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Republic of Lithuania
Lietuvos Respublika
Flag Coat of arms
Motto"Tautos jėga vienybėje"[citation needed]
"The strength of the nation lies in unity"
AnthemTautiška giesmė
Location of  Lithuania  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (light green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (light green)  —  [Legend]

Capital
(and largest city)
Vilnius
54°41′N 25°19′E / 54.683°N 25.317°E / 54.683; 25.317
Official language(s) Lithuanian
Ethnic groups  84.7 % Lithuanians
6.1 % Poles
4.9 % Russians
  5.0 % others[1]
Demonym Lithuanian
Government Semi-presidential republic
 -  President Dalia Grybauskaitė
 -  Prime Minister Andrius Kubilius
 -  Seimas Speaker Irena Degutienė
Independence from Russia (1918) 
 -  First mention of Lithuania 14 February 1009 
 -  Coronation of Mindaugas 6 July 1253 
 -  Personal union with Poland 2 February 1386 
 -  Creation of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth 1569 
 -  Partitions of the Commonwealth 1795 
 -  Independence declared 16 February 1918 
 -  1st Soviet occupation 15 June 1940 
 -  German Nazi occupation June 1941 
 -  2nd Soviet occupation 1944 
EU accession 1 May 2004
Area
 -  Total 65,200 km2 (123rd)
25,173 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.35%
Population
 -  2009 estimate 3,341,966[2] (130th)
 -  Density 53.5/km2 (120th)
141.2/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $68.811 billion[3] (80th)
 -  Per capita $18,977[3] (47th)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $63,729 billion[3] (70th)
 -  Per capita $14,086[3] (49th)
Gini (2003) 36 (medium
HDI (2008) 0.870 (high) (46th)
Currency Lithuanian litas (Lt) (LTL)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Date formats yyyy-mm-dd (CE)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .lt1
Calling code 370
1 .Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states.^ On May 1, 2004 , Lithuania became a European Union (EU) member, an event which had positive and negative consequences for the development of gender and equality policy.
  • Lithuania 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Role of Trade Unions in Educating Workers and Other Community Members on Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault Issues .
  • Lithuania 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lithuania (en-us-Lithuania.ogg /ˌlɪθjuːˈeɪniə/ ; Lithuanian: Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Respublika) is a country in Northern Europe,[4] the southernmost of the three Baltic states.^ Lietuvos Respublikos Baudziamasis Kodeksas (Criminal Code of Republic of Lithuania ).
  • Lithuania 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ FASTFACTS: A northern European country, Lithuania is a member state of the European Union.
  • Lithuania Phone Cards | Lithuania Calling Cards - Cheap Lithuania Phone Card to Lithuania 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC www.phonecardsmile.com [Source type: News]

.Situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea, it shares borders with Latvia to the north, Belarus to the southeast, Poland, and the Russian exclave of Kaliningrad to the southwest.^ Situated along the Baltic Sea.

^ It applies to Jews in the ill-defined borders of the Dukedom of Lithuania in the 17 and 18th centuries, which included parts of Belorussian and Poland , but not most of Latvia (Courland).

^ I would suggest to the researcher of the following sites, to also check the other two Baltic Country sites, including Estonia and Latvia , as well as Poland and Belarus and Russia as there may very well be some cross references as the country borders changed many times between wars.

Its population is 3.32 million. Its capital and the largest city is Vilnius.
.During the 14th century, Lithuania was the largest country in Europe: present-day Belarus, Ukraine, and parts of Poland and Russia were territories of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.^ It applies to Jews in the ill-defined borders of the Dukedom of Lithuania in the 17 and 18th centuries, which included parts of Belorussian and Poland , but not most of Latvia (Courland).

^ Census Lists from 1765, 1784 and 1795 - three censuses of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania .

^ Yulik Gurvitch - offers his experience as a guide for touring Lithuania, Latvia, Belarus and neighboring countries.

With the Lublin Union of 1569, Poland and Lithuania formed a new state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Commonwealth lasted more than two centuries, until neighboring countries systematically dismantled it from 1772 to 1795, with the Russian Empire annexing most of Lithuania's territory.
In the aftermath of World War I, Lithuania's Act of Independence was signed on 16 February 1918, declaring the re-establishment of a sovereign state. Starting in 1940, Lithuania was occupied first by the Soviet Union then Nazi Germany. As World War II neared its end in 1944 and the Nazis retreated, the Soviet Union reoccupied Lithuania. .On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first Soviet republic to declare independence.^ Basketball was first played by women at Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts on March 22, 1893, where it was introduced by Senda Berenson Abbot, a native of Lithuania ...

.Prior to the global financial crisis of 2008–2009, Lithuania had one of the fastest growing economies in the European Union.^ On May 1, 2004 , Lithuania became a European Union (EU) member, an event which had positive and negative consequences for the development of gender and equality policy.
  • Lithuania 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lithuania is a member of NATO, the Council of Europe, and the European Union.^ On May 1, 2004 , Lithuania became a European Union (EU) member, an event which had positive and negative consequences for the development of gender and equality policy.
  • Lithuania 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lithuania became a full member of the Schengen Agreement on 21 December 2007.[5] In 2009, Vilnius was the European Capital of Culture and Lithuania celebrated the millennium of its name.^ According to the Explanatory Note of the law, Lithuania has to adopt the concerned EU directives before December 21, 2007 .
  • Lithuania 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On May 1, 2004 , Lithuania became a European Union (EU) member, an event which had positive and negative consequences for the development of gender and equality policy.
  • Lithuania 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Home > Country Pages > I-P > Lithuania Lithuania Map source: Human Rights Watch Last updated: December 12, 2007 .
  • Lithuania 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

History

.The first people settled in the territory of Lithuania after the last glacial period in the 10th millennium BC. Over a millennium the Proto-Indo-Europeans, who arrived in the 3rd – 2nd millennium BC, mixed with local population and formed various Baltic tribes.^ In 1939, after some territorial adjustments, the population of Lithuania was just under 3,000,000 of which about 9% (270,000) were Jews.

.The first written mention of Lithuania is found in a medieval German manuscript, the Quedlinburg Chronicle, on 14 February 1009. Initially inhabited by fragmented Baltic tribes, in 1230s the Lithuanian lands were united by Mindaugas, who was crowned as King of Lithuania on 6 July 1253.[6] After his assassination in 1263, pagan Lithuania was a target of Christian crusades of the Teutonic Knights and Livonian Order.^ We used an interpreter while traveling Lithuania and he was explaining something to Yossel, who would then reply in Lithuanian when both of us detected a Yiddish word coming from Yossel.

^ Between 1919-1940, Lithuania was an independent country and the records were written in Lithuanian .

Despite devastating century-long struggle with the Orders, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania expanded rapidly overtaking former Slavic principalities of Kievan Rus'. By the end of the 14th century, Lithuania was the largest country in Europe and included present-day Belarus, Ukraine, and parts of Poland and Russia.[7] .The geopolitical situation between the west and the east determined multi-cultural and multi-confessional character the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.^ Census Lists from 1765, 1784 and 1795 - three censuses of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania .

^ It's current major project: The Grand Duchy of Lithuania/Kingdom of Poland 18th century censuses and 19th century " bridge record " revision list project.

^ "Researching 18th-Century Census and Tax Lists from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania" - see Avotaynu Vol.

The Lithuanian ruling elite practiced religious tolerance and borrowed Slavic state traditions, such as using Chancery Slavonic language for official documents.
Vytautas the Great. Lithuania reached the height of its power under his reign. (17th century painting)
In 1385, the Grand Duke Jogaila accepted Poland's offer to become its king. He converted Lithuania into Christianity and established a personal union between Poland and Lithuania. After two civil wars Vytautas the Great became the Grand Duke of Lithuania in 1392. During his reign Lithuania reached the peak of its territorial expansion, centralization of the state was begun, and Lithuanian nobility became increasingly prominent in state politics. Thanks to close cooperation, the armies of Poland and Lithuania achieved a great victory over the Teutonic Knights in 1410 at the Battle of Grunwald, one of the largest battles of medieval Europe.[8][9][10]
.After the deaths of Jogaila and Vytautas, Lithuanian nobility attempted to break the union between Poland and Lithuania, independently selecting Grand Dukes from the Jagiellon dynasty.^ Censuses from as early as 1670 have been located in the Lithuanian State Archives proving that Jews have lived in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

^ It's current major project: The Grand Duchy of Lithuania/Kingdom of Poland 18th century censuses and 19th century " bridge record " revision list project.

^ Lithuanian Vital Statistics Records Archives ( Holds records from 1916 - Birth, Marriage, Death ) K. Kalinausko 21 Vilnius 2600 Lithuania .

However, Lithuania was forced to seek a closer alliance with Poland when, at the end of the 15th century, the growing power of the Grand Duchy of Moscow threatened Lithuania's Russian principalities and sparked the Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars and the Livonian War. The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was created in 1569. As a member of the Commonwealth, Lithuania retained its institutions, including a separate army, currency, and statutory laws.[11] However, eventually Polonization affected all aspects of Lithuanian life: politics, language, culture, even national identity. From the mid-16th to the mid-17th centuries culture, arts, and education flourished, fueled by the Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation. From 1573, Kings of Poland and Grand Dukes of Lithuania were elected by the nobility, who were granted ever increasing Golden Liberties. These liberties, especially liberum veto, led to anarchy and the eventual dissolution of the state.
During the Northern Wars (1655–1661), the Lithuanian territory and economy and was devastated by the Swedish army. Before it could fully recover, Lithuania was again ravaged during the Great Northern War (1700–1721). The war, plague, and famine resulted in the loss of approximately 40% of the country's inhabitants.[12] Foreign powers, especially Russia, became dominant players in domestic politics of the Commonwealth. Numerous nobility fraction used the Golden Liberties to prevent any reforms. Eventually, the Commonwealth was partitioned in 1772, 1792, and 1795 by the Russian Empire, Prussia, and Habsburg Austria. The largest area of Lithuanian territory became part of Russia. After unsuccessful uprisings in 1831 and 1863, the Tsarist authorities implemented a number of Russification policies, including the ban on Lithuanian press and the closing of cultural or educational institutions. Between 1868 and 1914, approximately 635,000 people, almost 20% of the population, left Lithuania.[13] Large numbers of Lithuanians first came to the United States in 1867-1868 after a famine in Lithuania.[14] Nevertheless, the Lithuanian National Revival laid the foundations of the modern Lithuanian nation and independent Lithuania.
The original 20 members of the Council of Lithuania after signing the Act of Independence of Lithuania, 16 February 1918
.During World War I, the Council of Lithuania declared the independence of Lithuania on 16 February 1918, and the re-establishment of the Lithuanian State.^ Censuses from as early as 1670 have been located in the Lithuanian State Archives proving that Jews have lived in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

^ Independent Lithuania was re-established in 1918, formed from Kovno , eastern Vilna and northern Suwalki Guberniyas (and a small piece of East Prussia ).

^ Also, during World War I, parts of Lithuania were occupied by the Germans and some Jewish vital records were recorded in German .

Lithuania's foreign policy was dominated by territorial disputes with Poland and Germany. The Vilnius Region, and Vilnius, the historical capital of Lithuania, and so designated in the Constitution of Lithuania, was seized by the Polish army during Żeligowski's Mutiny in October 1920 and annexed two years later by Poland. Acquired during the Klaipėda Revolt of 1923, the Klaipėda Region was ceded back to Germany after a German ultimatum in March 1939. Domestic affairs were controlled by authoritarian President Antanas Smetona and his Lithuanian National Union, who came to power after the coup d'état of 1926.
Map showing changes in the territory of Lithuania from the 13th century to the present day.
In June 1940, the Soviet Union occupied and annexed Lithuania in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact.[15][16] A year later Russia was attacked by Nazi Germany leading to Nazi occupation of Lithuania. .The Nazis and their Lithuanian collaborators murdered around 190,000 Lithuanian Jews[17] (91% of the pre-war Jewish community) during the Holocaust.^ Lithuanian Jewish community .

