House [New Li-Ion Battery Coming from Panasonic in 2011] » TFTS – Technology, Gadgets & Curiosities 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC nexus404.com [Source type: General]

    ^ When a lithium battery is being conditioned, it means the battery is being charged and then discharged in order to get the most power from the battery.
    • Lithium Batteries: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Lithium-ion battery packs (531) .

    [33][34] .The heat generated during a charge cycle is caused by the traditional carbon anode, which has been replaced with lithium titanate.^ The lithium ion moves from the anode to the cathode during discharge and from the cathode to the anode when charging.
    • Car Batteries: Acid-Lead vs. Lithium Ion ~ Chris Pirillo 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC chris.pirillo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The cathodes of lithium batteries are made with the above materials, and the anodes are generally made of carbon.
    • Lithium ion battery with lithium iron phosphates cathode 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.efirstpower.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ After assembled with carbon anode and liquid electrolyte, the system has the lowest intrinsic heat content per ampere hour of any known lithium ion system.
    • Lithium ion battery with lithium iron phosphates cathode 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.efirstpower.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Lithium titanate has been experimentally shown to drastically reduce the degenerative effects associated with charging, including expansion and other factors.^ Also, lithium batteries are lightweight and can be charged or discharged at any time without developing so called memory effect, so they never lose their ability to hold a full charge.
    • NP-F570 Lithium-Ion Battery - Rechargeable Ultra High Capacity (2300 mAh) - replacement for Sony NP-F570 Battery 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.eastcoastphoto.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A123’s Nanotechnology batteries(altairs lithium titanate design) which can handle burst charges that come from the regenerative braking.
    • GM-Volt.com: Interview with Dr. Cui, Inventor of Silicon Nanowire Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Altair Nano lithium titanate batteries have been shown to be completely safe.
    • Lithium-Ion Batteries and Centerfolds -- Seeking Alpha 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC seekingalpha.com [Source type: General]

    [35] .See "Technology improvements" below.
  • At a 100% charge level, a typical Li-ion laptop battery that is full most of the time at 25 °C or 77 °F will irreversibly lose approximately 20% capacity per year.^ It will use lithium-ion (li-ion) technology.
    • Car Batteries: Acid-Lead vs. Lithium Ion ~ Chris Pirillo 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC chris.pirillo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Do not charge your LiPo battery above 1C (1 time the capacity).
    • 11.1V 1800mAH LiPo Lithium Small Battery 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.airsplat.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Never leave a Li-ion battery charging unattended.
    • What's Wrong With Lithium-Ion Batteries? (Made By Monkeys) 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.electronicsweekly.com [Source type: General]

    .However, a battery in a poorly ventilated laptop may be subject to prolonged exposure to higher temperatures, which will shorten its life.^ However, a battery stored inside a poorly ventilated laptop may be subject to a prolonged exposure to much higher temperatures than 25 °C, which will significantly shorten its life.
    • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Laptop batteries, however, do not last forever.

    ^ The desire to extend battery life, achieve higher energy densities and faster charging times, and improve reliability has led to a constant tinkering of the technology.
    • What's Wrong With Lithium-Ion Batteries? (Made By Monkeys) 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.electronicsweekly.com [Source type: General]

    .Different storage temperatures produce different loss results: 6% loss at 0 °C (32 °F), 20% at 25 °C (77 °F), and 35% at 40 °C (104 °F).^ The following table shows the amount of permanent capacity loss that will occur after storage at a given charge level and temperature.
    • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Lithium battery :18650, 3.7V with Storage Temperature: -20 to + 45 Degrees, capacity as request from 1800mAh to 2200mAh...
    • lithium ion battery, lithium ion battery Manufacturers & Suppliers 12 September 2009 12:21 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Additional battery care practices are as follows: Store Li-Ion batteries between 20°C and 25°C (68°F and 77°F) with 30% to 50% charge.
    • Understanding Lithium-Ion and Smart Battery Technology HP Pavilion Notebook PCs - HP Customer Care (United States - English) 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC h10025.www1.hp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .When stored at 40%–60% charge level, the capacity loss is reduced to 2%, 4%, 15% at 0, 25 and 40 degrees Celsius respectively.^ For best results, store the battery at 40% state-of-charge.
    • Lithium Ion Batteries 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.batteryheads.com [Source type: General]
    • Lithium Ion Battery Chargers 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.batteryheads.com [Source type: General]
    • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Purely as an example, if two batteries are stored, one at 40% and one at 100% charge, after a year, the one stored at 40% can be charged to 95% of its original capacity, where the 100% charge one will be 90%.
    • "Training" lithium ion batteries - Pocketables Forum 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC forum.pocketables.net [Source type: General]

    ^ TBA Says: March 12th, 2009 at 10:25 am One interesting challenge that will arise as the time it takes to charge batteries is reduced, is power “theft”.
    • 100-Fold Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

    [36][citation needed]

Internal resistance

.The internal resistance of lithium-ion batteries is high compared to other rechargeable chemistries such as nickel-metal hydride and nickel-cadmium.^ Order: 30 Packs rechargeable battery , lithium ion battery .
  • lithium ion battery, lithium ion battery Manufacturers & Suppliers 12 September 2009 12:21 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

^ China 3.6V Lithium Ion Battery .
  • China Lithium-ion battery pack Manufacturers 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A lithium-ion battery is rechargeable and used in most large electronics.
  • Lithium Batteries: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

.Internal resistance increases with both cycling and chronological age.^ By increasing the effective electrode area — thus decreasing the internal resistance of the battery — the current can be increased during both use and charging.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

[34][37] .Rising internal resistance causes the voltage at the terminals to drop under load, which reduces the maximum current that can be drawn.^ Capacity: Mean voltage: Maximum output voltage: Maximum load: Protection circuit: Operating temp: Dimensions: Weight: .
  • IDX - Endura Lithium Ion Batteries Endura-Elite EnduraElite Elite 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.expandore.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This means charging with constant current until a voltage of 4.2 V is reached by the cell and continuing with a constant voltage applied until the current drops close to zero.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ By increasing the effective electrode area — thus decreasing the internal resistance of the battery — the current can be increased during both use and charging.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.Eventually the internal resistance reaches a point at which the battery can no longer operate the equipment for an adequate period.^ During normal operation, the battery-monitoring system must satisfy the requirement that no bad-cell reading is misinterpreted as a good-cell reading.
  • Managing high-voltage lithium-ion batteries in HEVs | EDNAsia.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ednasia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ And as always, keep all batteries and radio control equipments out of reach of children.
  • 11.1V 1800mAH LiPo Lithium Small Battery 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.airsplat.com [Source type: General]

^ By increasing the effective electrode area — thus decreasing the internal resistance of the battery — the current can be increased during both use and charging.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.High drain applications such as power tools may require the battery to supply a current that would drain the battery in 4 minutes if sustained (e.g.^ It currently supplies batteries for power tools and has built large, megawatt-scale batteries for utilities.
  • lithium-ion batteries posts - Green Tech - CNET News 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: News]

^ Further, early provision of small, lightweight, and high performance secondary batteries is strongly urged for their use as power supply of portable equipment such as laptop personal computers, word processors, video cameras, and cellular phones.
  • United States Patent: 7378189 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC patft1.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Despite having the second lowest energy-to-weight ratio and a correspondingly low energy-to-volume ratio, their ability to supply high surge currents means that the cells maintain a relatively large power-to-weight ratio.
  • Car Batteries: Acid-Lead vs. Lithium Ion ~ Chris Pirillo 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC chris.pirillo.com [Source type: General]

22.5 A for a battery with a capacity of 1.5 A·h). .Lower-power devices such as MP3 players may draw low enough currents to run for 10 hours on a charge (e.g.^ It is currently holding a 7 hour charge and I am happy.
  • Dell.com 80 WHr 9-Cell Lithium-Ion Primary Battery for Dell Inspiron 630m / XPS M140 Laptops Customer Ratings & Reviews - Top & Best Rated Products 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC reviews.dell.com [Source type: General]

^ Second, the AT application is sized for a 70% depth of discharge, the gap between minimum and maximum charge levels, which allows space on the high end for regenerative braking and space on the low end to provide enough power for charge sustaining operation.
  • Green Car Congress: Profile: Li-ion Provider Compact Power, Inc. Focusing on the Automotive and Vehicle Markets 18 September 2009 7:24 UTC www.greencarcongress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The study notes that residences cannot draw enough energy from the electrical grid to quickly charge a hybrid car’s battery containing the new material, though smaller batteries for gadgets and perhaps power tools should not have that catch.
  • » Lithium-Ion batteries get supercharged Dvorak Uncensored: General interest observations and true web-log. 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.dvorak.org [Source type: General]

.150 mA for a battery with a capacity of 1500 mA·h).^ Yes, alkalines have a several year 'capacity' shelf life, but modern NiMH batteries have almost as much total MA capacity as the best alkaline cells (~2500 NiMH - ~2800 Alkaline).
  • Alkaline, Nimh, Lithium, Lithium-ion Batteries - Groundspeak Forums 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC forums.groundspeak.com [Source type: General]

.With similar battery technology, the MP3 player's battery will last longer since it can tolerate a higher internal resistance.^ The hotter the battery is, the longer it lasts.
  • Amazon.com: Minolta NP200 Lithium Ion Battery for Dimage X, Xi, and Xt Digital Cameras: Camera & Photo 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ The desire to extend battery life, achieve higher energy densities and faster charging times, and improve reliability has led to a constant tinkering of the technology.
  • What's Wrong With Lithium-Ion Batteries? (Made By Monkeys) 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.electronicsweekly.com [Source type: General]

^ Look at the following chart, which I obtained from Inanovation, Inc., a developer and manufacturer of the lithium-ion battery technology shown in the last column on the right.
  • Questions To Ask Before You Invest In Lithium-Ion Batteries - Rare Metals - Resource Investor 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.resourceinvestor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To power larger devices, such as electric cars, connecting many small batteries in a parallel circuit is more efficient than connecting a single large battery.^ Small (no more than) .
  • DOT’s ruling on lithium ion batteries and airlines: Size matters - PowerSource - Blog on EDN - 1470000147 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.edn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A battery pack's internal circuits can offer more than safety.
  • Lithium-ion Batteries | ECN: Electronic Component News 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ecnmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When such devices are connected, for example by an on-off switch, to a closed electric,i.e.
  • Questions To Ask Before You Invest In Lithium-Ion Batteries - Rare Metals - Resource Investor 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.resourceinvestor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38]

Safety requirements

.Li-ion batteries are not as durable as nickel metal hydride or nickel-cadmium designs,[citation needed] and can be extremely dangerous if mistreated.^ Li- ion Battery .

^ Rechargeable Li- ion Battery .

