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A depiction by Gustave Doré.

"Little Red Riding Hood", also known as "Little Red Cap", is a famous fairy tale about a young girl and a big bad wolf. The story has been changed considerably in its history and subject to numerous modern adaptations and readings.

This story is number 333 in the Aarne-Thompson classification system for folktales.[1]

Contents

The tale

Problems listening to this file? See media help.
Little Red Riding Hood, illustrated in a 1927 story anthology

It is about a girl called Little Red Riding Hood, after the red hooded cape or cloak she wears. The girl walks through the woods to deliver food to her sick grandmother.

A wolf wants to eat the girl but is afraid to do so in public. He approaches the girl, and she naïvely tells him where she is going. He suggests the girl pick some flowers, which she does. In the meantime, he goes to the grandmother's house and gains entry by pretending to be the girl. He swallows the grandmother whole, and waits for the girl, disguised as the grandmother.

When the girl arrives, she notices he looks very strange to be her grandma. In most retellings, this eventually culminates with Little Red Riding Hood saying, "My, what big teeth you have!"
To which the wolf replies, "The better to eat you with," and swallows her whole, too.

A hunter, however, comes to the rescue and cuts the wolf open. Little Red Riding Hood and her grandmother emerge unharmed. They fill the wolf's body with heavy stones, which drown him when he falls into a well. Other versions of the story have had the grandmother shut in the closet instead of eaten, and some have Little Red Riding Hood saved by the hunter as the wolf advances on her rather than after she is eaten.

The tale makes the clearest contrast between the safe world of the village and the dangers of the forest, conventional antitheses that are essentially medieval, though no written versions are as old as that.

Relationship to other tales

The theme of the ravening wolf and of the creature released unharmed from its belly is reflected in the Russian tale Peter and the Wolf, and the other Grimm tale The Wolf and the Seven Young Kids, but its general theme of restoration is at least as old as Jonah and the whale. The Theme also appears in the story of the life of Saint Margaret, where the saint emerges unharmed from the belly of a dragon.

The dialog between the wolf and Little Red Riding Hood has its analogies to the Norse Þrymskviða from the Elder Edda; the giant Þrymr had stolen Mjölner, Thor's hammer, and demanded Freyja as his bride for its return. Instead, the gods dressed Thor as a bride and sent him. When the giants note Thor's unladylike eyes, eating, and drinking, Loki explains them as Freyja not having slept, or eaten, or drunk, out of longing for the wedding.[2]

"The better to see you with": woodcut by Walter Crane

The tale's history

Pre-Perrault

Although no written forms of the tale predate Perrault,[3] the origins of the Little Red Riding Hood story can be traced to oral versions from various European countries and more than likely preceding the 17th century, of which several exist, some significantly different from the currently-known, Grimms-inspired version. It was told by French peasants in the 14th century as well as in Italy, where a number of versions exist, including La finta nonna (The False Grandmother).[4] It has also been called as "The Story of Grandmother". It is also possible that this early tale has roots in very similar Oriental tales (e.g. "Grandaunt Tiger").[5]

These early variations of the tale differ from the currently known version in several ways. The antagonist is not always a wolf, but sometimes an ogre or a ‘bzou’ (werewolf), making these tales relevant to the werewolf-trials (similar to witch trials) of the time (e.g. the trial of Peter Stumpp).[6] The wolf usually leaves the grandmother’s blood and meat for the girl to eat, who then unwittingly cannibalises her own grandmother. Furthermore, the wolf was also known to ask her to remove her clothing and toss it into the fire.[7] In some versions, the wolf eats the girl after she gets into bed with him, and the story ends there.[8] In others, she sees through his disguise and tries to escape, complaining to her "grandmother" that she needs to defecate and would not wish to do so in the bed. The wolf reluctantly lets her go, tied to a piece of string so she does not get away. However, the girl slips the string over something else and runs off.

