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.A local area network (LAN) is a computer network over a small physical area, like a home, office, or small group of buildings, such as a school, or an airport.^ The two types of local area networks .
  • Creating a local area network 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC en.kioskea.net [Source type: General]

^ Search for 'Local area network' articles .
  • Local area network Topic - Technology – Computer world UK - The latest, breaking technology news, reviews and analysis on google, yahoo, microsoft, servers, storage, ibm, products, oracle 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.computerworlduk.com [Source type: News]

^ Local-area networks are networks that span a relatively small space.
  • Welcome to CYBER-CLUB web site"Networks"Local-Area Network(LAN)" 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to wide-area networks (WANs), include their usually higher data-transfer rates, smaller geographic area, and lack of a need for leased telecommunication lines.^ The defining characteristics of LANs in contrast to WANs are: their much higher data rates; smaller geographic range; and that they do not require leased telecommunication lines.

^ However, a LAN may be connected to a WAN (Wide Area Network), like the Internet.
  • Local Area Network – LAN | EasyLinuxCDs.com 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC easylinuxcds.com [Source type: General]

^ The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to wide-area networks (WANs) , include their usually higher data-transfer rates, smaller geographic place, and lack of a need for leased telecommunication lines .
  • Local area network (Linux Reviews) 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.ARCNET, Token Ring and many other technologies have been used in the past, and G.hn may be used in the future, but Ethernet over twisted pair cabling, and Wi-Fi are the two most common technologies currently in use.^ The most common form of LANs are Ethernet and token ring .
  • Local area network - The IT Law Wiki 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC itlaw.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most cost-effective cabling is Category 5 twisted-pair cable.
  • Local Area Networks for K-12 Schools. ERIC Digest. 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.ericdigests.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most common type of LAN is Ethernet.
  • http://www.linfo.org/lan.html 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.linfo.org [Source type: Reference]

Contents

History

.As larger universities and research labs obtained more computers during the late 1960s, there was an increasing pressure to provide high-speed interconnections.^ As larger universities and research labs obtained more computers during the late 1960s, there was increasing pressure to provide high-speed interconnections.
  • Local area network (Linux Reviews) 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Very high network speeds and data transfer rates Protection from the outside world, thus creating a trusted computing environment (Firewalls are usually used to protect LANs and to provide a secure computing environment.

^ LAN are trusted usually high speed and is always shared LANs allow users to share resources on computers within an organisation, and may be used to provide a shared access to remote organisations through a router.

.A report in 1970 from the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory detailing the growth of their "Octopus" network[1][2] gives a good indication of the situation.^ ADP also provide comprehensive wireless surveys utilising specialist toolsets to provide detailed reports critical to the successful deployment of any wireless network.
  • Local Area Network (LAN) Solutions from ADP Dealer Services 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.adpdsi.com [Source type: News]

.Cambridge Ring was developed at Cambridge University in 1974[3] but was never developed into a successful commercial product.^ Cambridge Ring was developed at Cambridge University in 1974 [ 3 ] but was never developed into a successful commercial product.
  • Local area network (Linux Reviews) 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Ethernet was developed at Xerox PARC in 1973–1975,[4] and filed as U.S. Patent 4,063,220.^ The most common LAN design since the mid-1970s has been the bus-connected Ethernet , originally developed at Xerox PARC .
  • local area network (LAN) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

^ Ethernet was developed at Xerox PARC in 1973–1975, [ 4 ] and filed as U.S. patent 4,063,220 .
  • Local area network (Linux Reviews) 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Ethernet Baseband LAN specification invented by Xerox Corporation and developed jointly by Xerox, Intel, and Digital Equipment Corporation.

.In 1976, after the system was deployed at PARC, Metcalfe and Boggs published their seminal paper, "Ethernet: Distributed Packet-Switching For Local Computer Networks."^ The Local Area Network (LAN) links the Centre's computing systems.
  • Local Area Network 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.ecmwf.int [Source type: Reference]

^ Local Area Networking papers .

