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London Heathrow Airport
BAA Heathrow.svg
Heathrow Terminal 5 airside 020.JPG
Heathrow Terminal 5 building
IATA: LHRICAO: EGLL
Summary
Airport type Public
Owner BAA Limited
Operator Heathrow Airport Limited
Location London, England
Hub for
Elevation AMSL 83 ft / 25 m
Coordinates 51°28′39″N 000°27′41″W / 51.4775°N 0.46139°W / 51.4775; -0.46139 (London Heathrow Airport)Coordinates: 51°28′39″N 000°27′41″W / 51.4775°N 0.46139°W / 51.4775; -0.46139 (London Heathrow Airport)
Website www.heathrowairport.com
Runways
Direction Length Surface
m ft
09L/27R 3,901 12,799 Grooved Asphalt
09R/27L 3,660 12,008 Grooved Asphalt
Statistics (2009)
Aircraft Movements 466,393
Passengers 66,036,957
Sources: UK AIP at NATS[1]
Statistics from the UK Civil Aviation Authority[2]

London Heathrow Airport or Heathrow (IATA: LHRICAO: EGLL), located in the London Borough of Hillingdon, is the largest and busiest airport in the United Kingdom. It is the second busiest airport in the world in terms of total passenger traffic and it handles more international passengers than any other airport in the world. It is also the busiest airport in the European Union in terms of passenger traffic and the second busiest in terms of traffic movements, second to Paris CDG airport in Paris, France[3]. The airport is owned and operated by BAA, who also own and operate five other UK airports[4], and is itself owned by ADI Limited, an international consortium, which includes Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec and GIC Special Investments, that is led by the Spanish Ferrovial Group[5]. Heathrow is the primary hub for BMI, British Airways and Virgin Atlantic Airways.

Located 12 nautical miles (22 km; 14 mi) west[1] of Central London, Heathrow has two parallel main runways spanning east-to-west and five operational terminals. The site covers 12.14 square kilometres (4.69 sq mi). Terminal 5 was officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 14 March 2008 and opened to passengers on 27 March 2008. Construction of a new Terminal 2 complex to replace the terminal building and adjacent Queen's Building began in 2009; the first phase is expected to open in 2014[6]. Terminals 3 and 4 underwent major refurbishments that began in 2007 and were completed in 2009. In November 2007 a consultation process began for the building of a new third runway and a sixth terminal and it was controversially[7] approved on 15 January 2009 by UK Government ministers[8].

Heathrow Airport has a CAA Public Use Aerodrome Licence (Number P527) that allows flights for the public transport of passengers or for flying instruction[9].

Contents

Location

Heathrow is located in Greater London
Heathrow
The location of Heathrow Airport within Greater London

Heathrow is located 12 NM (22 km; 14 mi) west[1] of central London, near the southern end of the London Borough of Hillingdon. The airport stands on a parcel of land that was designated part of the London Metropolitan Green Belt. To the north, the airport is surrounded by the built-up areas of Harlington, Harmondsworth, Longford and Cranford. To the east are Hounslow and Hatton, and to the south are East Bedfont and Stanwell. To the west, the M25 motorway separates the airport from Colnbrook in Berkshire.

A Qantas Boeing 747-400 on approach to London Heathrow

The airport's location to the west of London, and the east-west orientation of its runways, means that airliners usually approach to land directly over the city. Other leading European airports, such as those at Madrid, Frankfurt and Paris, are located north or south of their cities, to minimise the overflying problem. Another disadvantage of the site is that it is low-lying, at 83 feet (25 m) above sea level, and can be prone to fog[citation needed].

Heathrow is one of six airports serving the London area, along with Biggin Hill, Gatwick, Stansted, Luton, Southend and City although only Heathrow, Biggin Hill and City Airports are located within Greater London.

History

Before 1930

  • Before aviation started, Heathrow was a hamlet, a row of isolated cottages on Hounslow Heath, formerly frequented by highwaymen, approximately where Terminal 3 now is[10].
  • World War I: Aviation began where Heathrow Airport is now, when fields southeast of Heathrow hamlet were turned into a military airfield.

