|Motto: Ex navicula navis (From a boat, a ship)|
|- Mayor||Jerzy Kropiwnicki|
|- City||293.25 km2 (113.2 sq mi)|
|Elevation||162-278 m (-750 ft)|
|- Density||2,538.9/km2 (6,575.8/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|- Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Postal code||90-001 to 94-413|
|Area code(s)||+48 42|
Łódź [wut͡ɕ] ( listen), is the third-largest city in Poland. Located in the central part of the country, it had a population of 744,541 in June 2009. It is the capital of Łódź Voivodeship, and is approximately 135 kilometres (84 mi) south-west of Warsaw. The city's coat of arms is an example of canting: depicting a boat, it alludes to the city's name which translates literally as "boat".
Łódź first appears in the written record in a 1332 document giving the village of Łodzia to the bishops of Włocławek. In 1423 King Władysław Jagiełło granted city rights to the village of Łódź. From then until the 18th century the town remained a small settlement on a trade route between Masovia and Silesia. In the 16th century the town had fewer than 800 inhabitants, mostly working on the nearby grain farms.
With the second partition of Poland in 1793, Łódź became part of the Kingdom of Prussia's province of South Prussia, and was known in German as Lodsch. In 1798 the Prussians nationalized the town, and it lost its status as a town of the bishops of Kuyavia. In 1806 Łódź joined the Napoleonic Duchy of Warsaw and in 1810 it had 190 inhabitants. In 1815 Congress of Vienna treaty it became part of Congress Poland, a client state of the Russian Empire.
In the 1815 treaty, it was planned to renew the dilapidated town and with the 1816 decree by the Czar a number of German immigrants received territory deeds for them to clear the land and to build factories and housing. In 1820 Stanisław Staszic aided in changing the small town into a modern industrial centre. The immigrants came to the Promised Land (Polish Ziemia obiecana, the city's nickname) from all over Europe. Mostly they arrived from Southern Germany, Silesia and Bohemia, but also from countries as far as Portugal, England, France and Ireland. The first cotton mill opened in 1825, and 14 years later the first steam-powered factory in both Poland and Russia commenced operations. In 1839 the population was 80% Germans and German schools and churches were established.
A constant influx of workers, businessmen and craftsmen from all over Europe transformed Łódź into the main textile production centre of the Russian Empire. Three groups dominated the city's population and contributed the most to the city's development: Poles, Germans and Jews, which started to arrive since 1848. Many of the Lodz craftspeople were weavers from Silesia.
In 1850, Russia abolished the customs barrier between Congress Poland and Russia proper; industry in Łódź could now develop freely with a huge Russian market not far away. Soon the city became the second-largest city of Congress Poland. In 1865 the first railroad line opened (to Koluszki, branch line of the Warsaw-Vienna Railway), and soon the city had rail links with Warsaw and Białystok.
One of the most important industrialists of Łódź was Karl Wilhelm Scheibler. In 1852 he came to Łódź and with Julius Schwarz together started buying property and building several factories. Scheibler later bought out Schwarz's share and thus became sole owner of a large business. After he died in 1881 his widow and other members of the family decided to pay homage to his memories by erecting a chapel, intended as a mausoleum with family crypt, in the Lutheran part of the Lodz cemetery in ulica Ogrodowa (later known as The Old Cemetery).
In the 1823–1873, the city's population doubled every ten years. The years 1870–1890 marked the period of most intense industrial development in the city's history. Many of the industrialists were Jewish. Łódź soon became a major centre of the socialist movement. In 1892 a huge strike paralysed most of the factories.
By 1897, the share of the German population had dropped from 80 to 40%. According to Russian census of 1897, out of the total population of 315,000, Jews constituted 99,000 (so around 31% percent).
Despite the air of impending crisis preceding World War I, the city grew constantly until 1914. By that year it had become one of the most densely-populated industrial cities in the world —13,280 inhabitants per square kilometer (34,395/sq mi). A major battle was fought near the city in late 1914, and as a result the city came under German occupation after December 6, but with Polish independence restored in November 1918 the local population liberated the city and disarmed the German troops. In the aftermath of World War I, Łódź lost approximately 40% of its inhabitants, mostly owing to draft, diseases and because a huge part of the German population was forced to move to Germany.