^ Computer a in network Segment A transfers a packet.
  • How to attain high availability for SAP and local area networks 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC searchsap.techtarget.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]
.ARCNET was developed by Datapoint Corporation in 1976 and announced in 1977.[6] It had the first commercial installation in December 1977 at Chase Manhattan Bank in New York.^ ARCNET was developed by Datapoint Corporation in 1976 and announced in 1977 [ 6 ] - and had the first commercial installation in December 1977 at Chase Manhattan Bank in New York [ 7 ] .
  • Local area network (Linux Reviews) 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Company information overview News and events Corporate responsibility Careers Investor overview Industry analyst relations Announced customers Contact us .
  • Ciena - CN 2000 - Platform for storage and LAN extension and WAN optimization 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.ciena.com [Source type: General]

^ New York Times Layoffs — Good Riddance to Bad Trash Date: December 18th 2009 .
  • Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.articlepool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7]

Standards evolution

.The development and proliferation of CP/M-based personal computers from the late 1970s and then DOS-based personal computers from 1981 meant that a single site began to have dozens or even hundreds of computers.^ The development and proliferation of CP/M -based personal computers from the late 1970s and then DOS -based personal computers from 1981 meant that a single site began to have dozens or even hundreds of computers.
  • Local area network (Linux Reviews) 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Local area networks (LANs) are computer networks ranging in size from a few computers in a single office to hundreds or even thousands of devices spread across several buildings.
  • What is a LAN (local area network)? - Knowledge Base 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC kb.iu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Web Client - A common presentation Internet navigator, normally an Intel-based personal computer or notebook attached to an Internet connection.
  • General Computer Glossary-General Computer Terms-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.directron.com [Source type: Reference]

.The initial attraction of networking these was generally to share disk space and laser printers, which were both very expensive at the time.^ These are called network printers .
  • Building a Local Area Network - Texas State Library 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.tsl.state.tx.us [Source type: Reference]

^ In our time, virtual network is very expensive pleasure.
  • Local networks, network adapters, local area network 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC spagbol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While local area networking is not appropriate in a personal space like your home, if there is as much as two computers in a location it would be wise to network your computers, the main pros being the data and hardware shareability and the convenience in transferring data among these computers.
  • Local Area Networking 101 | Computer Realm 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.computer-realm.net [Source type: General]

.There was much enthusiasm for the concept and for several years, from about 1983 onward, computer industry pundits would regularly declare the coming year to be “the year of the LAN”.^ There was much enthusiasm for the concept and for several years, from about 1983 onward, computer industry pundits would regularly declare the coming year to be “the year of the LAN”.
  • Local area network (Linux Reviews) 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ While local area networking is not appropriate in a personal space like your home, if there is as much as two computers in a location it would be wise to network your computers, the main pros being the data and hardware shareability and the convenience in transferring data among these computers.
  • Local Area Networking 101 | Computer Realm 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.computer-realm.net [Source type: General]

^ Local Area Network (LAN) hardware education and training can be accomplished in several ways, depending on how much you need to learn and what environment you choose to learn in.
  • Local Area Network (LAN) Hardware Information | Business.com 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

.In practice, the concept was marred by proliferation of incompatible physical Layer and network protocol implementations, and a plethora of methods of sharing resources.^ In reality, the concept was marred by proliferation of incompatible physical layer and network protocol implementations, and confusion over how best to share resources.
  • Local area network (Linux Reviews) 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Access method protocols are implemented based on the selection of network adapters.
  • Peachpit: Home Networking with Windows XP > Sorting Through Local Area Network Protocols 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.peachpit.com [Source type: General]

^ The program pings computers, scans for listening TCP ports and displays which types of resources are shared on the network (including system and hidden).
  • Software for Enterprises, Intranets and the Internet 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.softperfect.com [Source type: General]

.Typically, each vendor would have its own type of network card, cabling, protocol, and network operating system.^ Typically, each vendor would have its own type of network card, cabling, protocol, and network operating system .
  • Local area network (Linux Reviews) 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ To manage a network is necessary to network operating systems.
  • Setting Guide Local Computer Networks (LAN) « Iis Jarkom Blog 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC iisdarmayanti.wordpress.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Three types of Operating Systems ...
  • Understanding The Basics And Advantages Of Local Area Networks 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.articlesnatch.com [Source type: General]

