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London
From upper left: City of London, Houses of Parliament, Tower Bridge and Tower of London
Nickname(s): The Big Smoke
London region in the United Kingdom
Coordinates: 51°30′29″N 0°7′29″W / 51.50806°N 0.12472°W / 51.50806; -0.12472
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region London
Ceremonial counties City and Greater London
Districts City and 32 boroughs
Settled by Romans as Londinium c. AD 43
Headquarters City Hall
Government
 - Regional authority Greater London Authority
 - Regional assembly London Assembly
 - Mayor of London Boris Johnson
 - UK Parliament
 - London Assembly
 - European Parliament
74 constituencies
14 constituencies
London constituency
Area
 - London 659 sq mi (1,706.8 km2)
Elevation [1] 79 ft (24 m)
Population (July 2007 est.)[2][3][4]
 - London 7,556,900
 Density 12,331/sq mi (4,761/km2)
 Urban 8,278,251
 Metro 12,300,000 to 13,945,000
 - Demonym Londoner
 - Ethnicity
(June 2006 estimates)[5]
Time zone GMT (UTC0)
 - Summer (DST) BST (UTC+1)
Postcode district(s) Various
Area code(s) 020 and others
Website http://www.london.gov.uk/
.London (pronounced /ˈlʌndən/) is the capital of England and the United Kingdom.^ W12 7DP, London, England, United Kingdom .
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Tavistock place, Russell square, wc1h 9se, London, England, United Kingdom .
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Belgrave Road, Victoria, westminster, SW1V 1RB, London, England, United Kingdom .
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

.It is the UK's largest and most populous metropolitan area and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures.^ This is Europe's largest, wealthiest and most populated city, which is constantly evolving because it always runs at full tilt.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

[citation needed]
A major settlement for two millennia, its history goes back to its founding by the Romans, who called it Londinium.[6] .London's core, the ancient City of London, the 'square mile' financial district, retains its mediaeval boundaries.^ London's historical and financial core - buzzing during the week, blissfully quiet at weekends.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The London County Council is a central sanitary authority; the City and metropolitan boroughs are sanitary districts, and the Corporation and borough councils are local sanitary authorities.

^ Among other ancient churches within the City, that of All Hallows Barking, near the Tower of London, is principally Perpendicular and contains some fine brasses.

.Since at least the 19th century, the name "London" has also referred to the metropolis developed around it.^ Towards the close of the igth century evidence was accumulating that the development of the Port of London was not keeping pace with that of shipping generally.

^ To this last district a curious alternative name, Alsatia , was given, probably in the 17th century, with reference to its notoriety as a hiding-place of debtors.

^ The extraordinary growth of London did not come into existence until about the middle of the 19th century (see § IV. above).

[7] .Today, the bulk of this conurbation forms the London region[8] and the Greater London administrative area,[9][note 1] with its own elected mayor and assembly.^ Within the confines of Greater London the chalk which forms the basement of this area appears at the surface in isolated patches about Greenwich, while its main line approaches within 10 m.

^ The Metropolitan police area, or " Greater London," however, embraces the whole of Middlesex, with parts of the other three counties and of Hertfordshire .

^ In the following list the boroughs which extend outside the administrative county of London are noted.

[10]
.London is a leading global city being one of the world's largest financial centres[11][12][13][14] and has the largest city GDP in Europe.^ There is only one instance in the city records of a sheriff of Middlesex being mentioned as distinct from the sheriffs, and this was in 1283 when Anketin de Betteville and Walter le Blond are described as sheriffs of London, and Gerin as sheriff of Middlesex.

^ This is Europe's largest, wealthiest and most populated city, which is constantly evolving because it always runs at full tilt.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ On the Thames below London Bridge, London appears in the aspect of one of the world's great ports, with extensive docks and crowded shipping .

[15] .Central London is home to the headquarters of most of the UK's top 100 listed companies (the FTSE 100) and more than 100 of Europe's 500 largest.^ Time waits for no one and the adage is no more applicable than to London – it’s a place with an overall sense of creativity and urgency.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This is Europe's largest, wealthiest and most populated city, which is constantly evolving because it always runs at full tilt.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Shortly after this they came to London and settled in Holborn near L i ncoln's Inn, where they remained for more than fifty years.

London's influence in politics, finance, education, entertainment, media, fashion, the arts and culture in general contributes to its global position. It is a major tourist destination for both domestic and overseas visitors. .London hosted the 1908 and 1948 Summer Olympics and will host the 2012 Summer Olympics.^ But there are many other sports than just football in London; many national and international sports matches are held at the famous Wembley Stadium and the modern main Olympic stadium built especially for the 2012 Olympics, which London will be hosting!
  • Concerts in London - Buy London Concert Tickets Easy and Secure! 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

[16] London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London; the historic settlement of Greenwich; the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; and the site comprising the Palace of Westminster, Westminster Abbey and St. Margaret's Church.[17]
.London has a diverse range of peoples, cultures and religions, and more than 300 languages are spoken within its boundaries.^ Time waits for no one and the adage is no more applicable than to London – it’s a place with an overall sense of creativity and urgency.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Shortly after this they came to London and settled in Holborn near L i ncoln's Inn, where they remained for more than fifty years.

^ With regard to the relative size of great cities Petty affirms that before the Restoration the people of Paris were more in number than those of London and Dublin , whereas in 1687 the people of London were more than those of Paris and Rome or of Paris and Rouen .

[18] .In July 2007 it had an official population of 7,556,900 within the boundaries of Greater London,[19] making it the most populous municipality in the European Union.^ Within the confines of Greater London the chalk which forms the basement of this area appears at the surface in isolated patches about Greenwich, while its main line approaches within 10 m.

^ The population of Greater London by the census of 1901 was 6,581,402.

^ In 1903 the Education (London) Act was passed in pursuance of the general system, put into operation by the Education Act (1902) of bringing education within the scope of municipal government.

[20] .The Greater London Urban Area (the second largest in the EU) has a population of 8,278,251.[2] while the metropolitan area (the largest in the EU) has an estimated total population of between 12 million[3] and 14 million.^ This involved impounding the headwaters of the Wye , the Towey and the Usk , and the total cost was estimated to exceed fifteen millions sterling.

^ The total mileage for greater London is about 240.

^ Within the confines of Greater London the chalk which forms the basement of this area appears at the surface in isolated patches about Greenwich, while its main line approaches within 10 m.

[4] .The London Underground network, administered by Transport for London, is the oldest and most extensive underground railway network in the world,[21] London Heathrow Airport is the world's busiest airport by number of international passengers[22] and the airspace is the busiest of any urban centre in the world.^ Beneath them are extensive underground railway sidings.

^ It has the most polite and competent taxi drivers in the world, driving unmistakable black London cabs.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ On the Thames below London Bridge, London appears in the aspect of one of the world's great ports, with extensive docks and crowded shipping .

[23]

History

Toponomy

Wide river flanked by tall buildings on either side. <a name=.There are a number of small boats and one large battleship in the centre of the river.^ London attracts very large numbers of visitors and tourists, there are thousands of London Hotels.
  • London Bed and Breakfast Cheap Hotel Guest House Accommodation 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.bedandbreakfasts.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Large numbers of business men and others who must of necessity live in proximity to the metropolis have their homes aloof from its centre.

^ There are wharves and a large carrying trade in barges above this point, but below it the river is crowded with shipping, and extensive docks open on either hand.

The rooftop dome of St Paul's Cathedral is visible in the skyline to the right" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/01/1/8/1/50085932708590932.jpg" width="220" height="94" class="thumbimage" />
The name London may derive from the River Thames
The etymology of London is uncertain.[24] It is an ancient name and can be found in sources from the 2nd century. It is recorded c. 121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin.[24] The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae.[24] .The name is described as originating from King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.^ Apart from the City an interesting ecclesiastical survival is the name Broad Sanctuary , Westminster, recalling the place of sanctuary which long survived the monastery under the protection of which it originally existed.

^ It originally occupied rooms in Crane Court, City, and was moved in 1780 to Somerset House, where others of the societies named were also located.

^ Here Richard III. was acclaimed king, and the mansion was used by Henry VII. and Henry VIII. Its name is kept in a wharf and a ward of the City.

[25]
.From 1899 it was commonly accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos; this explanation has since been rejected.^ Apart from the City an interesting ecclesiastical survival is the name Broad Sanctuary , Westminster, recalling the place of sanctuary which long survived the monastery under the protection of which it originally existed.

[24] .Richard Coates put forward an explanation in 1998 that it is derived from the pre-Celtic Old European *(p)lowonida, meaning 'river too wide to ford', and suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London; from this, the settlement gained the Celtic form of its name, *Lowonidonjon.^ The sinking of the " Princess Alice " in 1878 was a serious blow to the London Steamboat Company, which collapsed, and was succeeded by the River Thames Steamboat Navigation Company, which went into liquidation in 1887.

^ The construction of large storage reservoirs was recommended, and this work was put in hand jointly by the New River, West Middlesex and Grand Junction companies at Staines on the Thames.

^ Bayswater Road to Whitechapel, and passing through the city in the neighbourhood of London Wall, and another from Holloway to the Elephant and Castle, to cross the Thames by a new bridge above Blackfriars.

[26] .Until 1889 the name officially only applied to the City of London but since then it has also referred to the County of London and now Greater London.^ Greater London outside the county).

^ Gas must be supplied at 16- candle illuminating power, and is officially tested by the chemists' department of the London County Council.

^ The administrative bodies of the County of London may now be summarized: 1.

[7]

Prehistory and antiquity

By 1300 the City is still confined within the walls
Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans in 43 AD.[27] This lasted for just seventeen years and around 61, the Iceni tribe led by Queen Boudica stormed it, burning it to the ground.[28] .The next, heavily planned incarnation of the city prospered and superseded Colchester as the capital of the Roman province of Britannia in 100. At its height during the 2nd century, Roman London had a population of around 60,000. By the 7th century, the Anglo-Saxons had created a new settlement called Lundenwic over a mile (2 km) upstream from the old Roman city, around what is now Covent Garden.^ The City Corporation exercises a control over the majority of the London markets, which dates from the close of the 14th century, when dealers were placed under the governance of the mayor and aldermen.

^ One of the most important questions in the history of London that requires settlement is the date of the building of the first bridge, that is whether it was constructed by Britons or by Romans.

^ Covent Garden, the great mart in the west of London for flowers, fruit and vegetables, is in the hands of private owners.

[29]
.It is likely that there was a harbour at the mouth of the River Fleet for fishing and trading, and this trading grew, until the city was overcome by the Vikings and forced to move the east, back to the location of the Roman Londinium, in order to use its walls for protection.^ Probably in the later, as in the earlier time, Londinium had the usual four gates of a Roman city, with the main roads to them.

^ It originally occupied rooms in Crane Court, City, and was moved in 1780 to Somerset House, where others of the societies named were also located.

^ The original city grew up on the site of the City of London of the present day, on a slight eminence intersected by the Walor Wall-brook, and flanked on the west by the river Fleet.

[30] .Viking attacks continued to increase, until 886 when Alfred the Great recaptured London and made peace with the Danish leader, Guthrum.^ In 871 the chronicler affirms that Alfred fought nine great battles against the Danes in the kingdom south of the Thames, and that the West Saxons made peace with them.

^ Allusion has already been made to the great change in the aspect of London and its surroundings made during the Norman period by the establishment of a large number of monasteries.

^ The great and continuous increase in the buildings and the enlargement of London on all sides dates from this period.

[31] .The original Saxon city of Lundenwic became Ealdwic ("old city"), a name surviving to the present day as Aldwych, which is in the modern City of Westminster.^ Gomme in his Governance of London (1907) gives an account of the connexion of this with the old village of Aldwich, a name that survived in Wych Street, and has been revived by the London County Council in Aldwych, the crescent which leads to Kingsway.

^ It originally occupied rooms in Crane Court, City, and was moved in 1780 to Somerset House, where others of the societies named were also located.

^ Within a few days of the fire three several plans were presented to the king for the rebuilding of the city, by Christopher Wren, John Evelyn and Robert Hooke .

[32]

Middle Ages

Westminster Abbey is one of London's oldest and most important buildings as seen in this painting (Canaletto, 1749 A.D.) and a World Heritage Site
.Canute took control of the English throne in 1016, controlling the city and country until 1035, when his death resulted in a reversion to Saxon control under his pious stepson Edward the Confessor, who re-founded Westminster Abbey and the adjacent Palace of Westminster.^ The City Corporation exercises a control over the majority of the London markets, which dates from the close of the 14th century, when dealers were placed under the governance of the mayor and aldermen.

^ York was conquered and occupied by the Saxons, and there not only are the results of English settlement clear but all records of Roman government were destroyed.

^ Very shortly after (about 1134) the abbey of Stratford Langthorne in Essex was founded by William de Montfichet, who endowed it with all his lordship in West Ham.

[33] By this time, London had become the largest and most prosperous city in England, although the official seat of government was still at Winchester. .Following a victory at the Battle of Hastings, William the Conqueror, the then Duke of Normandy, was crowned King of England in the newly finished Westminster Abbey on Christmas Day 1066.[34] William granted the citizens of London special privileges, while building what is now known as the Tower of London, in the southeast corner of the city, to keep them under control.^ London had to pay heavily towards his ransom ; and, when the king made his triumphal entry into London after his release from imprisonment, a German nobleman is said to have remarked that had the emperor known of the wealth of England he would have insisted on a larger sum.

^ London is seen, extending to the distant towers of Westminster.

^ The City of London Gas Company followed in 1817, and seven other companies soon after.

[35]
.In 1097, William II began the building of Westminster Hall, close by the abbey of the same name.^ Some of the apartments are magnificently adorned within, and the building incorporates the ancient Westminster Hall, belonging to the former royal palace on the site (see Westminster ).

^ In 1903 the Wesleyans acquired the site of the Royal Aquarium , near Westminster Abbey, for the erection of a central hall.

^ The Houses of Parliament, with Westminster Abbey and St Margaret's Church, complete the finest group of buildings which London possesses; a group essentially Gothic, for the Houses of Parliament, completed in 1867 from the designs m .

.The hall became the basis of a new Palace of Westminster, the prime royal residence throughout the Middle Ages.^ Some of the apartments are magnificently adorned within, and the building incorporates the ancient Westminster Hall, belonging to the former royal palace on the site (see Westminster ).

^ In 1903 the Wesleyans acquired the site of the Royal Aquarium , near Westminster Abbey, for the erection of a central hall.

^ The Royal Horticultural Society maintains gardens at Wisley, Surrey, and has an exhibition hall in Vincent Square, Westminster.

[36][37] .Westminster became the seat of the royal court and government, while its distinct neighbour, the City of London, was a centre of trade and commerce and flourished under its own unique administration, the Corporation of London.^ The City Corporation exercises a control over the majority of the London markets, which dates from the close of the 14th century, when dealers were placed under the governance of the mayor and aldermen.

^ City Corporation 34 Port Authority 35 Commerce 36 Business 37 Manufactures and Retail Trade 38 Markets 39 Acts of 1888 and 1899 40 Summary of Administrative Bodies 41 2.

^ Bounded by the Thames - Fulham , Chelsea , the City of Westminster (here the City of London intervenes), Stepney , Poplar.

In 1100 its population was around 18,000; by 1300 it had grown to nearly 100,000.[38]
.There was an increasing population of Jews,[39] until the edict of King Edward I in 1290, expelled them from England.^ When Edward I. expelled the Jews from England in 1290 the district in which they had lived since William the Conqueror's day came to be called the Old Jewry.

[39] .Disaster struck during the Black Death in the mid-14th century, when London lost nearly a third of its population.^ The City Corporation exercises a control over the majority of the London markets, which dates from the close of the 14th century, when dealers were placed under the governance of the mayor and aldermen.

^ Population was practically stationary for centuries owing to pestilences and the large proportion of deaths among infants.

^ During the 8th century, when a more settled condition of life became possible, the trade and commerce of London increased in volume and prosperity.

[40] .Apart from the invasion during the Peasants' Revolt in 1381,[41] London remained relatively untouched by the various civil wars during the Middle Ages.^ In the middle of the period occurred the civil wars, and then the fire which changed the whole aspect of London.

^ During the reign of his successor the great change in the relative positions of London within and without the walls had set in.

^ But, in spite of attempts at equalization, rates remain very unequal in London, and varied in 1908 from 6s.

[42]

Early modern

The Great Fire of London destroyed many parts of the city in 1666
.During the Tudor period the Reformation produced a gradual shift to Protestantism, with much of London passing from church to private ownership.^ It was during this period that the first maps of London were drawn.

^ Allusion has already been made to the great change in the aspect of London and its surroundings made during the Norman period by the establishment of a large number of monasteries.

