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Little League Baseball and Softball
Current season or competition:
2010 Little League World Series
Little League Baseball - Logo.jpg
Little League Baseball
Founded 1939 in Williamsport, Pa.
Claim to fame Largest organized youth sports organizarion in the world
Motto Courage, Character and Loyalty
Inaugural season 1939
Qualification Little League International Tournament
Official website www.LittleLeague.org
Founder Carl E. Stotz
Little League pitcher in Winesburg, Ohio
Little League, Wayne, Michigan

Little League Baseball and Softball is a non-profit organization in South Williamsport, Pennsylvania, United States which organizes local youth baseball and softball leagues throughout the U.S. and the rest of the world. Founded by Carl Stotz in 1939 as a three-team league in Williamsport, Pennsylvania, Little League Baseball encourages local volunteers to organize and operate Little League programs that are annual chartered through Little League International. Each league can structure itself to best serve the children in the area in which the league operates. Several specific divisions of Little League baseball and softball are available to children ages 5 to 18. The organization holds a congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code.[1]

The organization's administrative office is located in South Williamsport. The first Little League Baseball World Series was played in Williamsport in 1947. The Little League International Complex hosts the annual Little League Baseball World Series at Howard J. Lamade Stadium and Little League Volunteer Stadium, and is also the site of the Peter J. McGovern Little League Museum, which provides a history of Little League Baseball and Softball through interactive exhibits for children.

Contents

History

Carl Stotz a resident of Williamsport, Pennsylvania, founded Little League Baseball in 1939. He began experimenting with his idea in the summer of 1938 when he gathered his nephews, Jimmy and Major Gehron and their neighborhood friends. They tried different field dimensions over the course of the summer and played several informal games. The following summer Stotz felt that he was ready to establish what became Little League Baseball. The first league in Williamsport had just three teams, each sponsored by a different business. The first teams, Jumbo Pretzel, Lycoming Dairy and Lundy Lumber were managed by Carl Stotz and two of his friends George and Bert Bebble. The men, joined by their wives and another couple, formed the first-ever Little League Board of Directors. Stotz' dream of establishing a baseball league for boys to teach fair play and teamwork had come true.[2]

The first League game took place on June 6, 1939. Lundy Lumber defeated Lycoming Dairy, 23-8. Lycoming Dairy came back to claim the league championship. They, the first-half-season champions, defeated Lundy Lumber, the second-half champs, in a best-of-three season-ending series. The following year a second league was formed in Williamsport and from there Little League Baseball grew from three teams in a small Pennsylvania town to an international organization of nearly 200,000 teams in every U.S. state and over 80 countries all around the world.[2]

From 1951 through 1974, Little League was for boys only. In 1974, Little League rules were revised to allow participation by girls following the result of a lawsuit filed by the National Organization for Women on behalf of Maria Pepe.[3][4]

According to the Little League Baseball and Softball participation statistics following the 2008 season, there were nearly 2.6 million players in Little League Baseball worldwide, including 400,000 registered in Softball. For tournament purposes, Little League Baseball is divided into 16 geographic regions; 8 National and 8 international. Each Summer, Little League operates seven other World Series tournaments at various locations throughout the U.S. (Little League softball and Junior, Senior, and Big League baseball and softball).

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Regions

Map of Little League regions
For the regions in the other age divisions, see Junior, Senior & Big League Baseball #Regions.

The national regions represented in the annual Little League Baseball World Series are:

  • New England
  • Great Lakes
  • Mid-Atlantic
  • Midwest
  • Southeast
  • Southwest
  • Northwest (including Alaska)
  • West (including Hawaii)

The international regions are:

  • Canada
  • Mexico
  • Asia-Pacific
  • Japan
  • Europe
  • Middle East and Africa (MEA)
  • Latin America
  • Caribbean
A Little League World Series game in Howard J. Lamade Stadium in South Williamsport.