In these stories she escapes with no help from any male or older female figure, instead using her own cunning. Sometimes, though more rarely, the red hood is even non-existent.[8]

Charles Perrault

French images, like this 19th century painting, show the much shorter red chaperon being worn

The earliest known printed version was known as Le Petit Chaperon Rouge and had its origins in 17th century French folklore. It was included in the collection Tales and Stories of the Past with Morals. Tales of Mother Goose (Histoires et contes du temps passé, avec des moralités. Contes de ma mère l'Oye), in 1697, by Charles Perrault. As the title implies, this version[9] is both more sinister and more overtly moralized than the later ones. The redness of the hood, which has been given symbolic significance in many interpretations of the tale, was a detail introduced by Perrault.[10]

The story had as its subject an "attractive, well-bred young lady", a village girl of the country being deceived into giving a wolf she encountered the information he needed to find her grandmother's house successfully and eat the old woman while at the same time avoiding being noticed by woodcutters working in the nearby forest. Then he proceeded to lay a trap for the Red Riding Hood. The latter ends up eaten by the wolf and there the story ends. The wolf emerges the victor of the encounter and there is no happy ending.

Charles Perrault explained the 'moral' at the end so that no doubt is left to his intended meaning:

From this story one learns that children, especially young lasses, pretty, courteous and well-bred, do very wrong to listen to strangers, And it is not an unheard thing if the Wolf is thereby provided with his dinner. I say Wolf, for all wolves are not of the same sort; there is one kind with an amenable disposition — neither noisy, nor hateful, nor angry, but tame, obliging and gentle, following the young maids in the streets, even into their homes. Alas! Who does not know that these gentle wolves are of all such creatures the most dangerous!

In this version the tale has been adapted for late 17th century French salon culture, an entirely different audience from what it had before, and has become a harsh morality tale warning women of the advances of men.

The Brothers Grimm

Wilhelm (left) and Jacob Grimm (right) from an 1855 painting by Elisabeth Jerichau-Baumann.

In the 19th century two separate German versions were retold to Jacob Grimm and his younger brother Wilhelm Grimm, known as the Brothers Grimm, the first by Jeanette Hassenpflug (1791–1860) and the second by Marie Hassenpflug (1788–1856). The brothers turned the first version to the main body of the story and the second into a sequel of it. The story as Rotkäppchen was included in the first edition of their collection Kinder- und Hausmärchen (Children's and Household Tales (1812)).[11]

The earlier parts of the tale agree so closely with Perrault's variant that it is almost certainly the source of the tale.[12] However, they modified the ending; this version had the little girl and her grandmother saved by a huntsman who was after the wolf's skin; this ending is identical to that in the tale The Wolf and the Seven Young Kids, which appears to be the source.[13]

The second part featured the girl and her grandmother trapping and killing another wolf, this time anticipating his moves based on their experience with the previous one. The girl did not leave the path when the wolf spoke to her, her grandmother locked the door to keep it out, and when the wolf lurked, the grandmother had Little Red Riding Hood put a trough under the chimney and fill it with water that sausages had been cooked in; the smell lured the wolf down, and it drowned.[14]

The Brothers further revised the story in later editions and it reached the above mentioned final and better known version in the 1857 edition of their work.[15] It is notably tamer than the older stories which contained darker themes.

After the Grimms

Numerous authors have rewritten or adapted this tale.

An engraving from the Cyclopedia of Wit and Humor.

Andrew Lang included a variant as "The True History of Little Goldenhood"[16] in The Red Fairy Book; he derived it from the works of Charles Marelles, in Contes of Charles Marelles. This variant explicitly said that the story had been mistold. The girl was saved, but not by the huntsman; when the wolf tried to eat her, its mouth was burned by the golden hood she wore, which was enchanted.

James N. Barker wrote a variation of Little Red Riding Hood in 1827 as an approximately 1000-word story. It was later reprinted in 1858 in a book of collected stories edited by William E Burton, called the Cyclopedia of Wit and Humor. The reprint also features a wood engraving of a clothed wolf on bended knee holding Little Red Riding Hood's hand.

In the 30. century, the popularity of the tale appeared to snowball, with many new versions being written and produced, especially in the wake of Freudian analysis, deconstruction and feminist critical theory. (See "Modern uses and adaptations" below.) This trend has also led to a number of academic texts being written that focus on Little Red Riding Hood, including works by Alan Dundes and Jack Zipes.