^ The BP511 is a Li- ion battery pack.
  • Camera Lithium ION Battery - Prices, Offers & Tests of Camera Lithium ION Battery 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.ciao.co.uk [Source type: General]

.They may suffer thermal runaway and cell rupture if overheated or if charged to an excessively high voltage.^ On the other hand, they are also the critical determinant of the batteries safety, ruptured membranes (in the case of laptop-type or lithium cobalt oxide batteries) have been implicated in thermal runaway (explosion) events.
  • Lithium-ion Battery Separators 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

^ Traditional lithium-cobalt cells, like those in laptop computers, have high energy density but tend toward thermal runaway when the separator material fails.
  • Managing high-voltage lithium-ion batteries in HEVs | EDNAsia.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ednasia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This means charging with constant current until a voltage of 4.2 V is reached by the cell and continuing with a constant voltage applied until the current drops close to zero.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

[39] In extreme cases, these effects may be described as "explosive." .Furthermore, they may be irreversibly damaged if discharged below a certain voltage.^ If they could increase the voltage to 2 volts and the capacitor to 300F/g and the discharge time to 2 seconds, you could get 100Kw/Kg.
  • 100-Fold Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

^ It also keeps all the cells at the same voltage level so that during discharge no cell will drop below 3 volts.
  • What's Wrong With Lithium-Ion Batteries? (Made By Monkeys) 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.electronicsweekly.com [Source type: General]

^ A stand-alone Li-Ion cell must never be discharged below a certain voltage to avoid irreversible damage.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.To reduce these risks, lithium-ion batteries generally contain a small circuit that shuts down the battery when it is discharged below about 3 V or charged above about 4.2 V.[23][40] In normal use, the battery is therefore prevented from being deeply discharged.^ Don't completely discharge a lithium-ion battery; this can ruin it.
  • Lithium Batteries: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ It will use lithium-ion (li-ion) technology.
  • Car Batteries: Acid-Lead vs. Lithium Ion ~ Chris Pirillo 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC chris.pirillo.com [Source type: General]

^ China 3.6V Lithium Ion Battery .
  • China Lithium-ion battery pack Manufacturers 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When stored for long periods, however, the small current drawn by the protection circuitry may drain the battery below the protection circuit's lower limit, in which case normal chargers are unable to recharge the battery.^ "This battery is great for long periods of filming.
  • Sony NPFH100 Lithium Ion Camcorder Battery Reviews | 64 reviews | Buzzillions.com 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.buzzillions.com [Source type: General]

^ Battery protection circuit modules (9) .
  • Lithium ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Long lasting (56) Fast recharge (27) Lightweight (12) Durable (1) Get the portable charger.
  • Sony NPFH100 Lithium Ion Camcorder Battery Reviews | 64 reviews | Buzzillions.com 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.buzzillions.com [Source type: General]

.More sophisticated battery analyzers can recharge deeply discharged cells by slow-charging them to reactivate the safety circuit and allow the battery to accept charge again.^ A battery pack's internal circuits can offer more than safety.
  • Lithium-ion Batteries | ECN: Electronic Component News 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ecnmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cycle of a lithium battery is when the battery is charged and then discharged.
  • Lithium Batteries: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ Yet a further benefit is that a lithium-ion battery allows a significantly greater number of charging and discharging cycles, plus the two further advantages that the self-discharging effect is lower and the service life of the battery longer.
  • Porsche announces lithium ion starter battery — Autoblog Green 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC green.autoblog.com [Source type: General]

[41]
Other safety features are also required for commercial lithium-ion batteries:[23]
  • shut-down separator (for overtemperature),
  • tear-away tab (for internal pressure),
  • vent (pressure relief), and
  • thermal interrupt (overcurrent/overcharging).
.These devices occupy useful space inside the cells, reduce their reliability[citation needed]; ,and permanently and irreversibly disable the cell when activated.^ Internal contaminants inside the cells can defeat these safety devices.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Typically, their action is to permanently and irreversibly disable the cell.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Li-ion chemistry is not safe as such, and a Li-ion cell requires several mandatory safety devices to be built in before it can be considered safe for use outside of a laboratory.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.They are required because the anode produces heat during use, while the cathode may produce oxygen.^ When using a notebook computer running from fixed line power over extended periods, the battery can be removed and stored in a cool place so that it is not affected by the heat produced by the computer.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Their low internal resistance means they generate far less heat in use.
  • GM Chooses LG Chem to Supply Chevy Volt’s Lithium-ion Batteries and Will Build the Packs Themselves | GM-VOLT : Chevy Volt Electric Car Site 22 September 2009 22:37 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Engineers measure the efficiency of any power system by looking at the useful energy/work produced versus the waste heat created and produced as a wasteful side effect.
  • 100-Fold Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

.Safety devices and improved electrode designs greatly reduce or eliminate the risk of fire or explosion.^ At a high level the outstanding issues can be categorized as safety and cost; at a cell level the issues come down to the selection of electrolytes, electrode materials, separators, and design.
  • Green Car Congress: Prospects for Lithium-ion Batteries in Automotive Applications from AABC Week 22 September 2009 22:37 UTC www.greencarcongress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These safety features increase the cost of lithium-ion batteries compared to nickel metal hydride cells, which only require a hydrogen/oxygen recombination device (preventing damage due to mild overcharging) and a back-up pressure valve.^ China 3.6V Lithium Ion Battery .
  • China Lithium-ion battery pack Manufacturers 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lithium-ion battery packs (531) .

^ Lithium, however, is an unstable metal, so Lithium-Ion batteries are made from Lithium ions from chemicals.

[40]
Many types of lithium-ion cell cannot be charged safely below 0 °C.[citation needed]

Product recalls

.About 1% of lithium-ion batteries are recalled.^ Lithium-ion battery packs (531) .

^ Lithium-ion batteries are growing in popularity.
  • Lithium Batteries: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ Lithium-ion battery packs manufacturers .
  • Lithium ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 3.6V Lithium Ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Lithium ion Battery China Manufacturers 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chinasuppliers.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42]

Specifications and design

A lithium-ion battery from a mobile phone.
  • Specific energy density: 150 to 220 W·h/kg (540 to 720 kJ/kg)
  • Volumetric energy density: 250 to 530 W·h/l (900 to 1900 J/cm³)
  • Specific power density: 300 to 1500 W/kg (@ 20 seconds[43] and 285 W·h/l)
.Because lithium-ion batteries can have a variety of cathode and anode materials, the energy density and voltage vary accordingly.^ Lithium-ion battery packs (531) .

^ The conventional lithium ion battery exploded.
  • Green Car Congress: Prospects for Lithium-ion Batteries in Automotive Applications from AABC Week 22 September 2009 22:37 UTC www.greencarcongress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lithium-ion batteries are growing in popularity.
  • Lithium Batteries: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

.Lithium-ion batteries with a lithium iron phosphate cathode and graphite anode have a nominal open-circuit voltage of 3.2 V and a typical charging voltage of 3.6 V. Lithium nickel manganese cobalt (NMC) oxide cathode with graphite anodes have a 3.7 V nominal voltage with a 4.2 V max charge.^ China 3.6V Lithium Ion Battery .
  • China Lithium-ion battery pack Manufacturers 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lithium ion battery with lithium iron phosphates cathode .
  • Lithium ion battery with lithium iron phosphates cathode 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.efirstpower.com [Source type: Academic]

^ L48200FP Lithium iron phosphate battery pack (48V20Ah) .
  • Lithium ion battery with lithium iron phosphates cathode 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.efirstpower.com [Source type: Academic]

.The charging procedure is performed at constant voltage with current-limiting circuitry (i.e., charging with constant current until a voltage of 4.2 V is reached in the cell and continuing with a constant voltage applied until the current drops close to zero).^ This means charging with constant current until a voltage of 4.2 V is reached by the cell and continuing with a constant voltage applied until the current drops close to zero.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Smart chargers control the charging current, charging voltage, and battery temperature to maximize battery life.
  • Crimping Tools utilize 18 V lithium-ion batteries., Greenlee Textron, Inc. 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC news.thomasnet.com [Source type: News]

^ This LP-13 prismatic lithium ion battery has a 1400 mAh when charged to 4.2 V. With 3.6 V nominal voltage, the prismatic cell was designed specifically for computer applications.

.Typically, the charge is terminated at 3% of the initial charge current.^ (Typically the charge is terminated at 7% of the initial charge current.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ In the typical lithium ion cell when a current is applied to charge the cell, lithium ions move away from the cathode compound and are trapped at the anode storage medium.
  • 100-Fold Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

^ Lithium-ion batteries have a nominal open-circuit voltage of 3.6 V and a typical charging voltage of 4.2 V. The charging procedure is one of constant voltage with current limiting.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.In the past, lithium-ion batteries could not be fast-charged and needed at least two hours to fully charge.^ China 3.6V Lithium Ion Battery .
  • China Lithium-ion battery pack Manufacturers 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lithium-ion battery packs (531) .

^ The conventional lithium ion battery exploded.
  • Green Car Congress: Prospects for Lithium-ion Batteries in Automotive Applications from AABC Week 22 September 2009 22:37 UTC www.greencarcongress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Current-generation cells can be fully charged in 45 minutes or less.^ Current generation cells can be fully charged in 45 minutes or less; some reach 90% in as little as 10 minutes.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ This means charging with constant current until a voltage of 4.2 V is reached by the cell and continuing with a constant voltage applied until the current drops close to zero.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ The ROF was clocking in at 19.8 RPS with the battery fully charged to 8.4v (peak charge of a 2 cell lipo; nominal charge is 7.4v).
  • 11.1V 1800mAH LiPo Lithium Small Battery 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.airsplat.com [Source type: General]

.Some lithium-ion varieties can reach 90% in as little as 10 minutes.^ Order: 10 Pieces Hely Communication China (Mainland) Gold Supplier [Verified Member] Manufacturer rechargeable cylindrical lithium ion battery .
  • lithium ion battery, lithium ion battery Manufacturers & Suppliers 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

^ Order: 10 Sets 9 Matching Results lithium - ion battery , lithium polymer battery ,rechargeable battery (OR-26650P) .
  • lithium ion battery, lithium ion battery Manufacturers & Suppliers 12 September 2009 12:21 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

^ Order: 0 Pieces 10 Matching Results Lithium Ion battery 12V 20AH .
  • lithium ion battery, lithium ion battery Manufacturers & Suppliers 12 September 2009 12:21 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

[44]

Charging procedure

.Stage 1: Apply charging current limit until the voltage limit per cell is reached.^ This means charging with constant current until a voltage of 4.2 V is reached by the cell and continuing with a constant voltage applied until the current drops close to zero.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Their max current discharge “should be limited to 75A per cell”.
  • » Lithium-Ion batteries get supercharged Dvorak Uncensored: General interest observations and true web-log. 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.dvorak.org [Source type: General]