Timeline

Early years

1939: Little League is established by Carl E. Stotz. The first season is played in a lot near Bowman Field. Lycoming Dairy is the first season champion.[2]

1946: Little League has expanded to 12 leagues, all in Pennsylvania.[2]

1947: The first league outside of Pennsylvania is founded in Hammonton, New Jersey. Maynard League of Williamsport defeats a team from Lock Haven, Pennsylvania to win the first Little League World Series. Allen Yearick is the first Little League graduate to play professional baseball when he is signed by the Boston Braves.[2]

1948: Little League has grown to include 94 leagues. Lock Haven returns to the LLWS and defeats a league from St. Petersburg, Florida. The first corporate sponsor, U.S. Rubber, is announced,[2] who donate Pro-Keds shoes to teams at the LLWS.[5]

1949: Little League is featured in the Saturday Evening Post and on Newsreels. Carl Stotz gets hundreds of requests for information on how to form leagues at the local level from all over the United States. Little League incorporates in New York.[2]

1951: Leagues are formed in British Columbia, Canada and near the Panama Canal making them the first leagues outside the United States.[2]

1953: The Little League World Series is televised for the first time. Jim McKay provides the play by play for CBS. Howard Cosell provides play by play for ABC Radio. Joey Jay of Middletown, Connecticut and the Milwaukee Braves is the first Little League graduate to play in the Major Leagues.[2]

1954: Boog Powell, who later played for the Baltimore Orioles plays in the Little League World Series for Lakeland, Florida. Ken Hubbs, who later played for the Chicago Cubs, plays in the LLWS for Colton, California. Little League has expanded to more than 3,300 leagues.[2]

1955: There is a Little League organization in each of the 48 U.S. States. George W. Bush begins playing Little League as a catcher for the Cubs of the Central Little League in Midland, Texas. He is the first Little League graduate to be elected President of the United States.[2]

1956: Carl Stotz severs his ties with Little League Baseball in a dispute over the direction and control of Little League. Stotz remains active in youth baseball with the "Original League" in Williamsport.[2] Little League records its first on-field death in Garland, Texas as 12-year-old Richard "Rick" Oden is hit in the head by a pitch thrown by Jerry Armstrong. The city park location of the incident is renamed "Rick Oden Field." As batting helmets are yet to be developed, Garland teams finish the season wearing youth football helmets over their baseball caps when batting. Later that year, Fred Shapiro throws a perfect game in the Little League World Series.

International era

U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice poses with Little Leaguers from Chile in Santiago

1957: Angel Marcias throws a perfect game and Monterrey, Mexico becomes the first team from outside the United States to win the Little League World Series.[2]

1959: The Little League World Series moves from Williamsport to the newly built Little League Headquarters in South Williamsport. The protective baseball helmet is developed by Dr. Creighton J. Hale.[2]

1960: A team from West Berlin, West Germany is the first team from Europe to play in the Little League World Series. The series is broadcast live for the first time on ABC. Little League has grown to 27,400 teams in more than 5,500 leagues.[2]

1961: Brian Sipe, future quarterback for the Cleveland Browns, plays for the series champions from El Cajon, California.[2]

1962: Jackie Robinson attends the Little League World Series. President John F. Kennedy proclaims National Little League Week.[2]

1963: Central Little League, of Duluth, Minnesota wins the third place game, beating Turkey.

1967: A team from West Tokyo, Japan is the first team from Asia to win the Little League World Series.[2]

1969: Taiwan begins a dominant era that would see them win 17 Little League World Series titles.[2]

1971: The aluminum baseball bat is first used. It was partly developed by Little League Baseball. Lloyd McClendon of Gary, Indiana dominates the Little League World Series, hitting five home runs in five at-bats. He later played in the Major Leagues and become the first Little League graduate to manage an MLB club with the Pittsburgh Pirates.[2]

1973: Ed Vosberg plays in the Little League World Series for Tucson, Arizona. He later played in the College World Series for the University of Arizona in 1980 and the World Series in 1997 for the Florida Marlins. Vosberg is the first person to have played in all three world series.[2]

1974: Girls formally permitted to play in the Little League program; and Little League Softball program is created.

