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Leghorn
Livorno
—  Comune  —
Comune di Livorno
View of Venice district

Coat of arms
Leghorn is located in Italy
Leghorn
Location of Leghorn in Italy
Coordinates: 43°33′N 10°19′E / 43.55°N 10.317°E / 43.55; 10.317Coordinates: 43°33′N 10°19′E / 43.55°N 10.317°E / 43.55; 10.317
Country Italy
Region Tuscany
Province Livorno (LI)
Frazioni Castellaccio, Gorgona, Limoncino, Quercianella, Valle Benedetta
Government
 - Mayor Alessandro Cosimi
Area
 - Total 104.8 km2 (40.5 sq mi)
Elevation 3 m (10 ft)
Population (21 December 2009)
 - Total 160,931
 - Density 1,535.6/km2 (3,977.2/sq mi)
 - Demonym Livornesi, also Labronici
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 57100
Dialing code 0586
Patron saint Santa Giulia da Corsica
Saint day May 22
Website Official website

Livorno About this sound listen , also called Leghorn (pronounced /ˈlɛɡərn/) in English, is a port city on the Ligurian Sea on the western edge of Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the Province of Livorno and the third-largest port on the western coast of Italy, having a population of approximately 160,000 residents as of the year 2009.

Contents

History

Fortifications of Livorno in the 17th century.

Livorno was defined as an "ideal town" during the Italian Renaissance. Today, it reveals its history through the structure of its neighbourhoods, crossed by canals and surrounded by fortified town walls, through the tangle of its streets, which embroider the town's Venice district, and through the Medici Port characteristically overlooked by towers and fortresses leading to the town centre. Designed by the architect Bernardo Buontalenti at the end of the 16th century, Livorno underwent a period of great town planning expansion at the end of the 17th century. Near the defensive pile of the Old Fortress, a new fortress, together with the town-walls and the system of navigable canals, was then built.

In the late 1580s, Ferdinando I of Tuscany declared Livorno a porto Franco, which meant that the goods traded here were duty free. The Leggi Livornine were laws in force between 1590 and 1603. These laws helped the trading activities of the merchant, freedom of religion and amnesty for some penance. Thanks to these laws, Livorno became a cosmopolitan city and one of the most important ports of the entire Mediterranean area. Many foreigners moved to Livorno; Armenians, Dutch, English, Greeks, and Jews, were among those who relocated to live and trade. Some Moriscos (Muslim Spaniards forcibly converted to Catholicism), much later, also moved to Livorno (from Spain and during the 18th century). On the 19th of March 1606, the Granduca di Toscana Ferdinando I de' Medici, in the Fortezza Vecchia Chapel of Saint Francis of Assisi elevated Livorno to the rank of city.

During the Napoleonic Wars, trade with Britain was prohibited and the economy of Livorno suffered greatly. Then, in 1868, after Livorno became part of the new Kingdom of Italy, it lost its by then traditional status of free port and the city's importance declined.

Main sights

Piazza Grande in the 18th century: at left, the Palazzo del Governatore, at right the Dogana

Nowadays the Venice district preserves most of its original town planning and architectural features such as the bridges, the narrow lanes, the noblemen's houses and a dense network of canals which once linked the port to its storehouses. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Livorno, by then grown up and open to the world, had a lively appearance marked by neo-classical buildings, public parks housing important museums and cultural institutions, "Liberty" villas with sea views and the market.

The Museo Mascagnano houses memorabilia, documents and operas by the great composer Pietro Mascagni. Every year some of his operas are traditionally played during the lyric music season, which is organised by the Traditional Theatre of Livorno. Also the “Terrazza Mascagni”, a walkway divided from the sea by a handrail, is named in honor to Pietro Mascagni.

Up in the hills the Sanctuary of Montenero, which is dedicated to Our Lady of the Graces, the patron saint of Tuscany, is a fixed destination for pilgrims. It is famous for the adjacent gallery, decorated with ex-voti mainly connected to stories of miraculous sea rescue.