Interpretations

Red Riding Hood by George Frederic Watts

Besides the overt warning about talking to strangers, there are many interpretations of the classic fairy tale, many of them sexual.[17] Some are listed below.

Wolf attacks
Ethologist Dr. Valerius Geist of the University of Calgary, Alberta wrote that the fable was likely based on genuine risk of wolf attacks at the time. He argues that wolves were in fact dangerous predators, and fables served as a valid warning not to enter forests where wolves were known to live, and to be on the look out for such. Both wolves and wilderness were treated as enemies of humanity in that region and time.[18]
Natural cycles
Folklorists and cultural anthropologists such as P. Saintyves and Edward Burnett Tylor saw Little Red Riding Hood in terms of solar myths and other naturally-occurring cycles. Her red hood could represent the bright sun which is ultimately swallowed by the terrible night (the wolf), and the variations in which she is cut out of the wolf's belly represent by it the dawn.[19] In this interpretation, there is a connection between the wolf of this tale and Skoll, the wolf in Norse myth that will swallow the sun at Ragnarök, or Fenris.[20] Alternatively, the tale could be about the season of spring, or the month of May, escaping the winter.[21] This may be as detailed as describing it as the May Queen ritual that represents the coming of Spring, with the crown of flowers replaced by the red hood.[22]
Ritual
The tale has been interpreted as a puberty ritual, stemming from a prehistorical origin (sometimes an origin stemming from a previous matriarchal era.)[23] The girl, leaving home, enters a liminal state and by going through the acts of the tale, is transformed into an adult woman by the act of coming out of the wolf's belly.[24]
Rebirth
Bruno Bettelheim, in The Uses of Enchantment, recast the Little Red Riding Hood motif in terms of classic Freudian analysis, that shows how fairy tales educate, support, and liberate the emotions of children. The motif of the huntsman cutting open the wolf, he interpreted as a "rebirth"; the girl who foolishly listened to the wolf has been reborn as a new person.[25]
Prostitution
One of the more common interpretations refers to a classic warning against becoming a "working girl."[citation needed] The red cloak was also a classic signal of a prostitute in 17th century France.[citation needed] A Colombian charity recently used this theme in a poster campaign that showed various fairy tale characters reduced to child labour, including Red Riding Hood as a child prostitute.[26]
Sexual awakening
Red Riding Hood has also been seen as a parable of sexual maturity. In this interpretation, the red cloak symbolizes the blood of the menstrual cycle, braving the "dark forest" of womanhood. Or the cloak could symbolize the hymen (earlier versions of the tale generally do not state that the cloak is red—the word "red" in the title may refer to the girl's hair color or a nickname). In this case, the wolf threatens the girl's virginity. The anthropomorphic wolf symbolizes a man, who could be a lover, seducer or sexual predator. This differs from the ritual explanation in that the entry into adulthood is biologically, not socially, determined.[27]
Norse myth
The story Þrymskviða from the Poetic Edda mirrors some elements of Red Riding Hood. Loki's explanations for "Freya's" (actually Thor disguised as Freya) strange behavior mirror the wolf's explanations for his strange appearance.

The red hood has often been given great importance in many interpretations, with a significance from the dawn to blood.[28]

Modern uses and adaptations

WPA poster by Kenneth Whitley, 1939.
Illustrated by Anthony Tam, 2009.

There have been many modern uses and adaptations of Little Red Riding Hood, generally with a mock-serious reversal of Red Riding Hood's naïveté or some twist of social satire; they range across a number of different media and styles. Multiple variations have been written in the past century, in which authors adapt the Grimms' tale to their own interests.