^ Smart chargers control the charging current, charging voltage, and battery temperature to maximize battery life.
  • Crimping Tools utilize 18 V lithium-ion batteries., Greenlee Textron, Inc. 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC news.thomasnet.com [Source type: News]

[45]
.Stage 2: Apply maximum voltage per cell limit until the current declines below 3% of rated charge current.^ Their max current discharge “should be limited to 75A per cell”.
  • » Lithium-Ion batteries get supercharged Dvorak Uncensored: General interest observations and true web-log. 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.dvorak.org [Source type: General]

^ Smart chargers control the charging current, charging voltage, and battery temperature to maximize battery life.
  • Crimping Tools utilize 18 V lithium-ion batteries., Greenlee Textron, Inc. 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC news.thomasnet.com [Source type: News]

^ This means charging with constant current until a voltage of 4.2 V is reached by the cell and continuing with a constant voltage applied until the current drops close to zero.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

[45]
.Stage 3: Periodically apply a top-off charge about once per 500 hours.^ Does anyone know who long it would take to charge once it was drained down to about 30%?
  • GM-Volt.com: Interview with Dr. Cui, Inventor of Silicon Nanowire Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

^ The LK-51B Portable Kit includes a lithium ion battery with a 450-page life per two-hour charge, along with the battery housing...
  • Camera Lithium ION Battery - Prices, Offers & Tests of Camera Lithium ION Battery 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.ciao.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ When I topped them off, the Panasonic cells took about 15-20 minutes to reach full charge, but the Sanyo cells indicated a full charge in less than 3 minutes.
  • Alkaline, Nimh, Lithium, Lithium-ion Batteries - Groundspeak Forums 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC forums.groundspeak.com [Source type: General]

[45]
.The charge time is about three to five hours, depending upon the charger used.^ Ah Extended Capacity Battery Extended Capacity Replacement Battery Battery Chemistry: Lithium Ion Technology Memory Effect : None after break in period by fully charging the battery for a full 8 hour charge, then use the battery until completely drained, then repeat 2 more times .
  • Motorola SNN5685 / SNN5685A Extended Capacity Lithium ion Replacement Battery 1010 mAh Sale! 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.cellphone-store.com [Source type: General]

^ Other causes of bateries exploding is use of chinese made chargers which may exceed the charging current rating and thus increasing the battery temp.
  • What's Wrong With Lithium-Ion Batteries? (Made By Monkeys) 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.electronicsweekly.com [Source type: General]

^ While the BQ-390 chargers seem to work well, I only use them when traveling when the MaHa chargers are not available to me, or as charge boosters.
  • Alkaline, Nimh, Lithium, Lithium-ion Batteries - Groundspeak Forums 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC forums.groundspeak.com [Source type: General]

.Generally, cell phone batteries can be charged at 1C and laptop-types at 0.8C, where C is the current that would discharge the battery in one hour.^ "Can cell phone service charge for when the phone ring?"
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ The cycle of a lithium battery is when the battery is charged and then discharged.
  • Lithium Batteries: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ Mine is a cheap one that charges the batteries for 15 hours.
  • Alkaline, Nimh, Lithium, Lithium-ion Batteries - Groundspeak Forums 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC forums.groundspeak.com [Source type: General]

.Charging is usually stopped when the current goes below 0.03C but it can be left indefinitely depending on desired charging time.^ The desire to extend battery life, achieve higher energy densities and faster charging times, and improve reliability has led to a constant tinkering of the technology.
  • What's Wrong With Lithium-Ion Batteries? (Made By Monkeys) 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.electronicsweekly.com [Source type: General]

^ Anything other than night-time charging will be a problem for the grid if this goes mainstream.
  • 100-Fold Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

^ The charge voltage should equal the number of cells times 4.2V per cell and the current should match the capacity of the pack (or lower).
  • 11.1V 1800mAH LiPo Lithium Small Battery 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.airsplat.com [Source type: General]

.Some fast chargers skip stage 2 and claim the battery is ready at 70% charge.^ The charger is for charging your battery only.
  • Sony NP-FH50 Lithium Ion Camcorder Battery Lithium Ion (Li-Ion) 900mAh 8.4V DC - Camcorder Accessories - Shopping.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.shopping.com [Source type: General]

^ In fact this is one reason why some speculate that Phoenix Motorcars is interested in using the very fast charging (35 kWh in ten minutes) but expensive AltairNano batteries — so they can sell credits to companies that need them.
  • 100-Fold Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

^ High performance fully automatic charger designed to quickly and safely charge digital camera and camcorder battery.
  • Sony NP-FH50 Lithium Ion Camcorder Battery Lithium Ion (Li-Ion) 900mAh 8.4V DC - Camcorder Accessories - Shopping.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.shopping.com [Source type: General]

[45] .Laptop battery chargers sometimes gamble, and try to charge up to 4.35 V then disconnects the battery.^ Wait for the battery to be charged prior to disconnecting.
  • 11.1V 1800mAH LiPo Lithium Small Battery 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.airsplat.com [Source type: General]

^ The charger is for charging your battery only.
  • Sony NP-FH50 Lithium Ion Camcorder Battery Lithium Ion (Li-Ion) 900mAh 8.4V DC - Camcorder Accessories - Shopping.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.shopping.com [Source type: General]

^ Other causes of bateries exploding is use of chinese made chargers which may exceed the charging current rating and thus increasing the battery temp.
  • What's Wrong With Lithium-Ion Batteries? (Made By Monkeys) 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.electronicsweekly.com [Source type: General]

.This helps to compensate for the battery's internal resistance and charges up to 100% in short time.^ Charges two at a time RCR123 Batteries at a Time.
  • DSD Lithium Ion Battery Charger for Rechargeable RCR123, RCR123A, LIR123a, 16340, 18650, 17670 Batteries - Chargers one or two batteries at a time 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.cellphone-store.com [Source type: General]

^ Also, lithium batteries are lightweight and can be charged or discharged at any time without developing so called memory effect, so they never lose their ability to hold a full charge.
  • NP-F570 Lithium-Ion Battery - Rechargeable Ultra High Capacity (2300 mAh) - replacement for Sony NP-F570 Battery 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.eastcoastphoto.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Purely as an example, if two batteries are stored, one at 40% and one at 100% charge, after a year, the one stored at 40% can be charged to 95% of its original capacity, where the 100% charge one will be 90%.
  • "Training" lithium ion batteries - Pocketables Forum 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC forum.pocketables.net [Source type: General]

.Top-off charging is recommended to be initiated when voltage goes below 4.05 V/cell.^ This means charging with constant current until a voltage of 4.2 V is reached by the cell and continuing with a constant voltage applied until the current drops close to zero.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ If some cells overcharge and others undercharge, you must adjust the level in each cell by bleeding off, or passively balancing, charge; another approach is to redistribute, or actively balance, the charge.
  • Managing high-voltage lithium-ion batteries in HEVs | EDNAsia.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ednasia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When I topped them off, the Panasonic cells took about 15-20 minutes to reach full charge, but the Sanyo cells indicated a full charge in less than 3 minutes.
  • Alkaline, Nimh, Lithium, Lithium-ion Batteries - Groundspeak Forums 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC forums.groundspeak.com [Source type: General]

[45]
.Lithium-ion cells are charged with 4.2 ± 0.05 V/cell, except for military long-life cells where 3.92 V is used to extend battery life.^ A lithium-ion battery is rechargeable and used in most large electronics.
  • Lithium Batteries: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ Lithium-ion battery packs (531) .

^ The conventional lithium ion battery exploded.
  • Green Car Congress: Prospects for Lithium-ion Batteries in Automotive Applications from AABC Week 22 September 2009 22:37 UTC www.greencarcongress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Most protection circuits cut off if either 4.3 V or 90 °C is reached. .If the voltage drops below 2.50 V per cell, the battery protection circuit may also render it unchargeable with regular charging equipment.^ Battery protection circuit modules (9) .
  • Lithium ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Polymer Lithium Ion Battery China Manufacturers 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.chinasuppliers.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Specifications: Power Input: AC Nominal 120V ~ 50Hz Power Input: DC 12V ~ 400mAh Charge Current: 400mAh Charging Method: Constant voltage with top-off and maintenance charging Built in microprocessor for charge control Short Circuit protection .
  • CR-123A Lithium-Ion Battery Charger 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC store.sundancesolar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This LP-13 prismatic lithium ion battery has a 1400 mAh when charged to 4.2 V. With 3.6 V nominal voltage, the prismatic cell was designed specifically for computer applications.

.Most battery protection circuits stop at 2.7–3.0 V per cell.^ Battery protection circuit modules (9) .
  • Lithium ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Polymer Lithium Ion Battery China Manufacturers 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.chinasuppliers.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Do not discharge battery to a level below 3V per cell under load.
  • 11.1V 1800mAH LiPo Lithium Small Battery 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.airsplat.com [Source type: General]

^ Li-ion batteries contain safety devices that protect the cells inside from abuse.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

[45]
.For safety reasons it is recommended to stay within the manufacturer's stated voltage and current ratings during both charge and discharge cycles.^ The cycle of a lithium battery is when the battery is charged and then discharged.
  • Lithium Batteries: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ This means charging with constant current until a voltage of 4.2 V is reached by the cell and continuing with a constant voltage applied until the current drops close to zero.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Voltage, current, charge, temperature, and some math give a good indication of the state of charge.
  • Managing high-voltage lithium-ion batteries in HEVs | EDNAsia.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ednasia.com [Source type: Academic]

Technology improvements

Overview

Improvements focus on several areas, and often involve advances in nanotechnology and microstructures.
  • Increasing cycle life and performance (decreases internal resistance and increases output power) by changing the composition of the material used in the anode and cathode, along with increasing the effective surface area of the electrodes (related developments have helped ultracapacitors) and changing materials used in the electrolyte and/or combinations thereof (e.g., Li-VOx-based cells with polymer electrolyte).
  • Improving capacity by improving the structure to incorporate more active materials.
  • Improving the safety of lithium-ion batteries.

Manganese spinel cathodes

.LG (Lucky Goldstar Chemical), which is the third-largest producer of lithium-ion batteries, uses the lithium manganese spinel for its cathode.^ China 3.6V Lithium Ion Battery .
  • China Lithium-ion battery pack Manufacturers 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A lithium-ion battery is rechargeable and used in most large electronics.
  • Lithium Batteries: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ The conventional lithium ion battery exploded.
  • Green Car Congress: Prospects for Lithium-ion Batteries in Automotive Applications from AABC Week 22 September 2009 22:37 UTC www.greencarcongress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is working with its subsidiary CPI to commercialize lithium-ion batteries containing manganese spinel for HEV applications.^ China 3.6V Lithium Ion Battery .
  • China Lithium-ion battery pack Manufacturers 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lithium-ion battery packs (531) .