In 1922, Łódź became the capital of the Łódź Voivodeship, but the period of rapid growth had ceased. The Great Depression of the 1930s and the Customs War with Germany closed western markets to Polish textiles while the Bolshevik Revolution (1917) and the Civil War in Russia (1918–1922) put an end to the most profitable trade with the East. The city became a scene of a series of huge workers' protests and riots in the interbellum. On 13 September 1925 a new airport, Lublinek Airport, started operations near the city of Łódź. In the interwar years Łódź continued to be a diverse city, with the 1931 Polish census showing that the total population of 604,470 included 315,622 (52.21%) Poles, 202,497 (33.49%) Jews and 86,351 (14.28%) Germans (determination based on the declaration of language used).
Also read Battle of Łódź (1939) Prelude.
During the Invasion of Poland the Polish forces of the Łódź Army of General Juliusz Rómmel defended Łódź against initial German attacks. However, the Wehrmacht captured the city on September 8. Despite plans for the city to become a Polish exclave, attached to the General Government, the Nazi hierarchy respected the wishes of the local governor of Reichsgau Wartheland, Arthur Greiser, and of many of the ethnic Germans living in the city, and annexed it to the Reich in November 1939. The city received the new name of Litzmannstadt after the German general Karl Litzmann, who captured the city during World War I. Nevertheless, many Łódź Germans refused to sign Volksliste and become Volksdeutsche, instead being deported to the General Government.
Soon the Nazi authorities set up the Łódź Ghetto in the city and populated it with more than 200,000 Jews from the Łódź area. As Jews were deported from Litzmannstadt for "resettlement" (extermination) others were brought in. Due to the value of the goods that the ghetto population produced for the German military and various civilian contractors it was the last major ghetto to be "liquidated" (destroyed); approximately 900 people survived the liquidation of the ghetto in August 1944. Several concentration camps and death camps arose in the city's vicinity for the non-Jewish inhabitants of the regions, among them the infamous Radogoszcz prison and several minor camps for the Romani people and for Polish children.
By the end of World War II, Łódź had lost approximately 420,000 of its pre-war inhabitants: 300,000 Polish Jews and approximately 120,000 other Poles. In their place were thousands of new German residents, many of whom were Volksdeutsch who had been repatriated from Russia during the time of Hitler's alliance with the Soviet Union. In January 1945 most of the German population fled the city for fear of the Red Army. The city also suffered tremendous losses due to the German policy of requisition of all factories and machines and transporting them to Germany. Thus despite relatively small losses due to aerial bombardment and the fighting, Łódź had lost most of its infrastructure.
The Soviet Red Army entered the city on January 18, 1945. According to Marshal Katukov, whose forces participated in the operation, the Germans retreated so suddenly that they had no time to evacuate or destroy the Łódź factories, as they did in other cities. In time, Łódź became part of the People's Republic of Poland.
At the end of World War II, Łódź had fewer than 300,000 inhabitants. However the number began to grow as refugees from Warsaw and territories annexed by the Soviet Union immigrated. Until 1948 the city served as a de facto capital of Poland, since events during and after the Warsaw uprising had thoroughly destroyed Warsaw, and most of the government and country administration resided in Łódź. Some planned moving the capital there permanently, however this idea did not gain popular support and in 1948 the reconstruction of Warsaw began. Under the Polish Communist regime many of the industrialist families lost their wealth when the authorities nationalised private companies. Once again the city became a major centre of industry. In mid-1981 Łódź became famous for its massive, 50,000 hunger demonstration of local mothers and their children (see: Summer 1981 hunger demonstrations in Poland).
After the period of economic transition during the 1990s, most enterprises were again privatised. In 2002 the city came to national attention due to the "Skin Hunters" scandal: doctors and paramedics in one of the city's hospitals were caught murdering patients and selling their details to funeral homes for them to contact the relatives. Four men have been convicted but others are still under investigation. A film was made of the events in 2003.
