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Lithium perchlorate
Lithium perchlorate
IUPAC name
Other names Perchloric acid, lithium salt
Identifiers
CAS number 7791-03-9 Yes check.svgY
PubChem 23665649
Properties
Molecular formula LiClO4
Molar mass 106.39 g/mol
Appearance white crystals
Density 2.42 g/cm3, solid
Melting point

236 °C

Boiling point

430 °C (with decomp.)

Solubility in water 60 g/100 mL
Solubility in organic solvents Soluble
Thermochemistry
Std enthalpy of
formation
ΔfHo298
-3.581 kJ/g
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
Main hazards Oxidizer, irritant
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
1
0
2
OX
Related compounds
Other anions Lithium chloride
Lithium hypochlorite
Lithium chlorate
Other cations Sodium perchlorate
Potassium perchlorate
Caesium perchlorate
 Yes check.svgY (what is this?)  (verify)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Lithium perchlorate is the chemical compound with the formula LiClO4. This white crystalline salt is noteworthy for its high solubility in many solvents. It exists both in anhydrous form and as a trihydrate.

Contents

Uses

Lithium perchlorate is used as a source of oxygen in some chemical oxygen generators. It decomposes at about 400 °C, yielding lithium chloride and oxygen, the latter being over 60% of its mass. It has both the highest oxygen to weight and oxygen to volume ratio of all perchlorates, excepting beryllium diperchlorate (which is expensive and highly toxic), which makes it especially advantageous in aerospace applications.

LiClO4 is highly soluble in organic solvents, even diethyl ether. Such solutions are employed in the Diels-Alder reactions, where it is proposed that the Lewis acidic Li+ binds to substituents on the diene, thereby accelerating the reaction.[1]

Lithium perchlorate is also extensively used as an electrolyte in lithium batteries, as it does not undergo oxidization on the anode.

Concentrated solutions of lithium perchlorate (4.5 mol/l) are used as a chaotropic agent to denature proteins.

Lithium perchlorate is also used as a co-catalyst in the coupling of α,β-unsaturated carbonyls with aldehydes, also known as the Baylis-Hillman reaction.[2]

Production

Lithium perchlorate can be manufactured by reaction of sodium perchlorate with lithium chloride. It can be also prepared by electrolysis of lithium chlorate at 200 mA/cm² at temperatures above 20 °C.

Safety

Perchlorates often give explosive mixtures with organic compounds.

References

  1. ^ Charette, A. B. "Lithium Perchlorate" in Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis (Ed: L. Paquette) 2004, J. Wiley & Sons, New York. DOI: 10.1002/047084289.
  2. ^ [1] Lithium Perchlorate Product Detail Page
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