^ The church of St Bartholomew the Great, Smithfield, is the finest remnant of its period in London.

[43] .Mercantilism grew and monopoly trading companies such as the British East India Company were established, with trade expanding to the New World.^ London Bridge, constructed in 1886 by the East and West India Docks Company (65 acres).

.London became the principal North Sea port, with migrants arriving from England and abroad.^ In the south and north-west the typical London clay is the principal formation.

^ After a glorious reign of seven months Edmund died in London, and Canute became master of England.

^ Passenger steamers sail from the port of London to the principal ports of she British Isles and northern Europe , and to all parts of the world, but the most favoured passenger services to and from Europe and North America pass through other ports, to which the railways provide special services of trains from London.

The population rose from an estimated 50,000 in 1530 to about 225,000 in 1605.[43]
.In the 16th century William Shakespeare and his contemporaries lived in London at a time of hostility to the development of the theatre.^ The London Eye and Shakespeare's Globe Theatre are amongst the attractions in this smartly redeveloped riverside equivalent of Paris's Left Bank.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Bills of Mortality of the 16th and 17th centuries are of more value, and they have been considered and revised by such able statisticians as John Graunt and Sir William Petty .

^ Towards the close of the igth century evidence was accumulating that the development of the Port of London was not keeping pace with that of shipping generally.

.By the end of the Tudor period in 1603, London was still very compact.^ The circuit of the walls of London which were left by the Romans was never afterwards enlarged, and the population did not overflow into the suburbs to any extent until the Tudor period .

^ The medieval period closed with the accession of the Tudor dynasty, and from that time the population of London continued to increase, in spite of attempts by the government to prevent it.

.There was an assassination attempt on James I in Westminster, through the Gunpowder Plot on 5 November 1605.[44] London was plagued by disease in the early 17th century,[45] culminating in the Great Plague of 1665–1666, which killed up to 100,000 people, or a fifth of the population.^ There have been docks at Rotherhithe since the middle of the 17th century.

^ The early history of the parishes of London is one of great difficulty and complexity.

^ The architect to whom, after the great fire of 1666, the opportunity fell of leaving the marks of his influence upon London was Sir Christopher Wren .

[46][47]
.The Great Fire of London broke out in 1666 in Pudding Lane in the city and quickly swept through the wooden buildings.^ On the 2nd of September 1666 the fire broke out at one o'clock in the morning at a house in Pudding Lane.

^ Pubs remain focal points for many communities and are great places to socialise.London is a city overflowing with rich traditions that make it instantly recognisable from many aspects.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The architect to whom, after the great fire of 1666, the opportunity fell of leaving the marks of his influence upon London was Sir Christopher Wren .

[47] .Rebuilding took over ten years and was supervised by Robert Hooke[48][49][50] as Surveyor of London.^ In the next year the Danes went from Reading to London, and there took up their winter quarters.

^ Within a few days of the fire three several plans were presented to the king for the rebuilding of the city, by Christopher Wren, John Evelyn and Robert Hooke .

[51] In 1708 Christopher Wren's masterpiece, St. Paul's Cathedral was completed. .During the Georgian era new districts such as Mayfair were formed in the west; and new bridges over the Thames encouraged the development in South London.^ London is most easily defined by its districts, such as the West End, South Bank and Mayfair, all with their own distinctive character and divided between north and south by the famous River Thames.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The main tributaries of the Thames from the north, to east and west of those described, are not covered, nor is any tributary of importance from the south entirely concealed.

^ There was no bridge over the Thames below London Bridge until 1894, when the Tower Bridge was opened.

In the east, the Port of London expanded downstream.
.In 1762 George III acquired Buckingham House and it was enlarged over the next 75 years.^ Buckingham House was built in 1705 for the duke of Buckinghamshire , and purchased by George III. in 1762.

.During the 18th century, London was dogged by crime and the Bow Street Runners were established in 1750 as a professional police force.^ A still more important change in the configuration of the interior of London was made in the 13th century, when the various orders of the friars established themselves there.

^ During the 8th century, when a more settled condition of life became possible, the trade and commerce of London increased in volume and prosperity.

^ Allusion has already been made to the great change in the aspect of London and its surroundings made during the Norman period by the establishment of a large number of monasteries.

[52] In total, more than 200 offenses were punishable by death,[53] and women and children were hanged for petty theft.[54] .Over 74% of children born in London died before they were five.^ King Edward VII. (when prince of Wales) the streets of London were illuminated as they had never been before.

[55] .The coffee house became a popular place to debate ideas, with growing literacy and the development of the printing press making news widely available; and Fleet Street became the centre of the British press.^ Soon paved streets and two- storey houses were seen in that swampy place.

^ The slope of Farringdon Road, where crossed by Holborn Viaduct, and of New Bridge Street, Blackfriars, marks its course exactly, and that of Fleet Street and Ludgate Hill its steep banks.

^ They removed to Fleet Street or the New Temple in 1184.

.You find no man, at all intellectual, who is willing to leave London.^ When James came to the throne the term suburbs had a bad name, as all those disreputable persons who could find no shelter in the city itself settled in these outlying districts.

^ We learn that in the year 418 " the Romans collected all the treasures that were in Britain, and hid some of them in the earth, that no man might afterwards find them, and conveyed some with them into Gaul."

^ The latter bitterly offended the Londoners, who, finding that they could turn the scales to either side, named the Commune as the price of their support of John.

.No, Sir, when a man is tired of London, he is tired of life; for there is in London all that life can afford.^ There was no bridge over the Thames below London Bridge until 1894, when the Tower Bridge was opened.

^ After this entry there is no further mention of London in the Chronicle for a century and a half.

^ There is practically no record of British London, and considerable difference of opinion exists among antiquaries as to its very existence.

Samuel Johnson[56]

Late modern and contemporary

A London street hit during the Blitz of World War II
.London was the world's largest city from about 1831 to 1925.[57] London's overcrowded conditions lead to cholera epidemics,[58] claiming 14,000 lives in 1848, and 6,000 in 1866.[59] Rising traffic congestion led to the creation of the world's first local urban rail network.^ City of London Hospital for diseases of the chest ; Bethnal Green (1848).

^ LONDON, the capital of England and of, the British Empire , and the greatest city in the world, lying on each side of the river Thames 50 m.

^ The London County Council is a central sanitary authority; the City and metropolitan boroughs are sanitary districts, and the Corporation and borough councils are local sanitary authorities.

.The Metropolitan Board of Works oversaw infrastructure expansion.^ The Metropolitan Board of Works, and the commissioners of sewers in the City, began experiments with electric light.

^ The Metropolitan Board of Works was also given certain powers of supervision over the vestries and district boards, and superseded the commissioners of sewers as authority for main drainage.

^ An objection to the Metropolitan Board of Works soon became manifest , inasmuch as the system of election was indirect.

.It was replaced in 1889 by the London County Council, London's first elected city-wide administration.^ The registration county of London coincides with the administrative county.

^ Gas must be supplied at 16- candle illuminating power, and is officially tested by the chemists' department of the London County Council.

^ The administrative bodies of the County of London may now be summarized: 1.

.The Blitz and other bombing by the German Luftwaffe during World War II killed over 30,000 Londoners and destroyed large tracts of housing and other buildings across London.^ The dedications of many of the churches indicate their great age, but the constant fires in London destroyed these buildings.

^ Allusion has already been made to the great change in the aspect of London and its surroundings made during the Norman period by the establishment of a large number of monasteries.

^ As regards its exterior appearance it is one of the least satisfactory of London's great buildings, though the throne room and other state apartments are magnificent within.

.Immediately after the war, the 1948 Summer Olympics were held at the original Wembley Stadium, at a time when the city had barely recovered from the war.^ Bishop Stillingfleet held that London was of Roman foundation and not older than the time of Claudius ( Origines Brit., 1685, p.

^ If this open space was from the earliest times attached to the city there would be no Origin of need when it was built upon for any special act to be the passed for its inclusion in London.

In 1951 the Festival of Britain was held on the South Bank. The Great Smog of 1952 led to the Clean Air Act 1956, which ended the "pea-souper" fogs for which London had been notorious. .From the 1950s onwards, London became home to a large number of immigrants, largely from Commonwealth countries such as Jamaica, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, making London one of the most diverse cities in Europe.^ In this city, possibilities are endless, and we offer all kinds of London theatre tickets, opera tickets or musical tickets to make your stay in London unforgettable.
  • Concerts in London - Buy London Concert Tickets Easy and Secure! 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

^ This is Europe's largest, wealthiest and most populated city, which is constantly evolving because it always runs at full tilt.
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^ Pubs remain focal points for many communities and are great places to socialise.London is a city overflowing with rich traditions that make it instantly recognisable from many aspects.
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Starting in the mid-1960s, London became a centre for the worldwide youth culture, exemplified by the Swinging London subculture associated with Carnaby Street. The role of trendsetter was revived during the punk era. .In 1965 London's political boundaries were expanded to take into account the growth of the urban area and a new Greater London Council was created.^ Returns relating to the London County Council, published annually; the annual report and accounts of the Metropolitan Water Board, and the metropolitan police accounts.

^ The Metropolitan police area, or " Greater London," however, embraces the whole of Middlesex, with parts of the other three counties and of Hertfordshire .

^ London County Council, which besides these divisions shows " Water London," the London main drainage area, and the Central Criminal Court district.

During The Troubles in Northern Ireland, London was subjected to terrorist attacks by the Provisional IRA. Racial inequality was highlighted by the 1981 Brixton riot. .Greater London's population declined steadily in the decades after World War II, from an estimated peak of 8.6 million in 1939 to around 6.8 million in the 1980s.^ The population of Greater London by the census of 1901 was 6,581,402.

^ It is estimated that upwards of a million daily enter and leave the City alone as the commercial heart of London, and a great proportion of these travel in and out by the suburban railways.

^ Howell's suggestion that the population of London in 1631 was a million and a half need only be mentioned as a specimen of the wildest of guesses.

.The principal ports for London moved downstream to Felixstowe and Tilbury, with the London Docklands area becoming a focus for regeneration.^ The principal terminus of the Great Eastern Railway is in Liverpool Street (City), but the company also uses Fenchurch Street (City), the terminus of the London, Tilbury & Southend railway, and St Pancras.

^ Regenerated with skyscrapers, luxury apartments and transport links, the Docklands in East London have boomed in the past decade.
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.The Thames Barrier was completed in the 1980s to protect London against tidal surges from the North Sea.^ The Thames formed the natural barrier on the south, but the Romans do not appear to have been content with this protection, for they built a wall here in addition, which remained for several centuries.

.The Greater London Council was abolished in 1986, which left London as the only large metropolis in the world without a central administration.^ But in 1888 the Local Government Act, dealing with the area of the metropolis as a separate county, created the London County Council as the central administrative body, possessing not only the powers of an ordinary county council, but also extensive powers of town management, transferred to it from the abolished Board of Works.

^ The London County Council is a central sanitary authority; the City and metropolitan boroughs are sanitary districts, and the Corporation and borough councils are local sanitary authorities.

^ The omnibus system is very extensive, embracing all the principal streets throughout the county and extending over a large part of Greater London.

.In 2000, London-wide government was restored, with the creation of the Greater London Authority.^ The chief authorities concerned in the government of the Port of London till 1909 were: I. Thames Conservancy.

^ Under the Local Government Act 1888, the London County Council makes grants to boards of guardians, sanitary authorities and overseers in London in respect of certain services.

.To celebrate the start of the 21st century, the Millennium Dome, London Eye and Millenium Bridge were constructed.^ One of the most important questions in the history of London that requires settlement is the date of the building of the first bridge, that is whether it was constructed by Britons or by Romans.

^ London Bridge, constructed in 1886 by the East and West India Docks Company (65 acres).

On 7 July 2005, several London Underground trains and a bus were bombed in a series of terrorist attacks.[60]

Governance

Local government

The Greater London Authority is based in City Hall, Southwark
.The administration of London is formed of two tiers—a city-wide, strategic tier and a local tier.^ Thus the Lord Mayor and aldermen possess judicial authority, and the police of London are divided into two separate bodies, the Metropolitan and the City Police (see PoLicE).

^ When the county of Middlesex was dissociated from the city of London one portion was joined to the administrative county of London, and the other to the county of Middlesex.

^ Each division of each borough, or each borough where not divided, returns one member, save that the City of London returns two members.

.City-wide administration is coordinated by the Greater London Authority (GLA), while local administration is carried out by 33 smaller authorities.^ Thus the Lord Mayor and aldermen possess judicial authority, and the police of London are divided into two separate bodies, the Metropolitan and the City Police (see PoLicE).

^ The London County Council is a central sanitary authority; the City and metropolitan boroughs are sanitary districts, and the Corporation and borough councils are local sanitary authorities.

^ When the county of Middlesex was dissociated from the city of London one portion was joined to the administrative county of London, and the other to the county of Middlesex.

[61] .The GLA consists of two elected components; the Mayor of London, who has executive powers, and the London Assembly, who scrutinise the mayor's decisions and can accept or reject his budget proposals each year.^ Thus the Lord Mayor and aldermen possess judicial authority, and the police of London are divided into two separate bodies, the Metropolitan and the City Police (see PoLicE).

^ Stubbs writes: " The governing body of London in the 13th century was composed of the mayor, twenty-five aldermen of the wards and two sheriffs."

^ As we do not find any further evidence than the oath of the Commune alluded to of the existence of "dchevins " in London, it is possible that aldermen were elected on the mayor's council under this title.

The headquarters of the GLA is City Hall, Southwark; the current mayor is Boris Johnson. .The mayor's statutory planning strategy is published as the London Plan, which as of mid-2009 is being revised, for final publication in 2011. The local authorities are the councils of the 32 London boroughs and the City of London Corporation.^ The London County Council is a central sanitary authority; the City and metropolitan boroughs are sanitary districts, and the Corporation and borough councils are local sanitary authorities.

^ The administrative authorities of cemeteries for the county are the borough councils and the City Corporation and private companies.

^ Besides these authorities, the London County Council, the Board of Trade, the Admiralty, the Metropolitan and City Police, police of riparian boroughs, Kent and Essex Fisheries Commissioners, all the dock companies and others played some part in the government and public services of the port.

[62] They are responsible for most local services, such as local planning, schools, social services, local roads and refuse collection. Certain functions, such as waste management, a provided through joint arrangements.
.Policing in Greater London, with the exception of the City of London, is provided by the Metropolitan Police Force, overseen by the Metropolitan Police Authority.^ Thus the Lord Mayor and aldermen possess judicial authority, and the police of London are divided into two separate bodies, the Metropolitan and the City Police (see PoLicE).

^ The London County Council is a central sanitary authority; the City and metropolitan boroughs are sanitary districts, and the Corporation and borough councils are local sanitary authorities.

^ The Metropolitan police area, or " Greater London," however, embraces the whole of Middlesex, with parts of the other three counties and of Hertfordshire .

.The City of London has its own police force – the City of London Police.^ Thus the Lord Mayor and aldermen possess judicial authority, and the police of London are divided into two separate bodies, the Metropolitan and the City Police (see PoLicE).

^ Cade, in 1450, forced his way into London, he first 45 Y of all proceeded to London Stone, and having struck his sword upon it, said in reference to himself and in explanation of his own action, " Now is Mortimer lord of this city."

[63] .The British Transport Police are responsible for police services on National Rail and London Underground services in the capital.^ LONDON, the capital of England and of, the British Empire , and the greatest city in the world, lying on each side of the river Thames 50 m.

[64]
The London Fire Brigade is the statutory fire and rescue service for Greater London. .It is run by the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority and is the third-largest fire service in the world.^ Meanwhile, however, in 1902 the London County Council had promoted a bill in Parliament to enable them to run a service of boats on the Thames.

[65] .National Health Service ambulance services are provided by the London Ambulance Service NHS Trust, the largest free at the point of use emergency ambulance service in the world.^ Passenger steamers sail from the port of London to the principal ports of she British Isles and northern Europe , and to all parts of the world, but the most favoured passenger services to and from Europe and North America pass through other ports, to which the railways provide special services of trains from London.

[66] Her Majesty's Coastguard and the Royal National Lifeboat Institution operate on the River Thames.[67][68]

National government

.London is an important city because the Government of the United Kingdom is located around the Palace of Westminster.^ Tavistock place, Russell square, wc1h 9se, London, England, United Kingdom .
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Nevern Square, Earls Court, kensington & chelsea, SW5 9PE, London, England, United Kingdom .
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^ The walled city of London was a distinct political unit, although it owed a certain allegiance to that one of the kingdoms around it which was the most powerful for the time being.

