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Regno Lombardo–Veneto (it)
Règn Lombard–Vènet (lmo)
Regno Lonbardo–Veneto (vec)
Königreich Lombardo–Venetien (de)
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
Part of the Austrian Empire

1815–1866
Flag Coat of arms
The Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia (green).
Capital Milan
Government Absolute monarchy
Austrian Emperor
 - 1815-35 Francis I
 - 1835-48 Ferdinand I
 - 1848-66 Francis Joseph I
Viceroy
 - 1857-59 (last) Archduke Maximilian
History
 - Congress of Vienna 9 June 1815
 - Revolutions 22 March 1848
 - Treaty of Zürich 10 November 1859
 - Treaty of Vienna 12 October 1866
Area
 - 1850 46,991 km2 (18,143 sq mi)
Population
 - 1850 est. 5,100,000 
     Density 108.5 /km2  (281.1 /sq mi)
Currency Lombardy-Venetia pound (1816-60)
Lombardy-Venetia florin (1860-66)

The Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia (Italian: Regno Lombardo–Veneto; German: Königreich Lombardo–Venetien) was a kingdom in northern Italy, and part of the Austrian Empire. It was established after the defeat of Napoleon, according to the decisions of the Congress of Vienna, on 9 June 1815. The Kingdom ceased to exist when the remaining portion of it was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1866.

The Congress of Vienna combined the territories of Lombardy (which had been ruled by the Habsburgs since the 16th century, and by the Austrian branch of the family from 1713 to 1796) and Venetia (which had been under Austrian rule intermittently since 1797) into a single unit under the Austrian Habsburgs.

Administratively the Kingdom comprised two independent governments in the two parts. Lombardy included the provinces of Milan, Como, Bergamo, Brescia, Pavia, Cremona, Mantova, Lodi-Crema, and Sondrio. Venetia included the provinces of Venice, Verona, Padova, Vicenza, Treviso, Rovigo, Belluno, and Udine.[1]

The Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia was first ruled by Francis from 1815 to his death in 1835. Ferdinand ruled from 1835 to 1848.

After a popular revolution on 22 March 1848 (The Five Days of Milan), the Austrians fled from Milan, which become the capital city of the Governo Provvisorio della Lombardia (Lombardy Provisional Government). The next day, Venice also arose against the Austrians, forming the Governo Provvisorio di Venezia (Venice Provisional Government). The Austrians, after defeating the Sardinian troops at the Custoza (24 July-25 July 1848), entered in Milan (6 August) and Venice (24 August 1849), restoring Austrian rule.

Francis Joseph ruled over the Kingdom for the rest of its existence. His younger brother Maximilian, who later became Emperor of Mexico, served as his viceroy in Milan between 1857 and 1859.

Lombardy was annexed to the embryonic Italian state in 1859, by the Treaty of Zurich after the Second Italian War of Independence; Venetia was ceded to the Kingdom of Italy in 1866 in the aftermath of the Seven Weeks War, by the Treaty of Prague.[1]

Kings of Lombardy–Venetia

Name Reign Notes
Franz I of Austria 1814-35 previously Duke of Milan
Prince Heinrich XV Reuss zu Plauen 1814-15 Viceroy for Franz I
Count Friedrich Heinrich von Bellegarde 1815-16 Viceroy for Franz I
Archduke Anton Victor of Austria 1816-18 Viceroy for Franz I
Archduke Rainer of Austria 1818-35 Viceroy for Franz I
Ferdinand I of Austria 1835-48 son of Franz I
Archduke Rainer of Austria 1835-48 Viceroy for Ferdinand I
Franz Joseph of Austria 1848-59 nephew of Ferdinand I
Count Joseph Radetzky von Radetz 1848-57 Viceroy for Franz Joseph
Archduke Maximilian 1857-59 Viceroy for Franz Joseph

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Rosita Rindler Schjerve (2003) "Diglossia and Power: Language Policies and Practice in the 19th Century Habsburg Empire", ISBN 311017653X, pp. 199-200
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