^ A Lithuanian woman walking past the Jewish Memorial to the Jews Murdered in the Holocaust.

^ Of the 220,000 Jews who lived in Lithuania under the Nazi occupation, 212,000 were murdered during the Holocaust, many, if not most, by local Nazi collaborators.

After the retreat of the German armed forces, the Soviets re-established the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1944. From 1944 to 1952 approximately 100,000 Lithuanian partisans fought a guerrilla war against the Soviet system. An estimated 30,000 partisans and their supporters were killed and many more were arrested and deported to Siberian GULAGs. Population losses of Lithuania during World War II are estimated at 780,000.[18]
The advent of perestroika and glasnost in the late 1980s allowed establishment of Sąjūdis, an anti-communist independence movement. After a landslide victory in elections to the Supreme Soviet, members of Sąjūdis proclaimed Lithuania's renewed independence on 11 March 1990 becoming the first Soviet republic to do so. The Soviet Union imposed economic blockade attempting to suppress this secession. The Soviet troops attacked the Vilnius TV Tower and killed 13 Lithuanian civilians on the night of 13 January 1991.[19] On 4 February 1991, Iceland became the first country to recognize Lithuanian independence. .After the Soviet August Coup, independent Lithuania received wide recognition and joined the United Nations on 17 September 1991. The last Soviet troops left Lithuania on 31 August 1993 – even earlier than they departed from East Germany.^ "One of the first things one finds out about the Jews of North-east Lithuania is that they are described as being mostly " Chabad Hasidim ".

^ Independent Lithuania was re-established in 1918, formed from Kovno , eastern Vilna and northern Suwalki Guberniyas (and a small piece of East Prussia ).

Lithuania, seeking closer ties with the West, applied for NATO membership in 1994. After a difficult transition from planned economy to the free market, Lithuania became a full member of NATO and the European Union in spring 2004.

Geography and climate

Physical features

Physical map of Lithuania
Lithuania is situated in Northern Europe. It has around 99 kilometres (61.5 mi) of sandy coastline, of which only about 38 kilometres (24 mi) face the open Baltic Sea and which is the shortest among the Baltic Sea countries; the rest of the coast is sheltered by the Curonian sand peninsula. Lithuania's major warm-water port, Klaipėda, lies at the narrow mouth of the Curonian Lagoon (Lithuanian: Kuršių marios), a shallow lagoon extending south to Kaliningrad. The main river, the Neman River, and some of its tributaries carry international shipping vessels.
The Lithuanian landscape has been smoothed by glaciers. The highest areas are the moraines in the western uplands and eastern highlands, with the maximum elevation being Aukštojas Hill at 294 metres (965 ft). The terrain features numerous lakes, Lake Vištytis for example, and wetlands; a mixed forest zone covers nearly 33% of the country. The climate lies between maritime and continental, with wet, moderate winters and summers. According to one geographical computation method, Lithuania's capital, Vilnius, lies only a few kilometres south of the geographical centre of Europe.
Phytogeographically, Lithuania is shared between the Central European and Eastern European provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature, the territory of Lithuania can be subdivided into two ecoregions: the Central European mixed forests and Sarmatic mixed forests.
Pūčkoriai outcrop near Vilnius

Climate

Lithuania's climate, which ranges between maritime and continental, is relatively mild. Average temperatures on the coast are -2.5 °C in January and 16 °C in July. In Vilnius the average temperatures are -6 °C in January and 16 °C in July. Simply speaking, 20 °C is frequent on summer days and 14 °C at night although temperatures can reach 30 or 35 °C. Some winters can be very cold. -20 °C occurs almost every winter. Winter extremes are -34 °C in coastal areas and -43 °C in the east of Lithuania. The average annual precipitation is 800 millimeters on the coast, 900 mm in the Samogitia highlands and 600 millimeters in the eastern part of the country. Snow occurs every year, it can snow from October to April. In some years sleet can fall in September or May. The growing season lasts 202 days in the western part of the country and 169 days in the eastern part. Severe storms are rare in the eastern part of Lithuania but common in the coastal areas.
The longest measured temperature records from the Baltic area cover about 250 years. The data show that there were warm periods during the latter half of the 18th century, and that the 19th century was a relatively cool period. An early 20th century warming culminated in the 1930s, followed by a smaller cooling that lasted until the 1960s. A warming trend has persisted since then.[20]
Lithuania experienced a drought in 2002, causing forest and peat bog fires.[21] The country suffered along with the rest of Northwestern Europe during a heat wave in the summer of 2006.
Reported extreme temperatures in Lithuania by month are following:[22]
Extreme temperatures in Lithuania (°C)
Month
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Highest Temperatures
+12.6
+16.5
+21.8
+28.8
+34
+35
+37.5
+36
+32
+26
+18
+15.6
Lowest Temperatures
-40.5
-42.9
-37.5
-23.0
-6.8
-2.8
+0.9
-2.9
-6.3
-19.5
-23
-34

Administration and politics

Constitutional system

Dalia Grybauskaitė has been the President of Lithuania since 12 July, 2009.
Since Lithuania declared independence on 11 March 1990, it has maintained strong democratic traditions. In the first general elections after the independence on 25 October 1992, 56.75% of the total number of voters supported the new constitution.[23] There were intense debates concerning the constitution, especially the role of the president. A separate referendum was held on 23 May 1992 to gauge public opinion on the matter and 41% of all the eligible voters supported the restoration of the President of Lithuania.[23] Eventually a semi-presidential system was agreed upon.[24]
The Lithuanian head of state is the President, elected directly for a five-year term, serving a maximum of two consecutive terms. The post of president is largely ceremonial; main policy functions however include foreign affairs and national security policy. The president is also the military commander-in-chief. The President, with the approval of the parliamentary body, the Seimas, also appoints the Prime Minister and, on the latter's nomination, the rest of the cabinet, as well as a number of other top civil servants and the judges for all courts. The judges of the Constitutional Court (Konstitucinis Teismas), who serve nine-year terms, are appointed by the President (three judges), the Chairman of the Seimas (three judges) and the Chairman of the Supreme Court (three judges). The unicameral Lithuanian parliament, the Seimas, has 141 members who are elected to four-year terms. 71 of the members of this legislative body are elected in single constituencies, and the other 70 are elected in a nationwide vote by proportional representation. A party must receive at least 5% of the national vote to be represented in the Seimas.

Administrative division


The current administrative division was established in 1994 and modified in 2000 to meet the requirements of the European Union. Lithuania has a three-tier administrative division: the country is divided into 10 counties (Lithuanian: singular – apskritis, plural – apskritys) that are further subdivided into 60 municipalities (Lithuanian: singular – savivaldybė, plural – savivaldybės) which consist of over 500 elderships (Lithuanian: singular – seniūnija, plural – seniūnijos).
The counties are ruled by county governors (Lithuanian: apskrities viršininkas) appointed by the central government. They ensure that the municipalities adhere to the laws of Lithuania and the constitution. County government oversees local governments and their implementation of the national laws, programs and policies.[25] As the counties have limited functions, there are numerous proposals to reduce their number and organize the new counties around the ethnographic regions of Lithuania[26] or five major cities with population over 100,000.[27]
Municipalities are the most important administrative unit. Some municipalities are historically called "district municipalities", and thus are often shortened to "district"; others are called "city municipalities", sometimes shortened to "city". Each municipality has its own elected government. In the past, the election of municipality councils occurred once every three years, but it now takes place every four years. The council elects the mayor and appoints elders to govern the elderships. There is currently a proposal for direct election of mayors and elders, however that would require an amendment to the constitution.[28]
Elderships, numbering over 500, are the smallest units and they do not play a role in national politics. They provide necessary public services close to their homes; for example, in rural areas the elderships register births and deaths. They are most active in the social sector: they identify needy individuals or families and distribute welfare or organise other forms of relief.[29] While the elderships have a potential of becoming a source of local initiative to tackle rural problems, complaints are made that elderships have no real power and receive too little attention.[30]

Military of Lithuania

The Lithuanian Armed Forces consist of ~15,000 active personnel (~2,400 of them - civilian)[31] and are supported by 100,000 reserve forces. Conscription has been ended in September 2008.[32]
Lithuania's defence system is based on the concept of "total and unconditional defence" mandated by Lithuania's national Security Strategy. The goal of Lithuania's defence policy is to prepare their society for general defence and to integrate Lithuania into Western security and defence structures. The defence ministry is responsible for combat forces, search and rescue, and intelligence operations.[33]
The 5,400 border guards fall under the Interior Ministry's supervision and are responsible for border protection, passport and customs duties, and share responsibility with the navy for smuggling / drug trafficking interdiction. A special security department handles VIP protection and communications security.

Economy

Vilnius Financial Centre
In 2003, before joining the European Union, Lithuania had the highest economic growth rate amongst all candidate and member countries, reaching 8.8% in the third quarter. In 2004 – 7.4%; 2005 – 7.8%; 2006 – 7.8%; 2007 – 8.9%, 2008 Q1 — 7.0% growth in GDP reflects the impressive economic development.[34] Most of the trade Lithuania conducts is within the European Union.
By UN classification, Lithuania is a country with high average income. The country boasts a well developed modern infrastructure of railways, airports and four-lane highways. As of October 2008, the unemployment rate is 4.7%. According to officially published figures, EU membership fueled a booming economy, increased outsourcing into the country, and boosted the tourism sector. The litas, the national currency, has been pegged to the euro since 2 February 2002 at the rate of EUR 1.00 = LTL 3.4528,[35] and Lithuania is expecting to switch to the euro on 1 January 2013. There is gradual but consistent shift towards a knowledge-based economy with special emphasis on biotechnology (industrial and diagnostic) – major biotechnology producers in the Baltic countries are concentrated in Lithuania – as well as laser equipment. Also mechatronics and information technology (IT) are seen as prospective knowledge-based economy directions in Lithuania.
The 5, 2, and 1 litas coins
Lithuania has a flat tax rate rather than a progressive scheme. Lithuanian income levels are lower than in the older EU Member States. According to Eurostat data, Lithuanian PPS GDP per capita stood at 61 per cent of the EU average in 2008.[36] Lower wages have been a factor that in 2004 fueled emigration to wealthier EU countries, something that has been made legally possible as a result of accession to the European Union. In 2007, personal income tax was reduced to 24% and a reduction to 21% was made in January 2009.
Corporate tax rate in Lithuania is 15% and 5% for small businesses. The government offers special incentives for investments into the high-technology sectors and high value-added products.
Lithuania has the highest rating of Baltic states in the Economist Intelligence Unit’s quality of life index.

Infrastructure

Port of Klaipėda
  • Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant is a Soviet-era nuclear station.
    • Unit #1 was closed in December 2004, as a condition of Lithuania's entry into the European Union; the plant is similar to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in its lack of a robust containment structure. The remaining unit, as of 2006, supplied about 70% of Lithuania's electrical demand.[37]
    • Unit #2 was closed down on December 31, 2009. Proposals have been made to construct another nuclear power plant in Lithuania.[38]
According to the study carried out by Speedtest.net, Lithuania has the fastest internet upload speed in the world and is sixth by download speed.[39][40]

Education

The great yard of Vilnius University, one of the oldest universities in Northern Europe. About 70% of Lithuanian high school graduates continue their studies in universities and colleges.
According to Invest in Lithuania, Lithuania has twice as many people with higher education than the EU-15 average and the proportion is the highest in the Baltic. Also, 90% of Lithuanians speak at least one foreign language and half of the population speaks two foreign languages, mostly Russian and English.[41]
.Vilnius University is one of the oldest universities in Northern Europe and the largest university in Lithuania.^ This is one of the highest rates of killings in Nazi-occupied Europe - the largest percentage of all European countries.