The "Monumento dei quattro mori" ("Monument of the Four Moors"), dedicated to Grand Duke Ferdinando I de' Medici of Tuscany, is one of the most important monuments of Livorno.

In Livorno there is an important square called "Piazza della Repubblica" that contains two important monuments of Italian politicians. Thus, this square is also a bridge: in fact, under the bridge there is an old, big canal. Piazza della Repubblica is the largest bridge of Europe.

Another important monument is the old fortress; an old building made with red bricks that at the time of Medici defended the city from pirates attacks. It has 3 bastion, named “Capitana”, “Ampolletta” and “Canaviglia”. The old fortress was made before the Renaissance. The new Fortress, distinct from the old one, was made at the end of the 16th century.

There are some graveyards where foreign people who moved to Livorno used to be buried.

Culture

Politically, Livorno is one of the most left-leaning cities of Italy. The Communist Party of Italy was founded in Livorno on 21 January 1921.

There is a breed of chicken called leghorn, named after the city. This in turn gave its name to the cartoon character Foghorn Leghorn.

Economy

Tuaca liqueur is produced in Livorno as is Galliano. The city also has a substantial petrochemical industry.

Transportation

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Airport

The nearest airport is the main airport of Tuscany, Galileo Galilei Airport, which is about twenty kilometers away.

Trains

The city is served by Livorno Centrale station.

Sport

Livorno has a football team in Serie A, A.S. Livorno Calcio. The football club reflects the left-leaning tendencies of the city with Livorno Calcio's left-wing ultras.

Dialect

Livorno inhabitants speak a colourful variant of the Tuscan dialect of Italy named vernacolo, which is especially characterized by the popular interjection , which has a very wide range of meanings, usually recognizable only by the tone of the pronunciation, and a tourist is soon discovered if they pronounce the word as , because it is not the correct pronunciation.

There is a satirical comic/magazine written mainly in the Livornese dialect called Il Vernacoliere.

International relations

Twin towns — sister cities

Livorno is twinned with:

Notable people

Points of interest

See also

Images

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Livorno is in Tuscany.

Understand

Livorno is on the Tyrrhenian sea and is the second biggest port in Italy.

Get in

By plane

Pisa airport (code: PSA) Galileo Galilei.

By train

Main train station is Livorno Centrale. Take bus number 1 to go to town center and then to the port in about 20 minutes.

By car

Autostrada A12, uscita Livorno; for maps and tolls see: [1] (no pages in English as per 14 November 2004).

By bus

From Pisa, Piombino, Florence and other cities.

By boat

Direct ferry routes exist to Barcelona, Bastia, Golfo Aranci, Olbia, Palermo and Porto Vechio. It is best to book early to avoid over booking.

Many cruise ships stop here for at least a full day to allow guests to tour Florence and/or Pisa. Guests not taking cruise ship arranged tours can take a shuttle (supplied by the port) to the the downtown area. It offers a decent shopping experience, but not compared to Florence. A further 10-20 minute walk (or another bus ride) gets you to a train station. There you can take frequent departures for either Pisa or Florence. If hoping for the latter, ask for a train that goes to the Firenze Santa Maria Novella. Locals will happily help.

Get around

Bus number 1 is a shuttle from train station to the port and vice-versa. Ticket for one hour of travel is 1,00 Euros, daily ticket is 3,20 Euros. For self-reliant cruise passengers, this is part of the most economical way to reach trains to Pisa and Florence. A map is online [2].

  • Quattro Mori
  • Museo Civico Giovanni Fattori [3]
  • Acquario Comunale "D. Cestoni" [4] (closed: work in progress)
  • Tuscan islands [5]
  • Other museums: [6]
  • Funicolare di Montenero [7] one of the few cable railways still in service (another one is in Montecatini Terme near Pistoia.
  • Cacciucco - fish stew
  • Riso Nero - Black Rise-(Risotto darkened with squid ink)
  • Trattoria Sottomarino, Via dei Terrazzini 48/50 - ph. +39 0586 887025 - Close to Piazza della Repubblica and Fortezza Nuova (Venezia District). Fish cuisine, don't miss the gorgeous cacciucco - Closed on MO and TU.

