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The Lithuanian Chronicles (Lithuanian: Lietuvos metraščiai) are three redactions of chronicles compiled in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. All redactions were written in the Old Church Slavonic language and served the needs of Lithuanian patriotism.[1] The first redaction, compiled in 1420s, glorified Vytautas the Great and supported his side in power struggles. The second redaction, prepared in the first half of the 16th century, started the myth of Lithuanian Roman origin: it gave a fanciful genealogy of Palemon, a noble from the Roman Empire who founded the Grand Duchy. This noble origin of Lithuanians was important in cultural rivalry with Kingdom of Poland. The third redaction, known only from the Bychowiec Chronicle, elaborated even further on the legend, but also provided some useful information about the second half of the 15th century. The three redactions, the first known historical accounts produced within the Grand Duchy, gave rise to the historiography of Lithuania.[2] All medieval historians used these accounts, that survived in 22 known transcriptions,[1] as basis for their publications and some of the myths created in the chronicles persisted even to the beginning of the 20th century.


First redaction

The first or the short redaction (also known as Chronicle of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania or Letopisec Litovskii) was compiled sometime in the 1420s, when Vytautas the Great hoped to be crowned as King of Lithuania.[2] This redaction included the earliest known historical account produced in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: Dis ist Witoldes sache wedir Jagalan und Skargalan, a complain and memorial written by Vytautas in 1390 during the Lithuanian Civil War (1389–1392).[3] It detailed his power struggles against cousins Jogaila and Skirgaila in 1379–1390 and supported his claims to his patrimony in Trakai and title of Grand Duke of Lithuania. Two translations of this document survive: Latin Origo regis Jagyelo et Witholdi ducum Lithuaniae from the 15th century and Russian Litovskomu rodu pochinok from the 14th century.[1] Later this document was expanded to include events up to 1396.[4] It formed the backbone of the first chronicle.

The first redaction survived only from later transcriptions and compilations. The earliest known compilation was prepared in Smolensk around 1446 by bishop Gerasim and his clerk Timofei.[3] The compilation also included a praise to Vytautas, written by Gerasim, a story about Podlachia, written in 1431–1435 to support the Lithuanian side in conflict with Poland,[4] a description of power struggles between Švitrigaila and Sigismund Kęstutaitis, a short summary of Moscow's chronicles (854–1428),[1] and latest events in Smolensk (1431–1445).[3] The compilation also did not survive in its original state. It is known from several transcriptions:[3]

  • Avraamka Chronicle, compiled by a Smolensk monk named Avraamka in 1495
  • Uvarov Chronicle, also known as Slutsk Chronicle, compiled by the court of Mikhailo Olelkovich, prince of Slutsk and descendant of Gediminas in the 15th century
  • Suprasl Chronicle, compiled in the middle of the 15th century and preserved in a 1519 copy found in the Supraśl Orthodox Monastery

Second redaction

The second, more extensive, redaction (also known as Chronicle of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Samogitia) was compiled in the second half of the 15th and the beginning of the 16th century.[1] The redaction traced back the foundations of the Lithuanian state to the 1st century, when legendary Palemon escaped from Roman Empire and settled at the mouth of Dubysa. He founded the Palemonids dynasty and became the first ruler of Lithuania.[3] This legendary part was then followed by the revised first redaction, detailing the lineage of the Gediminids. Mindaugas, the first King of Lithuania crowned in 1253, and other earlier historically attested dukes were skipped entirely.[2] The elaborate story that Lithuanians were of noble Roman origins had no historical basis and was discarded by modern historians as nothing more than a myth.[5]

While many modern historians discount the text as useless, it can still provide useful bits and pieces of Lithuanian history as it incorporates many garbled fragments of earlier documents and chronicles.[5] Also, the mythical Palemon is a good evidence of political tensions and cultural ideology of the Lithuanian nobles in the 16th century. This myth served Lithuanian interests in conflicts with Poland and Russia. Poland, then in personal union with Lithuania, claimed that it brought civilization to this barbaric pagan land. By creating fanciful genealogies, linking Lithuanians with noble Romans, the Lithuanian nobility could counter these claims and demand political independence.[3]