1930s and 1940s

  • 1930s: By now the airfield, then known as the Great Western Aerodrome, was privately owned by the Fairey Aviation Company, and was used for aircraft assembly and testing[11]. Commercial traffic used Croydon Airport, which was London's main airport at the time.
  • 1943: Heathrow came under the control of the Air Ministry, to be developed as a Royal Air Force transfer station[11][12].
  • 1944: Construction of runways began, on land originally acquired from the vicar of Harmondsworth. The new airport was built by Wimpey Construction[13], much enlarging the prewar airfield, and Heathrow hamlet was demolished to make room for it. The Royal Air Force never used the airport.
  • 1 January 1946: Control was transferred to the Ministry of Civil Aviation. The first civil flight that day was to Buenos Aires, via Lisbon for refuelling[citation needed].
  • 25 March 1946: The official opening ceremony was performed by Lord Winster, the Minister of Aviation, the first aircraft to use the new airport being a British South American Airways (BSAA) Avro Lancastrian.
  • 16 April 1946: A Panair Lockheed L-049 Constellation landed after a flight from Rio de Janeiro, the first aircraft of a foreign airline to land at Heathrow.
  • 28 May 1946: The first BOAC scheduled flight departed for Australia. This route was operated as a joint route with Qantas[14].
  • 31 May 1946: The airport opened fully for civilian use.
  • 1947: By now Heathrow had three runways, with three more under construction. These older runways, built for the piston-engined planes of that era, were each slightly longer than a mile, arranged in a pattern to allow for all wind conditions. The temporary "prefab" passenger and cargo buildings were located at the northeast edge of the airport, just south of Bath Road.

1950s and 1960s

Heathrow in 1965. Nearest the camera are two BOAC aircraft - a Vickers VC10 (with the high tail) and a Boeing 707.
Heathrow in the 1960s
  • 1953: The first slab of the first modern runway was ceremonially placed by Queen Elizabeth II.
  • 1955: Queen Elizabeth II opened the first permanent terminal building, the Europa Building (now known as Terminal 2).
  • 1 April 1955: A new 38.8-metre (127 ft) control tower designed by Frederick Gibberd was opened, replacing the original RAF control tower.
  • 13 November 1961: The Oceanic Terminal (renamed as Terminal 3 in 1968) opened, to handle flight departures for long-haul routes[15]. At this time the airport had a direct helicopter service from central London; there were also public viewing facilities and gardens on the roof of the Europa Building [16]
  • 1968: Terminal 1 was opened, completing the cluster of buildings at the centre of the airport site. By now Heathrow was handling 14 million passengers annually. The location of the original terminals in the centre of the site has since become a constraint to expansion. They were put there because people assumed early that airline passengers would not need extensive car parking, as air travel was then only affordable to the wealthy, who would often be chauffeur-driven[17].
  • Late 1960s: A 160 acres (0.65 km2) cargo terminal was built to the south of the southern runway, connected to Terminals 1, 2 and 3 by a tunnel.

1970s to 1990s

  • 1970: Terminal 3 was expanded with the addition of an arrivals building. Other facilities were also added, including the UK's first moving walkways[18]. Heathrow's two main runways, 09L-27R and 09R-27L, were also extended to their current lengths in order to accommodate new large jets such as the Boeing 747. The other runways were closed to facilitate terminal expansions, except for Runway 23, which was preserved for crosswind landings until 2002.
  • 1977: The London Underground Piccadilly Line was extended from Hounslow West via Hatton Cross to Heathrow, connecting the airport with Central London in just under an hour.
  • 23 June 1998: Heathrow Express started operating, providing a direct rail service to London's Paddington station, via a specially-constructed line between the airport and the Great Western Main Line.
  • Early 1980's: By now continued growth in passenger numbers to 30 million annually led to the need for more terminal space. Terminal 4 was constructed to the south of the southern runway, next to the existing cargo terminal, and away from the three older terminals. It was connected with Terminals 1, 2 and 3 by the already-existing Heathrow Cargo Tunnel.
  • August 1982: The "Airport Spur" section of the M4 was opened to give the airport a direct link with the motorway and provide motorway access to airport users from as far away as the West Country and South Wales.
  • 1986: The M25 motorway was completed as the London Orbital Motorway giving a direct motorway link to much of the rest of the country [2].
  • April 1986: Terminal 4 was opened by the Prince and Princess of Wales, and became the home for the newly-privatised British Airways.
  • 1987: The UK government privatised the British Airports Authority (now known as "BAA Limited") which controls Heathrow[19] and six other UK airports[20].
  • 1980s and 1990s: Since privatisation, BAA have expanded the proportion of terminal space allocated to retailing activities, and has invested in the development of retail activity. This has included expanding terminal areas to provide more shops and restaurants, and routing passengers through shopping areas, to maximise their exposure to retail offerings.

