Lod Airport: Wikis

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Ben Gurion International Airport
נמל התעופה בן גוריון
Ben Gurion Tel Aviv by David Shankbone.JPG
The Arrivals Hall at Terminal 3
IATA: TLVICAO: LLBG
Summary
Airport type Public
Operator Israel Airports Authority
Serves Tel Aviv, Israel
Location Airport City, Tel Aviv District, Israel
Hub for El Al
Israir Airlines
Arkia Israel Airlines
Sun d'Or International Airlines
Elevation AMSL 41 m / 135 ft
Coordinates 32°00′41″N 034°53′12″E / 32.01139°N 34.88667°E / 32.01139; 34.88667Coordinates: 32°00′41″N 034°53′12″E / 32.01139°N 34.88667°E / 32.01139; 34.88667
Website www.iaa.gov.il/Rashat/...
Runways
Direction Length Surface
m ft
03/21 1,780 5,840 Asphalt
08/26 3,657 11,998 Asphalt
12/30 3,112 10,210 Asphalt
Statistics (2008)
International Passengers 11,081,213
Domestic Passengers 469,220
International Aircraft 82,649
Domestic Aircraft 11,995

Ben Gurion International Airport (Hebrew: נמל התעופה בן גוריון‎, Namal HaTe'ūfa Ben Gūryōn, (IATA: TLVICAO: LLBG)), also referred to by its Hebrew acronym Natbag (Hebrew: נתב"ג‎), is the largest and busiest international airport in Israel, with over 11.5 million passengers in 2008.[1] It was named the best airport in the Middle East by the ACI organisation.[2]

The airport was initially known as "Wilhelma Airport" when it was built in 1936 in what was then the British Mandate of Palestine. When the State of Israel came into existence on 14 May 1948, the airport's name was changed from Lydda to Lod. The airport was renamed Ben Gurion International Airport in 1973 to honour Israel's first Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion.

The airport is located near the city of Lod, 15 km (9 mi) southeast of Tel Aviv. It is operated by the Israel Airports Authority, a government-owned corporation that manages all public airports and border crossings in the State of Israel.

Ben Gurion International Airport serves as the home base of El Al, Israir Airlines, Arkia Israel Airlines and Sun d'Or International Airlines. Terminal 3 is used for most international flights, while Terminal 1 is used for all domestic flights as well as the Jet2.com flight to Manchester Airport and the easyJet flight to London Luton Airport (and to Geneva, begins 30 August).[3] The airport has three runways and is used by commercial, private and military aircraft.

The airport is located near Highway 1, the main Jerusalem-Tel Aviv Highway and Highway 40. The airport is accessible by car or public bus. Israel Railways operates a train service to and from the airport to several parts of the country and taxi stands are located outside the arrivals building. A popular transportation option is the shared taxi van, known in Hebrew as a sherut, going to Beer Sheva, Haifa and Jerusalem.

Ben Gurion International Airport is considered one of the world's most secure airports,[4][5] with a security force that includes both police officers and IDF soldiers. Airport security guards operate both in uniform and undercover to maintain a high level of vigilance and detect any possible threats. The airport has been the target of several terrorist attacks, but no attempt to hijack a plane departing from Ben Gurion airport has succeeded.

Contents

History

Historical map of Lydda Airport
Lydda Airport, 1950
El Al Douglas DC-4(?) in Lod Airport hangar, (~1952)

Ben Gurion International Airport started out in 1936 as Lydda Airport, an airstrip of four concrete runways on the outskirts of the Arab town of Lydda. It was built during the British Mandate of Palestine chiefly for military purposes[6] and was renamed RAF Lydda in 1943. The importance of the facility rose significantly during World War II when it served as a major base for military air transport and aircraft ferry operations between military bases in Europe, Africa, the Middle East (mainly Iraq and Persia) and South/Southeast Asia.

The first civilian transatlantic route, New York City to Tel Aviv, was inaugurated by TWA in 1946. The British gave up Lydda airport at the end of April 1948. Soldiers of the Israel Defence Force captured the airport on 10 July 1948, in Operation Danny, transferring control to the newly declared State of Israel. Flights resumed on 24 November 1948.[7] That year, 40,000 passengers passed through the terminal. By 1952, the number had risen to 100,000 a month. Within a decade, air traffic increased to the point where local flights had to be redirected to the Sde Dov airfield (SDV) on the northern Tel Aviv coast. By the mid-1960s, 14 international airlines were landing at Lod Airport.