1975: In a controversial decision, all foreign teams are banned from the Little League World Series. International play is restored the following year.[2]

1980: A team from Tampa, Florida representing Belmont Heights Little League is led by two future major leaguers Derek Bell and Gary Sheffield. Bell returns the following year and Belmont Heights again loses in the finals to a team from Taiwan.[2]

1982: The Peter J. McGovern Little League Museum opens. Cody Webster leads a team from Kirkland, Washington in an upset victory of a powerful team from Taiwan. It was Taiwan's first loss in 31 games.[2]

1984: Seoul, South Korea wins the first title for a South Korean team. They defeat a team from Altamonte Springs, Florida led by future Boston Red Sox catcher, Jason Varitek.[2]

1988: Tom Seaver is the first former Little Leaguer to be enshrined in the Peter J. McGovern Museum Hall of Excellence.[2]

1989: Poland becomes the first former Warsaw Pact nation to receive a Little League charter. Trumbull, Connecticut, led by future NHL star Chris Drury, wins the Little League World Series.[2]

1991: Future NL All Star Jason Marquis pitches the Staten Island South Shore Little League team to third place in the Little League World Series over Canada, throwing a no-hitter.[6]

1992: Carl Stotz, the founder of Little League, dies. Lights are installed at Lamade Stadium allowing for the first night games to be played. The series is expanded from single elimination to round robin format.

1992: Long Beach, California managed by former Major Leaguer Jeff Burroughs and led by his son future Major Leaguer Sean Burroughs is named series champion after Zamboanga City, Philippines is forced to forfeit for playing with ineligible players.[2]

1993: Long Beach repeats as champions, defeating Coquivacoa Little League of Maracaibo, Venezuela. They are the first U.S. team to successfully defend their title.[2]

1997: ESPN2 broadcasts regional play for the first time. Taiwan's baseball association withdraws from Little League Baseball. Bradenton, FL and Pottsville, PA play at Lamade Stadium before the largest crowd ever to attend a non-championship game. The crowd was estimated at over 35,000 fans.[2]

1999: Burkina-Faso becomes the 100th nation with a Little League organization. Hirkata Little League of Osaka, Japan becomes the first Japanese team to win a title since 1976.[2]

2000: An expansion project begins at Little League International. Volunteer Stadium is built. This allows the [2]pool of participants to be doubled from 8 to 16 the following year.

2001: The LLWS expands from 8 to 16 teams, with the following changes to regional lineups (post-2000 regions in bold):

  • US regions:
    • The East Region splits into the New England and Mid-Atlantic Regions.
    • The Central Region splits into the Great Lakes and Midwest Regions.
    • The South Region splits into the Southeast and Southwest Regions.
    • The West Region splits into the Northwest Region.
  • International regions:
    • Canada remains intact as a region.
    • The Latin America Region spins off new regions for the Caribbean and Mexico.
    • The Far East Region splits into the Asia and Pacific Regions.
    • The Europe Region spins off the TransAtlantic Region.
      • These two regions were geographically identical, differing in the required composition of playing rosters. Transatlantic teams were required to consist of a majority of players who were nationals of the USA, Canada, or Japan. Europe teams could have no more than three nationals of those countries.

In other news, Volunteer Stadium is opened. George W. Bush becomes the first U.S. President to visit the Little League World Series.[2] Led by phenom Danny Almonte, pitching the first perfect game since 1957, the Rolando Paulino All Stars (Bronx, NY) finish third in the series. The team's entire postseason, however, is wiped from the books when it is found that Almonte was 14 years old.

2004: Effective with the 2004 LLWS, the Europe Region is renamed EMEA, for Europe, Middle East, Africa.

2007: Little League expands into Australia for the first time. Effective with the 2007 LLWS, the Asia and Pacific regions are merged to form the Asia-Pacific Region, with Japan being split into its own region.

2008: Effective with this year's LLWS, the Transatlantic and EMEA regions are reorganized into the Europe and MEA regions. The previous nationality restrictions for players from these regions are abolished. Hawai'i wins the 2008 Little League World Series beating Mexico in the Final.

2008: Little League International relocates the Southeast Region Headquarters From Gulfport, Fla., to Warner Robins, Ga. Little League International completes renovation of its Administration building in South Williamsport, Pa.

2010: Little League announces plans to add a "pilot" division in baseball for ages 12-13, to help baseball Little Leaguers make the transition to regulation-size fields in Junior League Baseball.[7]

Little League World Series

A game of the 2007 Little League World Series

The best-known event in the Little League calendar is the annual Little League Baseball World Series, which is held every August in South Williamsport, Pennsylvania. Tournaments leading up to the World Series are held throughout the world, including the territories of the U.S. Virgin Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, and Puerto Rico, and also across the rest of the world. In 2003 for example, there were tournaments in Canada, Europe (Germany and Poland), Latin America (Mexico, Panama, Curaçao, Aruba, Peru and Venezuela), and in Asia (Japan, Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan).