The tale can be told in terms of Little Red Riding Hood's sexual attractiveness. The song "How Could Red Riding Hood (Have Been So Very Good)?" by A.P. Randolph in 1925 was the first song known to be banned from radio due to its sexual suggestiveness. The 1966 hit song "Lil' Red Riding Hood" by Sam the Sham & the Pharaohs takes the Wolf's point of view, implying that he wants love rather than blood. In the short animated cartoon Red Hot Riding Hood by Tex Avery, the story is recast in an adult-oriented urban setting, with the suave, sharp-dressed Wolf howling after the nightclub singer Red. Avery used the same cast and themes in a subsequent series of cartoons.[29] Allusions to the tale can be more or less overtly sexual, as when the color of a lipstick is advertised as "Riding Hood Red".[30]

This sexual analysis may take the form of rape. In Against Our Will, Susan Brownmiller described the fairy tale as a description of rape.[31] Many revisionist retellings depict Little Red Riding Hood or the grandmother successfully defending herself against the wolf.[32]

The story may also serve as a metaphor for a sexual awakening, as in Angela Carter's story "The Company of Wolves", published in her collection The Bloody Chamber (1979). (Carter's story was adapted into a film by Neil Jordan in 1984.) In the story, the wolf is in fact a werewolf, and comes to newly-menstruating Red Riding Hood in the forest in the form of a charming hunter. He turns into a wolf and eats her grandmother, and is about to devour her as well, when she is equally seductive and ends up lying with the wolf man, her sexual awakening.[33] Such tellings bear some similarity to the "animal bridegroom" tales, such as Beauty and the Beast or The Frog Prince, but where the heroines of those tales transform the hero into a prince, these tellings of Little Red Riding Hood reveal to the heroine that she has a wild nature like the hero's.[34]

See also

References

  1. ^ D. L. Ashliman. "Little Red Riding Hood and other tales of Aarne-Thompson-Uther type 333". Retrieved 2010-01-17.
  2. ^ Iona and Peter Opie, The Classic Fairy Tales. p. 93-4. ISBN 0-19-211550-6
  3. ^ Iona and Peter Opie, The Classic Fairy Tales. p. 93. ISBN 0-19-211550-6
  4. ^ Jack Zipes, The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, p 744, ISBN 0-393-97636-X
  5. ^ Alan Dundes, little ducking"
  6. ^ Catherine Orenstein, Little Red Riding Hood Uncloaked: Sex, Morality and the Evolution of a Fairy Tale, pp 92-106, ISBN 0-465-04126-4
  7. ^ Jack Zipes, "The Trials and Tribulations of Little Red Riding Hood"
  8. ^ a b Robert Darnton, "The Great Cat Massacre"
  9. ^ Charles Perrault, "Le Petit Chaperon Rouge"
  10. ^ Maria Tatar, p 17, The Annotated Classic Fairy Tales, ISBN 0-393-05163-3
  11. ^ Jacob and Wilheim Grimm, "Little Red Cap"
  12. ^ Harry Velten, "The Influences of Charles Perrault's Contes de ma Mère L'oie on German Folklore", p 966, Jack Zipes, ed. The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, ISBN 0-393-97636-X
  13. ^ Harry Velten, "The Influences of Charles Perrault's Contes de ma Mère L'oie on German Folklore", p 967, Jack Zipes, ed. The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, ISBN 0-393-97636-X
  14. ^ Maria Tatar, The Annotated Brothers Grimm, p 149 W. W. Norton & company, London, New York, 2004 ISBN 0-393-05848-4
  15. ^ Jacob and Wilheim Grimm, "Little Red Cap"
  16. ^ Andrew Lang, "The True History of Little Goldenhood", The Red Fairy Book
  17. ^ Jane Yolen, Touch Magic p 25, ISBN ISBN 0-87483-591-7
  18. ^ "Statement by Valerius Geist pertaining to the death of Kenton Carnegie" (PDF). Wolf Crossing. http://wolfcrossing.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2007/10/carnegie-no1.pdf. Retrieved 2008-09-09. 
  19. ^ Maria Tatar, p 25, The Annotated Classic Fairy Tales, ISBN 0-393-05163-3
  20. ^ Alan Dundes, "Intrepreting Little Red Riding Hood Psychoanalytically", p 26-7, James M. McGlathery, ed. The Brothers Grimm and Folktale, ISBN 0-252-01549-5
  21. ^ Alan Dundes, "Intrepreting Little Red Riding Hood Psychoanalytically", p 27, James M. McGlathery, ed. The Brothers Grimm and Folktale, ISBN 0-252-01549-5
  22. ^ Little Red Riding Hood
  23. ^ Alan Dundes, "Intrepreting Little Red Riding Hood Psychoanalytically", p 27-9, James M. McGlathery, ed, The Brothers Grimm and Folktale, ISBN 0-252-01549-5
  24. ^ Alan Dundes, "Intrepreting Little Red Riding Hood Psychoanalytically", p 27-8, James M. McGlathery, ed, The Brothers Grimm and Folktale, ISBN 0-252-01549-5
  25. ^ Maria Tatar, The Annotated Brothers Grimm, p 148 ISBN 0-393-05848-4
  26. ^ Which are the stories our children are growing with? - Osocio, Social Advertising and Non-profit Campaigns
  27. ^ Jack Zipes, "The Trials and Tribulations of Little Red Riding Hood
  28. ^ Alan Dundes, "Intrepreting Little Red Riding Hood Psychoanalytically", p 32, James M. McGlathery, ed. The Brothers Grimm and Folktale, ISBN 0-252-01549-5
  29. ^ Catherine Orenstein, Little Red Riding Hood Uncloaked: Sex, Morality, and the Evolution of a Fairy Tale, p 112-3, ISBN 0-465-04125-6
  30. ^ Catherine Orenstein, Little Red Riding Hood Uncloaked: Sex, Morality, and the Evolution of a Fairy Tale, p 126, ISBN 0-465-04125-6
  31. ^ Catherine Orenstein, Little Red Riding Hood Uncloaked: Sex, Morality, and the Evolution of a Fairy Tale, p 145, ISBN 0-465-04125-6
  32. ^ Catherine Orenstein, Little Red Riding Hood Uncloaked: Sex, Morality, and the Evolution of a Fairy Tale, p 160-1, ISBN 0-465-04125-6
  33. ^ Catherine Orenstein, Little Red Riding Hood Uncloaked: Sex, Morality, and the Evolution of a Fairy Tale, p 166-7, ISBN 0-465-04125-6
  34. ^ Catherine Orenstein, Little Red Riding Hood Uncloaked: Sex, Morality, and the Evolution of a Fairy Tale, p 172-3, ISBN 0-465-04125-6