^ The Jewish Community of Lithuania The University of Vilnius Vilnius 2600, Lithuania .

Kaunas University of Technology is the largest technical university in the Baltic States and the second largest university in Lithuania. Other universities include Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuanian Academy of Music and Theatre, Vilnius Pedagogical University, Vytautas Magnus University, Mykolas Romeris University, Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, The General Jonas Zemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania, Klaipėda University, Lithuanian Veterinary Academy, Lithuanian University of Agroculture, Siauliai University and Vilnius Academy of Arts.

Demographics

Ethnic composition

The population of Lithuania stands at 3,349,900, 84.0% of whom are ethnic Lithuanians who speak Lithuanian which is the official language of the country. Several sizable minorities exist, such as Poles (6.1%), Russians (4.9%), and Belorussians (1.1%).[42]
Poles are the largest minority, concentrated in southeast Lithuania (the Vilnius region). Russians are the second largest minority, concentrated mostly in two cities. They constitute sizeable minorities in Vilnius (14%) and Klaipėda (28%), and a majority in the town of Visaginas (52%).[43] About 3,000 Roma live in Lithuania, mostly in Vilnius, Kaunas, and Panevėžys; their organizations are supported by the National Minority and Emigration Department.[44]
According to the Lithuanian population census of 2001, about 84% of the country's population speak Lithuanian as their native language, 8.2% are the native speakers of Russian, 5.8% – of Polish. More than 60% are fluent in Russian, while only about 16% say they can speak English. According to the Eurobarometer survey conducted in 2005, 80% of Lithuanians can speak Russian and 32% can speak English. Most Lithuanian schools teach English as a first foreign language, but students may also study German, or, in some schools, French or Russian. Schools where Russian and Polish are the primary languages of education exist in the areas populated by these minorities.

Largest cities

List of cities in Lithuania

Rank City Population
1 Grand Coat of arms of Vilnius.png Vilnius 546,733
2 Kaunas city COA.png Kaunas 352,279
3 Coat of arms of Klaipeda (Lithuania).png Klaipėda 183,433
4 Siauliai city COA.gif Šiauliai 126,215
5 Panevezys city COA.gif Panevėžys 112,619
6 Alytus city COA.gif Alytus 67,505
7 Marijampole COA.gif Marijampolė 46,692
8 Mazeikiai COA.gif Mažeikiai 40,505
9 Coat of arms of Jonava (Lithuania).svg Jonava 34,238
10 Utena COA.gif Utena 32,476
11 Kedainiai COA.gif Kėdainiai 30,835
12 Telsiai COA.gif Telšiai 29,883
13 Visaginas coat of arms.png Visaginas 28,160
14 Taurage COA.gif Tauragė 27,696
15 Ukmerge COA.gif Ukmergė 27,323
16 Plunge COA.gif Plungė 23,161
17 Kretinga COA.gif Kretinga 21,445
18 Silute COA.gif Šilutė 20,839
19 Radviliskis COA.gif Radviliškis 19,404
20 Coat of arms of Palanga (Lithuania).svg Palanga 17,574
Source, 2009

Health

Kaunas University Hospital – the largest medical institution in Lithuania
As of 2009 Lithuanian life expectancy at birth was 66 years for males and 78 for females – the largest gender difference and the lowest male life expectancy in the European Union. As of 2008 The infant mortality rate was 5.9 per 1,000 births.[45] The annual population growth rate increased by 0.3% in 2007. Less than 2% of the population live beneath the poverty line, and the adult literacy rate is 99.6%.[46] At 30.4 people per 100,000,[47] Lithuania has seen a dramatic rise in suicides in the post-soviet years, and now records the second highest suicide rate in the world.[48] Lithuania also has the highest homicide rate in the EU.[49]

Age structure

According to 2009 estimates, the age structure of the population was as follows: 0–14 years, 14.2% (male 258,423/female 245,115); 15–64 years: 69.6% (male 1,214,743/female 1,261,413); 65 years and over: 16.2% (male 198,714/female 376,771).[50] The median age was 39.3 years (male: 36.8, female: 41.9).[51]

Religion

Wooden church in Palūšė. Lithuania has strong Roman Catholic traditions.
In 2005, 79% of Lithuanians belonged to the Roman Catholic Church.[52] .The Church has been the majority denomination since the Christianisation of Lithuania in the end of fourteenth century and beginning of fifteenth century.^ It's current major project: The Grand Duchy of Lithuania/Kingdom of Poland 18th century censuses and 19th century " bridge record " revision list project.

^ To view the online exhibit (in Lithuanian Language) " Jews of Lithuania at the Beginning of the 20th Century ," go to: www.archyvai.lt/struktura/paroda/paroda.htm .

Some priests actively led the resistance against the Communist regime (symbolised by the Hill of Crosses).
In the first half of 20th century, the Lutheran Protestant church had around 200,000 members, 9% of total population, although Lutheranism has declined since 1945. Small Protestant communities are dispersed throughout the northern and western parts of the country. Believers and clergy suffered greatly during the Soviet occupation, with many killed, tortured or deported to Siberia. Various Protestant churches have established missions in Lithuania since 1990.[53] 4.9% are Eastern Orthodox (mainly among the Russian minority), 1.9% are Protestant and 9.5% have no religion.
The first noticeable presence of Islam in Lithuania began in the 14th century. From this time it was primarily associated with the Lipka Tatars (also known as Lithuanian Tatars), many of whom settled in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth while continuing their traditions and religious beliefs.
According to the most recent Eurobarometer Poll 2005,[54] 12% said that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force" , 36% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 49% of Lithuanian citizens responded that "they believe there is a God".

Culture

Culturally Lithuania (and some of neighboring territory) is divided into the following regions:

Art and museums

The Picture Gallery in Vilnius' Chodkevičiai Palace
The Lithuanian Art Museum was founded in 1933 and is the largest museum of art conservation and display in Lithuania.[55] Among other important museums is the Palanga Amber Museum, where amber pieces comprise a major part of the collection.
.Perhaps the most renowned figure in Lithuania's art community was the composer Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis (1875–1911), an internationally renowned musician.^ You may ( or perhaps will ) hear of Yossel if you ever travel Lithuania , for he is a world renown wood sculpture.

^ There is still a Jewish community in Lithuania numbering 5,000 and most living in Vilnius .

The 2420 Čiurlionis asteroid, identified in 1975, honors his achievements. The M. K. Čiurlionis National Art Museum is located in Kaunas.
.A future museum, Vilnius Guggenheim Hermitage Museum, will present exhibitions of new media art, parts of the New York City anthology film archive, and Fluxus art.^ Broadway, East Building 9th Floor, New York City.

The museum is scheduled to open in 2011.[56]

Literature

First printed Lithuanian book by Martynas Mažvydas
A wealth of Lithuanian literature was written in Latin, the main scholarly language in the Middle Ages. One of the first instances of such, was the edicts of Lithuanian King Mindaugas. Letters of Gediminas is another important monument of Lithuanian Latin writings.
.Lithuanian literary works in the Lithuanian language were first published in the 16th century.^ The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 18th Century 1697-1935" ( Liberty's Folly ) - authored by Jerry Tadeusz Lukowski and published by the Cambridge University Press in 1951 .

^ To view the online exhibit (in Lithuanian Language) " Jews of Lithuania at the Beginning of the 20th Century ," go to: www.archyvai.lt/struktura/paroda/paroda.htm .

.In 1547 Martynas Mažvydas compiled and published the first printed Lithuanian book The Simple Words of Catechism, which marks the beginning of printed Lithuanian literature.^ I published my research in two books of family history ( now out of print ) which included the historical and statistical details, and family details appear in " Eliyahu's Branches ".

He was followed by Mikalojus Daukša in Lithuania Propria with his Katechizmas. .In the 16th and 17th centuries, Lithuanian literature was primarily religious.^ I'm not exactly sure, but the term Litvak means anyone who lived under Lithuanian rule in the 16th to 17th century, which includes a vast area to the east, south, and west of Lithuania today.

.Development of the old Lithuanian literature (14th–18th centuries) ends with Kristijonas Donelaitis, one of the most prominent authors of the Age of Enlightenment.^ It applies to Jews in the ill-defined borders of the Dukedom of Lithuania in the 17 and 18th centuries, which included parts of Belorussian and Poland , but not most of Latvia (Courland).

^ The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 18th Century 1697-1935" ( Liberty's Folly ) - authored by Jerry Tadeusz Lukowski and published by the Cambridge University Press in 1951 .

^ "In a statistical studies of Jewish demographics in the Polish-Lithuanian commonwealth during the 18th century, it shows that early teen marriages were the norm among one-quarter of the Jewish population, ostensibly the more affluent class, i.e.

Donelaitis poem "The Seasons" is a national epos and is a cornerstone of Lithuanian fiction literature.[57]
.Lithuanian literature of the first half of the 19th century with its mix of Classicism, Sentimentalism, and Romanticism features is represented by Antanas Strazdas, Dionizas Poška, Silvestras Valiūnas, Maironis, Simonas Stanevičius, Simonas Daukantas, and Antanas Baranauskas.^ The second half of the 19th century saw an explosion in the Jewish population, but research suggests that the 18th century Jewish population was only about 48,000.

^ The Kherson colonies were established in the first decade of the 19th century while the Yekaterinoslav group was colonized initially from 1846.

^ Jews from central Europe first settled in the country during the second half of the 14th century.

[57] .During Tsarist annexation of Lithuania, Lithuanian press ban was implemented, which lead to a formation of the Knygnešiai (Book smugglers) movement.^ "Lithuanian Jewish Communities" - authored by Nancy and Stuart Schoenberg is an excellent descriptive book of the many shtetls of Lithuania .

.20th century Lithuanian literature is represented by Juozas Tumas-Vaižgantas, Antanas Vienuolis, Bernardas Brazdžionis, Vytautas Mačernis and others.^ To view the online exhibit (in Lithuanian Language) " Jews of Lithuania at the Beginning of the 20th Century ," go to: www.archyvai.lt/struktura/paroda/paroda.htm .

Music

A Lithuanian folklore band Kūlgrinda performing in Vilnius
Lithuanian musical tradition traces its history to pagan times, connected with neolithic corded ware culture. Lithuanian folk music is archaic, evolved for ritual purposes.

Sports

Basketball is one of the most popular sports in the country. The country has both professional and developmental leagues, and its national basketball team has had success in international play, ranked sixth in FIBA standings. It has produced several NBA players past and present. Šarūnas Marčiulionis, Arvydas Sabonis, and Žydrūnas Ilgauskas played on both the Lithuanian national team and the NBA and are among the more well known.
Another popular individual is professional ice hockey player Darius Kasparaitis, who had both a stellar NHL and Olympic career.
Other notable Lithuanian athletes are Ignatas Konovalovas in professional cycling, and Marius Zaromskis of mixed martial arts.

