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Liverpool Street
London Liverpool Street
Liverpool Street station entrance Bishopsgate.JPG
Bishopsgate entrance
Liverpool Street is located in Central London
Liverpool Street

Location of Liverpool Street in Central London
Location Bishopsgate
Local authority City of London
Managed by Network Rail
Station code LST
Platforms in use 18
Accessible Handicapped/disabled access [1]
Fare zone 1

National Rail annual entry and exit
2004/5 50.469 million[2]
2005/6 47.271 million[2]
2006/7 55.266 million[2]
2007/8 57.790 million[2]

1874 (1874) Opened

List of stations Underground · National Rail
External links DeparturesLayout
  FacilitiesBuses

Coordinates: 51°31′07″N 0°04′53″W / 51.5186°N 0.0813°W / 51.5186; -0.0813

Liverpool Street railway station,[3] also known as London Liverpool Street or simply Liverpool Street,[4] is a central London railway terminus and connected London Underground station in the north eastern corner of the City of London in England. It is the terminus of two main lines: the busier Great Eastern Main Line (GEML) to Norwich and the West Anglia Main Line to Cambridge as well as serving commuter services to parts of East London and Essex. It serves the London Stansted Airport via the Stansted Express.

It is one of the busiest stations in the United Kingdom, the third busiest in London after Waterloo and Victoria with 123 million visitors each year. Liverpool Street is one of seventeen stations directly managed by Network Rail. The station has exits to Bishopsgate, Liverpool Street and the Broadgate development. The station connects the Central Line, Circle Line, Metropolitan Line, and Hammersmith & City Line. The station is in Travelcard zone 1.

Contents

National Rail

Destinations

Liverpool Street station concourse

Liverpool Street serves destinations in the East of England including Stansted Airport, Cambridge, Lowestoft, Great Yarmouth, Norwich, Ipswich, Clacton-on-Sea, Chelmsford, Colchester, Braintree, Southend-on-Sea and the port of Harwich, as well as many suburban stations in north-eastern London, Essex and Hertfordshire. It is one of the busiest commuter stations in London. A daily express train to Harwich connects with the ferry from Harwich to Hoek van Holland, forming the Dutchflyer service.

Trains from Liverpool Street do not go to Liverpool. For that city, Euston is the London terminus.

Almost all passenger services from Liverpool Street are operated by National Express East Anglia. It operates local and suburban services on the Great Eastern and West Anglia lines and express services to Colchester, Clacton-on-Sea, Ipswich and Norwich.

There are two weekday evening shuttle services to Barking, calling only at Stratford, which are operated by c2c.[5] All other c2c services depart from Fenchurch Street railway station, although Liverpool Street is also used by c2c during engineering work. Both National Express East Anglia and c2c are owned by National Express Group.

Present service levels

The present Monday to Friday off peak service sees 31tph departing and arriving London Liverpool Street. 1tph to Norwich, calling at Shenfield, Colchester, Manningtree, Ipswich, Diss and Norwich. 1tph to Norwich, calling at Stratford, Chelmsford, Colchester, Manningtree, Ipswich, Diss and Norwich Some trains also call at Stowmarket.

6tph to Shenfield, calling all stations

4tph to Chingford, calling all stations except Cambridge Heath and London Fields

1tph to Clacton, calling at Stratford, Romford, Shenfield, Chelmsford, Witham, Colchester, Wivenhoe, Thorpe-le-Soken nad Clacton

4tph to Stansted Airport, calling at Tottenham Hale, and a micture of Harlow Town, Bishop Stortford and Stansted Mountfichet

2tph to Hertford East, calling at Hackney Downs, Tottenham Hale then all stations to Hertford East

2tph to Cheshunt, calling all stations

3tph to Southend Victoria, calling at Stratford, Shenfield and all stations to Southend (one train in each hour also stops at Romford)

1tph to Hawrich Town, calling at Stratford, Shenfield and all stations to Hawrich Town

2tph to Cambridge, one slow, the other semi-fast

1tph to Lowestoft or Peterborough, calling at Shenfield, Chelmsford, Witham, Colchester, Manningtree and, Ipswich, then either all stations to Lowestoft, or Stowmarket, Bury St Edmunds, Ely, March, and Whittlesea if going to Peterborough.