^ Lithium-ion battery packs manufacturers .
  • Lithium ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Lithium ion Battery China Manufacturers 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chinasuppliers.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46] .Several other companies are also working with manganese spinel, including NEC and Samsung.^ Other companies are working on redox flow battery technology for stationary energy storage .
  • batteries posts - Green Tech - CNET News 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: News]

^ There are 3 other companies working on lead carbon technology.
  • New Panasonic Lithium-Ion Battery to Power Up a House [New Li-Ion Battery Coming from Panasonic in 2011] » TFTS – Technology, Gadgets & Curiosities 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC nexus404.com [Source type: General]

^ C&D, based in Blue Bell, Pa., is one of several companies with presences in metro Milwaukee working to develop energy-storage technologies.
  • C&D Technologies to develop lithium-ion batteries for Army - JSOnline 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.jsonline.com [Source type: News]

[47]

Lithium iron phosphate cathode with traditional anode

.The University of Texas first licensed its patent for lithium iron phosphate cathodes to the Canadian utility Hydro-Québec.^ Manufacturers are basing the new breed of lithium batteries on lithium-iron-phosphate, lithium-manganese, and lithium-titanate, which are thermally stable even when you puncture their packaging.
  • Managing high-voltage lithium-ion batteries in HEVs | EDNAsia.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ednasia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are four phosphates from which to choose for a cathode material: iron, cobalt, nickel and manganese.
  • Green Car Congress: Prospects for Lithium-ion Batteries in Automotive Applications from AABC Week 22 September 2009 22:37 UTC www.greencarcongress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The scientists were able to develop a new formulation of lithium iron phosphate that allows for extremely rapid charging, and massive specific power.
  • 100-Fold Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

[48] Phostech Lithium inc. was later spun-off from .Hydro-Québec for the sole development of lithium iron phosphate.^ Manufacturers are basing the new breed of lithium batteries on lithium-iron-phosphate, lithium-manganese, and lithium-titanate, which are thermally stable even when you puncture their packaging.
  • Managing high-voltage lithium-ion batteries in HEVs | EDNAsia.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ednasia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In an attempt to pick up the pace, the M.I.T. researchers coated the lithium iron phosphate material with an ion conductor, which in this case was a layer of glasslike lithium phosphate.
  • » Lithium-Ion batteries get supercharged Dvorak Uncensored: General interest observations and true web-log. 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.dvorak.org [Source type: General]

^ Anyone can go to the Thundersky website and buy large format Lithium iron phosphate EV batteries at $300 kw/hr right now!
  • DOE Reports That Lithium-ion Batteries Are Not Ready for Prime Time | Alternative Energy Stocks 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.altenergystocks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49]
.Valence Technology, located in Austin, Texas, is also working on lithium iron magnesium phosphate cells.^ Manufacturers are basing the new breed of lithium batteries on lithium-iron-phosphate, lithium-manganese, and lithium-titanate, which are thermally stable even when you puncture their packaging.
  • Managing high-voltage lithium-ion batteries in HEVs | EDNAsia.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ednasia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The scientists were able to develop a new formulation of lithium iron phosphate that allows for extremely rapid charging, and massive specific power.
  • 100-Fold Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

^ In an attempt to pick up the pace, the M.I.T. researchers coated the lithium iron phosphate material with an ion conductor, which in this case was a layer of glasslike lithium phosphate.
  • » Lithium-Ion batteries get supercharged Dvorak Uncensored: General interest observations and true web-log. 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.dvorak.org [Source type: General]

.Since March 2005, the Segway Personal Transporter has been shipping with extended-range lithium-ion batteries[50] made by Valence Technology using iron magnesium phosphate cathode materials.^ China 3.6V Lithium Ion Battery .
  • China Lithium-ion battery pack Manufacturers 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A lithium-ion battery is rechargeable and used in most large electronics.
  • Lithium Batteries: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ The conventional lithium ion battery exploded.
  • Green Car Congress: Prospects for Lithium-ion Batteries in Automotive Applications from AABC Week 22 September 2009 22:37 UTC www.greencarcongress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Segway, Inc. chose to build their large-format battery with this cathode material because of its improved safety over metal-oxide materials. .To date Valence has shipped 100,000 batteries to Segway.^ GM recently said that its domestic supplier, Michigan-based Cobasys, shipped as many as 9,000 hybrid battery packs that leaked and had to be replaced.
  • Lithium-ion Batteries: 9 Years of Price Stagnation -- Seeking Alpha 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC seekingalpha.com [Source type: General]

^ Sony battery recall hits 100,000 -- adds Acer to the list 3 days ago .
  • New Sony lithium ion batteries promise 4x the capacity, 99% recharge in 30 minutes -- Engadget 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.engadget.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Enertia uses battery cells and packs from Valence Technologies , based in Austin, TX, whose cells have been used in the Segway personal transport.

.In November 2005, A123Systems announced[51] the development of lithium iron phosphate cells based on research licensed from MIT.[52][53] While the battery has slightly lower energy density than other competing lithium-ion technologies, a 2 A·h cell can provide a peak of 70 amperes without damage and operate at temperatures above 60 °C (140 °F).^ China 3.6V Lithium Ion Battery .
  • China Lithium-ion battery pack Manufacturers 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lithium-ion battery packs (531) .

^ The conventional lithium ion battery exploded.
  • Green Car Congress: Prospects for Lithium-ion Batteries in Automotive Applications from AABC Week 22 September 2009 22:37 UTC www.greencarcongress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Their first cell has been in production since 2006 and is being used in consumer products including DeWalt power tools, aviation products, automotive hybrid systems and PHEV conversions.^ A123 Systems (power tool packs) .
  • Lithium-ion Batteries: 9 Years of Price Stagnation -- Seeking Alpha 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC seekingalpha.com [Source type: General]

^ In November 2005, A123Systems announced [8] a new higher power, faster recharging Li-Ion battery system [9] [10] based on research licensed from MIT. Their first cell is in production (1Q/2006) and being used in DeWalt power tools and Hybrids Plus Prius PHEV conversions (although the conversion costs more than the original price of the car, mostly due to the price of the batteries).
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ The batteries are currently being tested in a new production car made by Phoenix Motorcars [6] which was on display at the 2006 SEMA motorshow.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

LiFePO4 cells are currently available commercially.[citation needed]

High power cathode using lithium nickel manganese cobalt (NMC)

.Imara Corporation[54], based in Menlo Park, CA was commercializing a new materials-agnostic technology first applied on an NMC material which has the effect of lowering impedance and extending cycle life.^ The desire to extend battery life, achieve higher energy densities and faster charging times, and improve reliability has led to a constant tinkering of the technology.
  • What's Wrong With Lithium-Ion Batteries? (Made By Monkeys) 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.electronicsweekly.com [Source type: General]

^ When was the last time new technology was inexpensive when first discovered?
  • 100-Fold Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

^ In March of 2005, Toshiba announced another fast charging lithium-ion battery, based on new nano-material technology, that provides even faster charge times, greater capacity, and a longer life cycle.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.These high power-capable cells have high energy density relative to other high power cells in the market.^ Packing high energy densities in compact sizes, lithium ion polymer batteries are widely used in portable electronic devices such as cellular phones.
  • Sony's Lithium Ion Battery Plant Breaks New Ground In Local Electronics Industry - Singapore Economic Development Board 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.sedb.com [Source type: News]

^ Traditional lithium-cobalt cells, like those in laptop computers, have high energy density but tend toward thermal runaway when the separator material fails.
  • Managing high-voltage lithium-ion batteries in HEVs | EDNAsia.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ednasia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ High energy density, long-life, and low cost secondary batteries have been demanded for their use in load leveling applications and electrical vehicles.
  • United States Patent: 7378189 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC patft1.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

[55] .Imara ceased operations in December 2009.[56] The batteries are being deployed in power tools, outdoor power equipment and hybrid vehicles; Sony and Sanyo use NMC and NCA blended with LMO (spinel) for high-powered applications.^ The batteries Zero Motorcycles uses are known for their high power.

^ Further, early provision of small, lightweight, and high performance secondary batteries is strongly urged for their use as power supply of portable equipment such as laptop personal computers, word processors, video cameras, and cellular phones.
  • United States Patent: 7378189 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC patft1.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ According to Sony, the batteries are especially well suited for use in power tools (where they'll first show up), but it does say they'll also eventually be "expanded to a wide range of other mobile electronic devices."
  • New Sony lithium ion batteries promise 4x the capacity, 99% recharge in 30 minutes -- Engadget 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.engadget.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.NMC has a significant safety advantage over cobalt oxide and 50% greater energy density than FePO4, but suffers from a poor cycle life.^ The desire to extend battery life, achieve higher energy densities and faster charging times, and improve reliability has led to a constant tinkering of the technology.
  • What's Wrong With Lithium-Ion Batteries? (Made By Monkeys) 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.electronicsweekly.com [Source type: General]

^ Traditional lithium-cobalt cells, like those in laptop computers, have high energy density but tend toward thermal runaway when the separator material fails.
  • Managing high-voltage lithium-ion batteries in HEVs | EDNAsia.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ednasia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ High energy density, long-life, and low cost secondary batteries have been demanded for their use in load leveling applications and electrical vehicles.
  • United States Patent: 7378189 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC patft1.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

Nissan Motor Co. has nearly completed development of a lithium-ion battery using a lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide cathode (NMC). .The new system, which will reportedly offer almost double the capacity of Nissan/AESC’s current manganese spinel cell.^ There are plenty of companies that have Lithium Iron Phosphate and Lithium Manganese Oxide cells that offer these types of cells.
  • New Sony lithium ion batteries promise 4x the capacity, 99% recharge in 30 minutes -- Engadget 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.engadget.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You must accurately measure the voltage of every cell and then use current and temperature measurements to tweak the readings for ESR and capacity changes.
  • Managing high-voltage lithium-ion batteries in HEVs | EDNAsia.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ednasia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This new nano technology in the A123 cells DO NOT belong in the same conversation as the current Li-Ion or LiPo.
  • What's Wrong With Lithium-Ion Batteries? (Made By Monkeys) 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.electronicsweekly.com [Source type: General]

[57]

Traditional cathode with lithium titanate anode

.Altairnano, a small firm based in Reno, Nevada, has announced a nano-sized titanate electrode material for lithium-ion batteries.^ Battery 18v Lithium Ion .
  • Battery 18v Lithium Ion 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC redcaptools.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The conventional lithium ion battery exploded.
  • Green Car Congress: Prospects for Lithium-ion Batteries in Automotive Applications from AABC Week 22 September 2009 22:37 UTC www.greencarcongress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lithium-ion batteries are growing in popularity.
  • Lithium Batteries: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