International rankings

Rankings
Name Year Place Out of # Reference
CIA World FactbookGDP per capita (PPP) 2009 74th 228 [2]
CIA World Factbooklife expectancy 2009 87th 224 [3]
International Living MagazineQuality-of-life index 2010 22nd 194 Quality-of-life index
NationMaster – Index of Civil and Political Liberties 16th 132 [4]
New Economics FoundationHappy Planet Index 2009 86th 143 [5]
Reporters Without BordersPress Freedom Index 2009 10th 175 [6]
Save the Children – Mother's Index Rank 2007 20th 141 [7]
Save the Children – Women's Index Rank 2007 14th 141 [8]
Save the Children – Children's Index Rank 2007 29th 141 [9]
The Economist Intelligence UnitE-readiness 2008 38th 70 [10]
The Economist Intelligence UnitGlobal Peace Index 2009 43rd 144 [11]
The Economist Intelligence UnitIndex of Democracy 2008 42nd 167 [12]
The Economist Intelligence UnitQuality-of-life index 2005 63rd 111 [13]
The Fund for PeaceFailed States Index 2009 145th 177 [14]
Transparency InternationalCorruption Perceptions Index 2009 52nd 180 [15]
United NationsHuman Development Index 2009 46th 192 [16]
United States Patent and Trademark Office's list of patents by country 2008 70th 172 [17]
Yale University / Columbia UniversityEnvironmental Performance Index 2010 37th 163 [18]
Wall Street Journal / The Heritage FoundationIndex of Economic Freedom 2010 29th 179 [19]
World BankEase of Doing Business Index 2008–2009 26th 183 [20]
World Bank – International Logistics Performance Index (LPI) 2010 45th 155 [21]
World Economic ForumNetworked Readiness Index 2008-2009 35th 134 [22]
World Economic Forum – Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index 2009 49th 133 [23]
World Economic ForumThe Enabling Trade Index 2009 49th 121 [24]
World Economic ForumThe Global Competitiveness Index 2009-2010 53th 133 [25]
World Economic ForumGlobal Gender Gap Report 2009 30th 134 [26]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ "Population by ethnicity 2009 year". http://db1.stat.gov.lt. Statistics Lithuania. http://db1.stat.gov.lt/statbank/selectvarval/saveselections.asp?MainTable=M3010215&PLanguage=1&TableStyle=&Buttons=&PXSId=3236&IQY=&TC=&ST=ST&rvar0=&rvar1=&rvar2=&rvar3=&rvar4=&rvar5=&rvar6=&rvar7=&rvar8=&rvar9=&rvar10=&rvar11=&rvar12=&rvar13=&rvar14=. Retrieved 2010-01-20. 
  2. ^ [1] — Statistics Lithuania
  3. ^ a b c d "Lithuania". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=946&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=66&pr.y=2. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  4. ^ "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings". United Nations Statistics Division. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/methods/m49/m49regin.htm#europe. Retrieved 2008-11-09. 
  5. ^ (Lithuanian) "Lietuva įsiliejo į Šengeno erdvę". Vidaus reikalų ministerija. http://www.vrm.lt/index.php?id=131&backPID=4&tt_news=1458&. Retrieved 2007-12-22. 
  6. ^ (Lithuanian) Tomas Baranauskas. Lietuvos karalystei – 750. 2001.
  7. ^ Paul Magocsi. History of the Ukraine. University of Toronto Press, 1996. p.128
  8. ^ Lane, Thomas (2001). Lithuania: Stepping Westward. Routledge. pp. ix, xxi. ISBN 0415267315. http://books.google.lt/books?id=fecMC0LXU-sC&printsec=frontcover&source=bl&ots=cj3Ul9q4yP&sig=5b5X4aIyGJzl_6O4CyKSgxQ6nOA&hl=en&ei=2tSSSfHwMIyu-gb9xa2VCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=2&ct=result#PPR21,M1. Retrieved 2009-09-17. 
  9. ^ The New Encyclopaedia Britannica: .v. 17, 1998 p.545
  10. ^ R. Fawn Ideology and National Identity in Post-communist Foreign Policies. p. 186]
  11. ^ Stone, Daniel. The Polish-Lithuanian state: 1386–1795. University of Washington Press, 2001. p. 63
  12. ^ "The Roads to Independence". Lithuania in the World.
  13. ^ "Lithuanian Americans". Archived from the original on 2009-11-01. http://www.webcitation.org/5kx7L1NnV. 
  14. ^  "Lithuanians in the United States". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Lithuanians_in_the_United_States. 
  15. ^ I. Žiemele. Baltic Yearbook of International Law, 2001. 2002, Vol.1 p.10
  16. ^ K. Dawisha, B. Parrott. The Consolidation of Democracy in East-Central Europe. 1997 p. 293.
  17. ^ Lithuania: Back to the Future. Retrieved 2009-02-11.
  18. ^ US Department of State Bureau of Public Affairs, August 2006
  19. ^ BBC Story
  20. ^ Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin - The BACC Project - 22-23 May 2006, Göteborg, Sweden
  21. ^ Effects of 2002 drought in Lithuania
  22. ^ www.meteo.lt: Records of Lithuanian climate
  23. ^ a b (Lithuanian) Nuo 1991 m. iki šiol paskelbtų referendumų rezultatai, Microsoft Word Document, Seimas. Retrieved 4 June 2006.
  24. ^ Lina Kulikauskienė, Lietuvos Respublikos Konstitucija (Constitution of Lithuania), Native History, CD, 2002. ISBN 9986-9216-7-8
  25. ^ (Lithuanian) Lietuvos Respublikos apskrities valdymo įstatymas (Republic of Lithuania Law on County Governing), Seimas law database, 15 December 1994, Law no. I-707. Retrieved 3 June 2006.
  26. ^ (Lithuanian) Dr. Žilvytis Bernardas Šaknys Lietuvos Respublikos administracinio teritorinio suskirstymo perspektyvos: etnografiniai kultūriniai regionai, The Council for the Protection of Ethnic Culture, Seimas, 12 December 2002. Retrieved 4 June 2006.
  27. ^ (Lithuanian) Dr. Antanas Tyla, Pastabos dėl Apskričių valdymo reformos koncepcijos, The Council for the Protection of Ethnic Culture, Seimas, 16 May 2001. Retrieved 4 June 2006.
  28. ^ (Lithuanian) Justinas Vanagas, Seimo prioritetai šią sesiją – tiesioginiai mero rinkimai, gyventojų nuosavybė ir euras, Delfi.lt, 5 September 2005. Retrieved 3 June 2006.
  29. ^ (Lithuanian) Lietuvos Respublikos vietos savivaldos įstatymo pakeitimo įstatymas, Seimas law database, 12 October 2000, Law no. VIII-2018. Retrieved 3 June 2006.
  30. ^ (Lithuanian) Indrė Makaraitytė, Europos Sąjungos pinigai kaimo neišgelbės, Atgimimas, Delfi.lt, 16 December 2004. Retrieved 4 June 2006.
  31. ^ Personnel size in 1998-2009 Ministry of National Defence
  32. ^ "Compulsory basic military service discontinued". Ministry of National Defence. http://www.kam.lt/index.php/en/168627/. 
  33. ^ White Paper Lithuanian defence policy
  34. ^ Department of Statistics to the Government of the Republic of Lithuania. National Accounts of Lithuania 2006, p. 20
  35. ^ Lietuvos Bankas
  36. ^ "GDP per capita in PPS". Eurostat. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_PUBLIC/2-25062009-BP/EN/2-25062009-BP-EN.PDF. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  37. ^ "Electricity Market in the Baltic Countries". Lietuvos Energija. http://events.le.lt/uploads/File/20060126/Electricity%20markets%20in%20BalticStates_Jank.ppt. Retrieved 2008-04-19. 
  38. ^ "Lithuania shuts down Soviet-era NPP, but being a nuclear-free nation is still under question". http://www.bellona.org/articles/articles_2010/ignalina_shut_down. Retrieved 2010-01-13. 
  39. ^ "Lietuviškas internetas – sparčiausias pasaulyje" (in Lithuanian). 2009-04-08. http://www.vtv.lt/naujienos/interneto-naujienos/lietuviskas-internetas-sparciausias-pasaulyje-2.html. Retrieved 2009-05-13. 
  40. ^ "World Speedtest.net Results". http://www.speedtest.net/global.php. Retrieved 2009-05-13. 
  41. ^ Invest in Lithuania
  42. ^ Department of Statistics to the Government of the Republic of Lithuania."Population by ethnicity". http://db1.stat.gov.lt/statbank/selectvarval/saveselections.asp?MainTable=M3010215&PLanguage=1&TableStyle=&Buttons=&PXSId=3236&IQY=&TC=&ST=ST&rvar0=&rvar1=&rvar2=&rvar3=&rvar4=&rvar5=&rvar6=&rvar7=&rvar8=&rvar9=&rvar10=&rvar11=&rvar12=&rvar13=&rvar14=. 
  43. ^ "The inhabitants". Archived from the original on 2007-12-19. http://web.archive.org/web/20071219181605/http://www.visaginas.lt/town/inhabit?lang=en. 
  44. ^ Lithuanian Security and Foreign Policy.
  45. ^ Statistics Lithuania.
  46. ^ WHO statistical database.
  47. ^ "Lithuani" (PDF). Suicide prevention (SUPRE). World Health Organization. 2008. http://www.who.int/mental_health/media/lith.pdf. Retrieved 2008-11-08. 
  48. ^ See List of countries by suicide rate.
  49. ^ More people are killed in Lithuania than anywhere in the EU
  50. ^ "Europe : Lithuania". CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/lh.html. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  51. ^ "Field Listing : Median age". CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2177.html. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  52. ^ Department of Statistics to the Government of the Republic of Lithuania. "Population by Religious Confession, census". Archived from the original on 2006-10-01. http://web.archive.org/web/20061001185140/http://www.std.lt/en/pages/view/?id=1734. . Updated in 2005.
  53. ^ United Methodists evangelize in Lithuania with ads, brochures
  54. ^ "Eurobarometer on Social Values, Science and technology 2005" (PDF). p. 11. http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_225_report_en.pdf. Retrieved 2007-05-05. 
  55. ^ History of the Lithuanian Art Museum. Lithuanian Art Museum. Retrieved on 10 October 2008.
  56. ^ "Zaha Hadid to Design Planned Museum in Lithuania". Bloomberg News. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=aB1F5bbX10VM. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  57. ^ a b Institute of Lithuanian Scientific Society.Lithuanian Classic Literature. Retrieved on 2009-02-16

External links

Government
General information
Travel

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Baltic states : Lithuania
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:lh-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Vilnius
Government Parliamentary democracy
Currency Litas (LTL)
Area total: 65,200 km2
Population 3,585,906 (July 2006 est.)
Language Lithuanian (official), Polish, Russian, English
Religion Roman Catholic (primarily), Lutheran, Russian Orthodox, Protestant, Evangelical Christian Baptist, Pagan
Electricity 220V/50Hz (European plug)
Calling Code +370
Internet TLD .lt
Time Zone UTC+2
.Lithuania (Lietuva) [1] is a Baltic country in Europe.^ By the end of the 14 th century, Lithuania was the largest country in Europe, stretching from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea.
  • Lithuania (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Data Map > All Regions / Continents > All Countries > Region: Eastern Europe and Eurasia > Country: Lithuania .
  • Joshua Project - Ethnic People Groups of Lithuania 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.joshuaproject.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GEOGRAPHY The largest and most populous of the Baltic states, Lithuania is situated on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, in northeastern Europe.
  • Lithuania (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It has a Baltic Sea coastline in the west and surrounded by Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east, Poland to the southwest, and Russia (Kaliningrad) to the west.^ Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Lithuania 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Belarus 680 km, Latvia 576 km, Poland 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad) 227 km .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Lithuania 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is bordered by Latvia to the north, Belarus to the southeast, Poland to the southwest, and Kaliningrad, a territory of Russia, to the west.
  • Lithuania (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Regions

Regional differences of Lithuanian culture reflect the complicated historical development of the country. Since the thirteenth century five ethnographic areas, or regions, have historically formed in the current territory of Lithuania:
Aukštaitija - literally Highlands, northeastern and eastern region
Žemaitija - Samogitia, literally Lowlands, north-western region
Dzūkija or Dainava - south-eastern region
Sūduva or Suvalkija - southern and south-western region
Lithuania Minor - sea-coast region
.These ethnographic regions even today differ by dialects, ways of life and behaviour styles, while until the turn of the last century there were pronounced differences in dress and homestead styles as well as village planning.^ The blending of these two elements was not complete even in the eighteenth century, differences appearing at that time in proper names, in the pronunciation of the Judæo-German dialect, and even in physiognomy.
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - LITHUANIA 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There were approximately 30 schools with ties to Catholic and Jewish groups, although students of different religious groups often attended these schools.
  • Lithuania 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If I do it in another way, so, as ignoring of the public favor, which is my own favor also, I should be blamed by my co-brothers and in my future life I shall respond to the God and to His Last Judgment.