1tph to Braintree, calling at Stratford, Shenfield and all stations to Braintree

History

Liverpool Street station in 1896
The station roof, with a Class 90 locomotive in the foreground
The station interior, showing the old "flapper board", replaced in 2007
Aerial view from the north.

The station was built on the site of the original Bethlem Royal Hospital, was opened to traffic on 2 February 1874 by the Great Eastern Railway and was completely operational from 1 November 1875. From this date the original terminal, Bishopsgate, closed to passengers. It reopened as a goods station in 1881 but was destroyed by fire on 5 December 1964. The site is now being redeveloped as part of the extension of London Underground's East London line to form part of the London Overground network.

The new station was designed by the Eastern's chief engineer, Edward Wilson and was built by John Mowlem & Co. on a site which had been occupied by Bethlem Royal Hospital from the 13th Century to the 17th Century. A City of London Corporation plaque commemorating the station's construction hangs on the wall of the adjoining former Great Eastern Hotel, which was designed by Charles Barry (junior) (son of Sir Charles Barry) and his brother Edward Middleton Barry, and also built by John Mowlem & Co. The station was named after the street on which it stands, which in turn was named in honour of British Prime Minister Lord Liverpool, having been built as part of an extension of the City of London towards the end of his term in office.

The construction of the station was due to the desire of the company to gain a terminal closer to the city than the one opened by the predecessor Eastern Counties Railway, at Shoreditch, that had opened on 1 July 1840. This station was renamed "Bishopsgate" in 1846. The construction proved extremely expensive due to the cost of acquiring property and many people were displaced due to the large scale demolitions. The desire to link the GER lines to those of the sub-surface Metropolitan Railway, a link seldom used and relatively soon abandoned, also meant that the GER's lines had to drop down to below ground level from the existing viaducts east of Bishopsgate. This means that there are considerable gradients leading out of the station. Lord Salisbury, who was chairman of the Great Eastern in 1870, said that the Liverpool Street extension was "one of the greatest mistakes ever committed in connection with a railway."

The station was the first place in London to be hit by German Gotha bomber aircraft during World War I. The May 1917 bombing, when the station took a direct hit from 1,000 pounds of bombs, killed 162 people. During World War II a bomb that landed in Bishopsgate completely shattered the glass roofing.

Many Jewish refugee children arrived at Liverpool Street in the late 1930s, as part of the Kindertransport. In September 2003 the sculpture Für Das Kind Kindertransport Memorial by artist Flor Kent, who conceived the project, was installed in the station. It consisted of a specialized glass case with original objects and a bronze sculpture of a real girl, a direct descendant of a child rescued by Sir Nicholas Winton who unveiled the work. Due to lapses in maintenance the Für Das Kind collection was transferred to the Imperial War Museum.[6]

Liverpool Street station in 1984

The station was extensively modified between 1985 and 1992, including bringing all the platforms in the main shed up to the same end point and constructing a new underground booking office, but its façade, Victorian cast-iron pillars, and the memorial for Great Eastern Railway employees who died in the Great War were retained. The redevelopment coincided with the closure and demolition of neighbouring Broad Street station and the construction of the Broadgate development in its place. Liverpool Street was officially re-opened by HM Queen Elizabeth II in 1991. At this time the giant timetable board, which is suspended above the station concourse, was installed at great expense. However due to technical difficulties there was a long delay after the official opening before it became operational. It was one of the last remaining mechanical "flapper board" display boards at a UK railway station and certainly the largest, but was removed from service in September 2007 and replaced by electronic boards. The 'new' station roof has been built largely in the style of the Western part of the station which survived the war. The original roofing was painted brown at this time, with smoked plexiglass, whilst the new roofing was painted blue with clear glass so as the public could tell what was new and old. All platforms now end in a uniform line and most can accommodate twelve carriage trains.

The Great Eastern Hotel was extensively refurbished between 1997 and 1999, re-opening as a boutique hotel. The hotel incorporates three restaurants: "Aurora", "Fishmarket" and "Terminus". The complex includes a sushi bar and two pubs.

The station has been twinned with Amsterdam Centraal Station since 1993, and there is a plaque marking this on the concourse close to the main entrance to the Underground.