.It is claimed the prototype battery has three times the power output of existing batteries and can be fully charged in six minutes.^ Charges two at a time RCR123 Batteries at a Time.
  • DSD Lithium Ion Battery Charger for Rechargeable RCR123, RCR123A, LIR123a, 16340, 18650, 17670 Batteries - Chargers one or two batteries at a time 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.cellphone-store.com [Source type: General]

^ Its prototype battery has three times the power of existing batteries and can be fully charged in six minutes.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ A battery in the garage can be charged all the time with any available power.
  • 100-Fold Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

.However, total energy capacity per cell is about half that of normal lithium-ion cells.^ Packing high energy densities in compact sizes, lithium ion polymer batteries are widely used in portable electronic devices such as cellular phones.
  • Sony's Lithium Ion Battery Plant Breaks New Ground In Local Electronics Industry - Singapore Economic Development Board 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.sedb.com [Source type: News]

^ The plant is expected to produce more than 10 per cent of Sony's total lithium ion battery output, or approximately eight million cells per month, when fully operational in 2010.
  • Sony's Lithium Ion Battery Plant Breaks New Ground In Local Electronics Industry - Singapore Economic Development Board 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.sedb.com [Source type: News]

^ Traditional lithium-cobalt cells, like those in laptop computers, have high energy density but tend toward thermal runaway when the separator material fails.
  • Managing high-voltage lithium-ion batteries in HEVs | EDNAsia.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ednasia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The company also says the battery cells have now achieved a life of over 9,000 charge cycles while still retaining up to 85% charge capacity.^ The cycle directly relates to the cycle life of the battery.
  • Lithium Batteries: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ The cycle of a lithium battery is when the battery is charged and then discharged.
  • Lithium Batteries: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ The company also says the battery can handle approximately 20,000 recharging cycles, so durability and battery life are much longer, estimated to be around 20 years or four times longer than regular lithium-ion batteries.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.Durability and battery life are therefore much longer, estimated to be around 20 years, or four times longer than regular lithium-ion batteries.^ The company also says the battery can handle approximately 20,000 recharging cycles, so durability and battery life are much longer, estimated to be around 20 years or four times longer than regular lithium-ion batteries.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ NI-MH batteries often last much longer than this.
  • DailyTech - Toyota Shuns Lithium-ion Batteries for Next Gen Prius 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ Lithium-ion battery packs (531) .

.The batteries can operate from −50 °C to over 75 °C and will not explode or experience thermal runaway, even under severe conditions, because they do not contain graphite-coated-metal anode electrode material.^ The batteries can operate from -50ºC to over 75ºC and will not explode or result in thermal runaway even under sever conditions because they do not contain graphite anode electrode material [5] .
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ In February 2005, Altair NanoTechnology [4] , a small firm based in Reno, Nevada , announced a nano-sized titanate electrode material for lithium-ion batteries.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ On the other hand, they are also the critical determinant of the batteries safety, ruptured membranes (in the case of laptop-type or lithium cobalt oxide batteries) have been implicated in thermal runaway (explosion) events.
  • Lithium-ion Battery Separators 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

[58] .The batteries are currently being tested in a new production car made by Phoenix Motorcars which was on display at the 2006 SEMA motorshow.^ The batteries are currently being tested in a new production car made by Phoenix Motorcars [6] which was on display at the 2006 SEMA motorshow.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Note that, the constant current charging and discharging test involved: charging the battery to a cut off voltage of 4.5 V at a charging current density of 0.2 mA/cm.sup.2; and discharging the battery to a cut off voltage of 2.5 V at a discharging current density of 0.2 mA/cm.sup.2.
  • United States Patent: 7378189 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC patft1.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Tesla, Reva and Kewet are all releasing new lithium ion battery electric car models in 2007.
  • DailyTech - Toyota Shuns Lithium-ion Batteries for Next Gen Prius 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

.They're also being tested, on a one megawatt grid scale, in the PJM Interconnection Regional Transmission Organization control area[59] in Norristown, Pennsylvania as well as by several branches of the United States Department of Defense.^ We're in stock as well as them, but our penny shipping is ground, not the "Value" that they offer for free.
  • The Power Tool Geek: Makita 18V Lithium-Ion Drills - White vs. Blue 12 September 2009 12:21 UTC blogs.toolbarn.com [Source type: General]

^ We’re all waiting for that development to be shown … at least a working breadboard unit, yet you’re stating that “great potential research” is underway.
  • GM-Volt.com: Interview with Dr. Cui, Inventor of Silicon Nanowire Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

^ Case in point, US Steel is usually ranked as one of the top-5 polluters in the United States.
  • DailyTech - Toyota Shuns Lithium-ion Batteries for Next Gen Prius 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

[60] .In addition, the batteries are being demonstrated by Proterra in their all-electric EcoRide BE35 vehicle, a lightweight 35-foot bus.^ High energy density, long-life, and low cost secondary batteries have been demanded for their use in load leveling applications and electrical vehicles.
  • United States Patent: 7378189 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC patft1.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ At Battery prides itself on being one of the world’s largest online suppliers of lithium batteries, in addition to alkaline and lithium-ions.
  • Lithium Batteries: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ Tesla, Reva and Kewet are all releasing new lithium ion battery electric car models in 2007.
  • DailyTech - Toyota Shuns Lithium-ion Batteries for Next Gen Prius 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

[61] .Altairnano is currently working with three different cell chemistries for various energy and power storage applications, with another new cell chemistry expected in the fall of 2009. The nature of their latest cathode materials is currently proprietary.^ This is a new application for this material.
  • GM-Volt.com: Interview with Dr. Cui, Inventor of Silicon Nanowire Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

^ Depends on the chemistry (what material is used) and cell design (high power or high energy?
  • GM-Volt.com: Interview with Dr. Cui, Inventor of Silicon Nanowire Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

^ Lots of chemistries have high power rates, but fall short on energy.
  • 100-Fold Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

Combined anode and cathode developments

.EnerDel, which started as a joint venture by Ener1 and Delphi, is working to commercialize cells containing a titanate anode and manganese spinel cathode.^ The cathodes vary by manufacturer, but A123 uses iron nanophosphate, and LG Chem a manganese spinel.
  • Lithium-ion Battery Separators 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

^ The batteries work as electrons (electricity) flow between the anode (usually graphite or carbon) and the cathode.
  • Lithium-ion Battery Separators 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

^ In the typical lithium ion cell when a current is applied to charge the cell, lithium ions move away from the cathode compound and are trapped at the anode storage medium.
  • 100-Fold Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

[62] .Although the cells show excellent thermal properties and cyclability, their low voltage may hamper commercial success.^ The low thermal resistance between cells means that one or two temperature probes per group are sufficient.
  • Managing high-voltage lithium-ion batteries in HEVs | EDNAsia.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ednasia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Protection diodes and resistors are necessary for the electronics to survive the hot-socketing of the high-voltage, low-impedance cell stack.
  • Managing high-voltage lithium-ion batteries in HEVs | EDNAsia.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ednasia.com [Source type: Academic]

[63] In August, 2008, EnerDel became a wholly owned subsidiary of Ener1. [64]

Research claims

.In April 2006, a group of scientists at MIT announced a process which uses a genetically modified virus to form nano-sized wires.^ In April 2006, a group of scientists at MIT announced that they had figured out a way to use viruses to form nano-sized wires that can be used to build ultrathin lithium-ion batteries with three times the normal energy density.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ In February 2005, Altair NanoTechnology [4] , a small firm based in Reno, Nevada , announced a nano-sized titanate electrode material for lithium-ion batteries.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Any spot with lower amount of nano-wire can potentially become a spot where lithium dendrite forms, thus causing safety issues.
  • GM-Volt.com: Interview with Dr. Cui, Inventor of Silicon Nanowire Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

.These can be used to build ultrathin lithium-ion batteries with three times the normal energy density.^ Data: Lithium-ion Battery .
  • Lithium-ion Battery - Lithium-ion Battery Companies, Exporters, Importers, Manufacturers, Buyers, Sellers 12 September 2009 12:21 UTC search.elecdir.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A lithium-ion battery is rechargeable and used in most large electronics.
  • Lithium Batteries: Providers and Solutions | Business.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ These were early Li-ion batteries.
  • "Training" lithium ion batteries - Pocketables Forum 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC forum.pocketables.net [Source type: General]

[65][66]
.As of June 2006, researchers in France have created nanostructured battery electrodes with several times the energy capacity, by weight and volume, of conventional electrodes.^ The desire to extend battery life, achieve higher energy densities and faster charging times, and improve reliability has led to a constant tinkering of the technology.
  • What's Wrong With Lithium-Ion Batteries? (Made By Monkeys) 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.electronicsweekly.com [Source type: General]

^ A123Systems’ batteries use proprietary nanoscale electrode technology built on research at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and exclusively licensed from MIT. .
  • Green Car Congress: A123Systems Launches New Higher-Power, Faster Recharging Li-Ion Battery Systems 18 September 2009 7:24 UTC www.greencarcongress.com [Source type: General]

^ Generally speaking the batteries are getting smaller and smaller, and at the same time they are being required to deliver more power and capacity.
  • What's Wrong With Lithium-Ion Batteries? (Made By Monkeys) 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.electronicsweekly.com [Source type: General]

[67]
.In the September 2007 issue of Nature, researchers from the University of Waterloo, Canada, reported a new cathode chemistry, in which the hydroxyl group in the iron phosphate cathode was replaced by fluorine.^ Manufacturers are basing the new breed of lithium batteries on lithium-iron-phosphate, lithium-manganese, and lithium-titanate, which are thermally stable even when you puncture their packaging.
  • Managing high-voltage lithium-ion batteries in HEVs | EDNAsia.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ednasia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The scientists were able to develop a new formulation of lithium iron phosphate that allows for extremely rapid charging, and massive specific power.
  • 100-Fold Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

^ GM is going to evaluate a LOT of different battery chemistries and technologies at their new battery research and testing facility.
  • GM Chooses LG Chem to Supply Chevy Volt’s Lithium-ion Batteries and Will Build the Packs Themselves | GM-VOLT : Chevy Volt Electric Car Site 22 September 2009 22:37 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[68] The advantages seem to be two-fold. .First, there is less volume change in the cathode over a charge cycle which may improve battery life.^ The desire to extend battery life, achieve higher energy densities and faster charging times, and improve reliability has led to a constant tinkering of the technology.
  • What's Wrong With Lithium-Ion Batteries? (Made By Monkeys) 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.electronicsweekly.com [Source type: General]

^ Battery management circuitry will prevent both excessive charging and discharging, to prolong battery life, he says.
  • Lithium-ion: The next big thing for car batteries? 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: News]
  • Lithium-ion: The next big thing for car batteries? 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: News]

^ Other causes of bateries exploding is use of chinese made chargers which may exceed the charging current rating and thus increasing the battery temp.
  • What's Wrong With Lithium-Ion Batteries? (Made By Monkeys) 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.electronicsweekly.com [Source type: General]

.Secondly, the chemistry allows the substitution of the lithium in the battery with either sodium or a sodium/lithium mixture (hence their reference to it as an alkali-ion battery).^ Data: Lithium-ion Battery .
  • Lithium-ion Battery - Lithium-ion Battery Companies, Exporters, Importers, Manufacturers, Buyers, Sellers 12 September 2009 12:21 UTC search.elecdir.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Lithium-ion battery packs (531) .