.A solution appeared with the advent of Novell NetWare which provided even-handed support for dozens of competing card/cable types, and a much more sophisticated operating system than most of its competitors.^ Three types of Operating Systems ...
  • Understanding The Basics And Advantages Of Local Area Networks 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.articlesnatch.com [Source type: General]

^ A solution appeared with the advent of Novell NetWare which provided even-handed support for the 40 or so competing card/cable types, and a much more sophisticated operating system than most of its competitors.
  • Local area network (Linux Reviews) 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ What operating systems are currently supported?
  • FAQ Mobile Satellite Internet Access in Puerto Rico for RVs, trucks, mobile homes 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.mobileuniversepr.com [Source type: General]

.Netware dominated[8] the personal computer LAN business from early after its introduction in 1983 until the mid 1990s when Microsoft introduced Windows NT Advanced Server and Windows for Workgroups.^ Linux/Samba servers are replacing both NetWare and Windows NT in many businesses.
  • LAN 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.aaxnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Windows NT/2000 Server .
  • LAN 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.aaxnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Netware dominated [ 8 ] the personal computer LAN business from early after its introduction in 1983 until the mid 1990s when Microsoft introduced Windows NT Advanced Server and Windows for Workgroups .
  • Local area network (Linux Reviews) 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Of the competitors to NetWare, only Banyan Vines had comparable technical strengths, but Banyan never gained a secure base.^ Of the competitors to NetWare, only Banyan Vines had comparable technical strengths, but Banyan never gained a secure base.
  • Local area network (Linux Reviews) 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Novell NetWare has only one competitor for fast file and print services, OS/2 Warp Server.
  • LAN 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.aaxnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Microsoft and 3Com worked together to create a simple network operating system which formed the base of 3Com's 3+Share, Microsoft's LAN Manager and IBM's LAN Server.^ SG24-4756-00 - LAN Operating Systems and Management .
  • IBM Redbooks | Local Area Network Concepts and Products: LAN Architect 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.redbooks.ibm.com [Source type: Reference]

^ To manage a network is necessary to network operating systems.
  • Setting Guide Local Computer Networks (LAN) « Iis Jarkom Blog 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC iisdarmayanti.wordpress.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Operating systems and servers .
  • Local area network Topic - Technology – Computer world UK - The latest, breaking technology news, reviews and analysis on google, yahoo, microsoft, servers, storage, ibm, products, oracle 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.computerworlduk.com [Source type: News]

.None of these were particularly successful, Unix computer workstations from vendors such as Sun Microsystems, Hewlett-Packard, Silicon Graphics, Intergraph, NeXT and Apollo were using TCP/IP based networking.^ A Sun running under UNIX with TCP/IP Any experience with these combinations?
  • H-Net Discussion Networks - Local Area Network Questions 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC h-net.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ None of these were particularly successful.
  • Local area network (Linux Reviews) 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In networked computers, the most popular communication protocol is TCP/IP .
  • What is a Local Area Network? 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.wisegeek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although this market segment is now much reduced, the technologies developed in this area continue to be influential on the Internet and in both Linux and Apple Mac OS X networking—and the TCP/IP protocol has now almost completely replaced IPX, AppleTalk, NBF and other protocols used by the early PC LANs.^ IP (Internet Protocol) - The TCP/IP standard protocol that defines the IP datagram.
  • General Computer Glossary-General Computer Terms-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.directron.com [Source type: Reference]

^ TCP/IP is the suite of protocols used by the Internet and most LANs throughout the world.
  • Setting up a Local Area Network 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: General]

^ TCP/IP Protocol 17 Documents .

Cabling

.Early LAN cabling had always been based on various grades of coaxial cable, but IBM's Token Ring used shielded twisted pair cabling of their own design, and in 1984 StarLAN showed the potential of simple Cat3 unshielded twisted pair—the same simple cable used for telephone systems.^ Early LAN cabling had always been based on various grades of co-axial cable , but IBM's Token Ring used shielded twisted pair cabling of their own design, and in 1984 StarLAN showed the potential of simple Cat3 unshielded twisted pair —the same simple cable used for telephone systems.
  • Local area network (Linux Reviews) 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Shielded twisted pair cable with 9-pole D-Sub connector.
  • Modbus Plus - Local Area Network 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.hms.se [Source type: Reference]