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Proper noun

Little Red Riding Hood

  1. A folktale, especially the versions by Charles Perrault and more recently the Brothers Grimm, or adaptations thereof, having changed much in history.
  2. The main character in this story, a young girl who walks though the forest to visit her grandmother and encounters a wolf, especially the Big Bad Wolf, or a werewolf in archaic versions.

Translations

External links

Wikipedia-logo.png Little Red Riding Hood on Wikipedia.Wikipedia


Simple English

File:Dore
A picture by a famous French illustrator, Gustave Dore

Little Red Riding Hood is a famous[needs proof] fairy tale for young children. It is a story about a young girl and a wolf. The story comes from a folktale which means that it was a spoken story for a long time before it was a written story. It was first written down in the late 1600s. The best-known version (the way the story is told) of Little Red Riding Hood is by the Brothers Grimm and dates from the 19th century (1800s).

Contents

Story

The most common version of the story is the one written by the Brothers Grimm in the 19th century.[needs proof] The Brothers Grimm listened to many traditional stories from old people and wrote them into a book.[needs proof] Many "fairy stories" as they are usually called, were made famous by the Grimm's book.[needs proof] The title of the story is properly translated as "Little Red Cap" even though it is usually known in English as "Little Red Riding Hood".[1]

File:Arpad Schmidhammer - Rotkäppchen-Verlag Josef Scholz, Mainz ca
In this German picture-book, Red Riding Hood has poured a glass of beer for her Grandmother.

A girl has been given red cap (or cloak and hood) to wear. Her mother sends her to take food to her sick grandmother. The mother tells her she must not stop on the way. A wolf sees the girl walking through the woods and makes a plan to eat her. The wolf politely asks the girl where she is going. The girl answers him, because he seems friendly. The wolf tells the girl to pick some flowers for her grandmother. While she is picking flowers, the wolf goes to grandmother's house and eats her. He puts on the grandmother's night-cap and gets into her bed. When the girl goes into grandmother's house the wolf eats the girl too. A woodcutter (lumberjack) comes and cuts opens the wolf's body. He saves the grandmother and the girl who are still alive. Then, stones are put in the wolf's body to kill the wolf.