Little, Junior, Senior, and Big League baseball & softball World Series

The Little League Baseball World Series is just one of eight World Series every year. There are series for baseball and softball in Little, Junior, Senior, and Big Leagues, each one held in a different location.

Museum

Awards

  • Good Sport of the Year Award[8]
  • Challenger Award[9]
  • ASAP (A Safety Awareness Program) Award[10]
  • Bill Shea Distinguished Little League Graduate Award[11]
  • Mom of the Year Award[12]
  • George and Barbara Bush Little League Parents of the Year Award[13]
  • Volunteer of the Year Award[14]
  • Howard and Gail Paster Little League Urban Initiative Volunteer of the Year Award[15]
  • Howard Hartman Little League Friendship Award[16]

Baseball divisions

Little League Baseball has several baseball divisions for boys, based on age.

Tee-Ball

Minor League

Little League

"Pilot" division for ages 12-13

See footnote[7]

Junior League

Senior League

Big League

Softball divisions

Little League Baseball has several softball divisions for girls, based on age.

Little League Softball

Junior League Softball

Senior League Softball

Big League Softball

Rules

The official rules of Little League Baseball are copyrighted, but are available to the general public by online subscription or purchase.[17] Copies are provided to each team.[18] The playing rules for the baseball divisions essentially follow the Official Baseball Rules, especially with respect to the upper divisions (Junior, Senior, and Big League). Some major exceptions are outlined below; these apply to Little League (Minor and Major, ages 7-12) except as otherwise noted.

Length of Game

A regulation game is six innings. If the game is called prior to the completion of six innings, it is considered an official game if four innings have been completed (three and a half, if the home team leads); otherwise, if at least one inning has been completed, it is a suspended game.

In the Junior, Senior, and Big League levels (ages 13-18), a game is seven innings and is official if five innings have been completed.

Mandatory Play Rule

In all divisions except Senior and Big League, every player on the team roster must have at least one plate appearance and play six outs on defense in each game. The penalty for a manager violating the rule is a two-game suspension. This rule is waived if the game is completed prior to six innings.

Playing Field

The size of the field is dependent on the division of play.[19]

Tee Ball

The distance between the bases is generally 50 feet.

Minor League and Little League

The distance between the bases is 60 feet and the distance from the pitcher’s mound to home plate is 46 feet. Outfield fences must be at least 165 feet from home plate, but are usually 200 feet or more (the fields at the Williamsport complex have fences 225 feet away). The bases and pitching rubber are also slightly smaller than in standard baseball. Also, unlike fields at almost all levels of competitive baseball for teenagers and adults, the distance between home plate and the outfield fence is constant throughout fair territory.

Junior League, Senior League, and Big League

The distance between the bases is 90 feet, the same as for regulation Major League Baseball fields. The distance between the pitcher's mound to home plate is 60.5 feet, also identical to that of MLB. The minimum outfield distance in the upper divisions is 300 feet, while the maximum for Big League is 425 feet. (Base paths of 80 feet are optional for Junior League regular season play.)

Equipment

A Little Leaguer executing a bunt

Bats (all levels) may be made from material other than wood (such as aluminum or composite materials) and must be approved for use in Little League Baseball. The maximum bat length is thirty-three (33) inches and maximum barrel diameter may not exceed 2 1/4 inches. Beginning in 2009 all Little League bats must be labeled with a Bat Performance Factor (BPF) of 1.15 or lower.

Bats for the Junior League level may have a maximum length of thirty-four (34) inches and a maximum barrel diameter of 2 5/8 inches. Bats for the Big and Senior League levels may have a maximum length of thirty-six (36) inches and a maximum barrel diameter of 2 3/4 inches for wood bats and 2 5/8 inches for non-wood bats. Big and Senior League bats must meet the Ball Exit Speed Ratio (BESR) testing standards that are currently used in the NCAA and NFHS (high school).[20]

Base running

A base runner may not leave their occupied base from the time-of-pitch until the pitch reaches the batter.

If a fielder is waiting at the base with the ball, an advancing runner must attempt to avoid contact. A runner may not slide head-first except when retreating to a previously held base.