More buildings and runways were added over the years, but with the onset of mass immigration from Ethiopia and the former Soviet Union in the 1980s and 90s, as well as the global increase of international business travel, the existing facilities became painfully inadequate, prompting the design of new state-of-the art terminal that could also accommodate the expected tourism influx for the 2000 millennium celebrations. The decision to go ahead with project was reached in January 1994, but Terminal 3 only opened its doors a decade later, on 2 November 2004.[8]

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Operation of the old terminal

Initially, the departures check-in area was located on the ground floor. Passengers would proceed upstairs on to the main departures hall, which contained passport control, duty-free shops, VIP lounges, one synagogue and boarding gates. At the gates, travellers would be required to descend a flight of stairs to return to the ground floor where the waiting shuttle-buses would transport them to their airplane on the tarmac. The arrivals hall with passport control, luggage carousels, duty-free pick-up and customs was on the south end of the building. The shuttle-buses transferred passengers and crews to the terminal from the airplanes that parked on the tarmac over 500 meters (1,640 ft) away. After Terminal 3 opened, Terminal 1 was closed except for domestic flights to the airport in Eilat and government flights such as special immigrant flights from North America and Africa. Chartered flights organised by Nefesh B'Nefesh carrying immigrants from North America and England use this terminal for their landing ceremonies several times a year.[9]

Terrorist incidents

While Ben Gurion Airport has been a target of Palestinian attacks, the adoption of strict security precautions has ensured that no aircraft departing from Ben Gurion airport has ever been hijacked. On the other hand, airliners hijacked from other countries have landed at Ben Gurion, contributing to two major incidents in the airport's history. In the first, on 8 May 1972, four Palestinian Black September terrorists hijacked a Sabena flight en-route from Vienna and forced it to land at Ben Gurion airport. Sayeret Matkal commandos led by Ehud Barak stormed the plane, killing two of the hijackers and capturing the other two. One passenger was killed.[10] Later that month, on 30 May 1972, in an attack known as the Lod Airport Massacre, 24 people were killed and 80 injured when three members of the Japanese Red Army sprayed machine gun fire into the passenger arrival area. The victims included Aharon Katzir, a prominent protein biophysicist and brother of Israel's 4th president, Efraim Katzir and a group of twenty Puerto Rican tourists who had just arrived in Israel.[11] The only terrorist who survived was Kozo Okamoto, who received a life sentence but was set free in a prisoner exchange with the PFLP-GC.[12]

Terminals

Terminal 1

Terminal 1, now used for domestic flights

Terminal 1 re-opened in 2007 as the domestic terminal following extensive renovations,[13] and in July 2008, to cater for summer charter and low-cost flights.[14] It remained open for these charter and low-cost flights for the 2008 summer season, with passengers checking-in and passing through security here, before being bussed to Terminal 3. The terminal closed temporarily in October 2008, where it is currently under further renovation. It will be opened again in Summer 2009, when it is expected to reach its three-month capacity of 600,000 passengers on international flights.[14]

Although Terminal 1 was closed between 2003 and 2007, the building served as a venue for various events and large-scale exhibitions including the "Bezalel Academy of Arts Centennial Exhibition" which was held there in 2006. There is now talk of keeping Terminal 1 open 24 hours a day in order to handle charter flights from Europe.[15] The renovations for the terminal were designed by Yosef Assa with three individual atmospheric themes. Firstly, the public halls have a Land-of-Israel character with walls painted in the colors of Israel's Judean, Jerusalem and Galilee mountains. The Departure Hall is given an atmosphere of vacation and leisure, whilst the Arrivals Hall is given a more urban theme as passengers return back to the city.[16]

