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Flag of the Lithuanian–Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic
Map of planned Litbel borders (thick blue line) superimposed on state borders of 1920.

Lithuanian–Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic or Litbel (LBSSR; Lithuanian: Lietuvos–Baltarusijos Tarybinė Socialistinė Respublika; Belarusian: Літоўска–Беларуская Савецкая Сацыялістычная Рэспубліка; Russian: Литовско–Белорусская ССР; Polish: Litewsko–Białoruska Republika Rad) was a Soviet-controlled republic, that existed within the territories of modern Belarus and eastern Lithuania, for approximately seven months during 1919, before the western parts of the areas were annexed by Poland.

Following the end of World War I in November 1918, the German Army left the area, and on 1 January 1919 the Soviet Socialist Republic of Belarus was declared, part of which, in combination with the Lithuanian SSR, formed the Litbel from 27 February 1919.

The leaders of the state were Kazimierz Cichowski (Казимир Генрихович Циховский), Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Congress of Soviets (corresponds to head of parliament) and Vincas Mickevičius-Kapsukas (Винцас Симанович Мицкявичюс-Капсукас), Chairman of the Sovnarkom (corresponds to prime minister).

Its capital was initially Vilnius. In April it was moved to Minsk, after Vilnius was seized by the Polish Army with the onset of the Polish–Soviet War, and to Smolensk in August 1919. The Litbel was dissolved on 25 August 1919, when its entire territory was occupied by the armies of Poland, the Entente, Lithuania (led by the Council of Lithuania), and Germany.

In 1920, the remaining lands that had composed Litbel were divided between the Second Polish Republic and the Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic.

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