.Many government departments are located close to Parliament, particularly along Whitehall, including the Prime Minister's residence at 10 Downing Street.^ Modern Cheapside merges eastward into the street called the Poultry , from the poulterers' stalls " but lately departed from thence," according to Stow, at the close of the 16th century.

^ Located in the heart of Kensington, the attractive Best Western Burns Hotel Kensington is within close proximity to many area attractions.
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^ Ideally located in the heart of London, Best Western Corona London hotel is situated within close proximity to many tourist attractions.
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[69] .The British Parliament is often referred to as the "Mother of Parliaments" (although this sobriquet was first applied to England itself by John Bright)[70] because it has been the model for most other parliamentary systems, and its Acts have created many other parliaments.^ During these periods other companies had a surplus of water, and in 1899 an act was passed providing for the interconnexion of systems.

^ Besides the Government reference libraries at the British Museum and South Kensington there are other such libraries, of a specialized character, as at the Patent Office and the Record Office.

^ Ten years after this, one of the most famous scenes in the streets of London occurred, when Edward the Black Prince brought the French King John and other prisoners after the battle of Poitiers to England.

Geography

Scope

Map of Central London
Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London. .The small, ancient City of London at its core once contained the whole settlement, but as the urban area grew the City Corporation resisted attempts to amalgamate it with its suburbs, causing "London" to be defined in a number ways for different purposes; and the situation was once open to legal debate.^ The City Corporation exercises a control over the majority of the London markets, which dates from the close of the 14th century, when dealers were placed under the governance of the mayor and aldermen.

^ The roadbridges mentioned (except the City bridges) are maintained by the London County Council, who expended for this purpose a sum of £9149 in 1907-1908.

^ The plague was scarcely stayed before the whole city was in flames, a calamity of the first magnitude, but one which in the end caused much good, as the seeds of disease were destroyed, and London has never since been visited by such an epidemic.

[71] .Forty percent of Greater London is covered by the London postal district, within which 'LONDON' forms part of postal addresses.^ Within the confines of Greater London the chalk which forms the basement of this area appears at the surface in isolated patches about Greenwich, while its main line approaches within 10 m.

^ The Metropolitan police area, or " Greater London," however, embraces the whole of Middlesex, with parts of the other three counties and of Hertfordshire .

^ The omnibus system is very extensive, embracing all the principal streets throughout the county and extending over a large part of Greater London.

[72][73]
.The London telephone area code covers a larger area, similar in size to Greater London, although some outer districts are omitted and some places just outside are included.^ Greater London outside the county).

^ Greater London Population : 7,615,000 (Source: UN Population Division 2005 estimate) United Kingdom Population : 59,598,000 (Source: UN Population Division 2005 estimate) Greater London Area : 1572 square kilometres (32 boroughs)Telephone Area Codes: 0207 (central London), 0208 (outer London) Currency : Pound sterling (£, GBP) Time Zone : GMT (GMT +1 between the last Sunday in March and the last Sunday in October).
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^ Within the confines of Greater London the chalk which forms the basement of this area appears at the surface in isolated patches about Greenwich, while its main line approaches within 10 m.

.The area within the orbital M25 motorway is sometimes used to define the "London area"[74] and the Greater London boundary has been aligned to it in places.^ Within the confines of Greater London the chalk which forms the basement of this area appears at the surface in isolated patches about Greenwich, while its main line approaches within 10 m.

^ The Metropolitan police area, or " Greater London," however, embraces the whole of Middlesex, with parts of the other three counties and of Hertfordshire .

^ London lies within the geological area known as the London basin.

[75]
.Outward urban expansion is now prevented by a metropolitan green belt,[76] although the built-up area extends beyond the boundary in places, resulting in a separately defined Greater London Urban Area.^ Within the confines of Greater London the chalk which forms the basement of this area appears at the surface in isolated patches about Greenwich, while its main line approaches within 10 m.

^ Thus the Lord Mayor and aldermen possess judicial authority, and the police of London are divided into two separate bodies, the Metropolitan and the City Police (see PoLicE).

^ Water London " is an irregular area extending from Ware in Hertfordshire to Sevenoaks in Kent, and westward as far as Ealing and Sunbury.

Beyond this is the vast London commuter belt.[77] .Greater London is split for some purposes into Inner London and Outer London.^ At the close of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century a large number of electric light companies came into existence, and some of the metropolitan borough councils, and local authorities within Greater London, also undertook the supply.

[78] .The city is split by the River Thames into North and South, with an informal Central London area in its interior.^ The sinking of the " Princess Alice " in 1878 was a serious blow to the London Steamboat Company, which collapsed, and was succeeded by the River Thames Steamboat Navigation Company, which went into liquidation in 1887.

^ The main tributaries of the Thames from the north, to east and west of those described, are not covered, nor is any tributary of importance from the south entirely concealed.

^ Bounded by the Thames - Fulham , Chelsea , the City of Westminster (here the City of London intervenes), Stepney , Poplar.

.The coordinates of the nominal centre of London, traditionally considered to be the original Eleanor Cross at Charing Cross near the junction of Trafalgar Square and Whitehall, are approximately 51°30′29″N 00°07′29″W / 51.50806°N 0.12472°W / 51.50806; -0.12472.^ Citadines London Trafalgar Square Apart'hotel .
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^ The government offices are principally in Whitehall, the fine thoroughfare which connects Parliament Square, in the angle between the Houses and the Abbey, with Trafalgar Square.

^ The East London line connects Shoreditch with New Cross (Deptford) by way of the Thames Tunnel, a subway under the river originally built for footpassengers.

[79]

Status

.Within London, both the City of London and the City of Westminster have city status and both the City of London and the remainder of Greater London are the ceremonial counties.^ Greater London outside the county).

^ Within the confines of Greater London the chalk which forms the basement of this area appears at the surface in isolated patches about Greenwich, while its main line approaches within 10 m.

^ Bounded by the Thames - Fulham , Chelsea , the City of Westminster (here the City of London intervenes), Stepney , Poplar.

[80] .The current area of Greater London has incorporated areas that were once part of the counties of Middlesex, Kent, Surrey, Essex and Hertfordshire.^ The Metropolitan police area, or " Greater London," however, embraces the whole of Middlesex, with parts of the other three counties and of Hertfordshire .

^ Greater London outside the county).

^ London County Council 1 pp y y (4), the City of London and the City of Westminster (2 each), the other Metropolitan boroughs (1 each), the county councils of Middlesex, Hertfordshire, Essex, Kent and Surrey (1 each), borough of West Ham (2), various groups of other boroughs and urban districts, and the Thames and the Lea Conservancies.

[81] .London's status as the capital of England, and later the United Kingdom, has never been granted or confirmed officially—by statute or in written form.^ W12 7DP, London, England, United Kingdom .
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^ Tavistock place, Russell square, wc1h 9se, London, England, United Kingdom .
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^ Nevern Square, Earls Court, kensington & chelsea, SW5 9PE, London, England, United Kingdom .
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[note 2]
Its position was formed through constitutional convention, making its status as de facto capital a part of the UK's unwritten constitution. .The capital of England was moved to London from Winchester as the Palace of Westminster developed in the 12th and 13th centuries to become the permanent location of the royal court, and thus the political capital of the nation.^ Millions flock to London each year to admire the 'essential' English sights and sounds of Oxford Street, Buckingham Palace, Big Ben, the London Eye and Royal London.
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^ Belgrave Road, Victoria, westminster, SW1V 1RB, London, England, United Kingdom .
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^ Some of the apartments are magnificently adorned within, and the building incorporates the ancient Westminster Hall, belonging to the former royal palace on the site (see Westminster ).

[85] .More recently, Greater London has been defined as a region of England and in this context known as London.^ The majority of visitors to London remain in the central area, and within that, the West End, a loosely defined region bursting at the seams with theatres, entertainment and shops.
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^ At this junction stand the Royal Exchange, the Mansion House (the official residence of the Lord Mayor of London) and the Bank of England, from which this important point in the communications of London is commonly known as " Bank."

[8]

Topography

West and central London seen from SPOT satellite
.Greater London covers an area of 1,579 square kilometres (610 sq mi), an area which had a population of 7,172,036 in 2001 and a population density of 4,542 people per square kilometre.^ Greater London Population : 7,615,000 (Source: UN Population Division 2005 estimate) United Kingdom Population : 59,598,000 (Source: UN Population Division 2005 estimate) Greater London Area : 1572 square kilometres (32 boroughs)Telephone Area Codes: 0207 (central London), 0208 (outer London) Currency : Pound sterling (£, GBP) Time Zone : GMT (GMT +1 between the last Sunday in March and the last Sunday in October).
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Within the confines of Greater London the chalk which forms the basement of this area appears at the surface in isolated patches about Greenwich, while its main line approaches within 10 m.

^ The population of Greater London by the census of 1901 was 6,581,402.

.A larger area, referred to as the London Metropolitan Region or the London Metropolitan Agglomeration covers an area of 8,382 square kilometres (3,236 sq mi) has a population of 12,653,500 and a population density of 1,510 people per square kilometre.^ The Metropolitan police area, or " Greater London," however, embraces the whole of Middlesex, with parts of the other three counties and of Hertfordshire .

^ The majority of visitors to London remain in the central area, and within that, the West End, a loosely defined region bursting at the seams with theatres, entertainment and shops.
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^ The area covered by the local as distinct from the trunk service is about 630 sq.

[86] .London's primary geographical feature is the Thames, a navigable river which crosses the city from the south-west to the east.^ The sinking of the " Princess Alice " in 1878 was a serious blow to the London Steamboat Company, which collapsed, and was succeeded by the River Thames Steamboat Navigation Company, which went into liquidation in 1887.

^ We can also recommend getting West End tickets to see the greatest theatre shows and musicals right in the heart of the city of London!
  • Concerts in London - Buy London Concert Tickets Easy and Secure! 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

^ The main tributaries of the Thames from the north, to east and west of those described, are not covered, nor is any tributary of importance from the south entirely concealed.

The Thames Valley is a floodplain surrounded by gently rolling hills including Parliament Hill, Addington Hills, and Primrose Hill. .The Thames was once a much broader, shallower river with extensive marshlands; at high tide, its shores reached five times their present width.^ The position is vague, but the mouth of the Thames in these early times may be considered as not far from the present position of London Bridge.

[87]
.Since the Victorian era the Thames has been extensively embanked, and many of its London tributaries now flow underground.^ On the Thames below London Bridge, London appears in the aspect of one of the world's great ports, with extensive docks and crowded shipping .

^ In August 1077 occurred a most extensive fire, such a one, says the Chronicle, as " never was before since London was founded."

^ The northern, western and eastern outskirts and London south of the Thames are extensively served by trams.

.The Thames is a tidal river, and London is vulnerable to flooding.^ The sinking of the " Princess Alice " in 1878 was a serious blow to the London Steamboat Company, which collapsed, and was succeeded by the River Thames Steamboat Navigation Company, which went into liquidation in 1887.

^ LONDON, the capital of England and of, the British Empire , and the greatest city in the world, lying on each side of the river Thames 50 m.

^ The East London line connects Shoreditch with New Cross (Deptford) by way of the Thames Tunnel, a subway under the river originally built for footpassengers.

[88] .The threat has increased over time due to a slow but continuous rise in high water level by the slow 'tilting' of Britain (up in the north and down in the south) caused by post-glacial rebound.^ These two were the chief Roman cities in Britain, one in the north and the other in the south.

^ On the north there is a flat tract between Chelsea and Westminster, covering Pimlico, but from Westminster down to the Tower there is a marked slope directly up from the river bank.

^ The medieval period closed with the accession of the Tudor dynasty, and from that time the population of London continued to increase, in spite of attempts by the government to prevent it.

[89]
.In 1974, a decade of work began on the construction of the Thames Barrier across the Thames at Woolwich to deal with this threat.^ The construction of large storage reservoirs was recommended, and this work was put in hand jointly by the New River, West Middlesex and Grand Junction companies at Staines on the Thames.

While the barrier is expected to function as designed until roughly 2070, concepts for its future enlargement or redesign are already being discussed.[90]

Climate

.London has a temperate marine climate (Koppen climate classification Cfb), like much of the British Isles, so the city rarely sees extremely high or low temperatures.^ We can also recommend getting West End tickets to see the greatest theatre shows and musicals right in the heart of the city of London!
  • Concerts in London - Buy London Concert Tickets Easy and Secure! 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

^ LONDON, the capital of England and of, the British Empire , and the greatest city in the world, lying on each side of the river Thames 50 m.

^ Thus the Lord Mayor and aldermen possess judicial authority, and the police of London are divided into two separate bodies, the Metropolitan and the City Police (see PoLicE).

Summers are warm with average high temperatures of 21 °C (70 °F) – 24 °C (75 °F) and lows of 11 °C (52 °F) – 14 °C (57 °F). .But temperatures can exceed 25 °C (77 °F) on many days, and in almost every year they exceed 30 °C (86 °F) on some days.^ In those days of public conviviality, and for many years afterwards, the taverns of London held a very important place.

The highest temperature ever recorded was 38 °C (100 °F) [91] on 10 August 2003.
.Winters in London are chilly, but rarely below freezing (although in recent years this has been questionable) with daytime highs around 5 °C (41 °F) – 8 °C (46 °F), while spring has mild days and cool evenings.^ Three years after this, Æthelred died in London, and such of the witan as were there and the townsmen chose Edmund Ironside for king, although the witan outside London had elected Canute .

^ In the next year the Danes went from Reading to London, and there took up their winter quarters.

[91] The lowest ever recorded temperature was −21.1 °C (−6 °F) in January 1795. Autumn is usually mild but often unsettled as colder air from the north and warmer air from the south meet. .London is a relatively dry city with regular but generally light precipitation throughout the year, with an average of 583.6 millimetres (22.98 in) every year.^ Much of the life of the time was then in the City, but the last years of Stuart London take us to the 18th century, when social life had permanently shifted to the west end.

^ It is necessary to remember that London is older than these counties, whose names, Middlesex and Surrey, indicate their relative positions to the city and the surrounding county.

London enjoys an average of 1461 hours of sunshine every year.[92]
.Snow is relatively uncommon, particularly because heat from the urban area can make London up to 5 °C (9 °F) warmer than the surrounding areas in winter.^ In the next year the Danes went from Reading to London, and there took up their winter quarters.

^ It is necessary to remember that London is older than these counties, whose names, Middlesex and Surrey, indicate their relative positions to the city and the surrounding county.

.Some snowfall, however, is usually seen up to a few times a year.^ On June 22 he entirely routed the rebels; and some time afterwards Perkin Warbeck gave himself up, and was conducted in triumph through London to the Tower.

The snowfall of February 2009 was the heaviest London had seen for 18 years.
Climate data for London
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15
(59)
18
(64)
21
(70)
26
(79)
30
(86)
33
(91)
37
(99)
38
(100)
30
(86)
26
(79)
19
(66)
15
(59)
38
(100)
Average high °C (°F) 7.2
(45)
7.6
(46)
10.3
(51)
13.0
(55)
17.0
(63)
20.3
(69)
22.3
(72)
21.9
(71)
19.1
(66)
15.2
(59)
10.4
(51)
8.2
(47)
14.4
(58)
Average low °C (°F) 2.4
(36)
2.5
(37)
3.8
(39)
5.6
(42)
8.7
(48)
11.6
(53)
13.7
(57)
13.4
(56)
11.4
(53)
8.9
(48)
5.1
(41)
3.4
(38)
7.5
(46)
Record low °C (°F) -10
(14)
-9
(16)
-8
(18)
-2
(28)
-1
(30)
5
(41)
7
(45)
6
(43)
3
(37)
-4
(25)
-5
(23)
-7
(19)
-10
(14)
Precipitation mm (inches) 53
(2.09)
36
(1.42)
48
(1.89)
47
(1.85)
51
(2.01)
50
(1.97)
48
(1.89)
54
(2.13)
53
(2.09)
57
(2.24)
57
(2.24)
57
(2.24)
582
(22.91)
Sunshine hours 62 57 124 150 186 210 186 186 150 93 60 31 1,495
Avg. precipitation days 14.8 10.8 13.4 12.7 12.5 10.5 10.1 10.9 10.5 11.6 14.0 13.2 145
Source: Average high, low and precipitation from the Weather Channel [93] 2009-11-29
London is in USDA Hardiness zone 9, and AHS Heat Zone 2.[94] Although extreme weather does not happen very often, deep depressions have been known to pass through like the Great Storm of 1987. .Tornados are rare, but the Kensal Green area of the city was hit by the 2006 London tornado causing £10 million of damage and injuring 6 people.^ Within the confines of Greater London the chalk which forms the basement of this area appears at the surface in isolated patches about Greenwich, while its main line approaches within 10 m.