In February 2006, the Israel Airports Authority announced plans to invest 4.3 million NIS in a new VIP wing for private jet passengers and crews, as well as others interested in avoiding the main terminal. VIP ground services already exist, but a substantial increase in users has justified expanding the facilities, which will also boost airport revenues. The IAA released figures showing significant growth in private jet flights (4,059, a 36.5% increase from 2004) as well as private jet users (14,613, a 46.2% increase from 2004). The new VIP wing, operated by an outside licensee, will be located in an upgraded and expanded section of Terminal 1. All flight procedures (security check, passport control and customs) will be handled here. This wing will include a hall equipped for press conferences, a deluxe lounge, special meeting rooms equipped with state-of-the-art business facilities and a designated lounge for flight crews who spend time at the airport between flights.[17] It was announced in January 2008, however, that the IAA planned to construct a new 1000sq metre VIP terminal next to Terminal 3.[18]

Terminal 2

Terminal 2 was inaugurated in 1969 when Arkia resumed operations at the airport after the six-day war.[19] Terminal 2 served domestic flights until 20 February 2007 when these services moved into the refurbished Terminal 1. Due to increased traffic in the late 1990s and over-capacity reached at Terminal 1, an international section was added until Terminal 3 was opened. Terminal 2 was slated to be demolished to make room for more freight areas until July 2007, when it was decided that the terminal would be converted into a special terminal for low-cost airlines.

Terminal 3

Concourse B of Terminal 3

Terminal 3, which opened on 28 October 2004,[20] replaced Terminal 1 as the main international gateway to and from Israel. The building was designed by Black and Veatch, Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM) and Moshe Safdie, along with Ram Karmi and other Israeli architects. The inaugural flight was an El Al flight to John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City.

The new terminal is currently built to serve over 10 million passengers per year, although it could accommodate 16 million passengers a year with the addition of two concourses to the existing three. No future expansion is expected beyond this due to the proximity of the airport to the country's largest population centres and the problem of noise pollution. If necessary, another international airport is planned to be built elsewhere in the country.[21]

Work on Natbag 2000, as the Terminal 3 project was known, was scheduled for completion prior to 2000 in order to handle a massive influx of pilgrims expected for the Millennium celebrations. This deadline was not met due to higher than anticipated costs and a series of work stoppages in the wake of the bankruptcy of the main Turkish contractor. The project eventually cost an estimated one billion US dollars.

Terminal 3 uses the Jetway system. The overall layout is similar to that of airports in Europe and North America, with multiple levels and considerable distances to walk after disembarking from the aircraft. The walk is assisted by escalators and moving walkways. The ground floor departures hall, with an area of over 10,000 square metres (107,639 sq ft), is equipped with 110 check-in counters and as well as Flight information display systems.[22] A small shopping mall, known as Buy & Bye, is open to both travellers and the general public. The mall, which includes shops, restaurants and a post office, was planned to be a draw for non-flyers too. On the same level as the mall, passengers enter passport control and the security check. Planes taking off and landing can be viewed from a distinctive tilted glass wall. Car rental counters are located in an intermediate level situated between the departing and arriving passenger halls. Terminal 3 has two synagogues.[23]

After the main security check, passengers wait for their flights in the star-shaped duty-free rotunda. A variety of cafes, restaurants and duty-free shops are located there, open 24 hours a day, as well as banking facilities and a desk for VAT refunds.[24]

Terminal 3 has three concourses (B, C and D), each leading to eight jetways (numbered 2 through 9). Each concourse is equipped with two bus bays (1 and 1A) from which passengers board the aircraft. Two additional concourses (A and E) will be built if passenger traffic warrants expansion. Free wireless internet is provided throughout the terminal.[25] The terminal has three business lounges - the exclusive El Al King David Lounge for frequent flyers and two 'Dan' lounges for either privileged or paying flyers. In January 2007, the IAA announced plans for a 120-bed hotel at Terminal 3.[26]

On 26 April 2009, the Israel Airports Authority announced that the Passengers belonging to the Haredi world will soon be able to enjoy a glatt kosher meal at Ben-Gurion Airport's departure terminal while waiting for their flight.[27]

Terminal 4

This terminal, built in 1999, was meant to handle the crowds expected in 2000, but never officially opened. To date, it has only been used as a terminal for passengers arriving from Asia during the SARS epidemic.[28] Another use for the terminal was for the memorial ceremonies upon the arrival of the casket of Col. Ilan Ramon after the Columbia disaster in February 2003 and the arrival of Elchanan Tenenbaum and the caskets of 3 Israeli soldiers from Lebanon in January 2004.