Heathrow today

Ambient colour-shifting lights at Terminal 3's entrance
An Airbus A380 being serviced before departure at Terminal 3
Airbridges at Terminal 5
British Airways aircraft at Terminal 5
The Heathrow Academy (the airport's visitor centre)
A Virgin Atlantic Airbus A340-300 seen near Heathrow
A British Airways aircraft on stand at Terminal 5, with runway 09L/27R visible in background
Queue of aircraft for take-off including jets from Virgin, British Airways, Air India and BMI
American Airlines Boeing 777-200ER landing at Heathrow
Concorde G-BOAB in storage at Heathrow. The control tower is in the background
A radar tower situated in Heathrow's central terminal area
T1's International Arrivals Hall
The centralised waiting area in Terminal 3
Terminal 4 arrivals
Terminal 5 interior

Heathrow Airport is used by over 90 airlines which fly to 170 destinations worldwide. The airport is the primary hub of BMI, British Airways and Virgin Atlantic Airways.

Of Heathrow's 67 million annual passengers, 11% travel to UK destinations, 43% are short-haul international travellers, and 46% are long-haul. The busiest single destination in terms of passenger numbers is New York, with over 3.7 million passengers travelling between Heathrow and JFK / Newark airports in 2008[21] and 3.5 million in 2009.[2] The airport has five passenger terminals (Terminals 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) and a cargo terminal. Terminal 5 opened to passengers on 27 March 2008 and will be fully completed with the opening of its second satellite building in 2010.[22]

Heathrow originally had six runways, arranged in three pairs at different angles, with the passenger terminal in the centre. With growth in the required length for runways, Heathrow now has just two parallel runways running east-west. Runway 23, a short runway for use in strong south-westerly winds, was decommissioned in 2005 and now forms part of a taxiway.

In 2006, the new £105 million Pier 6 was completed at Terminal 3[23] in order to accommodate the Airbus A380 superjumbo, providing four new aircraft stands. Other modifications totalling in excess of £340 million[23] were also carried out across the airfield in readiness for the Airbus A380. The first A380 test flight into Heathrow took place on 18 May 2006[24], but following delays to the aircraft's production, scheduled services did not commence from Heathrow until 18 March 2008, when Singapore Airlines Flight 380, the first A380 in passenger service, registered 9V-SKA of Singapore Airlines touched down from Singapore carrying 470 passengers, marking the first ever European commercial flight by the Airbus A380[23].

A new 87-metre (285 ft) high £50 million air traffic control tower entered service on 21 April 2007, and was officially opened on 13 June 2007 by Secretary of State for Transport Douglas Alexander.

Policing of the airport is the responsibility of the aviation security unit of the Metropolitan Police, although the army, including armoured vehicles of the Household Cavalry, has occasionally been deployed to the airport during periods of heightened security. Heathrow's reputation for thefts has led to it sometimes being referred to as 'Thiefrow'[25].

Heathrow Airport has Anglican, Catholic, Free Church of Scotland, Hindu, Jewish, Muslim and Sikh chaplains. There is a multi-faith prayer room and counselling room in each terminal, in addition to St. George's Interdenominational Chapel which is located in an underground bunker adjacent to the old control tower, where Christian services take place. The chaplains organise and lead prayers at certain times in the prayer room.

Heathrow airport has its own resident press corps, consisting of six photographers and one TV crew, serving all the major newspapers and television stations around the world[26].

Operations

Aircraft destined for Heathrow usually enter its airspace via one of four main reporting points: Bovingdon (BNN) over Hertfordshire, Lambourne (LAM) over Essex, Biggin Hill (BIG) over Bromley and Ockham (OCK) over Surrey[27]. Each is defined by a VOR radio-navigational beacon. When the airport is busy, aircraft will orbit in the associated holds. These reporting points/holds lie respectively to the north-west, north-east, south-east and south-west of the London conurbation.

Air traffic controllers at Heathrow Approach Control (based in Swanwick, Hampshire) then guide the aircraft to their final approach, merging aircraft from the four holds into a single stream of traffic, sometimes as close as 2.5 nautical miles (4.6 km; 2.9 mi) apart. Considerable use is made of continuous descent approach techniques to minimise the environmental effects of incoming aircraft, particularly at night[28]. Once an aircraft is established on its final approach, control is handed over to Heathrow Tower.