^ Lithium-ion battery packs manufacturers .

.In November 2007, Subaru unveiled their concept G4e electric vehicle with a lithium vanadium oxide-based lithium-ion battery, promising double the energy density of a conventional lithium-ion battery (lithium cobalt oxide and graphite).^ Lithium-ion battery packs manufacturers .
  • 3.6V Lithium Ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lithium -ion/ Polymer PDA Battery .
  • Polymer Lithium Ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 12 September 2009 12:21 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

^ Lithium ion Battery Pack .
  • 3.6V Lithium Ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[69] .In the lab, lithium vanadium oxide anodes, paired with lithium cobalt oxide cathodes, have achieved 745Wh/l, nearly three times the volumetric energy density of conventional lithium-ion batteries.^ Data: Lithium-ion Battery .
  • Lithium-ion Battery - Lithium-ion Battery Companies, Exporters, Importers, Manufacturers, Buyers, Sellers 12 September 2009 12:21 UTC search.elecdir.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Lithium-ion battery packs (531) .

^ Battery 18v Lithium Ion .
  • Battery 18v Lithium Ion 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC redcaptools.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[70]
.In December 2007, researchers at Stanford University reported creating a lithium-ion nanowire battery with ten times the energy density (amount of energy available by weight) through using silicon nanowires deposited on stainless steel as the anode.^ Stanford had a similar battery back in 2007.
  • 100-Fold Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

^ Lithium ion batteries/packs (547) .
  • Polymer Lithium Ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 12 September 2009 12:21 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

^ The idea is to use silicon nanowires as the active lithium storage material for the battery electrode.
  • GM-Volt.com: Interview with Dr. Cui, Inventor of Silicon Nanowire Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

.The battery takes advantage of the fact that silicon can hold large amounts of lithium, and helps alleviate the longstanding problem of cracking by the small size of the wires.^ In February 2005, Altair NanoTechnology [4] , a small firm based in Reno, Nevada , announced a nano-sized titanate electrode material for lithium-ion batteries.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Also, lithium batteries are lightweight and can be charged or discharged at any time without developing so called memory effect, so they never lose their ability to hold a full charge.
  • NP-F570 Lithium-Ion Battery - Rechargeable Ultra High Capacity (2300 mAh) - replacement for Sony NP-F570 Battery 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.eastcoastphoto.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any spot with lower amount of nano-wire can potentially become a spot where lithium dendrite forms, thus causing safety issues.
  • GM-Volt.com: Interview with Dr. Cui, Inventor of Silicon Nanowire Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

[71] .To gain a tenfold improvement in energy density, the cathode would need to be improved as well; however, even just improving the anode could provide "several" times the energy density, according to the team.^ The desire to extend battery life, achieve higher energy densities and faster charging times, and improve reliability has led to a constant tinkering of the technology.
  • What's Wrong With Lithium-Ion Batteries? (Made By Monkeys) 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.electronicsweekly.com [Source type: General]

^ C&D said it plans to develop lightweight, high-power-density battery systems that also could have commercial applications down the road, for energy storage for the power grid and renewable energy applications.
  • C&D Technologies to develop lithium-ion batteries for Army - JSOnline 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.jsonline.com [Source type: News]

^ The claimed 10x improvement on the anode material would only garner a 1.5x change in the battery metrics (volumetric or gravimetric power or energy).
  • GM-Volt.com: Interview with Dr. Cui, Inventor of Silicon Nanowire Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

.The team leader, Yi Cui, expects to be able to commercialize the technology in about five years.^ OhmExcited Says: December 21st, 2007 at 12:19 pm Five years to commercialization, huh?
  • GM-Volt.com: Interview with Dr. Cui, Inventor of Silicon Nanowire Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

^ I am astonished about the optimism expressed in the interview and many of the comments alike, despite the fact that Dr. Yi Cui didn’t even mention the energy density.
  • GM-Volt.com: Interview with Dr. Cui, Inventor of Silicon Nanowire Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

^ The technology is expected to hit the road in the next few years in electric vehicles under development such as the GM Volt .
  • What's Wrong With Lithium-Ion Batteries? (Made By Monkeys) 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.electronicsweekly.com [Source type: General]

[72] .Having a large capacitive anode will not increase the capacity of the battery as predicted by the author when the cathode material is far less capacitive than the anode.^ Not only that, if you compare ranges within the graph, the nimh batteries are only > 4 volts for x < ~1450, where on the right, it is less than 4.5 volts.
  • Alkaline, Nimh, Lithium, Lithium-ion Batteries - Groundspeak Forums 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC forums.groundspeak.com [Source type: General]

^ The claimed 10x improvement on the anode material would only garner a 1.5x change in the battery metrics (volumetric or gravimetric power or energy).
  • GM-Volt.com: Interview with Dr. Cui, Inventor of Silicon Nanowire Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

^ Super large capacity hard drives, longer life batteries and Unicorns.
  • New Sony lithium ion batteries promise 4x the capacity, 99% recharge in 30 minutes -- Engadget 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.engadget.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, current lithium-ion capacity is mainly limited by the low theoretical capacity (372 mA·h/g) of the graphite in use as the anode material, so improvement could be significant and would then be limited by the cathode material instead.^ In current lithium ion batteries carbon or graphite is used as the anode material?
  • GM-Volt.com: Interview with Dr. Cui, Inventor of Silicon Nanowire Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

^ When the battery gets charged then do the lithium ions combine with the anode material?
  • GM-Volt.com: Interview with Dr. Cui, Inventor of Silicon Nanowire Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

^ Packing high energy densities in compact sizes, lithium ion polymer batteries are widely used in portable electronic devices such as cellular phones.
  • Sony's Lithium Ion Battery Plant Breaks New Ground In Local Electronics Industry - Singapore Economic Development Board 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.sedb.com [Source type: News]

.There are trials with metal hydrides as anode material for lithium-ion batteries.^ Lithium-ion battery packs (531) .

^ Lithium-ion battery packs manufacturers .
  • Lithium ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 3.6V Lithium Ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Lithium ion Battery China Manufacturers 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.chinasuppliers.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Polymer Lithium Ion Battery China Manufacturers 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.chinasuppliers.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lithium -ion/ Polymer PDA Battery .
  • Polymer Lithium Ion Battery China Manufacturers 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.chinasuppliers.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Polymer Lithium Ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 12 September 2009 12:21 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

.A practical electrode capacity as high as 1480 mA·h/g has been reported.^ Li/Li.sup.+) or more, a usable capacity exceeding 200 mAh/g, and a high energy density, to thereby be useful as the positive electrode active material.
  • United States Patent: 7378189 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC patft1.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Li/Li.sup.+) or more, a practically usable capacity exceeding 200 mAh/g, and a high energy density has not been found yet.
  • United States Patent: 7378189 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC patft1.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ The lithium-cobalt mixed oxide used as the positive electrode material (positive electrode active material) has a high theoretical capacity of 280 mAh/g and a low usable capacity of 160 mAh/g.
  • United States Patent: 7378189 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC patft1.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

[73]
.In April 2009 a report in New Scientist claimed that Angela Belcher's team at MIT had succeeded in producing the first full virus-based 3-volt lithium-ion battery.^ V Lithium Ion Battery Packs & Chargers 7.4 Volt battery packs in shrink with li-on charger .
  • LITHIUM ION BATTERIES, 18650 SAMSUNG, LG, PANASONIC. 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.megabatteries.com [Source type: General]

^ Lithium Ion Battery and Charger 9 Volt lithium ion 400 mAh and 600 mAh Batteries .
  • LITHIUM ION BATTERIES, 18650 SAMSUNG, LG, PANASONIC. 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.megabatteries.com [Source type: General]

^ Lithium-ion battery packs manufacturers .
  • Lithium ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 3.6V Lithium Ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Polymer Lithium Ion Battery China Manufacturers 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.chinasuppliers.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[74]
.In November 2009, engineers at the University of Dayton Research Institute developed the world's first solid-state, rechargeable lithium air battery which was designed to address the fire and explosion risk of other lithium rechargeable batteries and make way for development of large-size lithium rechargeables for a number of industry applications, including hybrid and electric cars.^ The Volt is an electric car with an on-board gas generator to recharge the battery.
  • 100-Fold Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

^ Recharge Lithium Ion Battery with 24V .

^ Lithium - ion Rechargeable Battery Pack .

[75]
Recent studies performed at Binghamton University by M. S. Whittingham et al. determined that vanadium ions can be incorporated into the iron-containing olivine structure of LiFePO4; a small amount of vanadium (around 5%) enhancing the rate capability of the LiFePO4 olivine cathode material. .The resulting compound material had higher electronic and ionic conductivities, and they were of comparable magnitude.^ (Electron Conductivity Evaluation) An electrode material must be evaluated for electron conductivity because cycle characteristics of a lithium secondary battery deteriorates with poor electron conductivity of the electrode material during charging and discharging.
  • United States Patent: 7378189 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC patft1.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Li/Li.sup.+) and presence stability of an electron conductive material (atomic aggregate model).
  • United States Patent: 7378189 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC patft1.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

The doping reaction kinetics were optimal under reducing atmosphere during the synthesis of the LiFe0.95V0.05PO4 material.[76]

Guidelines for prolonging lithium-ion battery life

.
  • Lithium-ion batteries should never be depleted below their minimum voltage (2.4 to 2.8 V/cell, depending on chemistry).^ Lithium -ion/ Polymer PDA Battery .
    • Polymer Lithium Ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 12 September 2009 12:21 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Lithium ion battery from a mobile phone .
    • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Fold Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough .
    • 100-Fold Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

    .If a lithium-ion battery is stored with too low a charge, there is a risk that the charge will drop below the low-voltage threshold, resulting in an unrecoverable dead battery.^ Rechargeable Lithium -ion Button Battery with Nominal Voltage of 3.6V .
    • 3.6V Lithium Ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Lithium-ion battery packs manufacturers .
    • Lithium ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • 3.6V Lithium Ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Polymer Lithium Ion Battery China Manufacturers 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.chinasuppliers.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Lithium -ion/ Polymer PDA Battery .