^ City of London Hospital for diseases of the chest ; Bethnal Green (1848).

^ It is estimated that upwards of a million daily enter and leave the City alone as the commercial heart of London, and a great proportion of these travel in and out by the suburban railways.

.In the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th, London was noted for its dense fogs and smogs.^ At the close of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century a large number of electric light companies came into existence, and some of the metropolitan borough councils, and local authorities within Greater London, also undertook the supply.

^ After this entry there is no further mention of London in the Chronicle for a century and a half.

^ It was not until two centuries afterwards that the second Cistercian house in the immediate neighbourhood of London was founded.

.Following the deadly Great Smog of 1952, the Clean Air Act 1956 was passed, leading to the decline of such severe pollution in the capital.^ The Act of Parliament " for rebuilding the city of London " passed after the great fire, gave the coup de grace to the carpenters as house-builders.

[95]

Districts

The City of London and the 32 London boroughs
  1. City of London
  2. City of Westminster
  3. Kensington and Chelsea
  4. Hammersmith and Fulham
  5. Wandsworth
  6. Lambeth
  7. Southwark
  8. Tower Hamlets
  9. Hackney
  10. Islington
  11. Camden
  12. Brent
  13. Ealing
  14. Hounslow
  15. Richmond
  16. Kingston
  17. Merton
City of London City of Westminster Kensington and Chelsea Hammersmith and Fulham Wandsworth Lambeth Southwark Tower Hamlets Hackney Islington Camden Brent Ealing Hounslow Richmond upon Thames Kingston Merton Sutton Croydon Bromley Lewisham Greenwich Bexley Havering Barking and Dagenham Redbridge Newham Waltham Forest Haringey Enfield Barnet Harrow Hillingdon London-boroughs.svg
About this image
  1. Sutton
  2. Croydon
  3. Bromley
  4. Lewisham
  5. Greenwich
  6. Bexley
  7. Havering
  8. Barking and Dagenham
  9. Redbridge
  10. Newham
  11. Waltham Forest
  12. Haringey
  13. Enfield
  14. Barnet
  15. Harrow
  16. Hillingdon
.London's vast urban area is often described using a set of district names, such as Bloomsbury, Mayfair, Wembley and Whitechapel.^ London is most easily defined by its districts, such as the West End, South Bank and Mayfair, all with their own distinctive character and divided between north and south by the famous River Thames.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

.These are either informal designations, reflect the names of villages that have been absorbed by sprawl, or are superseded administrative units such as parishes or former boroughs.^ The boundaries of these divisions do not in any way correspond with each other, or with the police divisions, or with the borough or parish boundaries.

.Such names have remained in use through tradition, each referring to a local area with its own distinctive character, but without current official boundaries.^ London is most easily defined by its districts, such as the West End, South Bank and Mayfair, all with their own distinctive character and divided between north and south by the famous River Thames.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These names are all in common use, though their formal application is in some cases extended over several districts of which the ancient names remain familiar.

^ The District Messengers Company affords facilities through local offices for the use of special messengers.

.Since 1965 Greater London has been divided into 32 London boroughs in addition to the ancient City of London.^ Thus the Lord Mayor and aldermen possess judicial authority, and the police of London are divided into two separate bodies, the Metropolitan and the City Police (see PoLicE).

^ The London County Council is a central sanitary authority; the City and metropolitan boroughs are sanitary districts, and the Corporation and borough councils are local sanitary authorities.

^ Among other ancient churches within the City, that of All Hallows Barking, near the Tower of London, is principally Perpendicular and contains some fine brasses.

[96][97] .The City of London is the main financial district[98] and Canary Wharf has recently developed into a new financial and commercial hub, in the Docklands to the east.^ Bayswater Road to Whitechapel, and passing through the city in the neighbourhood of London Wall, and another from Holloway to the Elephant and Castle, to cross the Thames by a new bridge above Blackfriars.

^ Thus the Lord Mayor and aldermen possess judicial authority, and the police of London are divided into two separate bodies, the Metropolitan and the City Police (see PoLicE).

^ The London County Council is a central sanitary authority; the City and metropolitan boroughs are sanitary districts, and the Corporation and borough councils are local sanitary authorities.

.The West End is London's main entertainment and shopping district, attracting tourists.^ London attracts very large numbers of visitors and tourists, there are thousands of London Hotels.
  • London Bed and Breakfast Cheap Hotel Guest House Accommodation 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.bedandbreakfasts.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ London is most easily defined by its districts, such as the West End, South Bank and Mayfair, all with their own distinctive character and divided between north and south by the famous River Thames.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ And it is a joy to stumble on oases of tranquility and elegance in the beautiful squares and gardens just a short walk from the heartland of London's buzzing West End.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

[99] .West London includes expensive residential areas where properties can sell for tens of millions of pounds.^ The majority of visitors to London remain in the central area, and within that, the West End, a loosely defined region bursting at the seams with theatres, entertainment and shops.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

[100] .The average price for properties in Kensington and Chelsea is £894,000 with similar average outlay in most of Central London.^ Nevern Square, Earls Court, kensington & chelsea, SW5 9PE, London, England, United Kingdom .
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Courtfield Gardens, 131 - 137 Cromwell Rd, Kensington & Chelsea, SW7 4DU, London, England, United Kingdom .
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Collingham Road, Earls Court, kensington & chelsea, SW5 0LX, London, England, United Kingdom .
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

[101]
.The East End is the area closest to the original Port of London, known for its high immigrant population, as well as for being one of the poorest areas in London.^ On the Thames below London Bridge, London appears in the aspect of one of the world's great ports, with extensive docks and crowded shipping .

^ In the British Museum London possesses one of the most celebrated collections in the world, originated in 1753 by the purchase of Sir Hans Sloane's collection and library by the government.

^ London lies within the geological area known as the London basin.

[102] .The surrounding East London area saw much of London's early industrial development; now, brownfield sites throughout the area are being redeveloped as part of the Thames Gateway including the London Riverside and Lower Lea Valley, which is being developed into the Olympic Park for the 2012 Olympics.^ The London Eye and Shakespeare's Globe Theatre are amongst the attractions in this smartly redeveloped riverside equivalent of Paris's Left Bank.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Developing from a long-time residential area into a stylish shopping and dining district.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

[102]

Architecture

London's architecture ranges from very old to modern
.London's buildings are too diverse to be characterised by any particular architectural style, having been built over a long period of time.^ To meet the needs of particular localities, commissioners or trustees having such powers had been from time to time created by local acts.

^ The great and continuous increase in the buildings and the enlargement of London on all sides dates from this period.

^ The medieval period closed with the accession of the Tudor dynasty, and from that time the population of London continued to increase, in spite of attempts by the government to prevent it.

Notable recent buildings are the 1980s skyscraper Tower 42, the Lloyd's building with services running along the outside of the structure, and the 2004 Swiss Re building, known as "the Gherkin". .London's generally low-rise nature makes these skyscrapers and others such as One Canada Square and its neighbours at Canary Wharf and the BT Tower in Fitzrovia very noticeable from a distance.^ London's size and stature generally makes a first visit an intoxicating, sometimes bewildering experience.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Corroborative facts have been gathered from other parts of the country, and, although more evidence is required, such as we have is strongly in favour of the supposition that the London Stone is a prehistoric monument.

^ It contains the Exchequer and Audit , Inland Revenue, Probate , Registrar-General's and other offices, and one wing houses King's College.

High-rise development is restricted at certain sites if it would obstruct protected views of St. Paul's Cathedral. .Nevertheless, there are plans for more skyscrapers in Central London (see Tall buildings in London), including the 72-storey "Shard of Glass", which will be one of the tallest buildings in Europe.^ Time waits for no one and the adage is no more applicable than to London – it’s a place with an overall sense of creativity and urgency.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ One of the most important questions in the history of London that requires settlement is the date of the building of the first bridge, that is whether it was constructed by Britons or by Romans.

^ A still more important change in the configuration of the interior of London was made in the 13th century, when the various orders of the friars established themselves there.

.Older buildings are mainly brick built, most commonly the yellow London stock brick or a warm orange-red variety, often decorated with carvings and white plaster mouldings.^ One of the most important questions in the history of London that requires settlement is the date of the building of the first bridge, that is whether it was constructed by Britons or by Romans.

^ A Gothic style has been most commonly adopted in building modern churches; but of these the most notable, the Roman Catholic Westminster Cathedral (see Westminster ), is Byzantine, and built principally of brick, with a lofty campanile .

^ While stone is the material used in the construction of the majority of great buildings of London, some modern examples (notably the Westminster Roman Catholic cathedral) are of red brick with stone dressings; and brick is in commonest use for general domestic building.

[103]
.Many grand houses and public buildings, such as the National Gallery, are constructed from Portland stone.^ The building of the National Portrait Gallery, adjoining it, dates from 1896, but the nucleus of the collection was formed in 1858.

^ Although for several centuries attempts had been made in favour of building houses with brick or stone, yet the carpenters continued to be the chief housebuilders.

.Some areas of the city, particularly those just west of the centre, are characterised by white stucco or whitewashed buildings.^ The derivations of names may here be grouped into two classes, those having a commercial connexion, and those associated with ancient buildings, particularly the City wall and ecclesiastical foundations.

.Few structures pre-date the Great Fire of 1666, except for a few trace Roman remains, the Tower of London and a few scattered Tudor survivors in the City.^ Pubs remain focal points for many communities and are great places to socialise.London is a city overflowing with rich traditions that make it instantly recognisable from many aspects.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The architect to whom, after the great fire of 1666, the opportunity fell of leaving the marks of his influence upon London was Sir Christopher Wren .

^ One of the most important questions in the history of London that requires settlement is the date of the building of the first bridge, that is whether it was constructed by Britons or by Romans.

.Wren's late 17th century churches and the financial institutions of the 18th and 19th centuries such as the Royal Exchange and the Bank of England, to the early 20th century Old Bailey and the 1960s Barbican Estate form part of the varied architectural heritage.^ The Bills of Mortality of the 16th and 17th centuries are of more value, and they have been considered and revised by such able statisticians as John Graunt and Sir William Petty .

^ In the 18th century other parts of the town were more largely built upon.

^ This was the bridge which was pulled down early in the 19th century.

Buckingham Palace is the official residence of the British monarch
.The disused, but soon to be rejuvenated, 1939 Battersea Power Station by the river in the southwest is a local landmark, while some railway termini are excellent examples of Victorian architecture, most notably St Pancras and Paddington.^ The Great Northern, Midland and London & North-Western systems have adjacent termini, namely King's Cross, St Pancras and Euston, in Euston Road, St Pancras.

^ The principal terminus of the Great Eastern Railway is in Liverpool Street (City), but the company also uses Fenchurch Street (City), the terminus of the London, Tilbury & Southend railway, and St Pancras.

^ This company combines with the Metropolitan District to form the Inner Circle line, which has stations close to all the great railway termini north of the Thames.

[104] .The density of London varies, with high employment density in the central area, high residential densities in inner London and lower densities in the suburbs.^ Bed and breakfast in London, click on the Map below to find Cheap Hotel London Accommodation and B&Bs or scroll right down to see the various areas of London .
  • London Bed and Breakfast Cheap Hotel Guest House Accommodation 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.bedandbreakfasts.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ The majority of visitors to London remain in the central area, and within that, the West End, a loosely defined region bursting at the seams with theatres, entertainment and shops.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ London County Council, which besides these divisions shows " Water London," the London main drainage area, and the Central Criminal Court district.

In the dense areas, most of the concentration is achieved with medium- and high-rise buildings. .London's skyscrapers such as "Gherkin", Tower 42, the Broadgate Tower and One Canada Square are usually found in the two financial districts, the City of London and Canary Wharf.^ Thus the Lord Mayor and aldermen possess judicial authority, and the police of London are divided into two separate bodies, the Metropolitan and the City Police (see PoLicE).

^ The London County Council is a central sanitary authority; the City and metropolitan boroughs are sanitary districts, and the Corporation and borough councils are local sanitary authorities.

^ When the county of Middlesex was dissociated from the city of London one portion was joined to the administrative county of London, and the other to the county of Middlesex.

.Other notable modern buildings include City Hall in Southwark with its distinctive oval shape,[105] and the British Library in Somers Town/Kings Cross.^ It passed Kentish Town, Camden Town and King's Cross, and followed a line approximating to King's Cross Road.

^ A fine though circumscribed group of buildings is that in the heart of the City which includes the Bank of England, the Royal Exchange and the Mansion House.

^ The buildings connected with local government in London are with one exception modern, and handsome town-halls have been erected for some of the boroughs.

What was formerly the Millennium Dome, located by the Thames to the east of Canary Wharf, is now used as an entertainment venue known as The O2.
.The Monument in the City of London provides views of the surrounding area while commemorating the Great Fire of London, which originated nearby.^ Pubs remain focal points for many communities and are great places to socialise.London is a city overflowing with rich traditions that make it instantly recognisable from many aspects.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The architect to whom, after the great fire of 1666, the opportunity fell of leaving the marks of his influence upon London was Sir Christopher Wren .

^ The view originated by Gomme certainly explains many difficulties in the history of the transition from Roman to English London, which have hitherto been overlooked by historians.

.Marble Arch and Wellington Arch, at the north and south ends of Park Lane respectively, have royal connections, as do the Albert Memorial and Royal Albert Hall in Kensington.^ The northern enters the county in Hammersmith as Uxbridge Road, crosses Kensington and borders the north side of Kensington Gardens and Hyde Park as Bayswater Road.

^ The chief halls devoted mainly to concerts are the Royal Albert Hall, close to the South Kensington museums, and Queen's Hall in Langham Place, Regent Street.

^ Two of its gateways are noteworthy, namely that at Hyde Park Corner at the southeast and the Marble Arch at the north-east.

.Nelson's Column is a nationally recognised monument in Trafalgar Square, one of the focal points of the centre.^ The Nelson Column, the central feature of Trafalgar Square, is from the designs of William Railton (1843), crowned with a statue of Nelson by Baily, and has at its base four colossal lions in bronze , modelled by Sir Edwin Landseer .

^ Among permanent art collections the first place is taken by the National Gallery in Trafalgar Square.

Parks and gardens

.The largest parks in the central area of London are the Royal Parks of Hyde Park, its neighbour Kensington Gardens at the western edge of Central London and Regent's Park on the northern edge.^ There are plenty of cool events in London; in summer, consider visiting the O2 Festival in Hyde Park, where the most successful artists of the year will perform.
  • Concerts in London - Buy London Concert Tickets Easy and Secure! 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

^ The northern enters the county in Hammersmith as Uxbridge Road, crosses Kensington and borders the north side of Kensington Gardens and Hyde Park as Bayswater Road.

^ The Zoological Society maintains a magnificent collection of living specimens in the Zoological Gardens , Regent's Park, a popular resort.

[106] .Regent's Park contains London Zoo, the world's oldest scientific zoo, and is located near the tourist attraction of Madame Tussauds Wax Museum.^ Among other ancient churches within the City, that of All Hallows Barking, near the Tower of London, is principally Perpendicular and contains some fine brasses.

^ In the British Museum London possesses one of the most celebrated collections in the world, originated in 1753 by the purchase of Sir Hans Sloane's collection and library by the government.

^ Tourist attractions are mainly in Central London , comprising the historic City of London ...
  • London Bed and Breakfast Cheap Hotel Guest House Accommodation 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.bedandbreakfasts.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

[107][108]
Closer to central London are the smaller Royal Parks of Green Park and St. James's Park.[109] Hyde Park in particular is popular for sports and sometimes hosts open-air concerts. .A number of large parks lie outside the city centre, including the remaining Royal Parks of Greenwich Park to the south-east[110] and Bushy Park and Richmond Park to the south-west,[111][112] as well as Victoria Park, East London to the east.^ The West End with its cinemas, bars, clubs, theatres, shops and restaurants; the City of Westminster with Westminster Abbey , the Royal palaces of Buckingham Palace , Clarence House etc., the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea with its museums (the Science Museum , Natural History Museum , and Victoria and Albert Museum ) and Hyde Park .
  • London Bed and Breakfast Cheap Hotel Guest House Accommodation 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.bedandbreakfasts.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ London attracts very large numbers of visitors and tourists, there are thousands of London Hotels.
  • London Bed and Breakfast Cheap Hotel Guest House Accommodation 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.bedandbreakfasts.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ The main tributaries of the Thames from the north, to east and west of those described, are not covered, nor is any tributary of importance from the south entirely concealed.

.Primrose Hill to the north of Regent's Park is a popular spot to view the city skyline.^ The Zoological Society maintains a magnificent collection of living specimens in the Zoological Gardens , Regent's Park, a popular resort.