Airlines and destinations

All domestic flights operate from Terminal 1, while most international flights operate from Terminal 3. The largest carrier in terms of passenger numbers is El Al, followed by Turkish charterer Onur Air and by German Lufthansa.[29] This list includes all scheduled destinations served from Ben Gurion International Airport, and excludes charter and occasional destinations.

Bust of David Ben Gurion at Ben Gurion International Airport, named in his honour
Duty-free shopping rotunda
Terminal 3 as seen from the tarmac
Terminal 3 as seen from above
Airlines Destinations
Aegean Airlines Athens
Aerosvit Airlines Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk, Kiev-Boryspil, Odessa, Simferopol
AirBaltic Riga
Air Berlin Berlin-Tegel, Cologne/Bonn [begins 29 March], Düsseldorf [begins 11 June], Munich [begins 30 March]
Air Canada Toronto-Pearson
Air France Paris-Charles de Gaulle
Alitalia Milan-Malpensa [ends 27 March], Rome-Fiumicino
Arkia Israel Airlines Amman, Amsterdam, Baku, Barcelona, Berlin-Schönefeld, Copenhagen, Dublin, Eilat, Larnaca, Kiev-Boryspil, Madrid, Moscow-Domodedovo, Munich, Ovda, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Stockholm-Arlanda, Tbilisi
Armavia Yerevan [begins 28 March]
Austrian Airlines Vienna
Azerbaijan Airlines Baku
Belavia Minsk
British Airways London-Heathrow
Brussels Airlines Brussels
Bulgaria Air Sofia
Continental Airlines Newark
Corendon Airlines Antalya [seasonal]
Corsairfly Paris-Orly
Croatia Airlines Dubrovnik [seasonal], Zagreb [seasonal]
Cyprus Airways Larnaca
Czech Airlines Prague
Delta Air Lines Atlanta, New York-JFK
Donavia Rostov-on-Don
Donbassaero Kiev-Borispol
EasyJet Geneva [begins 30 August], London-Luton
Egyptair operated by Air Sinai Cairo
El Al Amsterdam, Athens, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Barcelona, Beijing-Capital, Berlin-Schönefeld, Brussels, Bucharest-Henri Coandă, Budapest, Cairo, Dnipropetrovsk, Eilat, Frankfurt, Geneva, Hong Kong, Johannesburg, Kiev-Boryspil, London-Heathrow, London-Luton, Los Angeles, Madrid, Marseilles, Milan-Malpensa, Moscow-Domodedovo, Mumbai, Munich, New York-JFK, Newark, Odessa, Ovda, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Prague, Rome-Fiumicino, São Paulo-Guarulhos, St Petersburg, Sofia, Toronto-Pearson, Vienna, Warsaw, Zürich
Ethiopian Airlines Addis Ababa
Georgian Airways Tbilisi
Germanwings Cologne/Bonn [begins 30 March]
Iberia Madrid
Israir Airlines Amsterdam, Basel [begins 24 March], Berlin-Schönefeld, Dublin [begins 6 July; seasonal], Dubrovnik, Eilat, London-Stansted, Ljubljana, Milan-Malpensa, Moscow-Domodedovo, Nice, Ovda, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Rome-Fiumicino, Verona
Jat Airways Belgrade
Jetairfly Liège
Jet2.com Manchester
KLM Amsterdam
Korean Air Seoul-Incheon
LOT Polish Airlines Warsaw
Lufthansa Frankfurt, Munich [seasonal]
Lufthansa operated by PrivatAir Munich [seasonal]
Malév Hungarian Airlines Budapest
Meridiana operated by Eurofly Milan-Malpensa, Rome-Fiumicino, Verona
Rossiya St Petersburg
Royal Jordanian Amman
Spanair Barcelona [begins 3 May]
Sun d'Or International Airlines Barcelona, Bratislava, Brescia, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Linz, Munich, Palermo, Rome-Fiumicino, Split, Turin, Verona, Zagreb
Swiss International Air Lines Zürich
Tandem Aero Chisinau
TAROM Bucharest-Henri Coandă
Transaero Moscow-Domodedovo, Moscow-Sheremetyevo
TUIfly Berlin-Tegel [ends 27 March], Cologne/Bonn [ends 23 March], Hamburg [ends 27 March], Memmingen [ends 27 March], Munich [ends 27 March]
Turkish Airlines Istanbul-Atatürk
Ural Airlines Yekaterinburg
US Airways Philadelphia
UTair Aviation Samara
Uzbekistan Airways Tashkent
Cities with direct international passenger airlinks with Ben Gurion International Airport

Charter airlines

Ben Gurion Airport also handles a wide range of charter airlines with flights throughout Europe, most notably by El Al, Israir Airlines, Mistral Air, Neos, Onur Air and Thomas Cook Airlines.