Notable events

  • In April 1993, a Provisional IRA truck bomb in Bishopsgate, 200 metres away, caused some damage to the station.
  • On 17 April 1997, the British band Mansun used hidden cameras to film band members throwing £25,000 from the upper concourse onto City of London commuters below, for a promo video for their 'Tax Loss' EP. The video was filmed by Roman Coppola and the ensuing chaos as the crowd scrambled for the cash was intended to highlight human greed.
  • On 7 July 2005, terrorist Shehzad Tanweer exploded a bomb on a London Underground train shortly after it left Liverpool Street towards Aldgate station on the Circle Line, killing seven people.
  • On January 15, 2009, at 11am, around 350 people took part in a three minute guerrilla-style dance for the new T-Mobile advert.

Transport Link

London bus routes 8, 11, 23, 26, 35, 42, 47, 48, 78, 100, 133, 135, 149, 153, 205, 214, 242, 271, 344, 388, night routes N8, N11, N26, N35 and N133.

In fiction

A view over the station from Exchange Square
  • In the years following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, fictional docu-drama portrayals of how a terrorist organisation might seek to attack London twice chose Liverpool Street station as the specific target. London Under Attack, first shown by the BBC One Panorama programme in May 2004,[7] had a lorry containing chlorine gas explode at the junction of Shoreditch High Street and Commercial Street, just north of Liverpool Street station. The gas cloud hung over the station, and killed 3,000 people. The British Government denounced the programme as "irresponsible and alarmist".[8] The BBC said that the programmes was backed by research, and that Liverpool Street was used because of its position on the border between the City of London and the East End of London. The second programme was the drama Dirty War, also produced by the BBC and first shown in October 2004, in which a suicide terrorists detonate a "dirty bomb" just outside the Underground station, killing 200 people and rendering the area uninhabitable for 30 years. Since the programme aired, the spot at which the fictional bomb-carrying vehicle parked has become pedestrianised.
  • Andy McNab's novel Dark Winter makes the station the target of a similar attack.
  • In the 1988 children's book Groosham Grange the main character is sent there from London Liverpool Street.
  • Liverpool Street Station is one of the four railway stations on the London version of the Monopoly game.
    Modern platform extensions at Liverpool Street station
  • A CIA safe house features above the Old Broad Street entrance to Liverpool Street tube station in the film Mission: Impossible. In the movie, the lead character played by Tom Cruise leaves the safe house and enters the main line concourse to use a payphone situated under the double staircase (since removed, with cash machines now at the spot). Cruise can also be seen looking out of a window located in the safe house.
  • In fiction author Anthony Horowitz's Alex Rider series, the headquarters of MI6 is near Liverpool Street station.
  • In the film Stormbreaker, the lead character runs through the station to find a photo booth whereupon he is then transported to MI6.

Future developments

Liverpool Street station viewed from Liverpool Street itself

Current plans for the Crossrail service would see a new station at Liverpool Street with full mainline and underground connections. Existing services to Shenfield would be diverted to the new low-level platforms.

London Underground

Liverpool Street
Liverpool Street Underground concourse entr.JPG
Entrance from Network Rail concourse
Location Bishopsgate
Local authority City of London
Managed by London Underground
Platforms in use 4
Fare zone 1

London Underground annual entry and exit
2005 50.67 million[9]
2007 61.317 million[9]
2008 64.16 million[9]

1 February 1875 Open (using mainline)
12 July 1875 Opened (Bishopsgate)
1 November 1909 Renamed (Liverpool Street)
28 July 1912 Central Line opens (terminus)
4 December 1946 Central Line extends (through)

List of stations Underground · National Rail

Liverpool Street Tube Station is the fifth busiest station on the Underground network with 4 lines passing through; 3 sub-surface and one deep level. The station has sub-surface platforms (opened by the Metropolitan Railway as "Bishopsgate" on 12 July 1875) on the Circle, Metropolitan and Hammersmith & City lines. The Metropolitan had served main-line platforms of the GER station from 1 February 1875, but this through link had only a short life. The station was renamed Liverpool Street from 1 November 1909. A disused west-facing bay platform once used by terminating Metropolitan and occasional District Line trains running via Edgware Road is still visible.