^ The Old North Road, entering London from the Lea valley through Hackney and Shoreditch as Stamford Hill, Stoke Newington Road and Kingsland Road, reaches the City by Bishopsgate.

.Some more informal, semi-natural open spaces also exist, including the 320-hectare (790-acre) Hampstead Heath of North London.^ The Holyhead and Great North Roads, uniting at Barnet, enter London by branches through' Hampstead and through Highgate, between the Old North and Edgware roads.

^ The London County Council's parks and open spaces increased in number from 40 in 1890 to 114 in 1907, and in acreage from 2656 to 5006 in the same years.

^ Aldgate and the city walls, marks the extent of the open space around the walls of London known as the Pomoerium.

[113] This incorporates Kenwood House, the former stately home and a popular location in the summer months where classical musical concerts are held by the lake, attracting thousands of people every weekend to enjoy the music, scenery and fireworks.[114]

Demography

Country of Birth[115] Population
(2001)
United Kingdom United Kingdom 5,230,155
India India 172,162
Republic of Ireland Republic of Ireland 157,285
Bangladesh Bangladesh 84,565
Jamaica Jamaica 80,319
Nigeria Nigeria 68,907
Pakistan Pakistan 66,658
Kenya Kenya 66,311
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 49,932
Ghana Ghana 46,513
Cyprus Cyprus 45,888
South Africa South Africa 45,506
United States United States 44,622
Australia Australia 41,488
Germany Germany 39,818
Turkey Turkey 39,128
Italy Italy 38,694
France France 38,130
Somalia Somalia 33,831
Uganda Uganda 32,082
New Zealand New Zealand 27,494
.With increasing industrialisation, London's population grew rapidly throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, and it was for some time in the late 19th and early 20th centuries the most populous city in the world until overtaken by New York in 1925. Its population peaked at 8,615,245 in 1939 immediately before the outbreak of the Second World War.^ The position is vague, but the mouth of the Thames in these early times may be considered as not far from the present position of London Bridge.

^ The City Corporation exercises a control over the majority of the London markets, which dates from the close of the 14th century, when dealers were placed under the governance of the mayor and aldermen.

^ LONDON, the capital of England and of, the British Empire , and the greatest city in the world, lying on each side of the river Thames 50 m.

There were an estimated 7,556,900 official residents in Greater London as of mid-2007.[19]
.However, London's continuous urban area extends beyond the borders of Greater London and was home to 8,278,251 people in 2001,[2] while its wider metropolitan area has a population of between 12 and 14 million depending on the definition used.^ Within the confines of Greater London the chalk which forms the basement of this area appears at the surface in isolated patches about Greenwich, while its main line approaches within 10 m.

^ The population of Greater London by the census of 1901 was 6,581,402.

^ Water London " is an irregular area extending from Ware in Hertfordshire to Sevenoaks in Kent, and westward as far as Ealing and Sunbury.

[116] .According to Eurostat, London is the most populous city and metropolitan area of the European Union and the second most populous in Europe (or third if Istanbul is included).^ This is Europe's largest, wealthiest and most populated city, which is constantly evolving because it always runs at full tilt.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A central body, styled the Metropolitan Board of - Works, having jurisdiction over the whole metropolis (including the City) was also established, the members of which were elected by the Common Council of the Works.

^ Thus the Lord Mayor and aldermen possess judicial authority, and the police of London are divided into two separate bodies, the Metropolitan and the City Police (see PoLicE).

.During the period 1991–2001 a net 726,000 immigrants arrived in London.^ It was during this period that the first maps of London were drawn.

^ Allusion has already been made to the great change in the aspect of London and its surroundings made during the Norman period by the establishment of a large number of monasteries.

^ Before proceeding with the history of London during the Norman period it is necessary to say something of the counties more especially connected with London.

[117]
.The region covers an area of 1,579 square kilometres (610 sq mi).^ The area covered by the local as distinct from the trunk service is about 630 sq.

.The population density is 4,542 inhabitants per square kilometre (11,760 /sq mi)[118], more than ten times that of any other British region.^ Time waits for no one and the adage is no more applicable than to London – it’s a place with an overall sense of creativity and urgency.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The inhabitants used coaches and chairs more than boats, and the banks of the river were neglected.

[119] .In terms of population, London is the 25th largest city and the 18th largest metropolitan region in the world.^ This is Europe's largest, wealthiest and most populated city, which is constantly evolving because it always runs at full tilt.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Much of the life of the time was then in the City, but the last years of Stuart London take us to the 18th century, when social life had permanently shifted to the west end.

^ LONDON, the capital of England and of, the British Empire , and the greatest city in the world, lying on each side of the river Thames 50 m.

It is also ranked 4th in the world in number of billionaires (United States Dollars) residing in the city.[120] .London ranks as one of the most expensive cities in the world, alongside Tokyo and Moscow.^ It has the most polite and competent taxi drivers in the world, driving unmistakable black London cabs.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ One of the most important questions in the history of London that requires settlement is the date of the building of the first bridge, that is whether it was constructed by Britons or by Romans.

^ On the Thames below London Bridge, London appears in the aspect of one of the world's great ports, with extensive docks and crowded shipping .

[121]

Ethnic groups

.According to the Office for National Statistics, based on 2006 estimates, 69.4 per cent of the 7.5 million inhabitants of London were White, with 58 per cent White British, 2.5 per cent White Irish and 8.9 per cent classified as Other White.^ It is estimated that upwards of a million daily enter and leave the City alone as the commercial heart of London, and a great proportion of these travel in and out by the suburban railways.

.Some 13.1 per cent are of South Asian descent, with Indians making up 6.5 per cent of London's population, followed by Bangladeshis and Pakistanis at 2.3 per cent each.^ We can save you up to 60 per cent if you book with us.
  • Heathrow airport | Our encyclopedic guide to Heathrow airport 25 January 2010 16:45 UTC www.holidayextras.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

2 per cent are categorised as "Other Asian".
.10.7 per cent of London's population are Black, with around 5.5 per cent being Black African, 4.3 per cent as Black Caribbean and 0.7 per cent as "Other Black". 3.5 per cent of Londoners are of mixed race; 1.5 per cent are Chinese; and 1.9 per cent belong to another ethnic group.^ Another event famous around the world and definitely worth coming to London for is the Wimbledon tennis tournament.
  • Concerts in London - Buy London Concert Tickets Easy and Secure! 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

^ The walled city of London was a distinct political unit, although it owed a certain allegiance to that one of the kingdoms around it which was the most powerful for the time being.

[5] As of 2008, 40% of London's total population was from an ethnic minority group.[122]
Across London, Black and Asian children outnumber White British children by about six to four.[123] .In January 2005, a survey of London's ethnic and religious diversity claimed that there were more than 300 languages spoken and more than 50 non-indigenous communities which have a population of more than 10,000 in London.^ Time waits for no one and the adage is no more applicable than to London – it’s a place with an overall sense of creativity and urgency.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Shortly after this they came to London and settled in Holborn near L i ncoln's Inn, where they remained for more than fifty years.

^ These numbers have been taken as a basis for calculation of population, and one statistician reasoned that if 50,000 were buried in one churchyard 100,000 should represent the whole mortality of London.

[124] Figures from the Office for National Statistics show that, as of 2006, London's foreign-born population is 2,288,000 (31%), up from 1,630,000 in 1997.[125]
.The 2001 census showed that 27.1% of Greater London's population were born outside the UK, and a slightly higher proportion were classed as non-white.^ The population of Greater London by the census of 1901 was 6,581,402.

^ Greater London outside the county).

^ This fund is raised by the rate of 6d.in the pound on the assessable value of the county of London, and redistributed among the boroughs in proportion to their population.

[126] .The table to the right shows the 'Country of Birth' of London residents in 2001, the date of the last UK Census.^ We can also recommend getting West End tickets to see the greatest theatre shows and musicals right in the heart of the city of London!
  • Concerts in London - Buy London Concert Tickets Easy and Secure! 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

^ The preceding tables show the estimated income and expenditure of the London County Council for 1909-1910.

(Top 21).[115] A portion of the German-born population are likely to be British nationals born to parents serving in the British Armed Forces in Germany.[127]

Religion

Religion in London
Religion Percent
Christian
  
58.2%
No religion
  
15.8%
Religion not stated
  
8.7%
Muslim
  
8.5%
Hindu
  
4.1%
Jewish
  
2.1%
Sikh
  
1.5%
Buddhist
  
0.8%
Pagan
  
0.3%
Other
  
0.2%
Baitul Futuh Mosque in London
The majority of Londoners – 58.2% – identify themselves as Christians.[128] This is followed by those of no religion (15.8%), Muslims (8.5%), Hindus (4.1%), Jews (2.1%), Sikhs (1.5%), Buddhists (0.8%), Pagans/Wiccans (0.3%) and other (0.2%), though 8.7% of people did not answer this question in the 2001 Census.[128]
.London has traditionally been Christian, and has a large number of churches, particularly in the City of London.^ Among other ancient churches within the City, that of All Hallows Barking, near the Tower of London, is principally Perpendicular and contains some fine brasses.

^ Although the mortality caused by the different plagues had a great effect upon the population of the country at large the city soon recovered the losses by reason of the numbers who came to London from outside in hopes of obtaining work.

^ Allusion has already been made to the great change in the aspect of London and its surroundings made during the Norman period by the establishment of a large number of monasteries.

.The well-known St Paul's Cathedral in the City and Southwark Cathedral south of the river are Anglican administrative centres,[129] while the Archbishop of Canterbury, principal bishop of the Church of England and worldwide Anglican Communion, has his main residence at Lambeth Palace in the London Borough of Lambeth.^ Apart from all the wonderful and famous sightseeing opportunities London offers, such as Shakespeare's Globe, Saint Paul’s Cathedral and Buckingham Palace, a visit to the National Theatre would also be very much worth your while.
  • Concerts in London - Buy London Concert Tickets Easy and Secure! 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

^ The principal external features are the huge Victoria Tower at the south, and the clock tower, with its well-known chimes and the hour- bell " Big Ben," on the north.

^ Water Supply .-In the 12th century London was supplied with water from local streams and wells, of which Holy Well, Clerk's Well (Clerkenwell) and St Clement's Well, near St Clement's Inn, were examples.

[130]
.Important national and royal ceremonies are shared between St Paul's and Westminster Abbey.^ On the 8th February the body of Nelson was borne with great pomp from the Admiralty to St Paul's Cathedral, where it was interred in the presence of the prince of Wales and the royal dukes.

^ In 1903 the Wesleyans acquired the site of the Royal Aquarium , near Westminster Abbey, for the erection of a central hall.

^ It is the scene from time to time of splendid ceremonies, and contains the tombs of many great men; but in this respect it cannot compete with the peculiar associations of Westminster Abbey.

[131] .The Abbey is not to be confused with nearby Westminster Cathedral, which is the largest Roman Catholic cathedral in England and Wales.^ Westminster is the seat of the Roman Catholic archbishopric in England, and Southwark is a bishopric.

^ A Gothic style has been most commonly adopted in building modern churches; but of these the most notable, the Roman Catholic Westminster Cathedral (see Westminster ), is Byzantine, and built principally of brick, with a lofty campanile .

^ While stone is the material used in the construction of the majority of great buildings of London, some modern examples (notably the Westminster Roman Catholic cathedral) are of red brick with stone dressings; and brick is in commonest use for general domestic building.

[132] Despite the prevalence of Anglican churches, observance is very low within the Anglican denomination. Church attendance continues on a long, slow, steady decline, according to Church of England statistics.[133]
London is also home to sizeable Muslim, Hindu, Sikh, and Jewish communities. .Many Muslims live in Tower Hamlets and Newham; the most important Muslim edifice is London Central Mosque on the edge of Regent's Park.^ London within the walls has been almost entirely rebuilt, although in the neighbourhood of the Tower there are still many old houses which have only been refronted.

^ The Zoological Society maintains a magnificent collection of living specimens in the Zoological Gardens , Regent's Park, a popular resort.

^ One of the most important questions in the history of London that requires settlement is the date of the building of the first bridge, that is whether it was constructed by Britons or by Romans.

[134] .Following the oil boom, increasing numbers of wealthy Middle-Eastern Muslims have based themselves around Mayfair and Knightsbridge in West London.^ The London County Council's parks and open spaces increased in number from 40 in 1890 to 114 in 1907, and in acreage from 2656 to 5006 in the same years.

^ Throughout the better residential quarters of London the number of large blocks of flats has greatly increased in modern times.

[135][136]
.London's large Hindu community is found in the north-western boroughs of Harrow and Brent, the latter of which is home to one of Europe's largest Hindu temples, Neasden Temple.^ The Great Northern, Midland and London & North-Western systems have adjacent termini, namely King's Cross, St Pancras and Euston, in Euston Road, St Pancras.

^ The latter bitterly offended the Londoners, who, finding that they could turn the scales to either side, named the Commune as the price of their support of John.

[137] .Sikh communities are located in East and West London, which is also home to the largest Sikh temple in the world outside India.^ Hammersmith and the East India Docks illustrates successively every phase of London life.

^ The system covers the county of London, West Ham, Penge, Tottenham, Wood Green, and parts of Beckenham, Hornsey, Croydon, Willesden, East Ham and Acton.

^ London Bridge, constructed in 1886 by the East and West India Docks Company (65 acres).

[138]
.The majority of British Jews live in London, with significant Jewish communities in Stamford Hill, Stanmore, Golders Green, Hampstead, Hendon and Edgware in North London.^ The Holyhead and Great North Roads, uniting at Barnet, enter London by branches through' Hampstead and through Highgate, between the Old North and Edgware roads.

^ Round's remarkable discovery among the manuscripts of the British Museum of the Oath of the Commune proves for the first time that London in 1193 possessed a fully developed " Commune " of the continental pattern.

^ Epping Forest, 30 Oak Hill, Woodford Green, IG8 9NY, London, England, United Kingdom .
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

.February 2010" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Stanmore and Canons Park Synagogue has the largest membership of any single Orthodox synagogue in the whole of Europe, overtaking Ilford synagogue (also in London) in 1998.[139] The community set up the London Jewish Forum in 2007 in response to the growing significance of devolved London Government.^ The Office of Works controls the Royal parks, the County Council controls the larger parks and open spaces not under Government or City control, and the borough councils the smaller; while the City Corporation controls certain public grounds outside the County of London.

^ London has not grown up along formal lines; nor is any large part of it laid out according to the conceptions of a single generation.

[140]

Economy

The City of London is one of the world's largest financial centre alongside New York City[11][12][13]
London is a major centre for international business and commerce and is one of three "command centres" for the world economy, with New York City and Tokyo,[141] although, according to a survey conducted by UBS, London fell to being the 21st richest city (by employee gross earnings) in the world in 2009, down from 7th in 2008.[142]
.London generates approximately 20% of the UK's GDP[13] (or $446 billion in 2005); while the economy of the London metropolitan areathe largest in Europe—generates approximately 30% of the UK's GDP (or an estimated $669 billion in 2005).^ The Metropolitan police area, or " Greater London," however, embraces the whole of Middlesex, with parts of the other three counties and of Hertfordshire .

[143] .London is one of the pre-eminent financial centres of the world and vies with New York City as the most important location for international finance.^ One of the most important questions in the history of London that requires settlement is the date of the building of the first bridge, that is whether it was constructed by Britons or by Romans.

^ On the Thames below London Bridge, London appears in the aspect of one of the world's great ports, with extensive docks and crowded shipping .

^ Bayswater Road to Whitechapel, and passing through the city in the neighbourhood of London Wall, and another from Holloway to the Elephant and Castle, to cross the Thames by a new bridge above Blackfriars.

[144][145]
.London's largest industry is finance, and its financial exports make it a large contributor to the UK's balance of payments.^ The revocation of the edict of Nantes in October 1685, and the consequent migration of a large number of industrious French Protestants, caused a considerable growth in the east end of London.

^ Their population is also largely occupied in local manufacturing establishments; while numerous towns on either bank of the lower Thames share in the industries of the port of London.

.Around 325,000 people were employed in financial services in London until mid-2007. London has over 480 overseas banks, more than any other city in the world.^ Time waits for no one and the adage is no more applicable than to London – it’s a place with an overall sense of creativity and urgency.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Shortly after this they came to London and settled in Holborn near L i ncoln's Inn, where they remained for more than fifty years.

^ With regard to the relative size of great cities Petty affirms that before the Restoration the people of Paris were more in number than those of London and Dublin , whereas in 1687 the people of London were more than those of Paris and Rome or of Paris and Rouen .