Lithuania is justly proud of its unfailing treasures of folklore: colourful clothing, meandering songs, an abundance of tales and stories, sonorous dialects and voluble language. This ethnographic heritage is nourished by ethnographic and folklore companies and barn theatres. Recent years have witnessed the revival of ethnographic crafts and culinary traditions. .Folk craft fairs and live craft days are organized during many events and festivals.^ SWITZERLAND, SPECIAL EVENT STATION The Tera Radio Club (HB9OK) is organizing an activity as HB9VELO during the whole month of September.
  • license » LY Radio Lietuva 22 September 2009 22:33 UTC www.lyradio.org [Source type: General]

^ Of the 220,000 Jews who lived in Lithuania under the Nazi occupation, 212,000 were murdered during the Holocaust, many, if not most, by local Nazi collaborators.

Map of Lithuania
.Map of Lithuania
  • The Curonian Spit is a unique national park that has been protected of the world's heritage by UNESCO. The sand dunes with rare flora, seaboard forest, white sanded beaches, old ethnographic villages.
  • Aukštaitija National Park is a land of lakes, hills and forests near town of Ignalina (north from Vilnius).^ Unofficially, the city is the capital of Northern Lithuania.

    ^ Vilnius City Jazz [ web site ] Kaunas Jazz Festival [ web site ] Click here for the full range of Lithuania festival articles, snippets, videos, photo galleries and links .
    • Lithuania Country Guide | Guide to Lithuania 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.2camels.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Under his rule, Vilnius became the capital with 2 new castles and the southern and eastern border of Lithuania was extended to include Smolensk, Kiev and Minsk.
    • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .There is popular water tourism, rural tourism at summer.
  • Dzūkija National Park is territory in southern Lithuania, between towns of Varėna and Druskininkai.^ KL7, ALASKA. Boris, N3SY, is expected to be active as KL7/N3SY from the National Park “Denali”, between now and August 15th.
    • license » LY Radio Lietuva 22 September 2009 22:33 UTC www.lyradio.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Joey, W5BAK, will be heading to Big Bend National Park (DL88) for the January VHF Contest and plans to be active as NA5RC between January 15-20th (2010).
    • license » LY Radio Lietuva 22 September 2009 22:33 UTC www.lyradio.org [Source type: General]

    ^ (LHC, 3/11/03) 1923 Mar 15, An ambassador's conference set the demarcation line between Lithuania and Poland as a national border, which Lithuania did not recognize.
    • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .There is the biggest forest (Dainavos) and swamp (Čepkelių) in the country.^ The terrain is marked by numerous small lakes and swamps, and a mixed forest zone covers 30% of the country.
    • Lithuania (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Also, there are some very old unique villages in the middle of the forests.
  • Kernavė is a small town near Vilnius at the bank of river Neris.^ Most of Lithuania with Vilnius went to Russia, Warsaw and the left bank of the Nemunas River went to Prussia and Cracow went to Austria.
    • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ On May 13, 2008, in the forests near the small town of Varnikai in the Trakai region, a wooden monument to the Holocaust was burned down.
    • Lithuania 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There were some reports of vandalism of Jewish graves and monuments and anti-Semitic comments, including an unsanctioned march of skinheads shouting anti-Semitic slogans in Vilnius.
    • Lithuania 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    It was Lithuanian capital in medieval times and there are well preserved archeological site. Here often are organized festivals of medieval war, craft, ethnoculture traditions.
  • The Hill of Crosses - site of religious significance, north of Šiauliai
  • Purnuskes - The (real) Centre of Europe.
  • Žemaičių Kalvarija - famous pilgrimage site, most visitorts come in the beginning of july to visit largest church festival.

Understand

.Lithuania is an active member of the European Union (since 1 May 2004) and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (since 29 March 2004).^ DEFENSE Lithuania, a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) since 2004, fully endorses the concept of "collective defense."
  • Lithuania (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On May 1 of that same year, Lithuania joined the European Union.
  • Lithuania (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On May 1 of the same year, Lithuania also joined the European Union.
  • Lithuania (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lithuania is the only Baltic country with nearly eight hundred years of statehood tradition, while its name was first mentioned one thousand years ago, in 1009. Wedged at the dividing line of Western and Eastern civilizations, Lithuania battled dramatically for its independence and survival.^ Lithuania Car Hire Guide is part of Internet Travel Group - one of the largest independent car rental brokers.
  • Car Hire Guide offers rental car rates in Lithuania from 167 EUR 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC lithuania.auto-rental.net [Source type: News]

^ Lithuania regained its independence following World War I but was annexed by the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US and many other countries.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Lithuania 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The name of Lithuania, however, did not appear in European records until 1009 AD, when it was mentioned in the German manuscript Annals of Quedlinburg .
  • Lithuania (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Once in the Middle Ages, Lithuania was the largest state in the entire Eastern Europe, where crafts and overseas trade prospered.^ By the end of the 14th century Lithuania was the largest state in Europe.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Lithuania 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lithuania uses its membership in both NATO and the EU to promote security and democracy in Eastern Europe.
  • Lithuania (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the end of the 14 th century, Lithuania was the largest country in Europe, stretching from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea.
  • Lithuania (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1579, Vilnius University, an important scientific and education centre of the European scale, was opened.^ Baltic Jews Under The Soviets " - authored by Dov Levin, Centre for Research & Documentation of Eastern European Jewry, Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 1994.

.In 16th century, Lithuania adopted its First, Second and Third Statutes.^ Jan 1795 Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth: the Grand Principality of Lithuania is incorporated into Russian , the Emperor adopting the additional style of "Grand Prince of Lithuania."

^ The peculiar conditions that prevailed in Lithuania compelled the first Jewish settlers to adopt a different mode of life from that followed by their western coreligionists.
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - LITHUANIA 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (XXIA, 7/21/99) 1919 The Central Library of Lithuania was founded and named after Martynas Mazvydas, the 16th century author of the first Lith.
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Not only the Statutes were the backbone of the legislative system of the country, they had a major impact on legislation of other European states of the time.^ State Control for the carrying-out of complicated, major government auditing and other additional pay provided for in the Law on Public Service.

^ The State Control shall maintain international relations with supreme audit institutions of other countries.

.Despite losing its independence, Lithuania managed to retain its Third Statute in effect for as many as 250 years, which was instrumental in preservation of national and civic self-awareness of the public.^ Lithuania regained its independence following World War I but was annexed by the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US and many other countries.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Lithuania 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the way, Galina was born in Russia and has lived in Lithuania for many years.

^ Despite Lithuania's achievement of complete independence, sizable numbers of Russian forces remained on its territory.
  • Lithuania (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Constitution of Lithuania-Poland together with the French Constitution, both adopted in 1791, were the first constitutions in Europe (Lithuanian-Polish constitution was adopted few months earlier).^ Informally from 4 Jul 1569, constitutionally from 3 May 1791, Poland and Lithuania constituted the United Commonwealth of Two Nations; the Polish king also had the style of Grand Prince of Lithuania, and the two countries were governed together and were represented on the Diets.

^ Jan 1795 Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth: the Grand Principality of Lithuania is incorporated into Russian , the Emperor adopting the additional style of "Grand Prince of Lithuania."

^ May 1791 First and only Constitution, giving formal sanction to the union with Lithuania, etc.

Climate

Transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers

Terrain

Lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil. .The fertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands that are ancient glacial deposits.^ Terrain: Lithuania's fertile, central lowland plains are separated by hilly uplands.
  • Lithuania (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Highest point 
Juozapine Hill 293.84 m, about 30 km southeast of .Vilnius lies just off the main highway to Minsk and within sight of the Belarus border.^ Apr 1919 Soviet troops lost Vilnius; the government of Litbel, soon reduced to Belarus only, moves to Minsk.

30% forest
Merkinė hillfort. Lithuanians are very proud of their Ancient history. Hundreds of hillforts remind about cruelly struggle against Teutonic Order
Merkinė hillfort. Lithuanians are very proud of their Ancient history. .Hundreds of hillforts remind about cruelly struggle against Teutonic Order
There are a lot of intact nature in Lithuania.</span><span class=^ At first developed as a defense post against the raids by the Teutonic and Livonian Orders.

Eastern part called Aukštaitija is famous for amount of lakes, hills and forests" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/00/1/7/9/58545522860701553.jpg" width="250" height="188" border="0" class="thumbimage" />
There are a lot of intact nature in Lithuania. Eastern part called Aukštaitija is famous for amount of lakes, hills and forests
.Lithuania, first formed in the middle of the 13th century, was a huge feudal country stretching from the Baltic to the Black sea in the middle ages and in 1569 entered an union with Poland to form a commonwealth.^ By the end of the 14 th century, Lithuania was the largest country in Europe, stretching from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea.
  • Lithuania (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Informally from 4 Jul 1569, constitutionally from 3 May 1791, Poland and Lithuania constituted the United Commonwealth of Two Nations; the Polish king also had the style of Grand Prince of Lithuania, and the two countries were governed together and were represented on the Diets.

^ (DrEE, 10/5/96, p.5)(LHC, 3/11/03) 1569 Feb 28, The Lithuanian delegation pulled out of union talks with Poland and departed Lublin.
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lithuania was part of the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth until the Polish Partitions in the 18th.^ Jan 1795 Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth: the Grand Principality of Lithuania is incorporated into Russian , the Emperor adopting the additional style of "Grand Prince of Lithuania."

^ In 1791 StanisÅ‚aw August Poniatowski, king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, confirmed once again that Å iauliai's city rights and granted it the coat of arm.

^ Oct 1795 Annexed by Russia in the Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Russian Emperor adopts additional style of "Prince of Samogitia" (de facto from 26 Apr 1795).

century when it became part of the Russian Empire.
National holiday 
Independence Day, 16 February (1918); note - 16 February 1918 is the date of independence from German, Austrian, Prussian, and Russian occupation, 11 March 1990 is the date of independence from the Soviet Union
.Independent between the two World Wars, Lithuania was annexed by the USSR in 1940. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but this proclamation was not generally recognized until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow).^ After the first world war it was part of independent Lithuania.

^ Mar 1990 Independence declared (Republic of Lithuania).