Cargo airlines

The airport as of 2009

Usage statistics (commercial operations)
Year Total passengers Total operations
1999 8,916,436
2000 9,879,470 80,187
2001 8,349,657 69,226
2002 7,308,977 63,206
2003 7,392,026 61,202
2004 8,051,895 66,638
2005 8,917,421 70,139
2006 9,221,558 76,735
2007 10,526,562 84,568
2008 11,550,433 94,644
2009 10,925,970 89,442

2008 was the busiest year ever at Ben Gurion, with over 11.5 million passengers passing through the airport (an increase of about 10% over the previous year) on almost 95,000 commercial operations. In 2006, the largest airlines on international routes were: El Al (40.6% of flights), Lufthansa (4.16%), Continental Airlines (3.96%), Israir (3.85%) and Arkia (3.83%).[30] A steep rise in the number of domestic passengers using the airport is expected in the future in the wake of plans to close down Sde Dov Airport (which currently handles considerably more domestic passengers annually than TLV) and build luxury towers on the Sde Dov property. All commercial flights will be rerouted to Ben Gurion.[31]

In December 2006, Ben Gurion International Airport ranked first among 40 European airports and 8th out of 77 airports in the world, in a survey, conducted by Airports Council International, to determine the most customer-friendly airport. Tel Aviv placed second in the grouping of airports which carry between 5 and 15 million passengers per year behind Japan's Nagoya Airport. The survey consisted of 34 questions. A random sampling of 350 passengers at the departure gate were asked how satisfied they were with the service, infrastructure and facilities. Ben Gurion received a rating of 3.94 out of 5, followed by Vienna, Munich, Amsterdam, Brussels, Zurich, Copenhagen and Helsinki. The airport retained its title as the best Middle Eastern airport in the 2007 and 2008 surveys.[32][33]

The 2009 recession hit TLV as well. Half a million less passengers passed through the airport in 2009. The hardest hit were the domestic carriers which saw 35.6% passengers less than 2008. Internationally speaking, TLV saw 1.1% less passengers than in the previous year.

Security

Ben Gurion International Airport is one of the world's most heavily secured airports.[34] Security operates on several levels.[35]

  • All cars, taxis, buses and trucks go through a preliminary security checkpoint before entering the airport compound. Armed guards spot-check the vehicles by looking into cars, taxis and boarding buses, exchanging a few words with the driver and passengers.
  • Armed security personnel stationed at the terminal entrances keep a close watch on those who enter the buildings. If someone arouses their suspicion or looks nervous, they may strike up a conversation to further assess the person's intent. Plainclothes armed personnel patrol the area outside the building, and hidden surveillance cameras operate at all times.[36]
  • Inside the building, both uniformed and plainclothes security officers are on constant patrol.
  • Departing passengers are personally questioned by security agents even before arriving at the check-in desk. This interview can last as little as five minutes, or as long as an hour if a passenger is selected for additional screening. Luggage and body searches may be conducted. After the search, bags are placed through an X-ray machine before passengers proceed to the check-in counters. Occasionally, if security have assessed a person as a low risk, they will pass them straight through to the check-in desks, bypassing the main x-ray machines. Note that hand baggage is always x-rayed later on.
  • After check-in, checked baggage is put in a pressure chamber to trigger any possible explosive devices. Passengers continue through to personal security and passport control, as in other airports. Before passing through the metal detectors and placing hand baggage through the X-ray machine, passports are re-checked and additional questions may be asked. Before boarding the aircraft, passports and boarding passes are checked once again.
  • Security procedures for incoming flights are not as stringent, but passengers may be questioned by passport control depending on country of origin, or countries visited prior to arrival in Israel. Passengers who have recently visited countries at war with Israel (all Arab countries except Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Mauritania and Qatar) may be subject to further questioning.[37]

Runways

Airport Chart
Runways as seen from above

Main runway

The closest runway to terminals 1 and 3 is 12/30, and is followed by a taxiway. Most landings take place on this runway from West to East, approaching from the Mediterranean Sea over southern Tel Aviv.[38] During inclement weather, it may also be used for takeoffs (Direction 12). A 17 million NIS renovation project was completed in November 2007 which reinforced the runway and made it suitable for future wide-body aircraft such as the new Airbus A380. In September 2008, a new ILS serving the runway was activated.