Three major novels depict the development of industrial Łódź. Władysław Reymont's Ziemia Obiecana (The Promised Land) (1898), Joseph Roth's Hotel Savoy (1924) and Israel Joshua Singer's Di Brider Ashkenazi (The Brothers Ashkenazi) (1937). Roth's novel depicts the city on the eve of a workers' riot in 1919. Reymont's novel was made into a film by Andrzej Wajda in 1975: see The Promised Land. In the 1990 film Europa Europa, Solomon Perel's family flees pre-WWII Berlin and settles in Łódź; later, disguised as a Hitler Youth cadet, Perel attempts visit the Łódź ghetto to search for his family. Łódź is the first city destroyed by a nuclear attack from the USSR in John Birmingham's Axis of Time trilogy. Łódź also plays a major part in the WorldWar and Colonization sagas by Harry Turtledove. Scenes of David Lynch's 2006 film Inland Empire were shot in Łódź.
Piotrkowska Street is the main artery and attraction stretching north to south for a little over five kilometres, making it (one of) the longest commercial streets in the world. A few of the building fronts have been renovated and date back to the 19th century.
Although Łódź does not have any hills nor any large body of water, one can still get close to nature in one of the city's many parks, most notably Łagiewniki (the largest city park in Europe). Łódź has one of the best museums of modern art in Poland, Muzeum Sztuki on Więckowskiego Street, which displays art by all important contemporary Polish artists. Despite insufficient exhibition space (many very impressive paintings and sculptures lie in storage in the basement), there are plans to move the museum to a larger space in the near future. There is also a branch of Muzeum Sztuki called MS2 located in the area of Łódź largest mall "Manufaktura".
Another popular source of recreation is the Lunapark, an amusement park featuring about two dozen attractions including an 18 metre tall roller coaster and two dozen other rides and features, located near the city's zoo and its botanical gardens.
The largest 19th Century textile factory complex which was built by Izrael Poznanski has been turned into a shopping centre called "Manufaktura" which is by far the best example on how the mall should be incorporated into the city's architecture.
Before 1990, Łódź's economy focused on the textile industry, which in the nineteenth century had developed in the city owing to the favourable chemical composition of its water. As a result, Łódź grew from a population of 13,000 in 1840 to over 500,000 in 1913. By just before World War I Łódź had become one of the most densely populated industrial cities in the world, with 13,280 inhabitants per km2. The textile industry declined dramatically in 1990 and 1991, and no major textile company survives in Łódź today. However, countless small companies still provide a significant output of textiles, mostly for export to Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union.
The city benefits from its central location in Poland. A number of firms have located their logistics centres in the vicinity. Two planned motorways, A1 spanning from the north to the south of Poland, and A2 going from the east to the west will intersect northeast of the city. When these motorways are completed around 2012, the advantages due to the city's central location should increase even further. Work has also began on upgrading the railway connection with Warsaw, which reduces the 2 hours travel time to make the 137 km (85 mi) journey to 1.5 hour in 2009. In the next few years much of the track will be modified to handle trains moving at 160 km/h (99 mph), cutting the travel time to about 75 minutes.
Recent years has seen many foreign companies opening offices in Lodz. Indian IT behemoth Infosys has one of its centres in Lodz
In January 2009 Dell announced that it will shift production from its plant in Limerick, Ireland to its plant in Łódź, largely because the labour costs in Poland are a fraction of those in Ireland. The city's investor friendly policies have attracted 980 foreign investors by January 2009. Foreign investment was one of the factors which decreased the unemployment rate in Łódź to 6.5 percent in December 2008, from 20 percent four years before.
The Leon Schiller's National Higher School of Film, Television and Theatre in Łódź (Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Filmowa, Telewizyjna i Teatralna im. Leona Schillera w Łodzi) is the most notable academy for future actors, directors, photographers, camera operators and TV staff in Poland. It was founded on March 8, 1948 and was initially planned to be moved to Warsaw as soon as the city was rebuilt following the Warsaw Uprising. However, in the end the school remained in Łódź and today is one of the best-known institutions of higher education in that town.
At the end of the Second World War Łódź remained the only large Polish town besides Kraków which war had not destroyed. The creation of the National Film School gave the town a role of greater importance from a cultural viewpoint, which before the war had belonged exclusively to Warsaw and Kraków. Early students of the School include the directors Andrzej Munk, Andrzej Wajda, Kazimierz Karabasz (one of the founders of the so called Black Series of Polish Documentary) and Janusz Morgenstern, who at the end of the Fifties became famous as one of the founders of the Polish Film School of Cinematography.