Because aircraft generate significantly more noise on departure than when landing, there is a preference for westerly operations during daytime operations[29]. In this mode aircraft depart towards the west and approach from the east over London, thereby minimising the impact of noise on the most densely populated areas. Heathrow's two runways generally operate in segregated mode whereby arriving aircraft are allocated to one runway and departing aircraft to the other. To further reduce noise nuisance to people beneath the approach and departure routes, the use of runways 27R and 27L is swapped at 3 pm each day if the wind is from the west. When easterly landings are in progress there is no alternation; 09L remains the landing runway and 09R the departure runway due to the Cranford Agreement. Occasionally landings are allowed on the nominated departure runway, to help reduce airborne delays and to position landing aircraft closer to their terminal, thus reducing taxi times.

Night-time flights at Heathrow are subject to restrictions. Between 23:00 and 07:00 the noisiest aircraft (rated QC/8 and QC/16) cannot be scheduled to operate at all. In addition, between 23:30 and 06:00 (the night quota period) there are three limits:

  • A limit on the number of flights allowed;
  • A quota count system which limits the total amount of noise permitted, but allows operators to choose to operate fewer noisy aircraft or a greater number of quieter planes[30];
  • A voluntary ban on QC/4 aircraft.

Regulation

As BAA own London's three major airports[31] and therefore have a monopolistic position, the amount it is allowed to charge airlines to land aeroplanes at Heathrow is heavily regulated by the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA). Until 1 April 2003, the annual increase in landing charge per passenger was capped at inflation minus 3%. From 2003 to 2007, charges increased by inflation plus 6.5% per year, taking the fee to £9.28 per passenger in 2007. In March 2008, the CAA announced that the charge would be allowed to increase by 23.5% to £12.80 from 1 April 2008, and by inflation plus 7.5% for each of the following four years[32].

In addition, air traffic between Heathrow and the United States was strictly governed by the countries' bilateral Bermuda II treaty. The treaty originally allowed only British Airways, Pan Am and TWA to fly from Heathrow to the US. In 1991, PAA and TWA sold their rights to United Airlines and American Airlines respectively and Virgin Atlantic was added to the list of airlines allowed to operate on these routes. In 2002, American Airlines and British Airways announced plans to coordinate the scheduling of their trans-Atlantic routes but plans were dropped after the United States Department of Transportation made approval conditional on the granting of further access slots to Heathrow to other US airlines. American Airlines and British Airways considered the slots too valuable and dropped the plans[33]. The Bermuda bilateral agreement conflicted with the Right of Establishment of the United Kingdom in terms of its membership in the EU, and as a consequence the UK was ordered to drop the agreement in 2004. A new "open skies" agreement was signed by the United States and the European Union on 30 April 2007 and came into effect on 30 March 2008.

Whilst the cost of landing at Heathrow is determined by the CAA and BAA, the allocation of landing slots to airlines is carried out by Airport Co-ordination Limited (ACL).

Heathrow's facilities were originally designed to accommodate 55 million passengers annually according to BAA. With numbers currently approaching 70 million the airport has become crowded and subject to delays, for which it has been criticised in recent years[34], and in 2007 the airport was voted the world's least favourite alongside Chicago O'Hare in a TripAdvisor survey[35], However, the opening of Terminal 5 in 2008 has relieved some pressure on terminal facilities, increasing the airport's terminal capacity to 90 million passengers a year.

With only two runways operating at over 98% of their capacity, Heathrow has little room for more flights, although the increasing use of larger aircraft such as the Airbus A380 will allow some increase in passenger numbers. It is difficult for existing airlines to obtain landing slots to enable them to increase their services from the airport, or for new airlines to start operations[36]. In order to increase the number of flights, BAA have proposed using the existing two runways in 'mixed mode' whereby aircraft would be allowed to take-off and land on the same runway[37]. This would increase the airport's capacity from its current 480,000 movements per year to as many as 550,000 according to British Airways CEO Willie Walsh[38]. BAA have also proposed building a third runway to the north of the airport, which would significantly increase traffic capacity (see Future expansion below)[39].

However with passenger traffic at Charles de Gaulle growing by 5.8% to 59.3 million during the 12 months to September 2007, compared with Heathrow's fall of 0.4% to 67.6 million during the same period[40], it is possible that CDG - with its four runways operating at only 73.5% capacity - could overtake Heathrow by 2010[41].

