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Coordinates: 37°40′55″N 121°46′05″W / 37.68194°N 121.76806°W / 37.68194; -121.76806

City of Livermore
—  City  —
Location of Livermore within Alameda County, California.
Coordinates: 37°40′55″N 121°46′05″W / 37.68194°N 121.76806°W / 37.68194; -121.76806
Country United States
State California
County Alameda
Established 1835
Incorporated April 1, 1876
Government [1][2]
 - Type Council-Manager
 - Mayor Marshall Kamena
 - Vice Mayor John Marchand
 - City Manager Linda Barton
 - City Treasurer Monica T. Potter, CCMT[3]
 - State Senate Loni Hancock (D)
Area [2]
 - Total 24.1 sq mi (62.0 km2)
 - Land 23.9 sq mi (62.0 km2)
 - Water 0.0 sq mi (0.0 km2)
Elevation [2] 480 ft (150 m)
Population [4]
 - Total 83,800
 Density 3,379/sq mi (1,313/km2)
Time zone PST (UTC-8)
 - Summer (DST) PDT (UTC-7)
ZIP codes 94550-94551
Area code(s) 925
FIPS code 06-41992
GNIS feature ID 0277542

Livermore (formerly, Livermores, Livermore Ranch, and Nottingham)[5] is a city in Alameda County. The population as of 2010 was 83,800 but by 2030 it will have 107,600 residents.[citation needed]. Livermore is located in the Bay Area. Livermore is a "middle-size city" in the Bay Area.

Traditionally, Livermore is considered the easternmost city in the Bay Area before entrance to the Central Valley.

It was founded by William Mendenhall and named after Robert Livermore, his friend and a local rancher who settled in the area in the 1830s.

Livermore is the home of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

Livermore's south side, home to local vineyards, has developed several executive subdivisions near Ruby Hill. The city has also redeveloped its downtown district.



Watercourses draining the city of Livermore include Arroyo Mocho, Arroyo del Valle, Arroyo Seco and Arroyo Las Positas. The principal aquifer underlying the city is the Mocho Subbasin. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 23.9 square miles (62.0 km²), all of it land. Several local seismic areas of activity lie near the city including the Greenville Fault and the Tesla Fault.


Livermore has a semiaride climate with cool winters and hot summers. Most of the precipitation falls during the winter months. Average annual precipitation is 14.21 inches, falling on an average of 58 days each year. The wettest year was 1983 with 32.37 inches and the dryest year was 1976 with 6.40 inches. The most rainfall in one month was 12.60 inches in January 1911. The most rainfall in 24 hours was 3.97 inches on September 12, 1918. Light snow has fallen on rare occasions; the heaviest snowfall was 3.0 inches on January 24, 1949.

Average January temperatures are a maximum of 56.7F and a minimum of 36.6F. Average July temperatures are a maximum of 89.0F and a minium of 54.2F. There are an average of 55.4 days with highs of 90F (32C) or higher and an average of 29.6 days with lows of 32F (0C) or lower. The highest recorded temperature was 115F on September 3, 1950, and the lowest recorded temperature was 18F on January 5, 1961, and December 9, 1972.[6]

History and culture



Old fire station in downtown Livermore

Before its incorporation under the Roman Catholic Mission San Jose in 1796 and prior to the arrival of the Spanish in the 18th century, the Livermore area was home to the Ohlone (or Costanoan) native people. The Livermore-Amador Valley was primarily used as grazing land for Mission San Jose's thousands of cattle and sheep until secularization of California missions from 1834 to 1837 opened great amounts of land throughout California for Mexican land grants. The fourth and second largest of these land grants were the Rancho Las Positas grant, made to rancher Robert Livermore, a naturalized Mexican citizen of English birth, and Jose Noriega in 1839. Robert Livermore was as much interested in viticulture and horticulture as he was in cattle and horses. In 1846 he was the first in the area to plant both vineyards as well as orchards of pears and olives. The first building on his ranch was an adobe on Las Positas Creek. In 1849 a two-story "Around the Horn" house was added and was believed to be the first wooden building in the valley.

After the discovery of gold in California, Livermore became a popular 'first day' stopping point for prospectors headed for the Mother Lode country. It was usually one day's journey by horse or stagecoach when starting from San Jose, California.