^ Independence lasted until World War II. It again declared independence in 1990.
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Independence 
11 March 1990 (independence declared from Soviet Union); 6 September 1991 (Soviet Union recognizes Lithuania's independence)
Constitution 
adopted 25 October 1992
.The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993. Lithuania subsequently has restructured its economy for eventual integration into Western European institutions.^ Lithuania subsequently restructured its economy for integration into Western European institutions; it joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Lithuania 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Lithuania 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the collapse of the Russian ruble in August 1998 shocked the economy into negative growth and forced the reorientation of trade from Russia toward the West.
  • Lithuania (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Get in

.Lithuania is a member of the Schengen Agreement.^ FOREIGN RELATIONS Lithuania became a member of the United Nations (UN) on September 17, 1991 and is a signatory to a number of UN organizations and other international agreements.
  • Lithuania (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For EU, EEA (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway) or Swiss citizens, an officially approved ID card (or a passport) is sufficient for entry. In no case will they need a visa for a stay of any length. Others will generally need a passport for entry.
.There are no border controls between countries that have signed and implemented the treaty - the European Union (except Bulgaria, Cyprus, Ireland, Romania and the United Kingdom), Iceland, Norway and Switzerland.^ A Non-aggression Treaty was signed with the Soviet Union and Lithuania’s right to Vilnius, which was under Polish occupation, was recognized.
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States and Lithuania signed an agreement on bilateral trade and intellectual property protection in 1994 and a bilateral investment treaty in 1997.
  • Lithuania (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Likewise, a visa granted for any Schengen member is valid in all other countries that have signed and implemented the treaty.^ (LC, 1998, p.16) 1924 May 17, The foreign entente in charge of Klaipeda granted suzerainty to Lithuania by a treaty signed in Paris.
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It’s been a great ride … and it’s still magic!’ CQ congratulates Scott — already a member of the CQ Amateur Radio Hall of Fame, for his contesting achievements on top of all his other achievements.” .
  • license » LY Radio Lietuva 22 September 2009 22:33 UTC www.lyradio.org [Source type: General]

^ China visa Egypt visa India visa Brazil visa Australia visa View all View other countries .
  • Lithuania Visa, Canada: Application for Lithuanian Visa for Canadians. 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC lithuania.visahq.ca [Source type: General]

.But be careful: Not all EU members have signed the Schengen treaty, and not all Schengen members are part of the European Union.^ A Non-aggression Treaty was signed with the Soviet Union and Lithuania’s right to Vilnius, which was under Polish occupation, was recognized.
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Airports in Europe are thus divided into "Schengen" and "non-Schengen" sections, which effectively act like "domestic" and "international" sections elsewhere. .If you are flying from outside Europe into one Schengen country and continuing to another, you will clear Immigration and Customs at the first country and then continue to your destination with no further checks.^ It may be the case that countries you pass through en route to your destination may require a separate transit visa.
  • Lithuania Visa, Canada: Application for Lithuanian Visa for Canadians. 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC lithuania.visahq.ca [Source type: General]

^ These certificate holders will be worth one point towards the basic certificate, and two holders are required to claim the award, or work any five (5) non first country certificate holders to claim it.
  • license » LY Radio Lietuva 22 September 2009 22:33 UTC www.lyradio.org [Source type: General]

^ If you plan on traveling to Lithuania, or any other countries, you can do your travel book research at my link to Amazon.com by clicking here > Jewish Genealogy .

Travel between a Schengen member and a non-Schengen country will result in the normal border checks. .Note that regardless of whether you travelling within the Schengen area or not, some airlines will still insist on seeing your ID card or passport.^ If you plan on traveling to Lithuania, or any other countries, you can do your travel book research at my link to Amazon.com by clicking here > Jewish Genealogy .

^ Most destinations, including Lithuania, require that you have adequate un-used pages in your passport, allowing for any necessary stamps upon arrival and departure.
  • Lithuania Visa, Canada: Application for Lithuanian Visa for Canadians. 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC lithuania.visahq.ca [Source type: General]

^ If you are fortunate enough to find a matching map for the town, you will be able to see the exact house that your ancestors lived in.

Keep in mind that the counter begins once you enter any country in the Schengen Area and is not reset by leaving a specific Schengen country for another Schengen country, or vice-versa.
.As of January 2010 only the citizens of the following non-EU/EEA/Swiss countries do not need a visa for entry into the Schengen Area; note that they must not stay longer than three months in half a year and must not work while in the EU: Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Japan, Macedonia*, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Montenegro*, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Saint Kitts and Nevis, San Marino, Serbia*/**, Seychelles, Singapore, South Korea, United States, Uruguay, Vatican City, Venezuela, additionally persons holding British National (Overseas), Hong Kong SAR or Macau SAR passports.^ Saint Kitts Nevis visa .
  • Lithuania Visa, Canada: Application for Lithuanian Visa for Canadians. 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC lithuania.visahq.ca [Source type: General]

^ El Salvador visa .
  • Lithuania Visa, Canada: Application for Lithuanian Visa for Canadians. 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC lithuania.visahq.ca [Source type: General]

^ New Zealand visa .
  • Lithuania Visa, Canada: Application for Lithuanian Visa for Canadians. 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC lithuania.visahq.ca [Source type: General]

Note that
  • while British subjects with the right of abode in the United Kingdom and British Overseas Territories citizens connected to Gibraltar are considered "United Kingdom nationals for European Union purposes" and therefore eligible for unlimited access to the Schengen Area,
  • British Overseas Territories citizens without the right of abode in the United Kingdom and British subjects without the right of abode in the United Kingdom as well as British Overseas citizens and British protected persons in general do require visas.
However, all British Overseas Territories citizens except those solely connected to the Cyprus Sovereign Base Areas are eligible for British citizenship and thereafter unlimited access to the Schengen Area.
Further note that
(*) Macedonian, Montenegrin and Serbian citizens need a biometric passport to enjoy visa-free travel and
(**) Serbian citizens with passports issued by the Serbian Coordination Directorate (Serbs residing in Kosovo) still do need a visa.

By plane

.Most airlines arrive at main Vilnius international airport [2] and smaller seaside Palanga airport [3], while no-frills carriers (Ryanair) land in Kaunas airport [4].^ There are operating commercial airports with scheduled international services at Vilnius, Kaunas, and Klaipeda, though air connections contracted in 2009 with the bankruptcy of national carrier FlyLAL. The road system is good.
  • Lithuania (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Majority of flights are operated by Airbaltic [5].
For destinations in Northern Lithuania Riga airport is an attractive option.

By train

There are train connections to Vilnius from Daugavpils (Latvia), Warsaw, Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Minsk and Kaliningrad.

By car

Major "Via Baltica" road links Kaunas to Warsaw and Riga/Tallinn. The Baltic road, which links Vlinius to Tallinn, was just reconstructed. It is a very easy and pleasant route. Overall, the major roads between the cities are of decent quality. .Be extremely cautious when getting off the main roads in rural areas, as some of them may contain pot holes and general blemishes which could damage a regular car if you go too fast.^ While one record will not automatically link to another record, the information contained therein may enable you to do so.

While driving between cities there are usually cafes and gas stations with bathrooms and snacks.

By boat

There are several passenger/car ferries from Klaipeda to Sweden, Germany, Denmark. See Lisco [9] or Scandlines [10]

Get around

By train

.Litrail [11] has services to major cities in Lithuania.^ (LHC, 1/30/03) c1719-1724 A strong Russian Army led by the Czar attacked Lithuania and took control over all the major cities for 5 years.
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fares are low compared to Western Europe: Vilnius-Kaunas ~11 Litas (3,19 Euro), Vilnius-Klaipeda ~40 Litas (11,58 Euro), Sestokai (Lithuanian-Polish border) - Kaunas ~11 Litas (3,19 Euro).^ (LHC, 2/25/03) 1337-1338 With mercenaries from Bavaria and the rest of Europe, German Knights continued to press the western Lithuanians (Zemaicius).
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dec 1918 - 25 Aug 1920 Polish and Soviet troops occupy Vilnius; capital of Lithuania moved to Kaunas.

^ (TB-Com, 10/11/00) 1431 Jul, At the Battle of Luck the Lithuanian army clashed with Polish forces by the river Styre.
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many of the long distance trains have compartments which can accommodate six seated passengers or four sleeping passengers. The headrest can be lifted up to form a very comfortable bunk bed, which can be used while people are seated below. The seats themselves form the other pair of beds. As some journeys are quite long (about 5 hours in the case of Vilnius-Klaipeda), it is common to see people sleeping on the upper bunks during daytime journeys as well.
Narrow Gauge Railway in Anyksciai offers short trips to a near-by lake. In summer it runs on regular schedule, rest of the time tours must be booked in advance.

By thumb

Hitchhiking in Lithuania is generally good. Get to the outskirts of the city, but before cars speed up to the highway speeds. .The middle letter on the older licence plates (with Lithuanian flag) of the three letter code usually corresponds with the city of registration (L for Klaipeda).^ (LHC,3/6/03) 1455 Lithuanians captured the castle and city of Klaipeda.
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Newer licence plates (with EU flag) are not bound to city of registration in any way.

By bus

Buses operate regularly between the main centres as well as the regional centres. .Kautra [12] operates a number of routes out of Kaunas with the cost of ~20-30 Litas for most journeys.^ (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.5) 1794 Aug 12-Sep 30, The army of the Czar attacked Kaunas and Ukmerge but were held back.
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other companies with intercity routes worth to mention are Toks (from Vilnius) and Busturas (from Siauliai). For students with Lithuanian student id, bus companies grant 50% discount around the year with the exception of July and August. For students with ISIC (international student card), bus companies grant 50% discount.
For buses and trolley-buses on routes within towns and cities it is usual to buy the ticket in advance from a kiosk, board the vehicle using the middle door and stamp the ticket using one of the ticket punches. These were historically located near the middle door, but with the introduction of electronic ticketing, there is often a single ticket punch located just behind the driver's seat. .Tickets bought from the driver, rather than kiosks, are more expensive and may also generate an off-handed response if the bus is late or crowded and you don't provide the exact change.^ Then Shirley apologized for her rather crude use of Yiddish and stated that she hadn't really had the opportunity to speak Yiddish for more than 50 years.

^ The list of State Control officers who may be provided with employee housing accommodation shall be drawn up and employee housing accommodation shall be provided by the Auditor General."

^ Auditor General may be appointed for no more than two successive terms of office.

Inspectors periodically check tickets and will issue a fine if you cannot produce a correctly punched ticket. The bus is exited by the middle door and it is important to head for the door before the bus has stopped - it can be impossible to leave once people have started boarding.
In addition to common buses, there are minibuses which usually operate express routes. For schedules, consult

By taxi

Taxis are run on a meter and can be booked by the phone numbers shown on the door of the taxi,. Taxis are relatively cheap compared to western Europe. Beware however, some companies may not be as safe as others, common sense will keep you safe in this regard. ."Taking the long way round" used to be common but had nearly been irradicated, western Europeans may still find themselves taking the scenic route, don't worry though, the maximum that this will add is a few litas.^ The Lost Wooden Synagogues of Eastern Europe" - features a journey by filmmaker Albert Barry to Lithuania to try to find the few remaining wooden synagogue buildings still standing.

It is customary to give a small tip at the end of your journey.
It's usually cheaper to order a taxi by phone instead of taking one in the street, especially in bus stations or airports.
Recently (spring 2009) taxi prices, especially in Vilnius, have dropped dramatically from previous level during the boom years. If you don't need a fancy ride, taxi can be as cheap as 1.25 litas (37 euro cents) per kilometer.

By bicycle

Lithuania is great for cycling. There are two international EuroVelo cycle routes [13] across the country, EuroVelo No. 10 and EuroVelo No. .11. The international bicycle project BaltiCCycle [14] may provide you with a lot of information and help.^ If you type in the name Zemaitis , you'll find a lot of interesting information.

^ While one record will not automatically link to another record, the information contained therein may enable you to do so.

^ (DrEE, 11/23/96, p.3) 1918 Julius Bielskis headed the Lithuanian information bureau in Washington to help establish recognition of Lithuania.
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Talk

.The official language of Lithuania is Lithuanian, making up one of only two languages [along with Latvian] on the Baltic branch of the Indo-European family.^ "One of the records shows two surnames for the male head of household and his family with the comment "double name".

^ (DrEE, 10/12/96, p.2)(TB-Com, 10/11/00) 4000-3000BC The Indo-European language group divided into different branches.
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To view the online exhibit (in Lithuanian Language) " Jews of Lithuania at the Beginning of the 20th Century ," go to: www.archyvai.lt/struktura/paroda/paroda.htm .

.Despite the kinship of Lithuanian to many other European languages, the archaic nature of its grammar makes it hard for foreigners unfamiliar with the language even to form basic sentences.^ (LC, 1998, p.30)(LHC, 12/31/02) 1860 Dec 30, Jonas Jablonskis (d.1930), linguist and author of a prescriptive grammar of the Lithuanian language.
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many Jewish records from four formerly (Southern) Lithuanian districts are known to be in the State Historical Archives of Belarus in Grodno ; other Jewish records for the same towns are in Vilnius .