Terminals, airlines and destinations

Terminals

Terminal 1

Terminal 1 was opened in 1968 and was formally opened by Queen Elizabeth II in May 1969[42]. In 2005, a substantial redesign and redevelopment of the terminal was completed, which saw the opening of the new Eastern Extension, doubling the departure lounge in size and creating additional seating and retail space. The terminal has an area of 74,601m2. It is home to Heathrow's second largest carrier, bmi, and airlines belonging to the Star Alliance. It is set to be closed and demolished around 2013/14[6] to enable the construction of the second phase of the new Terminal 2, scheduled for completion in 2019.

Terminal 2 (closed for rebuilding)

Heathrow's next major project will be the construction of a vast, new Terminal 2, of which the first phase will cover an area of 180,000m2. This new home for Star Alliance carriers is expected to open in 2014. A second phase, replacing Terminal 1, will open in 2019[43].

The construction of the new terminal envisages a complete realignment of piers more logically and the building of new ones on the now defunct cross-wind runway, in a site taking up roughly the same amount of space as Terminal 5. Formerly Heathrow East, the core terminal building (half of which will be built as phase one and half as phase two) will be known as Terminal 2A, and there will be two satellite buildings named Terminal 2B and Terminal 2C. Terminal 2B has been under construction since 2008. It is set to provide Heathrow with 16 additional stands and will be connected via an underground link to the main terminal building. Terminal 2C will be built as part of the second phase of the development.

The entire project will, when completed, have a capacity of 30 million passengers a year and will cost £1-1.5bn. The new Terminal 2 will produce 40 per cent less carbon dioxide than the buildings it is replacing. Large north-facing windows in the roof will flood the building with natural light, reducing the need for artificial lighting without generating uncomfortable levels of heat in the building. Solar-gathering panels on the roof will further reduce the dependency on energy supplies. Additionally a new energy centre, partially fuelled by renewable resources, will provide heating and cooling for the building.

The building previously known as Terminal 2 had been Heathrow's oldest terminal, opening as the Europa Building in 1955, and closing on 23 November 2009[44]; the last flight to depart was Air France flight AF1881 to Paris. It had an area of 49,654m2 and saw 316 million passengers pass through its doors. It was originally designed to handle around 1.2 million passengers annually, but in its final years of operation it was often accommodating around 8 million passengers. Despite the best efforts of maintenance staff and various renovations and upgrades over the years, the building was becoming increasingly decrepit and unserviceable. It is now in the advanced stages of being stripped out and prepared for demolition. The removal of the adjacent Queen's Building is now complete and this vacant site will be subsumed into the project.

Terminal 3

Terminal 3 was opened as The Oceanic Terminal on 13 November 1961 to handle flight departures for long-haul routes[15]. At this time the airport had a direct helicopter service to Central London from the gardens on the roof of the terminal building. The Oceanic Terminal was renamed as Terminal 3 in 1968 and was expanded in 1970 with the addition of an arrivals building. Other facilities were also added, including the UK's first moving walkways. In 2006, the new £105 million Pier 6 was completed[23] in order to accommodate the Airbus A380 superjumbo; Singapore Airlines, Emirates and Qantas now operate regular flights from Terminal 3 using the Airbus A380. Terminal 3 has an area of 98, 962m2. Redevelopment of Terminal 3's forecourt by the addition of a new four lane drop-off area and a large pedestrianised plaza, complete with canopy to the front of the terminal building was completed in 2007; these improvements were intended to improve passengers' experiences, reduce traffic congestion and improve security. As part of this project, Virgin Atlantic were assigned their own dedicated check-in area, known as 'Zone A', which features a large sculpture and atrium. BAA also have plans for a £1bn upgrade of the rest of the terminal over the next ten years which includes the renovation of aircraft piers and the arrivals forecourt. A new baggage system which connects to Terminal 5 (for British Airways connections) is currently under construction. In addition to the baggage system, the baggage claim hall is also set to undergo changes with dedicated A380 belts and hope of improving design and layout of the area[45].

Terminal 4

First opened in 1986, Terminal 4 is situated to the south of the southern runway next to the cargo terminal, and is connected to Terminals 1, 2 and 3 by the Heathrow Cargo Tunnel. The terminal has an area of 105,481m2. Now home to the SkyTeam alliance as well as some unaffiliated carriers, it has recently undergone a £200m upgrade to enable it to accommodate 45 airlines. The forecourt has been upgraded to reduce traffic congestion and improve security. An extended check-in area and renovated piers and departure lounges have been delivered, two new stands to accommodate the Airbus A380 have been constructed, and a new baggage system has been installed[46].