Robert Livermore died in 1858 before the establishment of the town that bears his name. His ranch included much of the present-day city. The city itself was established in 1869 by William Mendenhall, who had met Robert Livermore while marching through the valley with Fremont's California Battalion. Livermore was officially incorporated on April 15, 1876. During Livermore's early years, it was also quite well-known for the many large hotels that graced the downtown streetcorners, before new buildings replaced them. Livermore is also notable for the Italian families that played a role in the formation of its wineries. Since it has a Mediterranean climate, the Italian families found it a good location to grow wine grapes, which also helped contribute to the development of the early city.

The Livermore Ranch post office operated from 1851 to 1853.[5] The Nottingham post office opened in 1869, the name was changed to Livermore in 1870.[5]


The Livermore Hindu Temple

Livermore's culture retains some vestiges of the farming and ranching traditions that have existed in the valley since the time of Robert Livermore, but now largely reflects the values of its suburban population. Livermore has a strong blue-collar element, as well as many professionals who work at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and various high tech industries within the Bay Area. The city has recently become much more upscale with the addition of hundreds of million dollar homes set amongst the southside's vineyards as well as a multi-million dollar renovation of the downtown area. The renovations include the new Livermore Cinemas, the Bankhead Theatre, a parking structure, and office buildings. The city boasts a state-of-the-art library (with a somewhat controversial front mosaic[7] by Maria Alquilar) that opened in 2004 and a busy growing Livermore Airport.

According to the latest U.S. Census information, Livermore is the third wealthiest midsize city in the nation. In 2005, the median household income in Livermore was $96,632, which ranked it the third highest income midsize city (between 65,000 and 249,999 people) just behind number two Newport Beach, CA ($97,428) and Livermore's western neighbor, Pleasanton, CA ($101,022).[8]

The city supports organizations like the Livermore-Amador Symphony, Del Valle Fine Arts, producer of classical music events, and in the valley at large, the Valley Choral Society, Livermore Valley Opera and the Valley Dance Theatre, a classical ballet company.

Livermore has long harbored a strong independent music scene hosting national touring acts as well as Bay Area artists. In addition to the frequent independent one-off youth concerts in the cities various halls.

Since 1918 Livermore has hosted the Livermore Rodeo, called the "World's Fastest Rodeo," that claims it has more riders per hour than any other event of its type. Many residents and visitors enjoy the rodeo parade and festivities which take place yearly. People from across the country come to this event. Children are given the chance to ride ponies and residents are given free horseback rides across town and to the local market.

Many of the residents find entertainment or recreation at the local cinemas, the skate park, bowling alley, lounges, restaurants, shops or other venues in the downtown area.

The local young dance community can be found performing in front of the Bankhead Theater every Friday night. These dancers, mostly high-school students, bring their own cardboard and speakers.

Other projects include extending BART to Livermore, which will officially be complete at the latest in 2020, due to proposition 1A passing.[citation needed] Also a new regional theater and a 5 star hotel are scheduled to be built in the newly reconstructed Downtown, but due to the near national recession and budget cuts, the project is being postponed.

Livermore is home to many different denominations of Christian and non-Christian places of worship, including the First Presbyterian Church, and the Unitarian Church. Saint Michael and Saint Charles Borromeo Roman Catholic Churches serve the residents. St. Michael church is the older of the two parishes, having held its first services on August 25, 1878.

The first Indian Christian Church in San Francisco Bay Area is located at Livermore. The Mar Thoma Syrian Church is situated at 418 Junction Avenue. At present the Vicar of the Church is Rev.K.A.Abraham from India. Mar Thoma Church is believed to be started by St. Thomas one of the twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, in AD52.

Livermore has a Hindu temple which is often visited by the large Hindu population of the Bay Area.

There is a strong LDS presence with an entire LDS stake within the city limits.

Districts of Livermore

One of the largest districts is Springtown, the northeast area of the city north of Interstate 580. Originally conceived as a retirement community in the early 1960s, it is now a bustling and thriving part of the city. Springtown features many of the city's hotels, new luxury home development, a public library branch, public schools, an established public golf course, parks, and restaurants. Under consideration is the possible development of the golf course into additional housing, retail or another Livermore Police Dept. Sub Station to help the Police Department grow with the city and to deter crime.