Short runway

In the past, the short runway mainly served cargo aircraft of the Israeli Air Force. Today it functions mostly as a taxiway for the quiet runway. Rarely, it is used for landing from north to south (Direction 21).[39] By the middle of the next decade however, the IAF facilities adjacent to the short runway are slated to be relocated to Nevatim and the runway will be lengthened to over 9,100 feet, equipped with an ILS, and placed into full commercial usage.

Quiet runway

The longest runway at the airfield, 3,657 meters (11,998 ft), and the main take off runway from east to west (Direction 26/08), referred to as "the quiet runway" since jets taking off in this direction produce less noise pollution for surrounding residents. This is the newest runway in the airport, built in the early 1970s. A 24 million NIS renovation project completed in February 2006 reinforced the runway and made it suitable for future wide-body aircraft such as the new Airbus A380.[40]

Future runway configuration

The fact that the main runway and the quiet runway intersect near their western ends often creates a crisscross pattern between aircraft landing and taking off. This pattern reduces the amount of air traffic which can circulate in and out of the airport and has detrimental safety implications as well. To alleviate these issues, work will begin in 2010 to construct new taxiways, lengthen the short runway, and move the take-off point on the quiet runway further to the west. Runway 03/21 will then become the main landing runway instead of runway 12/30 which will then be used on a secondary basis. This will enable a new approach pattern to and from the field, allowing simultaneous take offs and landings at most times of the day and increasing the level of air safety in and around the airport. The project will cost nearly US$1 billion and is scheduled to be completed in early 2014.

Access

Platform 1 of the airport train station at Terminal 3

Rail

Israel Railways operates the Ben Gurion Airport Railway Station, conveniently located in the lower level of Terminal 3. From this station passengers may head north-west to Tel Aviv, Haifa and other destinations in the north, or south-east to Modi'in.[41] The journey to Tel Aviv Savidor Central Railway Station takes about 18 minutes and costs 13 ILS (approx. US$3.70). Almost 3.3 million passengers used the railway line to and from the airport in 2009. The line to Modi'in is part of a new rail line under construction from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem which is scheduled for completion in 2016. The service does not operate on Shabbat and Jewish holidays. The line to Haifa through Tel Aviv runs 24 hours a day.

Bus or taxi

The airport is served by regular inter-city bus lines, a special airport shuttle with express service to Tel Aviv, Sherut "shared" door to door taxi vans and standard taxis.[42] An Egged #5 shuttle bus ferries passengers between the terminals and a small bus terminal in the Airport City industrial park where they can connect to regular Egged bus routes passing through the area. Passengers connecting at Airport City can pay for both rides on the same ticket, not paying extra money for bus #5. Other bus companies directly serve Terminal 3, and the airport also provides a free shuttle bus.[43]

Car

Located on Highway 1, the Tel Aviv-Jerusalem highway, the airport has a total of 11,300 parking spaces for short and long-term parking. The spaces for long-term parking are situated several kilometres from the terminal, and are reached by a free shuttle bus.[44]