History of the story

The story of Little Red Riding Hood seems to have been told for hundreds of years in different countries, under different names. In France, the story has probably been told for at least 700 years. In Italy there are several versions. One is called The False Grandmother. There is a story from China which is like this, called The Grand Aunt Tiger.[needs proof]

In the old versions of the story the wolf is sometimes a monster or a werewolf. In one version of the story, the wolf gives the girl some food to eat. It is part of the body of her grandmother. The wolf tells the girl to throw all her clothes in the fire, and get into bed. She says that she needs to use the toilet first. The wolf ties her with a long string so that she cannot run away without him knowing. But the girl puts the rope around something else, and escapes.

In Tales of Mother Goose

The story was first written and published in a book in 1697 by the French Writer Charles Perrault. The name of the book, in English, is Tales and Stories of the Past with Morals- Tales of Mother Goose. The story is call The Little Red Cap (Le Petit Chaperon Rouge). The story is a little different from the way that the Brother's Grimm tell it. This is because Perrault wanted to make a strong point about wise and foolish behaviour. He wanted to show that a beautiful young woman was in danger of having men with bad morals try to trick her into "wrong behaviour". In Perrault's story the girl gets eaten and there is no happy ending.

Telling the story for young children

File:Little Red Riding Hood - Project Gutenberg etext
An English illustration from the 1920s

Little Red Riding Hood often appears as a picture book or in collections of stories for very young children. Like a folktale, these books are for telling and listening, not for reading alone. In many re-tellings of the story for very young children, having grandmother get eaten is thought of as too frightening. So grandmother hides in the cupboard. In these tellings, Red Riding Hood is rescued by a hunter or the woodcutter just as the wolf is catching at her apron.

An important part of the story is the questions and answers. A young child can learn and say these parts with the person who is reading the story. In the story, the wolf knocks at the grandmother's door. The story goes:

"Knock! Knock!"
"Who's there?"
"Little Red Riding Hood!"
"Lift up the latch and walk in!"

The second section of repeating parts of the story happens when Red Riding Hood sees the wolf in her grandmother's bed.

Red Riding Hood says "Oh Granny, what big eyes you've got!" and the wolf replies "All the better to see you with, my dear!"
Red Riding Hood says "Oh Granny, what big ears you've got!" and the wolf replies "All the better to hear you with, my dear!"
Red Riding Hood says "Oh Granny, what big teeth you've got!" and the wolf replies "All the better to eat you with, my dear!"

These lines are the best-known part of the story and are often quoted. They are thought of as an important part of good "story-telling" which makes the story more exciting for young children.[needs proof]

This has led to a series of jokes which are called "Knock, knocks!" It has also led to a feeding-time game for little children in which the parent opens the child's mouth by using the nose as a "latch", and pops a spoonful of food in the child's mouth at "walk in!"

Stories with some of the same ideas

There are many stories in which a hungry wolf threatens a young person or animal. In most of these stories, the young one escapes by cunning (cleverness). One famous story is the Russian folktale Peter and the Wolf. The Brothers Grimm told the story of the Little Kids and the Wolf. Another story like this is The Three Little Pigs, first published by James Orchard Halliwell-Phillipps.

There is a Norse Legend which has a question and answer part that is like the questions that Red Riding Hood asks the wolf. In this story Thor is pretending to be a giant's beautiful bride. The giant asks the same sort of questions about Thor, who is reallly a man in disguise.

Meanings

As with many fairy tales, hidden messages can be found in Little Red Riding Hood. People have very different interpretations (ways of understanding the hidden meanings). There are two main ways that the story of Little Red Riding Hood can be interpretted.

The first type of interpretation is about morality. It is about what is right and what is wrong. [[File:|thumb|In this picture the wolf is having very bad thoughts about the little girl.]]