In the upper levels, runners must still make an attempt to avoid contact if possible, and may not maliciously initiate contact with a fielder.

Batting

The upper limit of the strike zone extends to the batter's armpits.[21]

In Tee-Ball, Minor League, and Little League, the batter is out after the third strike regardless of whether the pitched ball is held by the catcher. In Junior, Senior, and Big League, a batter may attempt to advance to first base on a dropped third strike.

Substitution

Players who have been substituted for may return to the game under certain conditions, though a pitcher who has left the game may not return to pitch.

Pitchers

Pitchers in all divisions are limited to a specific pitch count per game and a mandatory rest period between outings. These vary with age and the rest period also depends on the number of pitches thrown.[22]

Also, prior to 2008 a pitcher could intentionally walk a batter by simply announcing his intent to do so and not have to actually throw any pitches; however, beginning in 2008 the pitcher must now actually pitch the required four balls (which are counted against the pitch count).

Local options

Local leagues have a certain amount of flexibility. For example, a league may opt to use the "continuous batting order" rule (4.04), under which each player on the team’s roster bats, even when not in the defensive lineup. Leagues may also waive the "ten-run rule" (4.10(e)) which ends the game if one team is ahead by ten or more runs after four innings.[23][24]

See also

References

General

  • Van Auken, Lance and Robin. Play Ball: The Story of Little League Baseball, Pennsylvania State University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-271-02118-7

Notes

  1. ^ 36 U.S.C. §§ 130501-130513, Chapter 1305—Little League Baseball, Incorporated
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag "History of Little League". Little League. http://www.littleleague.org/about/history.asp. Retrieved 2007-06-26. 
  3. ^ Little League: History and Mission: Chronology
  4. ^ "Little League World Series Opening Ceremony to Mark 30th Anniversary of Decision Allowing Girls to Play". August 9, 2004. http://www.littleleague.org/media/newsarchive/05_2004/04mariapepeopening.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-13. 
  5. ^ Geist, Bill. Little League Confidential: One Coach's Completely Unauthorized Tale of Survival (1st Edition ed.). New York, NY: Dell. ISBN 0440508770. 
  6. ^ "World Series may pit former Little League stars against each other," ESPN, 10/25/04, accessed 6/6/07
  7. ^ a b "Little League plans new division". Sports Illustrated. January 11, 2010. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/2010/baseball/mlb/01/11/little.league.division.ap/index.html?xid=si_mlb. Retrieved 2010-01-14. 
  8. ^ Good Sport of the Year Award. Little League. Retrieved 2009-11-25.
  9. ^ Challenger Award. Little League. Retrieved 2009-11-25.
  10. ^ 2010 ASAP Awards Overview and Past Winners (national and regional). Little League. Retrieved 2009-12-06.
  11. ^ Bill Shea Distinguished Little League Graduate Award. Little League. Retrieved 2009-11-25.
  12. ^ Mom of the Year Award. Little League. Retrieved 2009-11-25.
  13. ^ George and Barbara Bush Little League Parents of the Year Award. Little League. Retrieved 2009-11-25.
  14. ^ Volunteer of the Year Award. Little League. Retrieved 2009-11-25.
  15. ^ Howard and Gail Paster Little League Urban Initiative Volunteer of the Year Award. Little League. Retrieved 2009-11-25.
  16. ^ "Howard Hartman Award at Little League World Series", Little League Communications Department, August 15, 2008. Little League. Retrieved 2009-12-06.
  17. ^ Little League: 2009 E-rules Resources
  18. ^ Gub, Ted (July 29, 2007). "Who's on First? Who Wants to Know, and Why?". Washington Post: p. D1. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/07/28/AR2007072801205.html. Retrieved 2008-07-03. 
  19. ^ Little League Rule Summary
  20. ^ The BESR (Ball Exit Speed Ratio)
  21. ^ THE STRIKE ZONE: Location, Location, Location, Little League© Online
  22. ^ Pitch Count Resource Page, Little League© Online
  23. ^ Rules of Little League, Seattle Community Network (scn.org)
  24. ^ Little League Rules and Interpretations of Note, Western Maine Board of Baseball Umpires (wmbumpires.com)

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Proper noun

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Little League

  1. (US) an organization that sponsors and organizes baseball and softball leagues for children

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