Cantina Senese in Borgo Cappucino famous for Caccucio and Black Rise

Drink

"Ponce alla livornese" is optimal to finish a meal (warm drink with coffee and rum).

  • Hotel Hermitage, Via dei Melograni 13 57020, Marina di Bibbona, Tel. +39.0586.600218 Fax +39.0586.600760. [8]. 4-star modern and comfortable Hotel Hermitage in Marina di Bibbona near the splendid Etruscan coast

Get out

Livorno is a good starting point and base for a tour of Tuscany. You can reach Pisa in half an hour, Lucca and Florence in about an hour. (See note under "Get in" "By Boat" above) In a well-organized day you can tour Chianti-side going to Monteriggioni, San Gimignano, Siena and Volterra and be back for dinner; return before cruise ship departure could be problematic.

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Proper noun

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Singular
Livorno

Plural
-

Livorno

  1. Province of Tuscany, Italy.
  2. Town and capital of Livorno.

Synonyms

Translations


Italian

Wikipedia-logo.png
Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
Livorno

Wikipedia it

Proper noun

Livorno f.

  1. Livorno (province, town)
  2. The letter L in the Italian phonetic alphabet

Derived terms


Simple English

Livorno is a port city on the Tyrrhenian Sea on the western coast of Tuscany, Italy.

File:Livorno
Location of Livorno in Italy

Contents

History

Today, Livorno is known for the fortified town walls and for the small streets. Many foreigners moved to Livorno such as Jews, Armenians, Greeks, Dutch, and English. Some Moriscos (Muslim Spaniards forced to turn Catholic), much later, also moved to Livorno (from Spain and during the 18th century).

Main monuments

File:Livorno Piazza Grande (b) XIX
Piazza Grande in the 18th century: at left, the Palazzo del Governatore, at right the Dogana

Bridges, houses and streets, mostly from the neo-classical era are in the district of Livorno.

Examples

The "Monumento dei quattro mori" ("Monument of the Four Turks"), dedicated to Grand Duke Ferdinando I de' Medici of Tuscany, is one of the most important monuments of Livorno.

File:Livorno map 17th
Fortifications of Livorno in the 17th century

Another important monument is the old fortress which has 3 bastions called “Capitana”, “Ampolletta” and “Canaviglia”. It was made before the Renaissance.

Culture

Politically, Livorno is one of the most left-leaning cities of Italy. The Communist Party of Italy was founded in Livorno on 21 January 1921.

Economy

Tuaca liqueur is produced in Livorno. The city also has a petrochemical industry.

Sport

Livorno has a football team in Serie A, A.S. Livorno Calcio.

Languages

Livorno inhabitants speak a Tuscan dialect of Italian, called vernacolo.

Sister cities

Important people from Livorno

  • Mario Ancona (1860-1931), opera composer
  • Leonetto Cappiello (1875-1942), painter
  • Giorgio Caproni (1912-1990), poet
  • Carlo Azeglio Ciampi (born 1920), former President of the Republic of Italy
  • Piero Ciampi (1934-1980), musician
  • Giovanni Fattori (1825-1908), painter
  • Francesco Domenico Guerrazzi (1804-1873), writer and politician
  • Cristiano Lucarelli (born 1975), football player
  • Pietro Mascagni (1863-1945), opera composer
  • Matteo Mazzantini (born 1976), rugby player
  • Amedeo Modigliani (1884-1920), painter and sculptor
  • Aldo Montano (born 1978), fencer, Olympic gold medalist
  • Alfredo Muller (1869-1940), artist
  • Armando Picchi (1935-1971), football player and manager
  • Dario Resta (1884-1924), Racecar driver, Indy 500 winner
  • Angiolo Tommasi (1858-1923), artist
  • Alberto Fremura (born 1936), artist
  • Francis Levett English merchant

Other websites

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