The deep-level Central Line platforms opened on 28 July 1912, at the eastern end of the Central London Railway. The Central line was extended eastwards, as part of the Second World War-delayed London Passenger Transport Board's "New Works Programme 1935 – 1940", on 4 December 1946.

Only the eastbound/clockwise (Aldgate/Barking) platform of the Circle Line is wheelchair accessible. Wheelchair users wishing to travel in the Hammersmith/Uxbridge direction must take a train that terminates at Aldgate or Whitechapel and stay on it as it starts its westbound journey; when coming from Aldgate/Barking, they must continue to King's Cross St Pancras to change direction. Some stations on the eastern section of the Central line are wheelchair accessible from here by changing at Mile End.

Gallery

See also

Layout

London Underground

Circle, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan lines

Side Platform
Outer Rail Platform 1

Circle towards Hammersmith
Hammersmith & City towards Hammersmith
Metropolitan towards Aldgate


Circle towards Edgware Road
Hammersmith & City towards Barking
Metropolitan towards Uxbridge, Amersham, Chesham or Watford

Inner Rail Platform 2
Side Platform

Central line

Central towards Epping, Hainault or Woodford via Hainault
Eastbound Platform 4
Island Platform
Westbound Platform 5
Central towards Ealing Broadway or West Ruislip

References

  1. ^ "London and South East". Rail Map for People with Reduced Mobility. National Rail. September 2006. http://www.nationalrail.co.uk/system/galleries/download/mobility_maps/LondonSouthEast.pdf. Retrieved 1 January 2010. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Station usage". Rail statistics. Office of Rail Regulation. 12 March 2009. http://www.rail-reg.gov.uk/server/show/nav.1529. Retrieved 19 January 2010. 
  3. ^ "Stations Run by Network Rail". Network Rail. http://www.networkrail.co.uk/aspx/765.aspx. Retrieved 23 August 2009. 
  4. ^ "Station Codes". National Rail. http://www.nationalrail.co.uk/stations/codes/. Retrieved 23 August 2009. 
  5. ^ c2c – Changes to late evening and Liverpool Street services
  6. ^ Ruth Rothenberg, [1], The Jewish Chronicle, 19 September 2003, accessed 18 September 2003
  7. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/panorama/3686201.stm
  8. ^ "Terror programme 'irresponsible'". BBC News (bbc.co.uk). 15 May 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/3716785.stm. Retrieved 16 June 2007. "'We are disappointed to learn that the BBC appears to have adopted an irresponsible and alarmist approach over what is understandably an emotive and frightening subject for the public,' a Home Office spokesman told BBC News Online. He said the programme depicted a situation that was 'simply not realistic'." 
  9. ^ a b c "Customer metrics: entries and exits". London Underground performance update. Transport for London. 2003-2008. http://www.tfl.gov.uk/tfl/corporate/modesoftransport/tube/performance/default.asp?onload=entryexit. Retrieved 19 January 2010. 
  • David Stevenson (2004). 1914-1918 The History of the First World War. Allen Lane. ISBN 0-7139-9208-5. 
  • Alan A Jackson (1969). London's Termini. David & Charles. ISBN 0-330-02747-6. 

External links

Preceding station National Rail Following station
Terminus   National Express East Anglia
Stansted Express
  Tottenham Hale
Terminus   National Express East Anglia
West Anglia Main Line
  Tottenham Hale
Terminus   National Express East Anglia
Lea Valley Lines
  Bethnal Green
Terminus   National Express East Anglia
Great Eastern Main Line
London-Clacton-on-Sea/Walton-on-the-Naze
Shenfield Metro
London-Braintree
London-Southend and Southminster
London-Lowestoft
  Stratford
Terminus   c2c
Liverpool Street – Barking
  Stratford
Terminus   Dutchflyer
London-Amsterdam
  Stratford
Preceding station   Underground no-text.svg London Underground   Following station
Central line
towards Epping, Hainault
or Woodford via Hainault
towards Hammersmith
Circle line
towards Edgware Road
towards Hammersmith
Hammersmith & City line
towards Barking
Metropolitan line
Terminus
    Future Development    
Preceding station   Crossrail   Following station
Crossrail







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