Due to its prominent global role, London's economy has been affected by the global financial crisis of 2008–2009. The City of London estimates that 70,000 jobs in finance will be cut within a year.[146]
Canary Wharf is the home of the United Kingdom's tallest building
.More than half of the UK's top 100 listed companies (the FTSE 100) and over 100 of Europe's 500 largest companies are headquartered in Central London.^ Time waits for no one and the adage is no more applicable than to London – it’s a place with an overall sense of creativity and urgency.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Shortly after this they came to London and settled in Holborn near L i ncoln's Inn, where they remained for more than fifty years.

^ When we remember that more than half of the area of London was occupied by these establishments, and that about a third of the inhabitants were monks, nuns and friars, it is easy to imagine how great must have been the disorganization caused by this root and branch reform.

.Over 70% of the FTSE 100 are located within London's metropolitan area, and 75% of Fortune 500 companies have offices in London.^ Within the confines of Greater London the chalk which forms the basement of this area appears at the surface in isolated patches about Greenwich, while its main line approaches within 10 m.

^ The National Telephone Company, working under licence expiring on the 31st of December 1911, had until 1901 practically a monopoly of telephonic communication within London, though the Post Office owned all the trunk lines connecting the various telephone areas of the company.

^ The Metropolitan police area, or " Greater London," however, embraces the whole of Middlesex, with parts of the other three counties and of Hertfordshire .

[147] .The City of London is home to the Bank of England, London Stock Exchange, and Lloyds of London insurance market.^ The City Corporation exercises a control over the majority of the London markets, which dates from the close of the 14th century, when dealers were placed under the governance of the mayor and aldermen.

^ LONDON, the capital of England and of, the British Empire , and the greatest city in the world, lying on each side of the river Thames 50 m.

^ A fine though circumscribed group of buildings is that in the heart of the City which includes the Bank of England, the Royal Exchange and the Mansion House.

.Along with professional services, media companies are concentrated in London and the media distribution industry is London's second most competitive sector.^ The London, Westminster and Vauxhall Steamboat Company established in 1840 a service of seven steamboats between London Bridge and Vauxhall.

[148] The BBC is a significant employer, while other broadcasters also have headquarters around the City. Many national newspapers are edited in London.
.Tourism is one of London's prime industries and employs the equivalent of 350,000 full-time workers in London in 2003,[149] while annual expenditure by tourists is around £15 billion.^ Time waits for no one and the adage is no more applicable than to London – it’s a place with an overall sense of creativity and urgency.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Great Exhibition of 1851 brought a larger number of visitors to London than had ever been in it before at one time.

^ The walled city of London was a distinct political unit, although it owed a certain allegiance to that one of the kingdoms around it which was the most powerful for the time being.

[150] .London attracts almost 15 million international visitors per year, making it the world's second most visited city[151] after Paris.^ It has the most polite and competent taxi drivers in the world, driving unmistakable black London cabs.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ There are plenty of cool events in London; in summer, consider visiting the O2 Festival in Hyde Park, where the most successful artists of the year will perform.
  • Concerts in London - Buy London Concert Tickets Easy and Secure! 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

^ In the British Museum London possesses one of the most celebrated collections in the world, originated in 1753 by the purchase of Sir Hans Sloane's collection and library by the government.

[152] .London attracts 27 million overnight-stay visitors every year.^ Exclusive for Tablet Plus members, every stay at Baglioni Hotel London automatically includes the following select privileges and/or amenities: .
  • Luxury & Boutique Hotels in London | Tablet Hotels 6 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.tablethotels.com [Source type: News]

^ Exclusive for Tablet Plus members, every stay at Sofitel London St James automatically includes the following select privileges and/or amenities: .
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^ Exclusive for Tablet Plus members, every stay at The Metropolitan London automatically includes the following select privileges and/or amenities: .
  • Luxury & Boutique Hotels in London | Tablet Hotels 6 February 2010 12:18 UTC www.tablethotels.com [Source type: News]

[153] .The Port of London is the second-largest in the United Kingdom, handling 53 million tonnes of cargo each year.^ Millions flock to London each year to admire the 'essential' English sights and sounds of Oxford Street, Buckingham Palace, Big Ben, the London Eye and Royal London.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Tavistock place, Russell square, wc1h 9se, London, England, United Kingdom .
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^ Belgrave Road, Victoria, westminster, SW1V 1RB, London, England, United Kingdom .
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[154]

Transport

Central line - Bethnal Green.ogg
The London Underground, oldest and largest metro system in the world,[155] known as the The Tube, because of the shape of the tunnels
.Transport is one of the four main areas of policy administered by the Mayor of London,[156] however the mayor's financial control does not extend to the longer distance rail network that enters London.^ The City Corporation exercises a control over the majority of the London markets, which dates from the close of the 14th century, when dealers were placed under the governance of the mayor and aldermen.

^ Within the confines of Greater London the chalk which forms the basement of this area appears at the surface in isolated patches about Greenwich, while its main line approaches within 10 m.

^ The Metropolitan police area, or " Greater London," however, embraces the whole of Middlesex, with parts of the other three counties and of Hertfordshire .

.In 2007 he assumed responsibility for some local lines, which now form the London Overground network, adding to the existing responsibility for the London Underground, trams and buses.^ Within the confines of Greater London the chalk which forms the basement of this area appears at the surface in isolated patches about Greenwich, while its main line approaches within 10 m.

^ The buildings connected with local government in London are with one exception modern, and handsome town-halls have been erected for some of the boroughs.

^ This silence has been taken by some historians of weight to imply that London practically ceased to exist.

.The public transport network is administered by Transport for London (TfL) and is one of the most extensive in the world.^ It has the most polite and competent taxi drivers in the world, driving unmistakable black London cabs.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ One of the most important questions in the history of London that requires settlement is the date of the building of the first bridge, that is whether it was constructed by Britons or by Romans.

^ On the Thames below London Bridge, London appears in the aspect of one of the world's great ports, with extensive docks and crowded shipping .

Cycling is an increasingly popular way to get around London. The London Cycling Campaign lobbies for better provision.[157]
.The lines that formed the London Underground, as well as trams and buses, became part of an integrated transport system in 1933 when the London Passenger Transport Board (LPTB) or London Transport was created.^ Within the confines of Greater London the chalk which forms the basement of this area appears at the surface in isolated patches about Greenwich, while its main line approaches within 10 m.

^ The omnibus system is very extensive, embracing all the principal streets throughout the county and extending over a large part of Greater London.

^ The Metropolitan and the District lines within London are for the most part underground (this feature supplying the title of " the Underground " familiarly applied to both systems); the tunnels being constructed of brick.

.Transport for London (TfL), is now the statutory corporation responsible for most aspects of the transport system in Greater London, and is run by a board and a commissioner appointed by the Mayor of London.^ The City Corporation exercises a control over the majority of the London markets, which dates from the close of the 14th century, when dealers were placed under the governance of the mayor and aldermen.

^ The omnibus system is very extensive, embracing all the principal streets throughout the county and extending over a large part of Greater London.

^ Various alterations were subsequently made and now the qualification of electors at the election of the corporate offices of lord mayor, sheriffs, chamberlain and minor offices in Common Hall is that of being a liveryman of a livery company and an enrolled freeman of London.

[158]

Railways

St Pancras International is served by direct high speed trains to European destinations such as Paris
.The London Underground — all of which is now commonly referred to as the Tube, though originally this designation referred only to the deep-level lines, as distinct from the sub-surface lines — is one of the oldest, longest, and most expansive metro systems in the world, dating from 1863.[21][159] The system serves 270 stations[160] and was formed from several private companies, including the world's first underground electric line, the City and South London Railway.^ Deeplevel electric railways (" tubes "), communicating with the surface by lifts, were already familiar in London.

^ There is only one instance in the city records of a sheriff of Middlesex being mentioned as distinct from the sheriffs, and this was in 1283 when Anketin de Betteville and Walter le Blond are described as sheriffs of London, and Gerin as sheriff of Middlesex.

^ Wren proposed to build main thoroughfares north and south, and east and west, to insulate all the churches in conspicuous positions, to form the most public places into large piazzas, to unite the halls of the twelve chief companies into one regular square annexed to Guildhall and to make a fine quay on the bank of the river from Blackfriars to the Tower.

[161]
Over three million journeys a day are made on the Underground network, over 1 billion journeys each year.[162][163] An investment programme is attempting to address congestion and reliability problems, including £7 billion (€10 billion) of improvements planned for the Olympics.[164] .London has been commended as the city with the best public transport.^ London Hotels and London Guide with London maps, top attractions, room reservations and hotel deals at a wide range of the best London hotels City Guide .
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The citizens of London were a divided body, and Duke William knowing that he had many friends in the city saw that a waiting game was the best for his cause in the end.

^ London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information Home .
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[165] The Docklands Light Railway, which opened in 1987, is a second, more local metro system using smaller and lighter tram-type vehicles serving Docklands and Greenwich.
.There is an extensive above-ground suburban railway network, particularly in South London, which has fewer Underground lines.^ Beneath them are extensive underground railway sidings.

^ It is estimated that upwards of a million daily enter and leave the City alone as the commercial heart of London, and a great proportion of these travel in and out by the suburban railways.

^ The London, Brighton & South Coast railway has its western terminus at Victoria, and its central terminus at London Bridge, on the south side of the Thames.

.London houses Britain's busiest station - Waterloo with over 184 millon people using the interchange station complex (which includes Waterloo East station) each year.^ The schools of the University include University College, Gower Street, and King's College, Somerset House (with both of which preparatory schools are connected), East London College and numerous institutions devoted to special faculties both within and without London.

.The stations have services to South East & South West London, parts of South East and South West England.^ The main tributaries of the Thames from the north, to east and west of those described, are not covered, nor is any tributary of importance from the south entirely concealed.

^ The North London railway has a terminal station at Broad Street, City, and serves the parts of London implied by its name.

^ The system covers the county of London, West Ham, Penge, Tottenham, Wood Green, and parts of Beckenham, Hornsey, Croydon, Willesden, East Ham and Acton.

[166][167] .Most rail lines terminate around the centre of London, running into fourteen terminal stations with the exception of the Thameslink trains connecting Bedford in the north and Brighton in the south via Luton and Gatwick Airports.^ London is most easily defined by its districts, such as the West End, South Bank and Mayfair, all with their own distinctive character and divided between north and south by the famous River Thames.
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^ The South-Eastern & Chatham railway has four terminal stations, all on or close to the north bank of the river - Victoria, Charing Cross,' Holborn Viaduct and Cannon Street (City).

^ The company possesses running powers over the lines of various other companies: thus its trains run as far north as Potter's Bar on the Great Northern line, while it serves Richmond on the west and Poplar on the east.

[168]
Since 2007 High-speed Eurostar trains link St Pancras International with Lille, Paris, and Brussels. .Journey times to Paris and Brussels of 2h 15 and 1h 51 respectively make London closer to continental Europe than the rest of Britain by virtue of the High Speed 1 rail link to the Channel Tunnel[169] while the first high speed domestic trains started in June 2009 linking Kent to London.^ London's size and stature generally makes a first visit an intoxicating, sometimes bewildering experience.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Essex seems seldom to have held an inde pendent position, for when London first appears as connected with the East Saxons the real power was in the hands of the king of Kent.

^ See the most respected selection of boutique and luxury hotels in London and make online reservations with exclusive hotel rates and luxury packages.
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[170]

Buses and trams

The red double-decker bus is an iconic symbol of London
.London's bus network is one of the largest in the world, running 24 hours a day, with 8,000 buses, 700 bus routes, and over 6 million passenger journeys made every weekday.^ On the Thames below London Bridge, London appears in the aspect of one of the world's great ports, with extensive docks and crowded shipping .

^ In the British Museum London possesses one of the most celebrated collections in the world, originated in 1753 by the purchase of Sir Hans Sloane's collection and library by the government.

^ In spite of this the 18th century produced some of the most devoted of Londoners - men who considered a day lived out of London as one lost out of their lives.

In 2003, the network's ridership was estimated at over 1.5 billion passenger trips per annum, more than the Underground.[171] Around £850 million is taken in revenue each year. .London has the largest wheelchair accessible network in the world[172] and, from the 3rd quarter of 2007, became more accessible to hearing and visually impaired passengers as audio-visual announcements were introduced.^ During the 8th century, when a more settled condition of life became possible, the trade and commerce of London increased in volume and prosperity.

.The distinctive red double-decker buses are internationally recognised, and are a trademark of London transport along with black cabs and the Tube.^ It has the most polite and competent taxi drivers in the world, driving unmistakable black London cabs.
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

[173][174]
.London has a modern tram network, known as Tramlink, based around Croydon in South London.^ Aldgate and the city walls, marks the extent of the open space around the walls of London known as the Pomoerium.

^ The northern, western and eastern outskirts and London south of the Thames are extensively served by trams.

^ Addington Rd, South Croydon, CR2 8YA, London, England, United Kingdom .
  • London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: Reference]

.The network has 39 stops, 3 routes and carried 26.5 million people in 2008. Since June 2008 Transport for London has completely owned tramlink and plans to spend £54m until 2015 on maintenance, renewals, upgrades and capacity enhancements.^ On June 22 he entirely routed the rebels; and some time afterwards Perkin Warbeck gave himself up, and was conducted in triumph through London to the Tower.

Since April 2009 all trams have now been refurbished.[175]

Air

.London is a major international air transport hub with the largest city airspace in the world.^ The City Corporation exercises a control over the majority of the London markets, which dates from the close of the 14th century, when dealers were placed under the governance of the mayor and aldermen.

^ LONDON, the capital of England and of, the British Empire , and the greatest city in the world, lying on each side of the river Thames 50 m.

^ London, England Hotels and London, England City Guide - Hotel Reservations, Restaurants, Maps, Weather and Transport Information Home .
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London Gatwick Airport inter-terminal transit
.Eight airports use the word London in their name, but most traffic passes through only five.^ Bayswater Road to Whitechapel, and passing through the city in the neighbourhood of London Wall, and another from Holloway to the Elephant and Castle, to cross the Thames by a new bridge above Blackfriars.

^ One of the most serious administrative problems met with in London is that of locomotion, especially as regards the regulation of traffic in the principal thoroughfares and at the busiest crossings.

^ Passenger steamers sail from the port of London to the principal ports of she British Isles and northern Europe , and to all parts of the world, but the most favoured passenger services to and from Europe and North America pass through other ports, to which the railways provide special services of trains from London.

.London Heathrow Airport, in Hillingdon, West London, is the busiest airport in the world for international traffic, and is the major hub of the nation's flag carrier, British Airways.^ LONDON, the capital of England and of, the British Empire , and the greatest city in the world, lying on each side of the river Thames 50 m.

^ In the British Museum London possesses one of the most celebrated collections in the world, originated in 1753 by the purchase of Sir Hans Sloane's collection and library by the government.

^ The majority of visitors to London remain in the central area, and within that, the West End, a loosely defined region bursting at the seams with theatres, entertainment and shops.
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[176] .In March 2008 its fifth terminal was opened,[177] and plans are already being considered for a sixth terminal[178] and third runway.^ It serves more than 180 destinations and is still growing - terminal 5 opened in 2008, and a third runway is planned.
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Similar traffic, with the addition of some low-cost short-haul flights, is also handled at London Gatwick Airport, located south of London in Sussex.[179]
.Stansted Airport, situated north east of London in Essex, is the main UK hub for Ryanair and Luton Airport to the north of London in Bedfordshire, caters mostly for low-cost short-haul flights.^ The main tributaries of the Thames from the north, to east and west of those described, are not covered, nor is any tributary of importance from the south entirely concealed.

^ Essex seems seldom to have held an inde pendent position, for when London first appears as connected with the East Saxons the real power was in the hands of the king of Kent.

^ The custom house stands on the north bank, a short distance from London Bridge, in Lower Thames Street.

[180][181] .London City Airport, the smallest and most central airport, is focused on business travellers, with a mixture of full service short-haul scheduled flights and considerable business jet traffic.^ This is Europe's largest, wealthiest and most populated city, which is constantly evolving because it always runs at full tilt.
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^ The London County Council is a central sanitary authority; the City and metropolitan boroughs are sanitary districts, and the Corporation and borough councils are local sanitary authorities.

^ It is estimated that upwards of a million daily enter and leave the City alone as the commercial heart of London, and a great proportion of these travel in and out by the suburban railways.

[182]

Roads

Traffic congestion in Central London
.Although the majority of journeys involving Central London are made by public transport, car travel is common in the suburbs.^ The majority of visitors to London remain in the central area, and within that, the West End, a loosely defined region bursting at the seams with theatres, entertainment and shops.
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.The inner ring road (around the city centre), the North and South Circular roads (in the suburbs), and the outer orbital motorway (the M25, outside the built-up area) encircle the city and are intersected by a number of busy radial routes—but very few motorways penetrate into inner London.^ The City has been indicated as the business centre of the metropolis.