^ Twisted pair cable is the type you commonly see used for telephone cable.
  • Building a Local Area Network - Texas State Library 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.tsl.state.tx.us [Source type: Reference]

.This led to the development of 10Base-T (and its successors) and structured cabling which is still the basis of most LANs today.^ This led to the development of 10Base-T (and its successors) and structured cabling which is still the basis of most LANs today.
  • Local area network (Linux Reviews) 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Most organizations now use Cat 5e and Cat 6 structured cabling which offers a robust and flexible solution.
  • Libra - IT Network Services - IT Support Mississauga 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.librait.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most common LAN design since the mid-1970s has been the bus-connected Ethernet , originally developed at Xerox PARC .
  • local area network (LAN) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

.In addition, fiber-optic cabling is increasingly used.^ The advantages of Fiber optic cables: .
  • An overview of passive components in a Local Area Network | excITingIP.com 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.excitingip.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Devices can be connected by twisted-pair wire , coaxial cables , or fiber optic cables.
  • What is local-area network? - A Word Definition From the Webopedia Computer Dictionary 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.webopedia.com [Source type: General]
  • local-area network - Webopedia.com 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC winplanet.webopedia.com [Source type: General]
  • local-area network - Webopedia.com 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC itmanagement.webopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • local-area network - Webopedia.com 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC serverwatch.webopedia.com [Source type: General]
  • local-area network definition - isp.webopedia.com - The Glossary for Internet Service Providers 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC isp.webopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • eSecurity Planet: Software & Internet Security Trends, Virus Alerts 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC esecurity.webopedia.com [Source type: General]
  • local-area network - Ultrawideband Planet 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC uwb.webopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • EnterpriseVoIPplanet - local-area network - voipplanet.webopedia.com 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC voipplanet.webopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Media: Devices can be connected by twisted-pair wire, coaxial cables, or fiber optic cables.
  • Local Area Network (LAN) | Search Toppers 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.searchtoppers.com [Source type: Reference]

Technical aspects

.Switched Ethernet is the most common Data Link Layer implementation on local area networks.^ Search for 'Local area network' articles .
  • Local area network Topic - Technology – Computer world UK - The latest, breaking technology news, reviews and analysis on google, yahoo, microsoft, servers, storage, ibm, products, oracle 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.computerworlduk.com [Source type: News]

^ Local area network - The Boston Globe .
  • Local area network - The Boston Globe 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: News]

^ Local area network : Local_area_network .
  • Local area network (Linux Reviews) 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.At the Network Layer, the Internet Protocol has become the standard.^ IP (Internet Protocol) The packet data protocol used for routing and carriage of messages across the Internet and similar networks.
  • area network « Completely… 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC writetoreply.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The developments in this field of technology have also brought about drastic improvements in the way the Internet has evolved and how communication layers and protocols are adopted.
  • Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.articlepool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also called LEVEL. NOTE: Communications networks may be organized as a set of more or less independent PROTOCOLS , each in a different LAYER, or level.

.However, many different options have been used in the history of LAN development and some continue to be popular in niche applications.^ It was used in some original LAN implementations.
  • Building a Local Area Network - Texas State Library 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.tsl.state.tx.us [Source type: Reference]

^ LANs provide high speed data transfer (100Mbps to 1Gbps) between directly connected machines using different network topologies and protocols.
  • LAN - Local Area Network - WLAN 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.helpwithpcs.com [Source type: General]

^ Although switched Ethernet is now the most common data link layer protocol and IP as a network layer protocol , many different options have been used, and some continue to be popular in niche areas.
  • Local area network (Linux Reviews) 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Smaller LANs generally consist of one or more switches linked to each other—often at least one is connected to a router, cable modem, or ADSL modem for Internet access.^ One PC connects to the Internet and the other PCs in your home connect to that PC to access the Internet.
  • PC Repair Guide: How To Set Up a Local Area Network (LAN) - ACME HOW TO.com 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.acmehowto.com [Source type: General]