^ Training and improving of professional qualification shall be carried out according to the annual plans and special programmes, concluding agreements with Lithuanian and foreign educational institutions, as well as other ways and forms.

.Russian is spoken as a second language by about 80% of the population according to European Union statistics, whilst the younger generation is becoming more and more proficient in English.^ The second half of the 19th century saw an explosion in the Jewish population, but research suggests that the 18th century Jewish population was only about 48,000.

.Polish and, to a lesser extent, German are also spoken in some places for historical reasons.^ Some of the documents in each individual file are written in Russian, German, or Polish depending on the type of document.

.Lithuanians are always eager for an opportunity to practice their English, but those who learn a few basic phrases of the local language are always amply awarded with good will and appreciation for their efforts.^ A special award will be issued to those who make at least 3 QSOs with 3 different stations.
  • license » LY Radio Lietuva 22 September 2009 22:33 UTC www.lyradio.org [Source type: General]

.In Samogitia (Western Lithuania) most people talk in Samogitian, which is somewhat different from Standard Lithuanian and sometimes called an independent language.^ Gediminas moved to Vilnius and began to call himself King of Lithuania and most of Russia.
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (HN, 2/10/97) 1916 Mar 1, A conference of Lithuanians in Berne (Mar 1-5) demanded for the 1st time the full independence of Lithuania.
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (LHC, 1/31/03) 1413 Vytautas and Jogaila traveled through western Lithuania to convert the people to Christianity.
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Buy

.Vilnius recently became a shopper's paradise when plenty of massive shopping centres were opened all over the city.^ A revision list for the city of Vilnius could contain thousands of names but they would not all live at the same address.

^ Vilnius became the 1st self-governed Lithuanian city.
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Akropolis (a chain of shopping malls in Lithuania) is one of them and definitely worth visiting, as it houses an ice skating rink, bowling lanes and a cinema.
Shopping center Helios City in Savanoriu ave offers to have dinner, to take a cup of coffee and to go shopping under the one roof. On the first and the second floors of the Helios City restaurants, cafes, small shops, beauty salon, dry cleaning and other service companies are located. The centre of the city or the Old Town and the new leisure and service centre are separated by less than 1,5km. It is convenient to access the Helios City from any place of the city – either by public or proper transport.
Gariunai is the baltic's largest open air market, located on the western edge of Vilnius. .Thousands of merchants can be found there on a good weekend, from not only Lithuania, but also from as far away as Ukraine.^ There were vicious pogroms in the 1870s and 1889s, not only in Lithuania , but throughout the Pale of Settlement.

Clothes, shoes, and even music and software can be bought there. Counterfeit goods are ubiquitous. A low price is guaranteed, quality is not.
Klaipeda is a major shopping center for people from Latvia and Kaliningrad. The main shopping centers are: Akropolis, Arena, Studlendas and BIG. Many people coming to the city on cruise ships shop in Klaipeda, due to the good value and price combination.
Kaunas is also a city of shopping centers, and the center of the city, Laisvės avenue is a pedestrian thouroghfare. There is even that symbol of "mall culture", which is new to Lithuania, Akropolis.

Eat

Lithuanian dinners usually include meat, potato, vegetables and sometimes a curd sauce of some sort. Case in point: the cepelinai, or zeppelins, which are meat filled potato-starch based zeppelin-shaped masses traditionally slathered in a sauce of sour cream, butter, and pork cracklings. Pork is traditionally eaten, beef much less so. Needless to say, vegans will have a hard time eating out, although some large restaurant chains will have vegetarian dishes on the menu.
.Some fast food in Lithuania, such as Kibinai, (from the Karaim people) small turnovers usually filled with spiced lamb, and Cheburekai (a Russian snack), large folds of dough with a scant filling of meat, cheese, or even apples, can be found around the city.^ Mindaugas, the feudal ruler of Lithuania found resistance amongst some local rulers who called in German military orders for assistance.
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many restaurants have menus in English (usually in the Lithuanian menu) and to a lesser extent, Russian. .Though use caution as sometimes menus in other languages may have inflated prices, although this is a rarity, and won't be found in Vilnius, or the better known chains such as Cili Pizza.^ Many Jewish records from four formerly (Southern) Lithuanian districts are known to be in the State Historical Archives of Belarus in Grodno ; other Jewish records for the same towns are in Vilnius .

Drink

Lithuania is a beer drinking country, with the most famous brands being Svyturys, Kalnapilis, Utenos, Horn and Gubernija. .A visit to a kiosk will show that there may be more than 50 different brands of beer in this small country.^ Then Shirley apologized for her rather crude use of Yiddish and stated that she hadn't really had the opportunity to speak Yiddish for more than 50 years.

Alcohol percentages are displayed on the label, and usually range from 4 to 9.5 percent. Compared to other European countries, beer is usually affordable, in shops approx. 0.50 to 1 € per half litre, in bars approx. 0.75 to 2 € per half litre(beer is sold by the half or full litre, a full litre being found rarely). .The beer tastes excellent, putting global brands to shame and it can be said that Lithuanian lager is of at least equal quality to Czech, Slovak, German, and Polish lager.^ (LHC, 3/23/03) 1331 Joint Lithuanian and Polish forces dealt a strong defeat to German Knights.
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A request for a Lithuanian beer always generates goodwill, even in a Chinese or other foreign-themed restaurant.
When you visit a bar or restaurant without intending to eat, try one of the bar snacks, which are very popular among Lithuanians. The most popular of these snacks consists of a bowl of pieces of garlic bread covered in cheese.
In addition to beer, rather cheap but high quality vodka (or "degtinė" in Lithuanian) is consumed, but not to the extent usually associated with this part of the world. Also, every region has its own home-made speciality of which "Samane" is most famous/notorious and is best avoided. The larger supermarkets have an incredible variety of vodka from all the main vodka-producing countries.
.Lithuanian mead, or "midus" is a beverage produced exclusively under government control.^ (LHC, 1/30/03) c1669 The King of Sweden took over Estonia and cast his eye over to Livonia, then under Lithuanian control.
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Lithuanian and Polish nobility under the leadership of Tadas Kosciusko revolted against Russian control.
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is commonly made from all sorts of Lithuanian flora, from leaves and berries to some tree bark. Alcohol percentages range from 10% to 75% (considered medicinal).
For tourists, quality sparkling wines, such as Alita or Mindaugas, and local liqueurs are popular choices to bring back home.
Keep in mind the law that came into effect from January 2009 that prohibits selling alcohol in shops between 10PM and 8AM (bars, cafes, restaurants etc. are exempt from this).
In shops and cafés different tea and coffee qualities are widely available. The selection in coffee ranges from northern European brands to French ones. .In coffee houses, you should expect to pay up to 1.50 € for your coffee.^ If you are fortunate enough to find a matching map for the town, you will be able to see the exact house that your ancestors lived in.

Some cafés offer also a variety of special coffees with more or less special prices. .Many cafes (kavinės) still make "lazy" coffee, which is simply coffee grounds and boiling water, unfiltered, with grounds at the bottom of the cup, often surprising the drinker - ask before you buy!^ You can use the search engine to determine if your ancestor is in the database before making a tax deductible contribution to help complete the translations for our online database.

^ Judith Shulamith Langer-Surnamer Caplan asking "How many of you have ever wondered what a Litvak looks like '?"

Tea is usually sold at 50% of the price of coffee. Some of the wonderful drinks such as the Marganito are great for fun filled party drinks and rated one of the top kinds of wine in the country, perfect for weddings.
Unlike restaurants, or pubs aimed at tourists, bars (Baras) may be frequented by heavy drinkers and can therefore be somewhat rowdy. Nevertheless a visit may still be very rewarding, especially if you accept an invitation to participate in karaoke.
A law banning smoking in cafés, restaurants, bars, nightclubs, discotheques and other public establishments was passed in May 2006, and came into effect on January 1 2007. However, many nightclubs have internal smoking rooms, which have a degree of ventilation.
Tap water is suitable for drinking in many parts of Lithuania. In other areas, local people prefer to purchase bottled water or to run tap water through water filters. If you need to buy bottled water, a 5 litre bottle is not much more expensive than a one litre bottle. Where in doubt about the tap water, seek local advice.

Sleep

Most large cities such as Vilnius have an abundance of hotel options from 60 litas and up. When traveling to a popular vacation spot in the summer (like Palanga) make sure to book a room in advance because demand may outnumber supply. Additionally, some of the Cafes on the main highways between cities also have rooms to rent.

Learn

Lithuania has one of the best educational systems in the World. Many universities participate in student exchange programs. .Most popular international college in Lithuania is Lithuanian Christian College in Klaipeda [15].^ (LHC, 2/2/03) 1386 Feb 15, Christianity was introduced to Lithuania when Grand Duke Jogaila and Vytautas underwent a token Baptism at the cathedral in Crakow.
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (LHC, 1/9/03) 1923 Jan 15, Lithuanians took Klaipeda back from French control.
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The best universities of Lithuania are the University of Vilnius (Vilniaus Universitetas), Kaunas University of Technology (Kauno Technologijos Universitetas) and Vytautas the Great University in Kaunas (Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas).^ Vytautas the Great re-opened in Kaunas.
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Privilege to Jews Granted by Vytautas the Great" - authored by Stanislovas Lazutka and Edwardas Gudavichius in English and Russian and published in Moscow by the Jewish University of Moscow in 1993 .

^ The Jewish Community of Lithuania The University of Vilnius Vilnius 2600, Lithuania .

Work

There are now many work options in Lithuania. Any EU national can work and live with no limits in Lithuania. Of course residence permits must be obtained, and employers must prove that there are not competent workers in Lithuania for such employment, which can be difficult. Especially there is a huge demand for work force in Klaipeda (most in construction, wholesale and port companies). However, Lithuanian law dictates that all business be conducted in Lithuanian language.

Stay safe

In general, Lithuania is a safe country. But you should take basic safety measures:
  • try to avoid showing a big sum of money. .It is best not to try spending larger notes in nightclubs - several 10 and 20 litas notes are better than a large note such as a 200 litas or greater.^ His portrait is on the 20-litas note.
    • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    You may draw a lot of attention to yourself if you try to use one of the larger banknotes for a small purchase such as a beer, and may also cause the proprietor difficulty in giving you change. However the larger and busier establishments will change notes without any problem. When changing foreign currency into litas, ask for the smaller notes.
  • take care when visiting potentially dangerous neighbourhoods at night. After dark it is safer to walk along main roads, than to take a short cut through a park or apartment complex, as these areas often have very poor lighting. Take a taxi if you are nervous. A thing to watch out for is bicycle theft, and it is advisable not to leave valuable things in your car.
  • As with eastern Europe in general, openly gay behaviour such as holding hands or kissing may result in a violent confrontation from an onlooker. .Suspicion of homosexuality may also cause problems; two male visitors to a straight nightclub should sit a respectable distance apart, even if they are heterosexual.
  • Members of ethnic minorities, (particularly those of African descent), may experience some form of racism.^ Those who stayed mixed with the fisherman who moved from the west to form the ethnic groups of Baltic culture.
    • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    This is not tolerated by the authorities and racist attacks are rare. However non-whites may at least have to get used to being stared at by locals, especially in rural areas. More often than not this can be out of pure curiosity rather than malice. The issue of race relations, the history of slavery and civil rights are relatively unknown. That said, the presence of several Afro-American basketball players in the Lithuanian league does help and means that racism is perhaps not as big a problem as other eastern European countries. .The best way to overcome any minor issues is to maintain a dignified air and understanding, that for many Lithuanians living in a homogenous society, they may not have had any previous contact with a person of colour.
  • Driving in Lithuania is dangerous.^ By the way, Galina was born in Russia and has lived in Lithuania for many years.