Another district is the Downtown or Central district.This district represents the urban lifestyle of the city, mixed with some of the best tasting wines California has to offer. There are two movie theaters, a community theater, shopping, restaurants and space for concerts, with plans for a luxury hotel and a larger, regional theater.

The North Livermore district is North of the Union Pacific Railroad that cuts through the Downtown. Mainly industrial and residential, this is the city's oldest district. It is home to many parks, a library and a community center with gyms and aquatics. There are also a number of famed taquerias that call the north side their home. The suburb has seen a recent increase in gang activity.[citation needed]

The South Livermore district currently features over 40 world-class wineries, offering some of the best wines California has to offer.

The Sunset District, just north east of South Livermore is an example of suburban lifestyle surrounding the semi-urban environments of Downtown Livermore, and is known for its quiet, tranquil neighborhoods.

Livermore Police Department

Serving the City of Livermore is the Livermore Police Department (LPD). Established in 1876, at that time it was the only law enforcement agency in the San Francisco Bay Area besides the SFPD. The current Chief of Police is Steve Sweeney. The department's Mission Statement states "The Livermore Police Department, in partnership with the community will strive to protect and improve the quality of life in Livermore; providing leadership through open communication, fair and dignified service, and interactive problem solving".

LPD currently uses the Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor as the primary patrol vehicle. The cars are painted the traditional black and white. Along each door is the LPD badge along with the word POLICE in bold, black, reflective lettering. In late July 2008 LPD opened its first substation in New Downtown Livermore. The station is becoming commonly known as Central Station or Downtown Office. Central Station's purpose is to not only strengthen the departments partnership with the community but to also help expand the Livermore Police Department to help match the city's rapid growth over the recent years. The department also takes pride in having the best S.W.A.T. Team in Northern California, surpassing big city agencies such as San Jose, San Francisco and Oakland, due to the team winning the Northern California S.W.A.T Competition.[citation needed]

Agency Population: 166/ Police Stations: 2/ Airbases: 1

Livermore-Pleasanton Fire Department

see Livermore Pleasanton Fire Department


According to 2008 estimates, there are 90,324 people, 29,144 households, and 21,132 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,947.7 people per square mile (1,183.9/km²). There were 26,610 housing units at an average density of 1,112.3/sq mi (429.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 74.30% White, 2.7% African American, 0.70% Native American, 2.80% Asian, 0.34% Pacific Islander, 5.36% from other races, and 4.66% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.50% of the population.

There were 26,123 households out of which 40.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.1% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.3% were non-families. 18.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.80 and the average family size was 3.20.

The population ages were spread out with 28.1% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 35.1% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, and 7.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 100.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.4 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $75,322, and the median income for a family was $82,421. Males had a median income of $59,703 versus $38,389 for females. The per capita income for the city was $31,062. About 3.8% of families and 5.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.0% of those under age 18 and 1.5% of those age 65 or over.

In the six years since the census, the population has increased to 87,054. Increases also took place in the number of housing units (30,612), median household income ($92,300), and median family income ($102,606). The median home price was reported to be $662,100.[9]


Livermore has the highest percentage of registered Republicans of any of the cities in Alameda county. 35.2% of its 45,519 registered voters are Republicans, while 39.7% are Democrats, and 20.7% are Decline to State voters.[10]

In the state legislature Livermore is located in the 9th Senate district, represented by Democrat Don Perata, and in the 15th Assembly district, represented by Democrat Joan Buchanan. Federally, Livermore is located in California's 10th congressional district, which was represented by Ellen Tauscher. On March 18, 2009, Democratic United States House of Representatives Representative Tauscher announced that she had accepted the position of Undersecretary of State for Arms Control and International Security.[11] She was confirmed by the United States Senate on June 25 and resigned her seat in the House the following day, necessitating a special election to fill her vacancy.[12][13]


Based on the Morgan Quitno Press "Safest and Most Dangerous Cities of 2008", Livermore ranked as the 15th safest city in the country.

World's longest lasting lightbulb

The city is noted for one world record. A 105+ year old 4-watt lightbulb called the Centennial Light housed by the Livermore-Pleasanton Fire Department is still burning bright. In truth, its "brightness" may be a matter of debate; it glows dimly, but definitely still functions as a lightbulb. The Guinness Book of World Records, Ripley's Believe It or Not, and General Electric have concluded that the bulb has been burning continuously since 1901 with the exception of power failures and three times for moving to another station. The lightbulb was manufactured by the Shelby Electric Company and was hand blown with a carbon filament.



