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Model 12 Electra Junior
A Lockheed 12A, F-AZLL
Role Civil and military utility aircraft
Manufacturer Lockheed Corporation
First flight June 27, 1936
Number built 130
Developed from Lockheed L-10 Electra

The Lockheed Model 12 Electra Junior was an eight-seat, six-passenger all-metal twin-engine transport aircraft designed for use by small airlines, companies, and wealthy private individuals. Developed as a scaled-down version of the Lockheed L-10 Electra, the prototype made its first flight on June 27, 1936.

Contents

Design and development

British Airways Ltd. ordered two Electra Juniors in 1939. Although ostensibly acquired for civilian purposes, these aircraft were modified for aerial photography and used by Sidney Cotton to track Axis military activity on the eve of World War II.

A modified Electra Junior was used by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) as a testbed for "hotwing" deicing technology.

A total of 130 Electra Juniors were built. At the time of the Pearl Harbor attack, the Lockheed 12 had outsold the competing Beechcraft Model 18 by 2-1, and Lockheed had over two dozen unfilled orders. In order to concentrate on more vital and advanced wartime aircraft, Lockheed turned the unfilled orders over to Beechcraft, who eventually built many thousands of their Model 18.

Variants

Civil models

Model 12A
Powered by two 450 hp (336 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-985 Wasp Junior SB radial engines. Around 100 built.[1][2]
Model 12B
Like 12A, but powered by two 440 hp (328 kW) Wright R-975-E3 Whirlwind radial engines.[1][3] This was a normal civil model, but the only two built went to the Argentine Army.[4]

Military models

U.S. Army Air Corps C-40
U.S. Army Air Corps C-40B with fixed tricycle landing gear
C-40
U.S. Army Air Corps five-passenger transport based on 12A. Three built. Redesignated UC-40 in January 1943.[1][5]
C-40A
U.S. Army Air Corps transport based on 12A with mixed passenger/cargo interior. Ten built, plus one converted from C-40B. Redesignated UC-40A in January 1943.[1][6]
C-40B
U.S. Army Air Corps 12A testbed for testing fixed tricycle landing gear. One built. Converted to a normal C-40A in 1940.[1][7]
C-40D
Eleven civil 12As impressed by the U.S. Army Air Forces in 1942, with standard six-passenger interior. Redesignated UC-40D in January 1943.[1][8]
JO-1
U.S. Navy five-passenger transport based on 12A. One built.[1][9]
JO-2
U.S. Navy and Marine Corps six-passenger transport based on 12A. Five built.[1][9]
XJO-3
U.S. Navy 12A testbed with fixed tricycle gear and arresting tailhook, used for carrier landing tests and airborne radar trials. One built.[1][9]
R3O-2
One civil 12A impressed by the U.S. Navy in 1941. (This was an anomalous designation, since the Navy had already used R3O for the L-10 Electra.)[9][10]
Model 212
Bomber trainer based on 12A with bomb racks and gun turret atop aft fuselage. 17 built, one prototype and 16 for the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army Air Force.[1]
Model 12-26
Military transport version of the Model 212. 20 built for the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army Air Force.[4]

Operators

Civilian

Military

 Argentina
 Canada
 Indonesia
 Netherlands
 Dutch East Indies
 South Africa
 United Kingdom
 United States

Survivors

Specifications (Model 12A)

General characteristics

  • Crew: two, pilot and co-pilot
  • Capacity: six passengers
  • Length: 36 ft 4 in (11.07 m)
  • Wingspan: 49 ft 6 in (15.09 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 9 in (2.97 m)
  • Wing area: 352 ft² (32.7 m²)
  • Empty weight: 5,765 lb (2,615 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 8,650 lb (3,924 kg)
  • Powerplant:Pratt & Whitney R-985 Wasp Junior SB radial engines, 450 hp (336 kW) each

Performance

Popular culture

An Electra Junior appeared in the 1942 film Casablanca. Wartime security precautions prevented shooting at an airport at night, so a cardboard cutout stood in for a real airplane in many shots.

Two Electra Juniors appeared as stand-ins for Amelia Earhart's L-10E Electra in the NBC 1976 TV movie Amelia Earhart. Another Lockheed 12 appears in the 2009 movie Amelia.[12]

See also

Related development

Comparable aircraft

Related lists

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Aerofiles, Lockheed 1 to J, http://aerofiles.com/_lock.html, retrieved January 8, 2010  
  2. ^ Federal Aviation Administration, Type Certificate Data Sheet TC 616, http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgMakeModel.nsf/0/d47a167d3175849f85256738006d7ca8/$FILE/ATT7BSH8/TC616.pdf, retrieved January 8, 2010  
  3. ^ Federal Aviation Administration, Inspection Handbook Part 4, p. 31, http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgccab.nsf/0/7623084711e2d9e88625712a0074b5e2/$FILE/Inspection%20Handbook%20Part%204.pdf, retrieved January 8, 2010  
  4. ^ a b Bowers (2000), p. 2
  5. ^ National Museum of the United States Air Force, Factsheets : Lockheed C-40, http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=3309, retrieved January 8, 2010  
  6. ^ National Museum of the United States Air Force, Factsheets : Lockheed C-40A, http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=3310, retrieved January 8, 2010  
  7. ^ National Museum of the United States Air Force, Factsheets : Lockheed C-40B, http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=3311, retrieved January 8, 2010  
  8. ^ National Museum of the United States Air Force, Factsheets : Lockheed UC-40D, http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=3312, retrieved January 8, 2010  
  9. ^ a b c d Jack McKillop, Lockheed JO Electra Junior, R2O Electra, R3O Electra and Electra Junior, by Jack McKillop, http://www.microworks.net/PACIFIC/aviation/jo_r2o_r3o_electra.htm, retrieved January 8, 2010  
  10. ^ Aerofiles, Lockheed K to Lockheed-Martin, http://aerofiles.com/_lock2.html, retrieved January 8, 2010  
  11. ^ a b c Bowers (2000), p. 3
  12. ^ Mike Collins (October 6, 2009), AOPA Aviation Summit: The 'Amelia' movie's airplane, http://www.aopa.org/summit/news/2009/091006electra.html, retrieved January 8, 2010  

Bibliography

Further reading


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