This redaction rarely included dates and contained several independent stories that were cherished by 19th century nationalists: legends how Gediminas founded Vilnius because of his dreams of an iron wolf, how Kęstutis took pagan priestess Birutė for his wife, how Vytautas lavishly treated his guests at the conference in Lutsk in 1429, etc.[3] Among them were some factual stories, including Algirdas' three sieges of Moscow.[6] This format differed significantly from other Slavic chronicles that tended to list inter-related events year-by-year.[1] The second redaction also considerably trimmed and fragmented parts about Ruthenia and Grand Duchy of Moscow; thus the text became primarily about Lithuania. The chronicle was popular and often copied; at least five different versions survive.[2] It shaped the political mentality of the Lithuanian nobility, formed basis for the Lithuanian historiography until the dawn of the 20th century, and inspired many literary works.

Third redaction

The third and most extensive redaction is known as the Bychowiec Chronicle. It is based on the second redaction. It is believed that this redaction was prepared around the same time as the second redaction with support from Albrecht Goštautas.[7] The only known version was discovered in a manor owned by Aleksander Bychowiec and was published in full by Teodor Narbutt in 1846. This transcription was updated to include events up to 1574.[5] Initially there were doubts if the chronicle is authentic and some suggested that Narbutt falsified it. The doubts were inspired by its sudden discovery and its peculiar similarity with the chronicles of Maciej Stryjkowski; also Narbutt is known to have falsified several other documents.[2] However, new evidence came to light that portions of the chronicle were published in 1830. Historians now suggest that similarity with Stryjkowski's works resulted from using the same document, maybe even the original third redaction, as the source.[3]

The patriotic themes were even more prevalent than in the second redaction. It continued to elaborate on the Palemon legend: to improve chronology Palemon was moved to the 5th century Rome, devastated by Attila the Hun, and Mindaugas and other historical dukes were incorporated into the legend.[2] It also concentrated more on Catholic Church than earlier revisions, paying close attention to Eastern Orthodoxy.[5] It is an important source for the late 15th century events, especially years of Alexander Jagiellon.[1]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g (Lithuanian) Jonas Zinkus, et. al, ed (1986). "Lietuvos metraščiai". Tarybų Lietuvos enciklopedija. 2. Vilnius, Lithuania: Vyriausioji enciklopedijų redakcija. pp. 584–585.  
  2. ^ a b c d e f (Lithuanian) Ivinskis, Zenonas (1953–1966). "Metraščiai". Lietuvių enciklopedija. 18. Boston, Massachusetts: Lietuvių enciklopedijos leidykla. pp. 307–310. LCC 55020366.  
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Simas Sužiedėlis, ed (1970-1978). "Chronicles, Lithuanian". Encyclopedia Lituanica. I. Boston, Massachusetts: Juozas Kapočius. pp. 519–521. LCC 74-114275.  
  4. ^ a b (Lithuanian) Jonas Zinkus, et. al, ed (1986). "Lietuvos didžiųjų kunigaikščių metraštis". Tarybų Lietuvos enciklopedija. 2. Vilnius, Lithuania: Vyriausioji enciklopedijų redakcija. pp. 566–567.  
  5. ^ a b c d Rowell, S. C. (1994). Lithuania Ascending: A Pagan Empire Within East-Central Europe, 1295-1345. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought: Fourth Series. Cambridge University Press. pp. 41–43. ISBN 9780521450119.  
  6. ^ (Lithuanian) Jonas Zinkus, et. al, ed (1986). "Lietuvos ir žemaičių didžiosios kunigaikštytės kronika". Tarybų Lietuvos enciklopedija. 2. Vilnius, Lithuania: Vyriausioji enciklopedijų redakcija. pp. 569.  
  7. ^ (Lithuanian) Jonas Zinkus, et. al, ed (1985). "Bychovco kronika". Tarybų Lietuvos enciklopedija. 1. Vilnius, Lithuania: Vyriausioji enciklopedijų redakcija. pp. 244.  


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