^ A few years after this the Brethren of the Temple of Solomon at Jerusalem or Knights of the Temple came into being at the Holy City, and they settled first on the south side of Holborn near Southampton Row.

^ Bayswater Road to Whitechapel, and passing through the city in the neighbourhood of London Wall, and another from Holloway to the Elephant and Castle, to cross the Thames by a new bridge above Blackfriars.

The M25 is the longest ring-road motorway in the world at 195.5 km (121.5 mi) long.[183]
A plan for a comprehensive network of motorways throughout the city (the Ringways Plan) was prepared in the 1960s but was mostly cancelled in the early 1970s. In 2003, a congestion charge was introduced to reduce traffic volumes in the city centre. .With a few exceptions, motorists are required to pay £8 per day to drive within a defined zone encompassing much of congested Central London.^ Within a few days of the fire three several plans were presented to the king for the rebuilding of the city, by Christopher Wren, John Evelyn and Robert Hooke .

[184][185] .Motorists who are residents of the defined zone can buy a vastly reduced season pass which is renewed monthly and is cheaper than a corresponding bus fare.^ With many this is a practice at all seasons, and the railway companies foster the habit by means of tickets at reduced fares to all parts.

[186] .London is notorious for its traffic congestion, with the M25 motorway the busiest stretch in the country.^ One of the most serious administrative problems met with in London is that of locomotion, especially as regards the regulation of traffic in the principal thoroughfares and at the busiest crossings.

The average speed of a car in the rush hour is 10.6 mph.[187]

Education

.Home to a range of universities, colleges and schools, London has a student population of about 378,000 and is a centre of research and development.^ St Peter's College or Westminster School (see Westminster ) is unique among English public schools of the highest rank in maintaining its original situation in London.

^ One of the earliest statements as to the population of London occurs in a letter of about the year 1199 written to Pope Innocent III .

^ It is scarcely worth while to guess as to the numbers in Saxon London, but it is possible that in the early period there were about 10,000 inhabitants, growing later to about 20,000.

Most primary and secondary schools in London follow the same system as the rest of England—comprehensive schooling. .With 125,000 students, the University of London is the largest contact teaching university in the United Kingdom and in Europe.^ The walled city of London was a distinct political unit, although it owed a certain allegiance to that one of the kingdoms around it which was the most powerful for the time being.

^ Its scope and powers were extended by subsequent charters, and in 1900, under the University of London Act 1898, it was reorganized as both a teaching and an examining body.

^ London , United Kingdom Carling Academy Islington .
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[188] It comprises 20 colleges as well as several smaller institutes each with a high degree of autonomy.
.Constituent colleges have their own admissions procedures, and are effectively universities in their own right, although most degrees are awarded by the University of London rather than the individual colleges.^ The walled city of London was a distinct political unit, although it owed a certain allegiance to that one of the kingdoms around it which was the most powerful for the time being.

^ The University of London was incorporated by royal charter in 1836, as an examining body for conferring degrees.

^ North London, or University College; Gower Street (1833).

.Its constituents include multi-disciplinary colleges such as Royal Holloway, Birkbeck, UCL,[189] King's, Goldsmiths, Queen Mary,[190] and more specialised institutions such as the London School of Pharmacy,[191] London School of Economics,[192] SOAS,[193] the Royal Academy of Music, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine,[194] the Courtauld Institute of Art and the Institute of Education.^ The schools of the University include University College, Gower Street, and King's College, Somerset House (with both of which preparatory schools are connected), East London College and numerous institutions devoted to special faculties both within and without London.

^ Of the periodical art exhibitions that of the Royal Academy is most noteworthy.

^ St Peter's College or Westminster School (see Westminster ) is unique among English public schools of the highest rank in maintaining its original situation in London.

[195]
.University College London and Imperial College London have been ranked among the top ten universities in the world by Times Higher Education: in 2009 UCL was ranked the 4th best and Imperial the 5th best university in the world.^ St Peter's College or Westminster School (see Westminster ) is unique among English public schools of the highest rank in maintaining its original situation in London.

^ Both classical and modern education is provided; a large number of scholarships are maintained out of the foundation, and exhibitions from the school to the universities and other higher educational institutions.

^ North London, or University College; Gower Street (1833).

[196] .In addition, the London School of Economics has been described as the world‘s leading social science institution for teaching and research, and has the most international student body of any university in the world today.^ In 1870, however, a School Board had been created in addition, and this body carried out much good work during its thirty-four years of existence.

^ The University of London was incorporated by royal charter in 1836, as an examining body for conferring degrees.

^ The duties of overseers in London had been performed by most diverse bodies.

[197]
.A number of colleges are dedicated to the fine arts, including the Royal College of Music, Royal College of Art, and Guildhall School of Music and Drama.^ The County Council also aids numerous separate schools of art, both general and special, such as the Royal School of Art Needlework and the School of Art Woodcarving; the City and Guilds Institute maintains similar establishments at some of its colleges, and art schools are also generally attached to the polytechnics.

^ Dulwich College possesses a fine series of paintings, of the Dutch and other schools, bequeathed by Sir P. F. Bourgeois in 1811.

^ The principal educational institutions are - the Royal Academy of Music, Tenterden Street, Hanover Square; the Royal College of Music, South Kensington; Guildhall School, City, near the Victoria Embankment; London College, Great Marlborough Street; Trinity College, Manchester Square; Victoria College, Berners Street; and the Royal College of Organists, Bloomsbury.

.London's other universities, such as Brunel University, City University, London Metropolitan University, Middlesex University, University of East London, University of the Arts London, University of Westminster, Kingston University and London South Bank University are not part of the University of London but are still leaders in their field and popular choices among students both nationally and internationally.^ London County Council 1 pp y y (4), the City of London and the City of Westminster (2 each), the other Metropolitan boroughs (1 each), the county councils of Middlesex, Hertfordshire, Essex, Kent and Surrey (1 each), borough of West Ham (2), various groups of other boroughs and urban districts, and the Thames and the Lea Conservancies.

^ Bounded by the Thames - Fulham , Chelsea , the City of Westminster (here the City of London intervenes), Stepney , Poplar.

^ Thus the Lord Mayor and aldermen possess judicial authority, and the police of London are divided into two separate bodies, the Metropolitan and the City Police (see PoLicE).

.Some were polytechnics until they were granted university status in 1992, and others which were founded much earlier.^ These numbers were arrived at with much care and may be considered as fairly accurate although some other calculations conflict with a few of the figures.

^ There is, however, some evidence in favour of the supposition that the wall was built at a much earlier date.

Imperial College London left the federal University of London in 2007.
.Since the merger of University of North London and London Guildhall University in 2003, London Metropolitan University is the largest unitary university in the capital, with over 34,000 students from 155 countries.^ Other early metropolitan foundations have been moved in accordance with modern tendencies either into the country or to sites aloof from the heart of London.

^ Unlike many capitals of Europe which have shifted their centres the city of London in spite of all changes and the continued enlargement of the capital remains the centre and head-quarters of the business of the country.

^ North London, or University College; Gower Street (1833).

[198] .London is also known globally for its business education, harbouring several top-rated business schools: London Business School, Cass Business School and Imperial College Business School.^ St Peter's College or Westminster School (see Westminster ) is unique among English public schools of the highest rank in maintaining its original situation in London.

[199] .In addition there are three international universities: Schiller International University, Richmond University and Regent's College.^ Again, with regard to rates, there were in all cases three different rates leviable in each parish-the poor rate, the general rate and the sewers rate-whilst in many parishes in addition there was a separate lighting rate.

Culture

Accent

The London accent long ago acquired the Cockney label, and was similar to many accents of the South East of England, of which Cockney rhyming slang is a part. .The accent of a 21st century 'Londoner' varies widely; what is becoming more and more common amongst the under 30s however is some fusion of Cockney, Received Pronunciation, and a whole array of 'ethnic' accents, in particular Caribbean, which form an accent labelled Multicultural London English (MLE).^ The English are also celebrated for their rugby playing, and some excellent rugby teams that are London-based include the London Irish, the NEC Harlequins, the Saracens and the Wasps.
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^ The City Corporation exercises a control over the majority of the London markets, which dates from the close of the 14th century, when dealers were placed under the governance of the mayor and aldermen.

^ A still more important change in the configuration of the interior of London was made in the 13th century, when the various orders of the friars established themselves there.

[200]

Leisure and entertainment

The Queen's Theatre in the West End theatre district
.Within the City of Westminster, the entertainment district of the West End has its focus around Leicester Square, where London and world film premieres are held, and Piccadilly Circus, with its giant electronic advertisements.^ City of London within the walls..

^ We can also recommend getting West End tickets to see the greatest theatre shows and musicals right in the heart of the city of London!
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^ Bounded by the Thames - Fulham , Chelsea , the City of Westminster (here the City of London intervenes), Stepney , Poplar.

[201] .London's theatre district is here, as are many cinemas, bars, clubs and restaurants, including the city's Chinatown district (in Soho), and just to the east is Covent Garden, an area housing speciality shops.^ We can also recommend getting West End tickets to see the greatest theatre shows and musicals right in the heart of the city of London!
  • Concerts in London - Buy London Concert Tickets Easy and Secure! 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

^ In this city, possibilities are endless, and we offer all kinds of London theatre tickets, opera tickets or musical tickets to make your stay in London unforgettable.
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^ If what is here suggested really occurred it may be that this separation of London from the surrounding country originated the remarkable position of London with its unparalleled privileges, which were continued for many centuries and kept it not only the leader among cities but distinct from all others.

.The United Kingdom's Royal Ballet, English National Ballet, Royal Opera and English National Opera are based in London and perform at the Royal Opera House, the London Coliseum, Sadler's Wells Theatre and the Royal Albert Hall as well as touring the country.^ The tribute which the townsmen of London had to pay was £ro,50o, about one-seventh of the amount which was paid by all the rest of the English nation.

^ The chief halls devoted mainly to concerts are the Royal Albert Hall, close to the South Kensington museums, and Queen's Hall in Langham Place, Regent Street.

^ The walled city of London was a distinct political unit, although it owed a certain allegiance to that one of the kingdoms around it which was the most powerful for the time being.

[202]
.Islington's 1 mile (1.6 km) long Upper Street, extending northwards from the Angel, has more bars and restaurants than any other street in the UK.[203] Europe's busiest shopping area is Oxford Street, a shopping street nearly 1 mile (1.6 km) long—which makes it the longest shopping street in the UK and home to many shops and department stores including Selfridges.^ The Baker Street & Waterloo railway (known as the " Bakerloo ") was opened in 1906 and subsequently extended in one direction to Paddington and in the other to the Elephant and Castle.

^ These extend over a great area north of Newgate Street and east of Farringdon Road.

^ Public call offices are provided in numerous shops, railway stations and other public places, and at many post offices.

[204] Knightsbridge—home to the Harrods department store—lies just to the southwest.
London is home to designers Vivienne Westwood, Galliano, Stella McCartney, Manolo Blahnik, and Jimmy Choo among others; its renowned art and fashion schools make it an international centre of fashion alongside Paris, Milan and New York. .London offers a great variety of cuisine as a result of its ethnically diverse population.^ Growth And Population Much has been written upon the population of medieval London, but little certainty has resulted therefrom.

Gastronomic centres include the Bangladeshi restaurants of Brick Lane and the Chinese food restaurants of Chinatown.[205]
There are a variety of regular annual events in the city. .The beginning of the year is celebrated with the relatively new New Year's Day Parade, fireworks display at the London Eye, and the world's second largest street party, the Notting Hill Carnival is held during the late August Bank holiday each year.^ In the British Museum London possesses one of the most celebrated collections in the world, originated in 1753 by the purchase of Sir Hans Sloane's collection and library by the government.

^ In those days of public conviviality, and for many years afterwards, the taverns of London held a very important place.

^ The slope of Farringdon Road, where crossed by Holborn Viaduct, and of New Bridge Street, Blackfriars, marks its course exactly, and that of Fleet Street and Ludgate Hill its steep banks.

.Traditional parades include November's Lord Mayor's Show, a centuries-old event celebrating the annual appointment of a new Lord Mayor of the City of London with a procession along the streets of the City, and June's Trooping the Colour, a formal military pageant performed by regiments of the Commonwealth and British armies to celebrate the Queen's Official Birthday.^ The lord mayor of London has certain very remarkable privileges which have been religiously guarded and must be of great antiquity.

^ The City Corporation exercises a control over the majority of the London markets, which dates from the close of the 14th century, when dealers were placed under the governance of the mayor and aldermen.

^ Bayswater Road to Whitechapel, and passing through the city in the neighbourhood of London Wall, and another from Holloway to the Elephant and Castle, to cross the Thames by a new bridge above Blackfriars.

[206]

Literature and film

Charles Dickens (1812–1870)
London has been the setting for many works of literature. .The literary centres of London have traditionally been hilly Hampstead and (since the early 20th century) Bloomsbury.^ The old bridge, famous for many generations, bearing its rows of houses and its chapel in the centre, was completed early in the 13th century.

.Writers closely associated with the city are the diarist Samuel Pepys, noted for his eyewitness account of the Great Fire, Charles Dickens, whose representation of a foggy, snowy, grimy London of street sweepers and pickpockets has been a major influence on people's vision of early Victorian London, and Virginia Woolf, regarded as one of the foremost modernist literary figures of the 20th century.^ The early history of the parishes of London is one of great difficulty and complexity.

^ The City Corporation exercises a control over the majority of the London markets, which dates from the close of the 14th century, when dealers were placed under the governance of the mayor and aldermen.

^ With regard to the relative size of great cities Petty affirms that before the Restoration the people of Paris were more in number than those of London and Dublin , whereas in 1687 the people of London were more than those of Paris and Rome or of Paris and Rouen .

[207]
.William Shakespeare spent a large part of his life living and working in London; his contemporary Ben Jonson was also based there, and some of his work—most notably his play The Alchemist—was set in the city.^ Powers under the Tramways Act of 1870 were given to the council, enabling it to acquire possession of these undertakings, and within the county of London they have been for the most part so acquired, and are worked by the council.

^ Although the mortality caused by the different plagues had a great effect upon the population of the country at large the city soon recovered the losses by reason of the numbers who came to London from outside in hopes of obtaining work.

^ The omnibus system is very extensive, embracing all the principal streets throughout the county and extending over a large part of Greater London.

[207] .A Journal of the Plague Year (1722) by Daniel Defoe is a fictionalisation of the events of the 1665 Great Plague.^ John Bell , clerk to the company, who wrote an essay during the great plague of 1665, had no records in his office of an earlier date than 1593, and he was not aware that his company had been engaged in registering births and deaths before that year.

[207] Later important depictions of London from the 19th and early 20th centuries are Dickens' novels, and Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes stories.[207] .Modern writers pervasively influenced by the city include Peter Ackroyd, author of a "biography" of London, and Iain Sinclair, who writes in the genre of psychogeography.^ The roadbridges mentioned (except the City bridges) are maintained by the London County Council, who expended for this purpose a sum of £9149 in 1907-1908.

^ These figures include (1) the City of London within and (2) without the walls, (3) the City and Liberties of Westminster, (4) the outparishes within the bills of mortality and (5) the parishes not within the bills of mortality.

^ In connexion with these two features of a Roman city supposed to be found in Ancient London the author argues for the continuity of the city through the changes of Roman and Saxon dominion.

.London was the setting for the films Peter Pan (1953), The Ladykillers (1955), The 101 Dalmatians (1961), Mary Poppins (1964), Blowup (1966), Secrets & Lies (1996), Notting Hill (1999), Match Point (2005), Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber Of Fleet Street (2008), and is home to the television soap EastEnders.^ The Friars of the Blessed Virgin of Mount Carmel or Carmelites or Whitefriars came to London in 1241, and made their home on land between Fleet Street and the Thames given by Edward I. .

^ Fleet Street was the show-place of London, in which were exhibited a constant succession of puppets, naked Indians and strange fishes.

^ The slope of Farringdon Road, where crossed by Holborn Viaduct, and of New Bridge Street, Blackfriars, marks its course exactly, and that of Fleet Street and Ludgate Hill its steep banks.

.London has played a significant role in the film industry, and has major studios at Ealing and a special effects and post-production community centred in Soho.^ The majority of the banks are members of the Clearing House , Post Office Court, where a daily exchange of drafts representing millions of pounds sterling is effected.