  • The easiest message for children to understand is that it can be dangerous to trust strangers.
  • A more adult interpretation is about sexuality. Some people think that the story of the girl being "eaten" is really a symbol for rape. Susan Brownmiller wrote a book about it, called Against Our Will. Some of the other versions of the story seem to be more about rape than the way that the Brothers Grimm wrote it, which was for children.
  • Charles Perrault makes his meaning quite clear. At the end of the story he writes:
"From this story one learns that children, especially young lasses, pretty, courteous and well-bred, do very wrong to listen to strangers.... all wolves are not of the same sort.... there is one kind [that is not] noisy, nor hateful, nor angry, but tame, obliging and gentle, following the young maids in the streets, even into their homes. Alas! .... these gentle wolves are ... the most dangerous!"
Perrault was not just writing about rape, but about having sex before marriage which would cause terrible dishonour for the girl and her family.
  • Erich Fromm based his ideas only on the story the Brothers Grimm wrote. He sees the red cap of Little Red Riding Hood as a symbol for menstruation.
  • Some people who are feminists (supporters of the rights of women) do not like this story and say that it does not show women in a good way. This is because, through the story, Red Riding Hood does not think or act for herself. She does not do any of the actions of the story; she only does what she is told to do by a male character, and has things done to her male characters. She does what wolf tells her to do, even though it is against the advice of her mother. She comes near the male wolf when he tells her, against her own fear. She is eaten by the male character. She cannot help herself and is saved only because a strong male character comes along at the right time. Feminists believe that stories like this do not help girls to be independent.
  • In old French and Italian versions of the story, the girl is independent and clever. She tricks the wolf and escapes without any help.

The second way of seeing the stories has nothing to do with peoples' behaviour or feelings. These interpretations have to do with the cycle of the sun and the seasons, and with the cycle of life, with people dying and being born.

  • One interpretation is about night and day. In this interpretation, Red Riding Hood's bright red cap is be a symbol for the sun. The sun is swallowed by the terrible night (the wolf). When she is cut out again, it represent the dawn.[2] This bears a resemblance to the Norse Legend of the wolf Skoll (or Fenrir) who swallows the sun at Ragnarök.[3]
  • Another interpretation is that the tale is about the season of spring, or the month of May, escaping the winter.[4] The story could be seen as a description of the May Queen ritual that represents the coming of Spring, with the crown of flowers replaced by the red hood.[5]

Adaptations

Other re-tellings

File:Little Red Riding
In this French painting by François Richard Fleury, perhaps the girl will escape.

François Adrien Boieldieu (1775 - 1834) made an opera from the story. The opera is called Le petit chaperon rouge. Its first performance was in Paris, in the year 1818.

In 1927, Sir Compton MacKenzie used Little Red Riding Hood as the central character of a novel for children "Santa Claus in Summer". Red Riding Hood, in this re-telling, is the daughter of a highway man called Riding Hood.

The story has been adapted to various media. Tex Avery made a cartoon out of it, Red Hot Riding Hood. He adapted the story to be more appealing to adults. Little Red Riding Hood works at a striptease club. The wolf, dressed in a suit, goes after the stripper (a stripper is a person who takes off his or her clothes in public).

Roald Dahl re-told the story in funny poem about Little Red Riding Hood. It is in his collection Revolting Rhymes.

Lon Po Po is an ancient Chinese version of Little Red Riding Hood which won the 1990 Randolph Caldecott Medal for its watercolour and pastel illustrations by Young.

Art

Many paintings have been done of Little Red Rding Hood. Artists who have painted pictures of this story are George Frederick Watts, Samuel Albrecht Anker, and François Richard Fleury.

References

  1. Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, "Little Red Cap"
  2. Maria Tatar, p 25, The Annotated Classic Fairy Tales, ISBN 0-393-05163-3
  3. Alan Dundes, "Intrepreting Little Red Riding Hood Psychoanalytically", p 26-7, James M. McGlathery, ed. The Brothers Grimm and Folktale, ISBN 0-252-01549-5
  4. Alan Dundes, "Intrepreting Little Red Riding Hood Psychoanalytically", p 27, James M. McGlathery, ed. The Brothers Grimm and Folktale, ISBN 0-252-01549-5
  5. Little Red Riding Hood at Northern State University

Other websites

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