Immediately after the war, Jerzy Bossak, Wanda Jakubowska, Stanisław Wohl, Antoni Bohdziewicz and Jerzy Toeplitz worked as the first teachers. The internationally renowned film director Roman Polański was among the many talented students who attended the School in the 1950s. Łódź's cinematic involvement and its Hollywood-style star walk on Piotrkowska Street have earned it the nickname "Holly-Łódź". The school is also associated with the Camerimage Film Festival, which occurs annually in late November and early December. Founded in Toruń in 1993, the festival was specifically organised to focus on the art of cinematography and is well-attended every year by world-renowned cinematographers, many of whom also participate in seminars, workshops, retrospectives and Q&A sessions. Because of both subject matter and attendee composition, it is considered a key event for industry exhibitors, who often make European debuts of their products here.
Members of Parliament (Senat) elected from Łódź constituency:
Łódź belongs also to the Eurocities network.
Łódź City Hall, formerly Heinzel Palace
Old Town Square
European Institute, formerly Schweikert Palace
Manufaktura shopping mall
Music Academy, formerly Poznanski Palace
Łódź  (Pronounced: Wooj) is Poland's third biggest city and an important industrial centre. The city, dubbed the Polish Manchester, has been famous for its textile industry, flourishing especially during the fin de siècle. The movie Promised Land  based on a novel by the Nobel laureate Władysław Reymont, depicts those times. Łódź is the capital of the Łódzkie Voivodship.
The exact origin of the city's name is unknown, however, the word łódź translates to "boat" in English. This is referred to in the emblem and when you hear the dwellers of Łódź (łodzianin (men) łodzianka (women) łodzianie (plural)) calling themselves "the boat people".
A settlement on the area of present-day Łódź was first established in the 14th century and in 1423 it has been granted a town charter, along with the right to have a marketplace. However, the real development of Łódź starts with the industrial era at the beginning of the 19th century when the city was chosen to be the heart of the rapidly-growing textile industry. The population of Łódź soared from some 4k people in the 1830s and 40k in 1865 to over 300k inhabitants at the turn of the century, which was an unprecedented growth on a worldwide scale.
The rapid development of Łódź in the second half of the 19th century was brought about by the rise of enormous industrialist fortunes. New inhabitants, craftsmen and merchants came to Łódź; markets and town fairs came to life. The profits obtained from prosperous textile mills opened up practically unlimited possibilities for their owners. The city residences became expressions of the riches and power of the local tycoons. They were usually situated next to the owner's factory.
Andrzej Wajda's movie "The Promised Land" portrays Łódź's 19th century heyday.
Ever since the industrial revolution bringing a massive influx of workforce, Łódź has been a city almost equally divided between four cultures - Polish, Jewish, German and Russian. The day before the outbreak of World War II, Łódź was inhabited by approximately 672,000 people, among whom 35% were of Jewish faith and some 15% were ethnic German.
During the Nazi occupation, Łódź was incorporated directly into the Third Reich. The city was renamed to Litzmannstadt, and Piotrkowska Street was called Adolf-Hitler-Strasse. Although the city was not destroyed in the aftermath, the material losses were serious as the machinery, raw materials and finished goods have been taken away by the fleeing Nazis.
The day before the liberation, about 80,000 Germans left Łódź in panic. At the beginning of 1945, the number of population was estimated at 300,000.
In recent years, Łódź was seemingly forgotten by the government, investors, and travelers in favor for other cities, such as Krakow, Warsaw, and Wroclaw. As a result, there's a strange atmosphere in Łódź – streets are littered with cracks and potholes, soviet architecture can be the norm in some areas, and for a city of 760,000 aglomeration 1.428,000 there doesn't seem to be much, at first glance – compared to Warsaw , which are revered for their many qualities. However, there are signs of this changing now with Łódź campaigning and redesigning itself as a up-and-coming destination. To accomplish this, Łódź has been capitalizing on it's film history – Łódź is jokingly referred to as the "HollyŁódź" of Poland – by creating and hosting several film festivals. Łódź has also begun actively campaigning to be the European Capital of Culture in 2016 .