Terminal 5

Terminal 5 is situated between the northern and southern runways at the western end of the Heathrow site, and was opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 14 March 2008[47] some nineteen years after its inception. It opened for passenger use on 27 March 2008. The first two weeks of the terminal's operation were disrupted by a number of problems with the terminal's IT systems, coupled with insufficient testing and staff training, which caused over 500 flights to be cancelled[48]. Terminal 5 is exclusively used by British Airways as their global hub.

Built at a cost of £4.3 billion, the new terminal consists of a four storey main terminal building (Concourse A) and two satellite buildings linked to the main terminal by an underground people mover transit system. The first satellite (Concourse B) includes dedicated aircraft stands for the Airbus A380; Concourse C is currently under construction and scheduled to open in early 2011. In total, Terminal 5 has an area of 353,020m2, 60 aircraft stands and capacity for 30 million passengers annually. There are more than 100 shops and restaurants[49]. A further building, similar in size to Concourse C, may yet be constructed to the East of the existing site, providing another 16 stands. This is likely to become a priority if British Airways' merger with Iberia proceeds, since both airlines will want to be accommodated at Heathrow under one roof in order to maximise the cost savings that the merger envisages.

The transport network around the airport has been extended to cope with the increase in passenger numbers. A dedicated motorway spur has been built from the M25 between junctions 14 and 15 to the terminal, which includes a 3,800 space multi-storey car park. A more distant long-stay car park for business passengers will be linked to the terminal by a personal rapid transit system, which will become operational in late Spring 2010[50]. New branches of both the Heathrow Express and the Underground's Piccadilly Line serve a new shared Heathrow Terminal 5 station.