^ Cat 5 ethernet cable (2-3ft) connects the modem to a D Link 604 router.
  • Network connection drops to local only - Networking Hardware Configuration 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.daniweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cable comes in and connects to their modem.
  • Network connection drops to local only - Networking Hardware Configuration 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.daniweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Larger LANs are characterized by their use of redundant links with switches using the spanning tree protocol to prevent loops, their ability to manage differing traffic types via quality of service (QoS), and to segregate traffic with VLANs.^ Larger LANs are characterized by their use of redundant links with switches using the spanning tree protocol to prevent loops, their ability to manage differing traffic types via quality of service (QoS), and to segregate traffic via VLANs .
  • Local area network (Linux Reviews) 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ However, Dataless Management Services uses the bootp protocol, which is not a secure protocol.
  • Sharing Software on a Local Area Network 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.rcnp.osaka-u.ac.jp [Source type: Reference]

^ Larger LANS also contain a wide variety of network devices such as switches, firewalls, routers, load balancers, sensors and so on.
  • Local area network (Linux Reviews) 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Larger LANS also contain a wide variety of network devices such as switches, firewalls, routers, load balancers, and sensors.^ A network LAN switch improves your network.
  • Local Area Network (LAN) Switches Information | Business.com 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ Local area network (LAN) components and devices, * Wide area network (WAN) components and ...
  • Network Administrator local Jobs 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.linkup.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Larger LANS also contain a wide variety of network devices such as switches, firewalls, routers, load balancers, sensors and so on.
  • Local area network (Linux Reviews) 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

[9]
.LANs may have connections with other LANs via leased lines, leased services, or by tunneling across the Internet using virtual private network technologies.^ LANs may have connections with other LANs via leased lines, leased services, or by 'tunneling' across the Internet using VPN technologies.
  • Local area network (Linux Reviews) 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ LAN is like BT internet connection.
  • Is LAN (Local Area Network) hardware or software? - Yahoo! UK & Ireland Answers 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC uk.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ If the LAN is connected to the Internet, students can communicate with others throughout the world.
  • Chapter 1: What is a Network? 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC fcit.usf.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Depending on how the connections are established and secured in a LAN, and the distance involved, a LAN may also be classified as metropolitan area network (MAN) or wide area networks (WAN).^ Computers in local area network are connected by?
  • WikiAnswers - What is a Local Area Network or LAN 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Also used to imply combined use of a Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN).
  • Amazon.com: "Local Area Network": Key Phrase page 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Some are wide area networks and some are local area networks.
  • Wireless Local Area Networks 1 February 2010 3:03 UTC www.pc.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

References

External links


A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that connects computers and devices in a limited geographical area such as home, school, computer laboratory, office building, closely positioned group of buildings, or an airport. The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to wide area networks (WANs), include their usually higher data-transfer rates, smaller geographic area, and lack of a need for leased telecommunication lines.

ARCNET, Token Ring and other technologies have been used in the past, but Ethernet over twisted pair cabling, and Wi-Fi are the two most common technologies currently in use.

Contents

History

As larger universities and research labs obtained more computers during the late 1960s, there was an increasing pressure to provide high-speed interconnections. A report in 1970 from the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory detailing the growth of their "Octopus" network[1][2] gives a good indication of the situation.

Cambridge Ring was developed at Cambridge University in 1974[3] but was never developed into a successful commercial product.

Ethernet was developed at Xerox PARC in 1973–1975,[4] and filed as U.S. Patent 4,063,220. In 1976, after the system was deployed at PARC, Metcalfe and Boggs published their seminal paper, "Ethernet: Distributed Packet-Switching For Local Computer Networks."[5]

ARCNET was developed by Datapoint Corporation in 1976 and announced in 1977.[6] It had the first commercial installation in December 1977 at Chase Manhattan Bank in New York.[7]

Standards evolution

The development and proliferation of CP/M-based personal computers from the late 1970s and then DOS-based personal computers from 1981 meant that a single site began to have dozens or even hundreds of computers. The initial attraction of networking these was generally to share disk space and laser printers, which were both very expensive at the time. There was much enthusiasm for the concept and for several years, from about 1983 onward, computer industry pundits would regularly declare the coming year to be “the year of the LAN”.[citation needed]

In practice, the concept was marred by proliferation of incompatible physical Layer and network protocol implementations, and a plethora of methods of sharing resources. Typically, each vendor would have its own type of network card, cabling, protocol, and network operating system. A solution appeared with the advent of Novell NetWare which provided even-handed support for dozens of competing card/cable types, and a much more sophisticated operating system than most of its competitors. Netware dominated[8] the personal computer LAN business from early after its introduction in 1983 until the mid 1990s when Microsoft introduced Windows NT Advanced Server and Windows for Workgroups.