Livermore is the home of two national laboratories. The largest employer in Livermore is the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) which is operated by a limited liability consortium named Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a joint venture company of Bechtel National, the University of California, BWX Technologies, Washington Group International, and Battelle. LLNL is the location of the world's most powerful laser, the NIF, and the world's second most powerful supercomputer, Blue Gene/L.

Livermore is also the California site of the Sandia National Laboratories, which is operated by Sandia Corporation (a Lockheed-Martin owned Company) and is the third largest employer in the city.


One of California’s oldest wine regions, the Livermore Valley played a pivotal role in shaping California’s wine industry. Spanish missionaries planted the first wine grapes in the Livermore Valley in the 1760s. In the 1840s, California pioneers looking for outstanding vineyard sites began planting grapes in the region. Robert Livermore planted the first commercial vines in the 1840s. Pioneer winemakers C. H. Wente, James Concannon, and Charles Wetmore recognized the area’s winegrowing potential and founded their wineries in the early 1880s.[14]


Public schools in Livermore are part of the Livermore Valley Joint Unified School District (LVJUSD). The District has 11 Elementary (K-5) schools, 4 Middle (6-8) schools, and 3 High schools.


Elementary Schools

Middle Schools

  • Christensen
  • East Avenue Middle School
  • Junction Avenue
  • William Mendenhall

High Schools

  • Livermore Union High School - established in 1891 and became the first union high school in the state of California and is the distinguished school of Livermore.
  • Granada High School - the second public high school in Livermore.
  • Vineyard High School– an independent study high school.
  • Del Valle and Phoenix High Schools– continuation high schools.

Adult Education

  • Livermore Adult School

Charter School

  • Livermore Valley Charter School (LVCS) - a K-8 public school.

Private Schools

  • Our Savior Lutheran School (OSLS)
  • St. Michael's Elementary and Middle School
  • Valley Montessori

Higher Education


A sign on the I-580 freeway in Livermore.

Livermore's general aviation needs are served by Livermore Municipal Airport. For commercial flights, one must go to San Francisco International Airport, Oakland International Airport, or San Jose International Airport.

Access to Bay Area Rapid Transit is available at the Dublin-Pleasanton Station.

One may also use the WHEELS bus system to get around Livermore and to the neighboring cities of Pleasanton and Dublin.

Livermore has two stations for the Altamont Commuter Express (ACE), a commuter train which runs from Stockton to San Jose with four round trips per workday. One station is at Vasco Road, and the other in downtown Livermore at its Transit Center, where connections to the WHEELS bus system can be made.

There is a petition drive to bring the BART system to Livermore. The group that started the petition was founded by the former mayor of Dublin, Linda Jeffery Sailors, who was successful in bringing BART to Dublin/Pleasanton.[15] If BART does come to Livermore, the system would connect to the ACE Train, and from there with AMTRAK in San Jose to Los Angeles. Possible station locations are: Vineyard Ave the Downtown ACE station, near the airport, and the ACE station on Vasco Rd. and Brisa St.

Sister cities

Livermore has three sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International:


  1. ^ "City Council". City of Livermore Official Web Site. Retrieved 2007-04-20. 
  2. ^ a b c "City Profile". City of Livermore Official Web Site. Retrieved 2007-04-20. 
  3. ^ California League of Cities, Elected City Treasurers
  4. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  5. ^ a b c Durham, David L. (1998). California's Geographic Names: A Gazetteer of Historic and Modern Names of the State. Quill Driver Books. p. 655. ISBN 9781884995149. 
  6. ^
  7. ^ "Miami Muralist Embroiled In Mosaic Misspelling Mess". WPLG. 2004-10-07. Retrieved 2007-04-20. 
  8. ^
  9. ^ "Livemore, California Fact Sheet". 2005 American Community Survey. United States Census Bureau. 2005. Retrieved 2007-04-20. 
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^ Stannard, Matthew (2009-06-25). "Rep. Tauscher new U.S. arms control chief". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  14. ^
  15. ^ "". Retrieved 2007-04-20. 

Erwin Muller, Livermore High Basketball player, played for Detroit Pistons in 1960's

External links


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