Terminal 6 and Runway 3

Airlines and destinations

Airlines Destinations Terminal
Aegean Airlines Athens 1
Aer Lingus Belfast-International, Cork, Dublin, Shannon 1
Aeroflot Moscow-Sheremetyevo 4
Air Algérie Algiers 4
Air Astana Almaty 4
Air Canada Calgary, Edmonton, Halifax, Montréal-Trudeau, Ottawa, St. John's [seasonal; resumes 28 May], Toronto-Pearson, Vancouver 3
Air China Beijing-Capital 3
Air France Paris-Charles de Gaulle 4
Air France operated by Airlinair Paris-Charles de Gaulle [seasonal] 4
Air India Amritsar, Delhi, Mumbai, Toronto-Pearson 3
Air Malta Malta 4
Air Mauritius Mauritius 3
Air New Zealand Auckland, Hong Kong, Los Angeles 1
Air Seychelles Mahé, Zürich [ends 15 April][51] 4
Air Transat Toronto-Pearson [seasonal] 4
Alitalia Milan-Linate, Rome-Fiumicino 4
All Nippon Airways Tokyo-Narita 3
American Airlines Boston, Brussels [seasonal], Chicago-O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Los Angeles, Miami, New York-JFK, Raleigh/Durham 3
Arik Air Abuja, Lagos 4
Asiana Airlines Seoul-Incheon 1
Atlas Blue Tangier 4
Austrian Airlines Vienna 1
Azerbaijan Airlines Baku 4
Biman Bangladesh Airlines Dhaka, Dubai 4
Blue1 Helsinki 3
BMI Addis Ababa, Almaty, Amman, Amsterdam [ends 27 March], Baku, Beirut, Belfast-City, Berlin-Tegel [begins 28 March], Bishkek, Cairo, Damascus, Dammam, Dublin, Edinburgh, Freetown, Glasgow-International, Jeddah, Khartoum, Manchester, Moscow-Domodedovo, Riyadh, Tbilisi, Tehran-Imam Khomeini, Vienna [begins 28 March], Yerevan 1
BMI operated by
BMI Regional
Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Glasgow-International, Hanover, Manchester 1
British Airways Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Barcelona, Gibraltar, Helsinki, Lisbon, Madrid, Málaga, Singapore, Sydney, Vienna 3
British Airways Aberdeen, Abu Dhabi, Abuja, Accra, Algiers, Amsterdam, Athens, Atlanta, Bahrain, Baltimore, Bangalore, Basel/Mulhouse, Beijing-Capital, Belgrade, Berlin-Tegel, Boston, Brussels, Bucharest-Henri Coanda, Budapest, Buenos Aires-Ezeiza, Cairo, Calgary, Cape Town, Chennai, Chicago-O'Hare, Copenhagen, Dallas/Fort Worth, Dar es Salaam, Delhi, Denver, Doha, Dubai, Düsseldorf, Edinburgh, Entebbe, Frankfurt, Geneva, Glasgow-International, Grand Cayman, Hamburg, Hong Kong, Houston-Intercontinental, Hyderabad, Istanbul-Atatürk, Jeddah, Johannesburg, Kiev-Boryspil, Kuwait, Lagos, Larnaca, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Luanda, Lusaka, Lyon, Manchester, Mauritius, Mexico City, Miami, Milan-Linate, Milan-Malpensa, Montréal-Trudeau, Moscow-Domodedovo, Mumbai, Munich, Muscat, Nairobi, Nassau, New York-JFK, Newark, Newcastle upon Tyne, Nice, Oslo-Gardermoen, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Pisa, Prague, Providenciales, Rio de Janeiro-Galeão, Riyadh, Rome-Fiumicino, St Petersburg, San Francisco, São Paulo-Guarulhos, Seattle/Tacoma, Shanghai-Pudong, Sofia, Stockholm-Arlanda, Stuttgart, Tel Aviv, Tokyo-Narita, Toronto-Pearson, Toulouse, Tripoli, Vancouver, Venice-Marco Polo [seasonal], Warsaw, Washington-Dulles, Zürich 5
Brussels Airlines Brussels 1
Bulgaria Air Sofia 4
Cathay Pacific Hong Kong 3
China Airlines Taipei-Taoyuan [begins 28 March] 4
China Eastern Airlines Shanghai-Pudong [resumes 29 March] 4
Continental Airlines Houston-Intercontinental, Newark 4
Croatia Airlines Split, Zagreb 1
Cyprus Airways Larnaca, Paphos 1
Cyprus Turkish Airlines Izmir 3
Czech Airlines Prague 4
Delta Air Lines Atlanta, Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New York-JFK 4
EgyptAir Cairo, Luxor 3
El Al Tel Aviv 1
Emirates Dubai 3
Ethiopian Airlines Addis Ababa 3
Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi 4
EVA Air Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Taipei-Taoyuan 3
Finnair Helsinki 3
Gulf Air Bahrain 4
Iberia Airlines Madrid 3
Icelandair Reykjavik-Keflavík 1
Iran Air Tehran-Imam Khomeini 3
Japan Airlines Tokyo-Narita 3
Jat Airways Belgrade 4
Jet Airways Delhi, Mumbai 4
Kenya Airways Nairobi 4
Kingfisher Airlines Delhi [begins 28 March][52], Mumbai 4
KLM Amsterdam 4
KLM operated by KLM Cityhopper Amsterdam 4
Korean Air Seoul-Incheon 4
Kuwait Airways Kuwait, New York-JFK 3
Libyan Airlines Tripoli 4
LOT Polish Airlines Warsaw 1
Lufthansa Cologne/Bonn [ends 27 March], Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Milan-Malpensa, Munich 1
Lufthansa operated by BMI Berlin-Tegel, Cologne/Bonn [begins 28 March], Dresden [begins 19 April], Hamburg [begins 28 March], Milan-Malpensa 1
Lufthansa Regional operated by Contact Air Stuttgart 1
Lufthansa Regional operated by Eurowings Düsseldorf, Stuttgart 1
Lufthansa Regional operated by Lufthansa CityLine Stuttgart 1
Malaysia Airlines Kuala Lumpur 4
Middle East Airlines Beirut 3
Olympic Air Athens 4
Oman Air Muscat 3
Pakistan International Airlines Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore 3
Qantas Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Hong Kong, Melbourne, Singapore, Sydney 3
Qatar Airways Doha 3
Rossiya St Petersburg 4
Royal Air Maroc Casablanca 4
Royal Brunei Airlines Bandar Seri Begawan, Dubai 4
Royal Jordanian Amman 3
Saudi Arabian Airlines Dammam, Jeddah, Riyadh 3
Scandinavian Airlines Copenhagen, Gothenburg-Landvetter, Oslo-Gardermoen, Stavanger, Stockholm-Arlanda 3
Singapore Airlines Singapore 3
South African Airways Cape Town, Johannesburg 1
SriLankan Airlines Colombo, Malé 4
Swiss International Air Lines Geneva, Zürich 1
Swiss operated by BMI Geneva 1
Syrian Air Damascus 4
TAM Airlines São Paulo-Guarulhos 4
TAP Portugal Lisbon, Porto [ends 28 March] 1
TAROM Bucharest-Henri Coandă 4
Thai Airways International Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi 3
Transaero Moscow-Domodedovo 1
Tunisair Tunis 4
Turkish Airlines Istanbul-Atatürk 3
Turkmenistan Airlines Ashgabat 3
United Airlines Brussels [seasonal], Chicago-O'Hare, Denver [seasonal], Los Angeles, San Francisco, Washington-Dulles 1
US Airways Philadelphia 1
Uzbekistan Airways Tashkent 4
Virgin Atlantic Airways Accra [begins 24 May][53], Boston, Cape Town [seasonal], Chicago-O'Hare [seasonal], Delhi, Dubai, Hong Kong, Johannesburg, Lagos, Los Angeles, Mauritius [seasonal], Miami, Nairobi, New York-JFK, Newark, San Francisco, Shanghai-Pudong, Sydney, Tokyo-Narita, Washington-Dulles 3
Vueling Airlines A Coruña, Bilbao, Seville 3
Yemenia Sana'a (suspended until further notice[54]) 4
Cities with direct international airlinks with Heathrow.