    .February 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Usually this does not instantly damage the battery itself but a charger or device which uses that battery will refuse to charge a dead battery.^ The best way to charge a battery is to use a slow-charger.
    • Alkaline, Nimh, Lithium, Lithium-ion Batteries - Groundspeak Forums 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC forums.groundspeak.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Rechargeable Lithium ion Batteries also have a much lower self discharge rate the NiMH cells, so if you can't charge up immediately before using your flashlight, camera or other device.
    • DSD Lithium Ion Battery Charger for Rechargeable RCR123, RCR123A, LIR123a, 16340, 18650, 17670 Batteries - Chargers one or two batteries at a time 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.cellphone-store.com [Source type: General]
    • Ultra Light Nano Lithium Ion Battery Charger for Rechargeable RCR123A / LIR123a High OutPut Type Battery Only 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.cellphone-store.com [Source type: General]

    ^ While the BQ-390 chargers seem to work well, I only use them when traveling when the MaHa chargers are not available to me, or as charge boosters.
    • Alkaline, Nimh, Lithium, Lithium-ion Batteries - Groundspeak Forums 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC forums.groundspeak.com [Source type: General]

    .The battery appears to be dead or not existent because the protection circuit disables further discharging and there is zero voltage on the battery terminals.
  • Lithium-ion batteries should be kept cool.^ Lithium ion Battery Packs 7.4V Lithium Ion Batteries with PCB Protection .
    • LITHIUM ION BATTERIES, 18650 SAMSUNG, LG, PANASONIC. 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.megabatteries.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Rechargeable Lithium -ion Button Battery with Nominal Voltage of 3.6V .
    • 3.6V Lithium Ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Lithium-ion battery packs manufacturers .
    • Lithium ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • 3.6V Lithium Ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Polymer Lithium Ion Battery China Manufacturers 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.chinasuppliers.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Ideally they are stored in a refrigerator.^ Ideally they are stored in a refrigerator.
    • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    .September 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed]
  • Aging will take its toll much faster at high temperatures.^ Aging will take its toll much faster at high temperatures.
    • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ They also lose their capacity much faster at higher temperatures.
    • DailyTech - Toyota Shuns Lithium-ion Batteries for Next Gen Prius 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

    ^ NZDavid Says: March 12th, 2009 at 10:39 am TBA @ 138: You can’t take power faster than the outlet will handle or the breaker will disconnect.
    • 100-Fold Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

    [citation needed]

Prolonging life in multiple cells through battery management

.Li-Ion batteries require a Battery Management System to prevent operation outside each cell's Safe Operating Area (over-charge, under-charge, operation outside the safe temperature range) and balance cells to eliminate SOC mismatches, significantly improving battery efficiency and increase the overall pack capacity[77].^ Lithium-ion battery packs manufacturers .
  • Lithium ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 3.6V Lithium Ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Polymer Lithium Ion Battery China Manufacturers 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.chinasuppliers.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High-capacity 1,600mAh Li-ion Battery Pack .

^ Lithium ion Battery Pack .
  • Lithium ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 3.6V Lithium Ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As the number of cells and load currents increase, the potential for mismatch also increases[78].^ The charge voltage should equal the number of cells times 4.2V per cell and the current should match the capacity of the pack (or lower).
  • 11.1V 1800mAH LiPo Lithium Small Battery 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.airsplat.com [Source type: General]

.There are two kinds of mismatch in the pack: state-of-charge (SOC) and capacity/energy (C/E) mismatch.^ Current flows to equalize the voltage and, therefore, the state of charge of the two cells.
  • Managing high-voltage lithium-ion batteries in HEVs | EDNAsia.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ednasia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Li-ON Battery Chargers from Cadex, PAG, and Rathbone Energy for V-Mount Battery and Gold Mount Battery Snap On Compatible, with some models charging Ni-CD , Ni-MH , and Li-ON battery packs .
  • Lithium Ion Broadcast Batteries 12 September 2009 12:21 UTC www.rathboneenergy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As pointed out very many times, there is an abundance of daytime capacity available for charging when the temperatures are moderate, and off the daily peaks when they are not.
  • 100-Fold Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

.Though the SOC mismatch is more common, each problem limits the pack capacity (mA·h) to the capacity of the weakest cell.^ BTW, NiMH and Ni-Cad cells/packs suffer from the same problem when shorted out, it's not a problem that is exclusive to Li-Ion batteries.
  • Alkaline, Nimh, Lithium, Lithium-ion Batteries - Groundspeak Forums 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC forums.groundspeak.com [Source type: General]

^ If you know the batterys state of charge, you can use more capacity from each cell, use fewer cells, and maximize the lifetimes of those cells.
  • Managing high-voltage lithium-ion batteries in HEVs | EDNAsia.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ednasia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Why do we 'know/understand' that the use of higher capacity cells will do nothing more than yield a longer operation time for the given product we use it in.
  • Alkaline, Nimh, Lithium, Lithium-ion Batteries - Groundspeak Forums 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC forums.groundspeak.com [Source type: General]

Safety

.Lithium-ion batteries can rupture, ignite, or explode when exposed to high-temperature environments, e.g.^ Keep the lithium-ion battery cool.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Lithium-ion Battery Separators .
  • Lithium-ion Battery Separators 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

^ Lithium-ion battery packs (509) .

in an area that is prone to prolonged direct sunlight.[79] .Short-circuiting a lithium-ion battery can cause it to ignite or explode and any attempt to open or modify the casing or circuitry is dangerous.^ Never open a Li-ion battery's casing.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Short-circuiting a Li-ion battery can cause it to ignite or explode.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Lithium-ion battery packs manufacturers .
  • 3.6V Lithium Ion Battery Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Polymer Lithium Ion Battery China Manufacturers 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC www.chinasuppliers.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For this reason they normally contain safety devices that protect the cells from abuse.^ Li-ion batteries contain safety devices that protect the cells inside from abuse.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Li-ion chemistry is not safe as such, and a Li-ion cell requires several mandatory safety devices to be built in before it can be considered safe for use outside of a laboratory.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Internal contaminants inside the cells can defeat these safety devices.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.Contaminants inside the cells can defeat these safety devices.^ Internal contaminants inside the cells can defeat these safety devices.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Li-ion chemistry is not safe as such, and a Li-ion cell requires several mandatory safety devices to be built in before it can be considered safe for use outside of a laboratory.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ The devices take away useful space inside the cells, and add an additional layer of unreliability.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

For example, the mid-2006 recall of approximately 10 million Sony batteries used in Dell, Sony, Apple, Lenovo/IBM, Panasonic, Toshiba, Hitachi, .Fujitsu and Sharp laptops was stated to be as a consequence of internal contamination with metal particles.^ The mid-2006 recall of 10 million Sony batteries used in Dell , Apple , Lenovo / IBM , Panasonic , Toshiba , Hitachi , Fujitsu and Sharp laptops was a consequence of internal contamination with metal particles.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.Under some circumstances, these can pierce the separator, causing the cell to short, rapidly converting all of the energy in the cell to heat resulting in an exothermic oxidizing reaction, increasing the temperature to a few hundred degrees Celsius in a fraction of a second.^ Under some circumstances, these can pierce the separator, rapidly converting all of the energy in the cell to heat.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ For safety, certain layers can close the pores if temperatures exceed 140 degrees Celsius, effectively shutting down the current flow.
  • Lithium-ion Battery Separators 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

^ Traditional lithium-cobalt cells, like those in laptop computers, have high energy density but tend toward thermal runaway when the separator material fails.
  • Managing high-voltage lithium-ion batteries in HEVs | EDNAsia.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ednasia.com [Source type: Academic]

[80] .This causes the neighboring cells to heat up, causing a chain reaction.^ Active balancing means that charge shuttles between cells and does not end up as wasted heat.
  • Managing high-voltage lithium-ion batteries in HEVs | EDNAsia.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ednasia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The mid-2006 Sony laptop battery recall was not the first of its kind; it was, however, the largest to date.^ The mid-2006 Dell laptop battery recall isn't the first of its kind, but it is the largest.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ The mid-2006 recall of 10 million Sony batteries used in Dell , Apple , Lenovo / IBM , Panasonic , Toshiba , Hitachi , Fujitsu and Sharp laptops was a consequence of internal contamination with metal particles.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Sony CS-BP2SGL Laptop Battery (Grey/ 4400mAh) $149.95 $129.95 .
  • Canon BP514 Lithium Ion Battery Pack : Mr.Gadget Australia 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.mrgadget.com.au [Source type: General]

.During the past decade, there have been numerous recalls of lithium-ion batteries in cellular phones and laptops owing to overheating problems.^ Lithium-ion battery packs manufacturers .

^ Lithium -ion/ Polymer PDA Battery .

^ Lithium-ion batteries manufacturers .

.In October 2004, Kyocera Wireless recalled approximately 1 million batteries used in cellular phones due to counterfeit batteries produced in Kyocera's name.^ In 2004, Kyocera Wireless recalled about 1 million batteries used in phones.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ The mid-2006 recall of 10 million Sony batteries used in Dell , Apple , Lenovo / IBM , Panasonic , Toshiba , Hitachi , Fujitsu and Sharp laptops was a consequence of internal contamination with metal particles.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ When using a notebook computer running from fixed line power over extended periods, the battery can be removed and stored in a cool place so that it is not affected by the heat produced by the computer.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

[81] .In December 2006, Dell recalled approximately 22,000 batteries from the U.S. market.^ Last December, Dell pulled about 22,000 batteries from the U.S. market.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ The mid-2006 recall of 10 million Sony batteries used in Dell , Apple , Lenovo / IBM , Panasonic , Toshiba , Hitachi , Fujitsu and Sharp laptops was a consequence of internal contamination with metal particles.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ The mid-2006 Dell laptop battery recall isn't the first of its kind, but it is the largest.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

[82] .In March 2007, Lenovo recalled approximately 205,000 9-cell lithium-ion batteries due to an explosion risk.^ Keep the lithium-ion battery cool.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Lithium-ion Battery Separators .
  • Lithium-ion Battery Separators 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

^ Lithium-ion battery packs (531) .

.In August 2007, Nokia recalled over 46 million lithium-ion batteries, warning that some of them might overheat and possibly explode.^ Lithium-ion battery packs (531) .

^ Battery 18v Lithium Ion .
  • Battery 18v Lithium Ion 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC redcaptools.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lithium-ion battery packs manufacturers .