Working Title Films has its headquarters in London.[208]

Museums and art galleries

.London is home to many museums, galleries, and other institutions which are major tourist attractions as well as playing a research role.^ Other important tourist attractions include St Paul's Cathedral , the National Gallery the Bankside area of Southwark with the Globe Theatre , Tate Modern , and London Bridge , Tower Bridge and the Tower of London , Tate Britain on the Embankment , the British Museum in Bloomsbury .
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^ Tourist attractions are mainly in Central London , comprising the historic City of London ...
  • London Bed and Breakfast Cheap Hotel Guest House Accommodation 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.bedandbreakfasts.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ There are many other museums and places of interest.
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.The Natural History Museum (biology and geology), Science Museum and Victoria and Albert Museum (fashion and design) are clustered in South Kensington's "museum quarter", while the British Museum houses historic artefacts from around the world.^ The West End with its cinemas, bars, clubs, theatres, shops and restaurants; the City of Westminster with Westminster Abbey , the Royal palaces of Buckingham Palace , Clarence House etc., the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea with its museums (the Science Museum , Natural History Museum , and Victoria and Albert Museum ) and Hyde Park .
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^ The Albert Memorial, Kensington Gardens, was erected (1872) by " Queen Victoria and her People to the memory of Albert, Prince Consort ," from the designs of Sir Gilbert Scott , with a statue of the Prince (1876) by John Henry Foley beneath a huge ornate Gothic canopy.

^ The first was built in 1828 from designs of Decimus Burton , and comprises three arches with a frieze above the central arch copied from the Elgin marbles in the British Museum.

[209]
The British Library at St Pancras is the UK's national library, housing 150 million items. .The city also houses extensive art collections, primarily in the National Gallery,[210] Tate Britain[211] and Tate Modern.^ The building of the National Portrait Gallery, adjoining it, dates from 1896, but the nucleus of the collection was formed in 1858.

^ The Wallace collection of paintings and objects of art, in Hertford House, Manchester Square, was bequeathed to the nation by the widow of Sir Richard Wallace in 1897.

^ Among permanent art collections the first place is taken by the National Gallery in Trafalgar Square.

[212]

Music

.London is one of the major classical and popular music capitals of the world and is home to major music corporations, such as EMI, as well as countless bands, musicians and industry professionals.^ Indeed, the most popular sport in England is football, so, naturally, talented football teams are well-represented in the English capital!
  • Concerts in London - Buy London Concert Tickets Easy and Secure! 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

^ The same topographer published in his Middlesex a map of Westminster as well as this one of the City of London.

^ Stukeley's industrious researches into the history of Roman London cannot be said to have any particular value, although at one time they enjoyed considerable vogue.

.London is home to many orchestras and concert halls such as the Barbican Arts Centre (principal base of the London Symphony Orchestra), Cadogan Hall (Royal Philharmonic Orchestra) and the Royal Albert Hall (BBC Promenade Concerts).^ Unlike many capitals of Europe which have shifted their centres the city of London in spite of all changes and the continued enlargement of the capital remains the centre and head-quarters of the business of the country.

^ The chief halls devoted mainly to concerts are the Royal Albert Hall, close to the South Kensington museums, and Queen's Hall in Langham Place, Regent Street.

^ Besides the Royal Exchange, in the building of which are numerous offices, including " Lloyd's ," the centre of the shipping business and marine insurance, there are many exchanges for special articles.

[202] .London's two main opera houses are the Royal Opera House and the Coliseum Theatre.^ In this city, possibilities are endless, and we offer all kinds of London theatre tickets, opera tickets or musical tickets to make your stay in London unforgettable.
  • Concerts in London - Buy London Concert Tickets Easy and Secure! 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

^ This makes it surprising to learn that there were two separate houses of this order in the near neighbourhood of London.

^ But though the plans of Wren and Hooke were not adopted, it was to these two fellows of the Royal Society that the labour of rebuilding London was committed.

[202] .London is home to the UK's largest pipe organ, at the Royal Albert Hall.^ London is the place to be for a good night out on the town; check out London's hip Jazz Bars or Indie Clubs, enjoying a good ‘Pint of Lager’, or secure concert tickets to a concert of a renowned artist in the Royal Albert Hall that will soon be visiting London.
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^ The chief halls devoted mainly to concerts are the Royal Albert Hall, close to the South Kensington museums, and Queen's Hall in Langham Place, Regent Street.

^ London , United Kingdom Royal Festival Hall .
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.Other significant instruments are found at the cathedrals and major churches.^ In the Strand, and more especially in Fleet Street and its offshoots, are found the offices of the majority of the most important daily newspapers and other journals.

^ In 1083 the old cathedral of St Paul's was begun on the site of the church which ZEthelbert is said to have founded in 610.

.Several conservatoires are located within the city: Royal Academy of Music, Royal College of Music, Guildhall School of Music and Drama and Trinity College of Music.^ Within a few days of the fire three several plans were presented to the king for the rebuilding of the city, by Christopher Wren, John Evelyn and Robert Hooke .

^ The County Council also aids numerous separate schools of art, both general and special, such as the Royal School of Art Needlework and the School of Art Woodcarving; the City and Guilds Institute maintains similar establishments at some of its colleges, and art schools are also generally attached to the polytechnics.

^ The principal educational institutions are - the Royal Academy of Music, Tenterden Street, Hanover Square; the Royal College of Music, South Kensington; Guildhall School, City, near the Victoria Embankment; London College, Great Marlborough Street; Trinity College, Manchester Square; Victoria College, Berners Street; and the Royal College of Organists, Bloomsbury.

The Royal Albert Hall hosts concerts and musical events
.London has numerous venues for rock and pop concerts, including large arenas such as Earls Court, Wembley Arena and the O2 Arena, as well as numerous mid-size venues, such as Brixton Academy, Hammersmith Apollo and the Shepherd's Bush Empire.^ Their population is also largely occupied in local manufacturing establishments; while numerous towns on either bank of the lower Thames share in the industries of the port of London.

^ London , United Kingdom Brixton Academy .
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^ London , United Kingdom Carling Academy Brixton .
  • Concerts in London - Buy London Concert Tickets Easy and Secure! 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

[202] .London also hosts many music festivals, including the O2 Wireless Festival.^ There are plenty of cool events in London; in summer, consider visiting the O2 Festival in Hyde Park, where the most successful artists of the year will perform.
  • Concerts in London - Buy London Concert Tickets Easy and Secure! 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

.London is home to the first and original Hard Rock Cafe and the Abbey Road Studios where the Beatles recorded many of their hits.^ The view originated by Gomme certainly explains many difficulties in the history of the transition from Roman to English London, which have hitherto been overlooked by historians.

.In the 1970s and 1980s, musicians like David Bowie, Elvis Costello, Cat Stevens, Ian Dury and the Blockheads, the Kinks, the Rolling Stones, the Who, Madness, the Jam, the Small Faces, Led Zeppelin, Iron Maiden, Fleetwood Mac, the Police, the Cure, Squeeze and Sade, took the world by storm, deriving their sound from the streets and rhythms vibrating through London.^ As regards names derived from ancient buildings, instances are the streets called London Wall and Barbican , and those named after the numerous gates.

[213]
.London was instrumental in the development of punk music,[214] with figures such as the Sex Pistols, the Clash,[213] and Vivienne Westwood all based in the city.^ In this city, possibilities are endless, and we offer all kinds of London theatre tickets, opera tickets or musical tickets to make your stay in London unforgettable.
  • Concerts in London - Buy London Concert Tickets Easy and Secure! 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

^ Among other ancient churches within the City, that of All Hallows Barking, near the Tower of London, is principally Perpendicular and contains some fine brasses.

^ Londinium was a Roman city, and (as in the case of all such cities) was formed on the model of ancient Rome.

More recent artists to emerge from the London music scene include Bananarama, Bush, East 17, Siouxie and the Banshees, the Spice Girls, Jamiroquai, the Libertines, Babyshambles, Bloc Party, Coldplay and Amy Winehouse.[215] London is also a centre for urban music. In particular the genres UK garage, drum and bass, dubstep and grime evolved in the city from the foreign genres of hip hop and reggae, alongside local drum and bass. Black music station BBC 1Xtra was set up to support the rise of homegrown urban music both in London and the rest of the UK.

Sports

.
Wembley Stadium is home to English football and is the world's most expensive stadium.
^ Indeed, the most popular sport in England is football, so, naturally, talented football teams are well-represented in the English capital!
  • Concerts in London - Buy London Concert Tickets Easy and Secure! 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

[216]
London has hosted the Summer Olympics twice, in 1908 and 1948.[217][218] .In July 2005 London was chosen to host the Games in 2012, which will make it the first city in the world to host the Summer Olympics three times.^ In this city, possibilities are endless, and we offer all kinds of London theatre tickets, opera tickets or musical tickets to make your stay in London unforgettable.
  • Concerts in London - Buy London Concert Tickets Easy and Secure! 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

^ But there are many other sports than just football in London; many national and international sports matches are held at the famous Wembley Stadium and the modern main Olympic stadium built especially for the 2012 Olympics, which London will be hosting!
  • Concerts in London - Buy London Concert Tickets Easy and Secure! 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

^ LONDON, the capital of England and of, the British Empire , and the greatest city in the world, lying on each side of the river Thames 50 m.

[16] .London was also the host of the British Empire Games in 1934.^ LONDON, the capital of England and of, the British Empire , and the greatest city in the world, lying on each side of the river Thames 50 m.

[219] .London's most popular sport is football and it has thirteen League football clubs, including five in the Premier League: Arsenal, Chelsea, Fulham, Tottenham Hotspur and West Ham United.^ London boasts 13 League football clubs, including, of course, Arsenal, Chelsea, Tottenham Hotspur and Westham United.
  • Concerts in London - Buy London Concert Tickets Easy and Secure! 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

^ Indeed, the most popular sport in England is football, so, naturally, talented football teams are well-represented in the English capital!
  • Concerts in London - Buy London Concert Tickets Easy and Secure! 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

^ Bounded by the Thames - Fulham , Chelsea , the City of Westminster (here the City of London intervenes), Stepney , Poplar.

[220]
.London also has four rugby union teams in the Guinness Premiership (London Irish, Saracens, Wasps and Harlequins), although only the Harlequins play in London (all the other three now play outside Greater London, although Saracens still play within the M25).^ The English are also celebrated for their rugby playing, and some excellent rugby teams that are London-based include the London Irish, the NEC Harlequins, the Saracens and the Wasps.
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^ Greater London outside the county).

^ London within the walls has been almost entirely rebuilt, although in the neighbourhood of the Tower there are still many old houses which have only been refronted.

[221] .The other professional rugby union team in the city is second division's club London Welsh, that plays home matches in the city.^ The English are also celebrated for their rugby playing, and some excellent rugby teams that are London-based include the London Irish, the NEC Harlequins, the Saracens and the Wasps.
  • Concerts in London - Buy London Concert Tickets Easy and Secure! 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

^ Each division of each borough, or each borough where not divided, returns one member, save that the City of London returns two members.

^ Professional association football teams are maintained locally in several parts of London, and much popular interest is taken in their matches.

.The city has other very traditional rugby union clubs, famously London Scottish, Richmond F.C., Rosslyn Park F.C. and Blackheath F.C..^ Rugby football is upheld by such notable teams as Blackheath and Richmond.

^ When the county of Middlesex was dissociated from the city of London one portion was joined to the administrative county of London, and the other to the county of Middlesex.

^ Among other ancient churches within the City, that of All Hallows Barking, near the Tower of London, is principally Perpendicular and contains some fine brasses.

.There are currently two professional rugby league clubs in London – Harlequins Rugby League who play in the European Super League at The Stoop and the Championship One side the London Skolars (based in Wood Green, London Borough of Haringey).^ The English are also celebrated for their rugby playing, and some excellent rugby teams that are London-based include the London Irish, the NEC Harlequins, the Saracens and the Wasps.
  • Concerts in London - Buy London Concert Tickets Easy and Secure! 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

^ This makes it surprising to learn that there were two separate houses of this order in the near neighbourhood of London.

^ London boasts 13 League football clubs, including, of course, Arsenal, Chelsea, Tottenham Hotspur and Westham United.
  • Concerts in London - Buy London Concert Tickets Easy and Secure! 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

.From 1924, the original Wembley Stadium was the home of the English national football team, and served as the venue for the FA Cup final as well as rugby league's Challenge Cup final.^ FA Cup Final 2010 Tickets .
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^ The English are also celebrated for their rugby playing, and some excellent rugby teams that are London-based include the London Irish, the NEC Harlequins, the Saracens and the Wasps.
  • Concerts in London - Buy London Concert Tickets Easy and Secure! 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

^ Indeed, the most popular sport in England is football, so, naturally, talented football teams are well-represented in the English capital!
  • Concerts in London - Buy London Concert Tickets Easy and Secure! 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

[222] .The new Wembley Stadium serves exactly the same purposes and has a capacity of 90,000.[223] Twickenham Stadium in south-west London is the national rugby union stadium, and has a capacity of 84,000 now that the new south stand has been completed.^ But there are many other sports than just football in London; many national and international sports matches are held at the famous Wembley Stadium and the modern main Olympic stadium built especially for the 2012 Olympics, which London will be hosting!
  • Concerts in London - Buy London Concert Tickets Easy and Secure! 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.worldticketshop.com [Source type: General]

^ Waterloo Bridge, the oldest now standing within London, is the work of John Rennie, and was opened in 1817.

^ In the south and north-west the typical London clay is the principal formation.

[224]
.Cricket in London is served by two Test cricket grounds Lord's (home of Middlesex C.C.C) in St John's Wood[225] and the Oval (home of Surrey C.C.C) in Kennington.^ When Middlesex was in farm to London the two sheriffs were equally sheriffs of London and Middlesex.

^ Thus the Lord Mayor and aldermen possess judicial authority, and the police of London are divided into two separate bodies, the Metropolitan and the City Police (see PoLicE).

^ Large gatherings of spectators are attracted to the first-class cricket matches played at Lord's ground, St John's Wood, by the Marylebone Club and the Middlesex County teams, Eton College against Harrow School, and Oxford against Cambridge University; to the Kennington Oval for the matches of the Surrey club, and the Leyton ground for those of the Essex club.

[226] Lord's has hosted 4 finals of the cricket world cups. .One of London's best-known annual sports competitions is the Wimbledon Tennis Championships, held at the All England Club in the south-western suburb of Wimbledon.^ Get all sports tickets, whether you are looking for London football tickets, cricket tickets, rugby tickets or tennis tickets at Worldticketshop.com - Your Ticket to Fun!
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^ At the second of these points the majority of the chief roads from the southern suburbs and the south of England are collected.

^ The tribute which the townsmen of London had to pay was £ro,50o, about one-seventh of the amount which was paid by all the rest of the English nation.

[227] .Other key events are the annual mass-participation London Marathon which sees some 35,000 runners attempt a 26.2 miles (42.2 km) course around the city,[228] and the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race on the River Thames between Putney and Mortlake.^ The sinking of the " Princess Alice " in 1878 was a serious blow to the London Steamboat Company, which collapsed, and was succeeded by the River Thames Steamboat Navigation Company, which went into liquidation in 1887.

^ We can also recommend getting West End tickets to see the greatest theatre shows and musicals right in the heart of the city of London!
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^ In attempting to picture the site of London in its original condition, that is, before any building took place, it is necessary to consider (I) the condition of the Thames unconfined between made banks , (2) the slopes overlooking it, (3) the tributary streams which watered these slopes.

[229]

Twin cities

.There are 46 other places on six continents named after London.^ There are many other museums and places of interest.
  • London Bed and Breakfast Cheap Hotel Guest House Accommodation 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.bedandbreakfasts.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ There is a reminder of them in the names of Jewry Street near the former and of Jewin Street near the latter place.

^ The names of places in London form valuable records of the habitations of different classes of the population.

[230] .As well as London's twinning, the London boroughs have twinnings with parts of other cities across the world.^ LONDON, the capital of England and of, the British Empire , and the greatest city in the world, lying on each side of the river Thames 50 m.

^ The London County Council is a central sanitary authority; the City and metropolitan boroughs are sanitary districts, and the Corporation and borough councils are local sanitary authorities.

^ When the county of Middlesex was dissociated from the city of London one portion was joined to the administrative county of London, and the other to the county of Middlesex.

Shown below is the list of cities that the Greater London Authority has twinning arrangements with:
The following cities have a friendship agreement with London:

Notes

  1. ^ See also: Independent city #National capitals.
  2. ^ According to the Collins English Dictionary definition of 'the seat of government',[82] London is not the capital of England, as England does not have its own government. According to the Oxford English Reference Dictionary definition of 'the most important town'[83] and many other authorities.[84]

References

Footnotes

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  6. ^ "Roman". The Museum of London. http://www.museumoflondon.org.uk/English/EventsExhibitions/Permanent/RomanLondon.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-07. 
  7. ^ a b Mills 2001, p. 140
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