See also


References

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  2. ^ "Tel Aviv's Ben Gurion named top Middle East airport". Globes. http://www.globes.co.il/serveen/globes/DocView.asp?did=1000432940&fid=1725. Retrieved 10 March 2009. 
  3. ^ Educational.co.il (Hebrew)
  4. ^ "What Israeli security could teach us". The Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/news/globe/editorial_opinion/oped/articles/2006/08/23/what_israeli_security_could_teach_us/. Retrieved 10 August 2007. "The safest airport is Ben Gurion International, in Tel Aviv. No EL AL plane has been attacked by terrorists in more than three decades and no flight leaving Ben Gurion has ever been hijacked." 
  5. ^ "Ben-Gurion International Airport". Britannica Knowledge Systems Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Encyclopedia Britannica Inc.. http://www.britannica-ks.com/Successful/International.asp. Retrieved 10 August 2007. "Today, Ben-Gurion is one of the most secure airports in the world" 
  6. ^ "Ben Gurion Airoprt- The 30's". Israel Airports Authority. http://www.iaa.gov.il/Rashat/en-US/Airports/BenGurion/AbouttheAirport/History/30/. Retrieved 27 April 2007. 
  7. ^ "Ben Gurion Airoprt- The 40's". Israel Airports Authority. http://www.iaa.gov.il/Rashat/en-US/Airports/BenGurion/AbouttheAirport/History/40/. Retrieved 29 April 2007. 
  8. ^ "Ben Gurion". History Central. http://www.historycentral.com/Aviation/airports/Bengurion.html. Retrieved 29 April 2007. 
  9. ^ "Ben Gurion Airport". HistoryCentral. http://www.historycentral.com/Aviation/airports/Bengurion.html. Retrieved 28 April 2007. 
  10. ^ Sontag, Deborah (20 April 1999). "2 Who Share a Past Are Rivals for Israel's Future". The New York Times. pp. Section A, Page 3, Column 1. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F30917FD3D5E0C738EDDAD0894D1494D81&n=Top%2fReference%2fTimes%20Topics%2fPeople%2fB%2fBarak%2c%20Ehud. 
  11. ^ "1972: Japanese kill 26 at Tel Aviv airport". BBC.co.uk. 29 May 1972. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/may/29/newsid_2542000/2542263.stm. Retrieved 28 April 2007. 
  12. ^ Lewis, Paul (21 May 1985). "Israel frees 1,150 to obtain release of last 3 soldiers". The New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F40F14FB385F0C728EDDAC0894DD484D81. Retrieved 29 April 2007. 
  13. ^ "End of an Era – The Historic Terminal 1 has Reopened, Serving Passengers on Domestic Flights". Israel Airports Authority. 20 February 2007. http://www.iaa.gov.il/Rashat/en-US/Rashot/MessagesArchive/SpokesMan/Spokesman_En_200207.htm. Retrieved 28 April 2007. 
  14. ^ a b "Ben-Gurion's old terminal reopens for summer charters". Jerusalem Post. 2 July 2008. http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1214726184832&pagename=JPost%2FJPArticle%2FShowFull. Retrieved 12 July 2008. 
  15. ^ Bior, Haim (20 April 2007). "Transportation Ministry recommends unlimited airline competition". Haaretz. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/850775.html. Retrieved 28 April 2007. 
  16. ^ "Principles of Architectural Planning". IAA. http://www.iaa.gov.il/Rashat/en-US/Airports/BenGurion/InformationforTravelers/Terminal+1/PrinciplesofArchitecturalPlanning_en.htm. Retrieved 12 April 2008. 
  17. ^ "Israel Airports Authority to Build a Special Terminal for Executive and Private Flights at Ben Gurion Airport". Israel Airports Authority. 21 February 2006. http://www.iaa.gov.il/Rashat/en-US/Rashot/MessagesArchive/SpokesMan/Spokesman_En_210206.htm. Retrieved 28 April 2007. 
  18. ^ "Terminal for private flights to be built at airport". Jerusalem Post. 22 January 2008. http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1200572515252&pagename=JPost%2FJPArticle%2FShowFull. Retrieved 22 January 2008. 
  19. ^ "Ben Gurion Airoport - The 60's (IE browser required)". Israel Airports Authority. http://www.iaa.gov.il/Rashat/en-US/Airports/BenGurion/AbouttheAirport/History/60/. Retrieved 12 June 2008. 
  20. ^ "Address by PM Sharon at inauguration of Ben Gurion Airport 2000". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Government/Speeches+by+Israeli+leaders/2004/Address%20by%20PM%20Sharon%20at%20inauguration%20of%20Ben%20Gurion%20Airport%202000%2028-Oct-2004. Retrieved 27 April 2007. 
  21. ^ "Facts and Figures". Israel Airports Authority. http://www.iaa.gov.il/Rashat/en-US/Airports/BenGurion/AbouttheAirport/Statistics/. Retrieved 4 May 2007. 
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