    ^ "Lithuanian Jewish Communities" - authored by Nancy and Stuart Schoenberg is an excellent descriptive book of the many shtetls of Lithuania .

    ^ Our purpose is to discover, present, and preserve information about our ancestors' lives in Lithuania, and to better understand the lives they led, before the destruction of 95% of Lithuanian Jews in the Shoah.

    As a pedestrian, take great care when crossing the roads, as pedestrian crossings are widely ignored. When driving be careful of aggresive, quickly going and irresponsible drivers. It's better to pass them even if they are flouting rules. Keep in mind that traffic police could be corrupt. Mind the forest roads, collisions with wildlife animals can easily occur.
  • If bitten by a dog, wild animal or a snake, seek medical attention immediately. Snakes are not venomous in Lithuania, except for the European Viper (angis) which is a possible death threat if no treatment is received within the next few hours after the bite. A dog (šuo) or cat (katė) bite can carry the risk of rabies. Mosquitoes (uodai) carry no disease and are only an annoyance in the summer months. A forest tick (erkė) bite carries the risk of Lyme disease or encephalitis.

Stay healthy

If you are searching for some health treatment or recreation the best resorts for that are Druskininkai and Palanga. Neringa is a great option for a nice, calm holiday for becoming one with yourself.
Basketball is the national sport, and the nation is basketball mad, (comparable to the british with Soccer and New Zealand with rugby). .Lithuania is one of the most successful teams in international competition, winning medals in three out of four Olympic tournaments, (bronze), and finishing fourth in 2008. All this from just five Olympic appearances.^ "One of the first things one finds out about the Jews of North-east Lithuania is that they are described as being mostly " Chabad Hasidim ".

^ Our team will review all applicants for the young ham position > and select one young ham to join us for this exciting DXpedition and > contest opportunity.
  • license » LY Radio Lietuva 22 September 2009 22:33 UTC www.lyradio.org [Source type: General]

Major domestic clubs are BC Žalgiris from Kaunas and BC Lietuvos Rytas from Vilnius. For this reason in almost every park and playground you will find a basketball court.
Prechristian Baltic Sun and the Moon cross at the top of wooden monument. Christian and pagan traditions are very interwined in Lithuanian culture
Prechristian Baltic Sun and the Moon cross at the top of wooden monument. Christian and pagan traditions are very interwined in Lithuanian culture
Lithuanians are Baltic nation, however, it's common for tourists to think that they are somehow connected with Russians.
.Lithuanians form their own distinct ethnic group and speak their own language (Lithuanian), which is one of the oldest Indo-European languages languages, belonging to the Baltic not the Slavic branch of Indo-European languages (although they have some common similarities).^ Those who stayed mixed with the fisherman who moved from the west to form the ethnic groups of Baltic culture.
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (DrEE, 10/12/96, p.2)(TB-Com, 10/11/00) 4000-3000BC The Indo-European language group divided into different branches.
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is a notoriously difficult language to master, but learning how to greet locals in their own language can go a long way. They will appreciate your efforts in Lithuanian.
.Lithuania was part of the Soviet Union from the end of World War II until 1991. You should also try to remember that the Lithuanian capital is Vilnius, not Riga, which is the capital of neighbouring Latvia, a common mistake for travellers and an annoyance to locals.^ Independence lasted until World War II. It again declared independence in 1990.
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under his rule, Vilnius became the capital with 2 new castles and the southern and eastern border of Lithuania was extended to include Smolensk, Kiev and Minsk.
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (LHC, 2/23/03) 1537 Mar 25, The 5th Lithuanian war with Russia (1534-1537) ended with a peace treaty.
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because of war time occupations by Tsarist Russia in the 19th century, the Soviet Union in the 20th century and the territorial disputes with Poland in the early 20th century, conversations revolving around disputes with neighboring countries are not a good idea for those not from the region.^ She was deported to the Soviet Union for inciting World War I draft riots in New York.
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Non-aggression Treaty was signed with the Soviet Union and Lithuania’s right to Vilnius, which was under Polish occupation, was recognized.
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It's better to avoid criticize Soviet Union or Russia because a lot of people, especially older, have some nostalgy for these times.
Lithuanians may appear at times nationalistic, however it is with good reason that they are a proud nation as they have fought to maintain their cultural identity through dark times, and this has kept them a unique and in general a warm and charming race. Although most Lithuanians officially are Christians native Lithuanian religion is still alive in traditions, ethnoculture, festivals, music.
Lithuanians may appear sad, depressive, a little bit rude and suspicious so talking about your good health, wealth, happiness could be sometimes take negatively. Smile at a Lithuanian in the street and most likely they will not respond in kind. .Smiling in Lithuania is traditionally reserved for friends; smile at a stranger and they will either think you're making fun of them and there's something wrong with their clothes or hairdo, or that you must be an idiot.^ You > must have your parent’s written permission to make the trip on your own, > or they may join you, at their own expense.
  • license » LY Radio Lietuva 22 September 2009 22:33 UTC www.lyradio.org [Source type: General]

Furthermore, an automatic Western smile is widely regarded as insincere.
Women in the entire former USSR area are traditionally treated with utmost respect. Female travellers should not act surprised or indignant when their Lithuanian male friends pay their bills at restaurants, open every door in front of them, offer their hand to help them climb down that little step or help them carry anything heavier than a handbag - this is not sexual harassment or being condescending to the weaker sex. Male travellers should understand that this is exactly the sort of behavior that most Lithuanian girls and women will expect from them, too.
.Don't expect politness in local shops, institutions, bus/train stations.^ The formation of a club station and licensing classes (possibly thru the Tonga Maritime Training Institute) was discussed.
  • license » LY Radio Lietuva 22 September 2009 22:33 UTC www.lyradio.org [Source type: General]

Saying "hello", "please", "thank you" or any small talk with every unknown customer is uncommon, so just buy or ask that you need.

Pilgrim

.Lithuania has many religious sites, especially many for people of Catholic faith, all of them are open for people of any religion and background, due to high tolerance of the locals.^ Of the 220,000 Jews who lived in Lithuania under the Nazi occupation, 212,000 were murdered during the Holocaust, many, if not most, by local Nazi collaborators.

^ Russian forces began to march through Lithuania and this led many people of Lithuania to join in the rebellion against Russian rule.
  • Timeline Lithuania to 1929 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Most favorite pilgrimage sites to visit are:

Contact

Land line phones
There is monopoly operator for land line phones - TEO (now it belongs to "TeliaSonera AB"), a subsidiary of Sweden (Telia) and Finland (Sonera). Land line phones are easy to find in all country. Phones are used with cards, witch you can find in kiosks, "TEO" or newspaper stands.
Mobile phones
.There are three mobile phone operators in Lithuania: Omnitel, BITE and TELE 2. About 97% of the country's surface is covered by the standard European GSM 900/1800 MHz network, the remaining 3% are non-walkable forests.^ An excellent site to find information about most European countries is http://searcheurope.com and type in the name of the country you wish to research in the search field.

International calls
To call abroad from Lithuania:
  • From a land line phone: 00 Your Country Code The Number Abroad
  • From a mobile phone: + Your Country Code The Number Abroad
.To call to Lithuania from abroad, dial the Lithuania country code, 370, then the number, as if calling from a domestic mobile phone.^ Lithuania Phone Dial Code: 370 .
  • Lithuania Phone Cards | Lithuania Calling Cards - Cheap Lithuania Phone Card to Lithuania 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC www.phonecardsmile.com [Source type: News]

^ Try our pinless rechargeable Lithuania phone cards and pinless rechargeable Lithuania calling cards.
  • Lithuania Phone Cards | Lithuania Calling Cards - Cheap Lithuania Phone Card to Lithuania 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC www.phonecardsmile.com [Source type: News]

^ Lithuania Phone Cards & Lithuania Calling Cards as low as 1.87¢ / Min .
  • Lithuania Phone Cards | Lithuania Calling Cards - Cheap Lithuania Phone Card to Lithuania 15 September 2009 18:55 UTC www.phonecardsmile.com [Source type: News]

International and roaming calls are expensive. To reduce your bill you can:
  • Buy "phone cards" for international calls
  • Talk over the Internet
Internet
If you're bringing a laptop, Wireless LAN Hot-Spots are available in distinct places (mostly "Zebra" from - TEO), sometimes free, otherwise not very cheap. Best chances of finding one are at airports, railway stations, in cafés, shopping malls, universities, various places. You can ask in your hotel, but be prepared to pay. For those who need to connect at an Internet cafes, major cities do have internet cafes. You can get free wireless Internet in Kaunas, Laisvės Alėja
.With your mobile phone you can use: CSD, HSCSD, GPRS or EDGE, but the cost may be unattractive.^ It may be the case that countries you pass through en route to your destination may require a separate transit visa.
  • Lithuania Visa, Canada: Application for Lithuanian Visa for Canadians. 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC lithuania.visahq.ca [Source type: General]

^ Most destinations, including Lithuania, require that you have adequate un-used pages in your passport, allowing for any necessary stamps upon arrival and departure.
  • Lithuania Visa, Canada: Application for Lithuanian Visa for Canadians. 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC lithuania.visahq.ca [Source type: General]

^ You may not post new threads You may not post replies You may not post attachments You may not edit your posts .
  • Lithuania Mod - Total War Center Forums 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: General]

UMTS is only available in some bigger cities. .If your phone is not SIM-locked, you may consider purchasing a pre-paid SIM card designed for data access.^ It may be the case that countries you pass through en route to your destination may require a separate transit visa.
  • Lithuania Visa, Canada: Application for Lithuanian Visa for Canadians. 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC lithuania.visahq.ca [Source type: General]

^ You can reside in any country in the world and be considered for this opportunity provided you hold a valid amateur radio license in your country and have some contest experience.
  • license » LY Radio Lietuva 22 September 2009 22:33 UTC www.lyradio.org [Source type: General]

^ You > must have your parent’s written permission to make the trip on your own, > or they may join you, at their own expense.
  • license » LY Radio Lietuva 22 September 2009 22:33 UTC www.lyradio.org [Source type: General]

.If you want to communicate with your friends or locals using internet, you'll need two programs Skype or ICQ. The most popular chatting program is Skype, all of which can be used in English as well.^ Activity will be on all HF bands, as well as 6m and 2m, using CW and SSB from mountain hut “Dermenka” - 1504 meters A.S.L. (Grid Locator: KN22IR).
  • license » LY Radio Lietuva 22 September 2009 22:33 UTC www.lyradio.org [Source type: General]

As well in Lithuania social websites are getting very popular. The most popular is ONE.lt, second popular (>200000 users) is Facebook. Myspace exists, but it is not widely used.
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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Contents

English

Location of Lithuania

Pronunciation

  • (UK) IPA: /ˌlɪθ.juˈeɪ.ni.ə/, /ˌlɪθ.uˈeɪ.ni.ə/
  • (US) IPA: /ˌlɪθ.uˈeɪ.ni.ə/, /ˌlɪθ.uˈweɪ.ni.ə/
  •  Audio (US)help, file
  • Rhymes: -eɪniə

Proper noun

Singular
Lithuania
Plural
-
Lithuania
.
  1. A country in north-eastern Europe.^ Lithuania is a country in Eastern Europe .
    • Lithuania - Liberapedia 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC liberapedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Lithuania A country of north-central Europe ...
    • Lithuania - by GreatNotebook Search 22 September 2009 22:33 UTC www.greatnotebook.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Lithuania is located in the North Eastern Europe.
    • Asia Offshore Association - Lithuania 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.asiaoffshore.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Official name: Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika).

Translations

Related terms

See also


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Lithuania, which are similar to those in the above article.








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