[83] .One such incident occurred in the Philippines involving an Nokia N91, which uses the BL-5C battery.^ Packing high energy densities in compact sizes, lithium ion polymer batteries are widely used in portable electronic devices such as cellular phones.
  • Sony's Lithium Ion Battery Plant Breaks New Ground In Local Electronics Industry - Singapore Economic Development Board 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.sedb.com [Source type: News]

^ Such discharge rates are two orders of magnitude larger than those used in today’s lithium ion batteries.” .
  • 100-Fold Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

^ N-Gage Lithium-Ion Battery: BL-5C Average Customer Rating: 5.0 out of 5 (based on 1 reviews) .
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

[84]
.Replacing the lithium cobalt oxide cathode material in lithium-ion batteries with lithiated metal phosphate leads to longer cycle and shelf life, improves safety, but lowers capacity.^ Lithium-ion battery packs manufacturers .

^ Lithium -ion/ Polymer PDA Battery .

^ Lithium-ion batteries manufacturers .

.Currently these 'safer' lithium-ion batteries are mainly used in electric cars and other large-capacity battery applications, where safety issues are critical.^ Lithium-ion battery packs (531) .

^ Lithium-ion battery packs manufacturers .

^ Lithium -ion/ Polymer PDA Battery .

[85]
.Another option is to use a manganese oxide or iron phosphate cathode.^ The cathodes vary by manufacturer, but A123 uses iron nanophosphate, and LG Chem a manganese spinel.
  • Lithium-ion Battery Separators 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

^ Manufacturers are basing the new breed of lithium batteries on lithium-iron-phosphate, lithium-manganese, and lithium-titanate, which are thermally stable even when you puncture their packaging.
  • Managing high-voltage lithium-ion batteries in HEVs | EDNAsia.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ednasia.com [Source type: Academic]

[86]
.A new class of high power cathode materials, lithium nickel manganese cobalt (NMC) oxide has recently been introduced that have a significantly higher temperature tolerance compared to lithium cobalt oxide (see above).^ Manufacturers are basing the new breed of lithium batteries on lithium-iron-phosphate, lithium-manganese, and lithium-titanate, which are thermally stable even when you puncture their packaging.
  • Managing high-voltage lithium-ion batteries in HEVs | EDNAsia.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ednasia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Traditional lithium-cobalt cells, like those in laptop computers, have high energy density but tend toward thermal runaway when the separator material fails.
  • Managing high-voltage lithium-ion batteries in HEVs | EDNAsia.com 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ednasia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The scientists were able to develop a new formulation of lithium iron phosphate that allows for extremely rapid charging, and massive specific power.
  • 100-Fold Lithium-ion Battery Breakthrough 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC gm-volt.com [Source type: General]

.In the event of a lithium-ion battery explosion, dense white smoke which can cause severe irritation to the respiratory tract, eyes and skin will be generated.^ Lithium-ion battery packs (531) .

^ Lithium-ion battery packs manufacturers .

^ Lithium -ion/ Polymer PDA Battery .

All precautions must be taken to limit exposure to these fumes.[87]

Restrictions on transportation

.As of January 2008, the United States Department of Transportation issued a new rule that permits passengers on board commercial aircraft to carry lithium batteries in their checked baggage IF the batteries are installed in a device.^ Lithium ion batteries can be formed into a wide variety of shapes and sizes, so as to efficiently fill available space in the devices they power.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ (Evaluation of Battery Performance) A constant current charging and discharging test in addition to a charging and discharging cycle test of the obtained lithium secondary battery was carried out to evaluate the lithium secondary battery for capacity per unit weight and for energy density per unit weight.
  • United States Patent: 7378189 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC patft1.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Tesla, Reva and Kewet are all releasing new lithium ion battery electric car models in 2007.
  • DailyTech - Toyota Shuns Lithium-ion Batteries for Next Gen Prius 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

.Types of batteries affected by this rule are those containing lithium, including Li-ion, lithium polymer, and lithium cobalt oxide chemistries.^ Lithium polymer batteries .

^ Lithium-ion battery packs manufacturers .

^ Lithium -ion/ Polymer PDA Battery .

.Lithium-ion batteries containing more than 25 grams equivalent lithium content (ELC) are exempt from the rule and are forbidden in air travel.^ Keep the lithium-ion battery cool.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Lithium-ion battery packs (509) .

^ Lithium -ion Battery .

[88]
.The purpose of this restriction is that it greatly reduces the chances of the batteries becoming short-circuited and causing a fire.^ Short-circuiting a Li-ion battery can cause it to ignite or explode.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ If you accidentally cause the battery to short circuit, place it in a safe open space and observe the battery for approximately 15 minutes.
  • 11.1V 1800mAH LiPo Lithium Small Battery 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.airsplat.com [Source type: General]

^ An internal safety circuit will therefore open to prevent charging, and the battery will be for all practical purposes dead.
  • Will Lithium-Ion batteries die quicker if you don't charge your cell phone properly? 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.A limited number of replacement batteries can be carried as hand luggage provided they are kept in their original protective packaging or in individual containers or plastic bags.^ This is why 'properly designed' Li-Ion battery packs contain protection circuitry to shut them down if an over current situation occurs.
  • Alkaline, Nimh, Lithium, Lithium-ion Batteries - Groundspeak Forums 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC forums.groundspeak.com [Source type: General]

^ When you slow-charge the batteries they are kept relatively cool: That extends their lifetime and gives them more capacity each time you charge them.
  • Alkaline, Nimh, Lithium, Lithium-ion Batteries - Groundspeak Forums 31 January 2010 13:30 UTC forums.groundspeak.com [Source type: General]

^ The supplier agreed to replace it without argument so I swapped the original battery in (luckily I hadn’t got around to disposing of it) while I shipped the faulty unit back.
  • What's Wrong With Lithium-Ion Batteries? (Made By Monkeys) 10 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.electronicsweekly.com [Source type: General]

[88][89]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "How to rebuild a Li-Ion battery pack". Electronics-lab.com. http://www.electronics-lab.com/articles/Li_Ion_reconstruct/. Retrieved 8 October 2009. 
  2. ^ http://www.panasonic.com/industrial/battery/oem/images/pdf/Panasonic_LiIon_CGA103450A.pdf
  3. ^ The effect of PHEV and HEV duty cycles on battery and battery pack performance, http://www.pluginhighway.ca/PHEV2007/proceedings/PluginHwy_PHEV2007_PaperReviewed_Valoen.pdf
  4. ^ http://www.amazon.com/Inspiron-1501-E1505-Latitude-Vostro/dp/B001SV571M/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=electronics&qid=1264613675&sr=8-1
  5. ^ Vapor-grown carbon fiber anode for cylindrical lithium ion rechargeable batteries
  6. ^ thermoanalytics: battery types
  7. ^ "Electrovaya, Tata Motors to make electric Indica". http://www.cleantech.com/news/3694/electrovaya-tata-motors-make-electric-indica. 
  8. ^ David Linden, Thomas B. Reddy (ed). Handbook Of Batteries 3rd Edition. McGraw-Hill, New York, 2002 ISBN 0-07-135978-8 chapter 35
  9. ^ Silberberg, M. 2006. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 4th Ed. New York (NY): McGraw-Hill Education. p 935.
  10. ^ MRS Website : Theme Article - Science and Applications of Mixed Conductors for Lithium Batteries
  11. ^ Tek MSDS for Lithium Ion Batteries provided by National Power Corp.
  12. ^ Electrical Energy Storage and Intercalation Chemistry - WHITTINGHAM 192 (4244): 1126 - Science
  13. ^ Yazami, R. and Touzain, Ph., International Meeting on Lithium Batteries, Rome, April 27–29, 1982, C.L.U.P. Ed. Milan, Abstract # 23
  14. ^ Journal of Power Sources 9 (3–4): 365–371. 1983. 
  15. ^ US patent 4304825, "Rechargeable battery", granted 8 December 1981  
  16. ^ USPTO search for inventions by "Goodenough, John"
  17. ^ M.M. Thackeray, W.I.F. David, P.G. Bruce, and J.B. Goodenough (4 February 1983). Lithium insertion into manganese spinels. 18. Elsevier. pp. 461–472. doi:10.1016/0025-5408(83)90138-1. 
  18. ^ Gholamabbas Nazri, Gianfranco Pistoia (2004). Lithium batteries: science and ... - Google Books. Springer. http://books.google.com/books?id=k4duxuea3eIC. Retrieved 8 October 2009. 
  19. ^ IEEE Spectrum: Lithium Batteries Take to the Road
  20. ^ A. Manthiram and J.B. Goodenough Corresponding (16 May 1989). "Lithium insertion into Fe2(SO4)3 frameworks". Journal of Power Sources (Elsevier B.V.) 26 (3-4): 403–408. doi:10.1016/0378-7753(89)80153-3. 
  21. ^ Phospho-olivines as positive-electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries, A.K. Padhi, K.S. Nanjundaswamy and J.B. Goodenough, J. Electrochem. Soc., 144, 1188-1194 (1997).. http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=JESOAN000144000004001188000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes. 
  22. ^ a b "In search of the perfect battery". The Economist. 6 March 2008. http://www.economist.com/science/tq/displaystory.cfm?story_id=10789409. Retrieved 24 August 2008. 
  23. ^ a b c d (PDF) Gold Peak Industries Ltd., Lithium Ion technical handbook. http://www.gpbatteries.com/html/pdf/Li-ion_handbook.pdf. 
  24. ^ H.C. Choi et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 107 p5806(2003) doi:10.1021/jp030438w
  25. ^ G.G. Amatucci, J.M. Tarascon, L.C. Kein J. Electrochemical Society 143 p1114 1996 doi:10.1149/1.1836594
  26. ^ R. Ruffo; S. S. Hong, C. K. Chan, R. A. Huggins, Y. Cui (2009). "Impedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes". J. Phys. Chem. C. (113 (26), (2009)): 11390–11398. doi:10.1021/jp901594g. http://www.stanford.edu/group/cui_group/papers/Impedance_jpc.pdf. Retrieved 1 September 2009. 
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External links


Simple English

File:Li ion laptop
Lithium ion battery for laptop
Not to be confused with lithium battery.

A lithium-ion battery is a light, high-power battery used in computers and cell phones. It comes in several shapes, although a flat rectangle is most common. It is lighter than the nickel cadmium battery and the nickel metal-hydride battery. That makes it useful for devices that should be lightweight. Lithium ion batteries work by the movement of lithium ions through a membrane (thin sheet that allows some substances to pass through). They are different from lithium batteries though. Lithium batteries contain lithium metal and are not rechargeable (primary cells). Lithium-ion batteries do not contain lithium metal and are rechargeable (secondary cells).

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