Of the competitors to NetWare, only Banyan Vines had comparable technical strengths, but Banyan never gained a secure base. Microsoft and 3Com worked together to create a simple network operating system which formed the base of 3Com's 3+Share, Microsoft's LAN Manager and IBM's LAN Server - but none of these were particularly successful.

During the same period, Unix computer workstations from vendors such as Sun Microsystems, Hewlett-Packard, Silicon Graphics, Intergraph, NeXT and Apollo were using TCP/IP based networking. Although this market segment is now much reduced, the technologies developed in this area continue to be influential on the Internet and in both Linux and Apple Mac OS X networking—and the TCP/IP protocol has now almost completely replaced IPX, AppleTalk, NBF, and other protocols used by the early PC LANs.

Cabling

Early LAN cabling had always been based on various grades of coaxial cable, IBM's Token Ring used shielded twisted pair cabling of their own design, and in 1984 StarLAN showed the potential of simple Cat3 unshielded twisted pair—the same simple cable used for telephone systems. This led to the development of 10Base-T (and its successors) and structured cabling which is still the basis of most commercial LANs today. In addition, fiber-optic cabling is increasingly used in commercial applications. As cabling is not always possible, wireless is the most common technology in residential premises as the cabling required is minimal.

Technical aspects

Switched Ethernet is the most common Data Link Layer and Physical Layer implementation for local area networks. At the higher layers, the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) has become the standard. Smaller LANs generally consist of one or more switches linked to each other, often at least one is connected to a router, cable modem, or ADSL modem for Internet access.

Larger LANs are characterized by their use of redundant links with switches using the spanning tree protocol to prevent loops, their ability to manage differing traffic types via quality of service (QoS), and to segregate traffic with VLANs. Larger LANs also contain a wide variety of network devices such as switches, firewalls, routers, load balancers, and sensors.[9]

LANs may have connections with other LANs via leased lines, leased services, or by tunneling across the Internet using virtual private network technologies. Depending on how the connections are established and secured in a LAN, and the distance involved, a LAN may also be classified as metropolitan area network (MAN) or wide area networks (WAN)

See also

References

  1. ^ Samuel F. Mendicino (1970-12-01). "Octopus: The Lawrence Radiation Laboratory Network". Rogerdmoore.ca. Archived from the original on 2010-10-11. http://www.webcitation.org/5tP07Xoec. 
  2. ^ "THE LAWRENCE RADIATION LABORATORY OCTOPUS". Courant symposium series on networks (Osti.gov). 29 Nov 1970. http://www.osti.gov/energycitations/product.biblio.jsp?osti_id=4045588. Retrieved 2010-10-11. 
  3. ^ "A brief informal history of the Computer Laboratory". University of Cambridge. 20 December 2001. Archived from the original on 2010-10-11. http://www.webcitation.org/5tP0nKIlL. 
  4. ^ "Ethernet Prototype Circuit Board". Smithsonian National Museum of American History. http://americanhistory.si.edu/collections/object.cfm?key=35&objkey=96. Retrieved 2007-09-02. 
  5. ^ "Ethernet: Distributed Packet-Switching For Local Computer Networks". Acm.org. http://www.acm.org/classics/apr96/. Retrieved 2010-10-11. 
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External links


Simple English

A local area network (LAN) is a group of computers (network) in a small area like a home, office, or school. Lots of computers can be connected to share information and the Internet. Most LANs use Ethernet to connect together.

LAN topologies define the manner in which network devices are organized. Four common LAN topologies exist: bus, ring, star, and tree. These topologies are logical architectures, but the actual devices need not be physically organized in these configurations. Logical bus and ring topologies, for example, are commonly organized physically as a star. A bus topology is a linear LAN architecture in which transmissions from network stations propagate the length of the medium and are received by all other stations.



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 30, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Local area network, which are similar to those in the above article.








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