Łódź today may not have the glitz and glamour of its heyday, however there is a certain charm to Łódź in its partially renovated façades and leitmotivs, not to mention its large artistic traditions, even if not immediately evident. With a little bit of persistence, you'll see the magic Łódź has to offer. For a different and eye-opening experience of the world and its cultures, Łódź is certainly a recommended destination.
Besides, LOT  maintains a connection with Warsaw (you may prefer to take a train instead - however flying from Lodz is recommended if you have immediate onward flight from Warsaw) and there are numerous sky taxis operating (see the airport's website).
See also: Poland - Get in - By train.
The nearby city of Stryków will soon become an important highway junction and when it happens Łódź will probably have the best road connections among all Polish cities. The people in the city are very enthusiastic about it , despite the fact that the development plans have been changing constantly over the last decade so there is no real guarantee even now that they will be carried out. For now:
The planned Wrocław has been downgraded in plans to expressway.highway to
Polski Express and ELA that used to connect Lodz to Warsaw and other major cities do not operate anymore. There is number of small minibus and bus companies that offer connections between Lodz and number of cities (big and small) around Poland. There also some minibuses that go to Okęcie airport. You should be able to find most up to date information on Lodz Fabryczna station.
The Ultimate Tram
Łódź was one of the first cities in Poland to have trams in 1898 and today it has the longest tram link in Europe between Chocianowice and Ozorków (34 km).
Taxis are another option, and they are quite cheap for a Westerner. However, one should be sure that there is a taxi sign atop the cab and that the driver has a permit. 9622, 6400400 and 9191 are some of the known companies and they all have exactly same prices.
Rickshaws. On Piotrkowska Street, you can travel any distance with them for 2.50 zł per person. It gets to 4.00 zł in the night and most of the rikshaw drivers will take you out of Piotrkowska if you offer to pay more.
Milongas  usually take place on Mondays in Oranżada on ul. Piotrkowska 67 and on Sundays in Klub Mojito on ul. Piotrkowska 143. They usually start at 7-8 p.m. and don't last longer than till 10-12. Several long and short tango courses are usually organized trough the year .
Numerous international companies have operations in Lodz, since Lodz is the the second largest city in Poland and has an high amount of technically skilled labor. Native speakers of English, German, French, Spanish and Italian can usually easily find a job in one of many language schools in the city.
Accommodation in Lodz is different from other Polish cities, because a high end hotel here is more like a mid-range hotel in Warsaw or Krakow. Additionally, more modern chain hotels which could be "Budget" hotels in Warsaw may be Mid-range hotels, since they expect to be paid a certain rate in Warsaw and that rate was carried over to the Lodz market.
There is a number of Internet cafes on Piotrkowska and nearby streets.
Watch out for pickpockets. A common trick for thieves is to operate in groups and create artificial crowds on buses and trams which distract their victims' attention prior to being pickpocketed.
Łódź hasn't been developing as rapidly as some other more successful Polish cities recently and it has some of the poorest urban areas in Poland, but those issues are handled by the government and (especially) the NGOs.
Do not ever give any money to beggars. This applies worldwide.
If you want to help consider donating to an accountable charity, like the Polish Red Cross  or Caritas Polska . If you still want to give something to a beggar, offer buying food for them (and notice their reaction).
|This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!|
LODZ (Lodz; more correctly Lodzia), a town of Russian Poland, in the government of Piotrkow, 82 m. by rail S.W. of Warsaw. It is situated on the Lodz plateau, which at the beginning of the 19th century was covered with impenetrable forests. Now it is the centre of a group of industrial towns - Zgeri, Ltczyca, Pabianice, Konstantinov and Aleksandrov. Chiefly owing to a considerable immigration of German capitalists and workers, Lodz has grown with American-like rapidity. It consists principally of one main street, 7 m. long, and is a sort of Polish Manchester, manufacturing cottons, woollens and mixed stuffs, with chemicals, beer, machinery and silk, One of the very few educational institutions is a professional industrial school. The population, which was only 50,000 in 1872, reached 35 1 ,57 0 in 'goo; the Poles numbering about 37%, Germans 40% and Jews 221%.