Liu Mingchuan: Wikis

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Liu Mingchuan
Liu Mingchuan
0 December 1836(1836-12-00) – 1 January 1896 (aged 60)
Nickname Pockmark face Liu
Place of birth Hefei, Anhui, Qing Empire
Place of death Hefei, Anhui, Qing Empire
Allegiance Qing Empire
Years of service military commander of Hebei(1864–1868)

rest(1870--1883)

Oversee Army of Taiwan(Sino-French War)(1884)

First Governor of Taiwan(1885--1891)

Army Commander(1894)

Rank Colonel General
Battles/wars Taiping rebellion

Nien Rebellion(1865--1868)

Awards created Baron First Class, Order of succession 一等男爵, 世襲) in 1868

Liu Mingchuan (1836-1896, 劉銘傳) was a Chinese official during the Qing dynasty, born in Hefei in Anhui province. He became involved in the suppression of the Taiping rebellion at an early age, and worked closely with both Zeng Guofan and Li Hongzhang. In 1885, he was appointed the first governor of the newly established province of Taiwan as its governance was separated from Fujian. Today he is remembered for his efforts in modernizing Taiwan during his tenure as governor and several institutions have been given his name, including Ming Chuan University in Taipei.

Contents

Early

Liu was born into a family of farmers so poor that even clothing for the children was barely affordable. Liu's father died when Liu was 11 years old. At age 18, Liu decided to join a local gang of bandits in the mountains, and at 20 he took part in the early Nien Rebellion. At 23 he changed his mind and joined the Huai Army, beginning his loyalty to the Qing Empire's military.

Battle of Changzhou

After the Suzhou Massacre POW Incident, Huai Army‘s last target city in Jiangsu was Changzhou, where there were over 80,000 Taiping soldiers who had vowed to never surrender. That became the toughest challenge for the Huai Army in 1858. In 1864, Huai Army commander Li Hongzhang and vice commander Liu attacked Changzhou‘s Taiping to recover this city that Liu created first merit. Major General Liu was promoted to Colonel General and appointed to defend the capital, Beijing.

Against Nien Rebellion

Liu twice faced near death, but luckily survived.

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Defeated by Lai Wenguang

Assaignation of Ren Zhu

Li Hongzhang had been praised Ren Zhu is“excellent commander of cavalry, could command 100,000 cavalry!”meant hope Ren surrender and join in Huai Army, it alarm Liu and Liu decided kill Ren.

Liu spent lots of money to pay Ren‘s body guard to Kill Ren. The killer selected his chance to get closed to Ren Zhu and take Ren's pistol and shot him in the back on the battlefield. When the plot was discovered everyone thought Liu was immoral.

Wounds by horse fall

After Liu murdered Ren Zhu, some strange things happened to Liu that seem like Ren‘s ghost took revenge. Liu fell from his horse and was trampled by other horses. Liu fainted and was weak of breath. Li Hongzhang worried for Liu‘s life used political connections with the Head Eunuch, Li Lianying, who reported to Empress Dowager Cixi to get Lui exclusive Imperial medicine to cure Liu. After a month Liu woke up but was weak from then on.

Sino-French War

In June 1884 Liu was appointed imperial commissioner for Formosa and ordered to defend the island against a threatened French invasion. On 5 August 1884 Rear Admiral Sébastien Lespès destroyed three Chinese shore batteries in the port of Keelung in northern Formosa by naval bombardment. The French put a landing force ashore to occupy Keelung and the nearby coal mines at Pei-tao (Pa-tou), but on 6 August were counterattacked by a strong Chinese force under Liu Mingchuan's command and forced to re-embark.[1]

The French returned to northern Formosa in October 1884. On 1 October 1,800 French marine infantry went ashore at Keelung and captured the town, supported by naval gunfire from French ships in the harbour. Liu Mingchuan attempted to defend Keelung with a Chinese division of 2,000 troops, but was forced to retreat. Anticipating that the French would follow up their success with a landing at Tamsui, he left half of his force in strong defensive positions around Lok-tao (Liu-tu, 六堵), astride the road to Tamsui, and retreated to Taipei with the rest on 3 October. It was rumoured that he intended to flee south to Tek-cham (竹塹, modern Hsinchu, 新竹), and his arrival in Taipei was greeted with rioting. Several of his bodyguards were killed and he himself was arrested and held for several days in the city's Lungshan temple.[2]

Meanwhile, after an ineffective naval bombardment on 2 October, Admiral Lespès attacked the Chinese defences at Tamsui with 600 sailors from the Far East squadron's landing companies on 8 October, and was decisively repulsed by forces under the command of the Fujianese general Sun Kaihua (孫開華). French casualties in the battle of Tamsui were light, but as a result of this reverse French control over Formosa was limited merely to the town of Keelung. This achievement fell far short of what had been hoped for, and condemned the French to a long and frustrating campaign around Keelung.

First created in Taiwan

Railroad

The Chinese first raised railroad in 1891 from Keelung to Taipei by Qing Empire.

Telegraphy

Lamp

The Chinese Lamp (electrical component) first created was in Taipei city in 1887 that were street lamps created by Qing Empire. Unfortunately, due to a lack of funds the street lights were turned off after the excitement of the initial trial period subsided.

Collapse:Too much tax forced Taiwanese revolt

On October 6 1888 in Changhua County, many thousands Taiwanese raised attack ed the Qing officials for taxes of land. They refused to obey Liu‘s financial policy seriously, that means Liu should be leave Taiwan. in fact, this revolt character was [king of Taiwan] Shi Lang‘s grandgrandson, and later against this revolt that Qing general Ling belong to Xiang Army,Liu belong to the Why Army, that was interest of lands conflict inner Qing governors not appearance pure people‘s revolt.

Thus Beijing(Yixin, 1st Prince Gong?) known inner truth and manage very smart: call back Liu and next governor instead by Shen Baozhen because he not belong any groups and his wife‘s father was every people respected Lin Zexu, but Qing never found Xiang Army and Why army groups conflict so deeply but Japan knew it and used in future.

End:First Sino-Japanese War

Why Japan refused fight to Liu?

Death:old fatal wounds

Footnotes

  1. ^ Duboc, 261–3; Garnot, 45–7; Loir, 184–8
  2. ^ Davidson, 227

References

  • Davidson, J. W., The Island of Formosa, Past and Present (London, 1903)
  • Duboc, E., Trente cinq mois de campagne en Chine, au Tonkin (Paris, 1899)
  • Garnot, L'expédition française de Formose, 1884–1885 (Paris, 1894)
  • Loir, M., L'escadre de l'amiral Courbet (Paris, 1886)
  • Lung Chang [龍章], Yueh-nan yu Chung-fa chan-cheng [越南與中法戰爭, Vietnam and the Sino-French War] (Taipei, 1993)
  • Chu, Samuel C. "Liu Ming-ch'uan and Modernization of Taiwan." The Journal of Asian Studies. Vol. 23, No. 1 (Nov., 1963), pp. 37-53.
  • Hummel, Arthur William, ed. Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period (1644-1912). 2 vols. Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1943.

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