Terminal rearrangements

Following the opening of Terminal 5 in March 2008, a hugely complex programme of terminal moves has been implemented. This has seen many airlines moved so as to be grouped in terminals by airline alliance as far as possible [55][56]:

  • Terminal 1: Star Alliance - plus Aer Lingus, El Al and Transaero
  • Terminal 3: Oneworld - plus several non-aligned airlines (Air India, Air Mauritius, Cyprus Turkish Airlines, Emirates, Ethiopian, Eva Air, Iran Air, Kuwait Airways, MEA, Oman Air, PIA, Qatar Airways, Saudia, Turkmenistan Airlines, Virgin Atlantic and Vueling) and Star Alliance members not based in Terminals 1 or 4 [57]
  • Terminal 4: SkyTeam - plus Continental Airlines and all other non-aligned airlines
  • Terminal 5: British Airways

Further moves depend on the airport's significant construction schedule but broadly they will be as follows:

  • On 28 March 2010:
    • TAM will move to Terminal 1 from Terminal 4.[58]
  • In early 2011:
    • Terminal 5C will open and British Airways' flights to Gibraltar, Lisbon and Vienna will move there from Terminal 3. British Airways' flights to Bangkok, Barcelona, Helsinki, Madrid, Malaga, Singapore and Sydney are operated as codeshares with Finnair, Iberia and Qantas and will remain at Terminal 3.
  • In late 2013:
    • All Star Alliance airlines will move into Phase 1 of the new Terminal 2.
    • Terminal 1 will close and be demolished to make way for Phase 2 of the new Terminal 2.
  • In early 2019:
    • Phase 2 of the new Terminal 2 will open, enabling further moves to relieve pressure on Terminal 3.

Traffic and statistics

BAA claim that Heathrow is the "world's busiest international airport"[59], but it is only the world's second-busiest by total passenger traffic, after Atlanta-Hartsfield-Jackson, which is also an international airport. However, Heathrow does have the highest number of international passengers.

In 2008 Heathrow was the busiest airport in Europe in terms of total passenger traffic (13.6% more passengers than at Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport and 25.6% more than at Frankfurt Airport)[60], but it was third behind Charles de Gaulle and Frankfurt in terms of plane movements (12.9% fewer landings and take offs than at Charles de Gaulle, and 2.2% fewer than at Frankfurt)[61]. Heathrow was fourth in terms of cargo traffic (after Charles de Gaulle, Frankfurt and Amsterdam Airport Schiphol)[62].

Busiest international routes at Heathrow (2008)[21]
Rank Airport Passengers handled % Change
1 John F. Kennedy International Airport 2,802,870 1
2 Dublin Airport 1,812,028 8
3 Amsterdam Airport Schiphol 1,709,135 5
4 Dubai International Airport 1,652,441 5
5 Hong Kong International Airport 1,493,864 3
6 Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport 1,489,167 17
7 Los Angeles International Airport 1,461,079 4
8 O'Hare International Airport 1,460,816 9
9 Frankfurt Airport 1,271,421 12
10 Madrid-Barajas Airport 1,152,504 2
11 Singapore Changi Airport 1,066,606 1
12 Washington Dulles International Airport 1,041,176 1
13 Toronto Pearson International Airport 992,579 3
14 San Francisco International Airport 985,575 5
15 Munich Airport 983,287 8
16 Cape Town International Airport 955,302 3
17 OR Tambo International Airport 944,731 6
18 Copenhagen Airport 939,950 4
19 Stockholm-Arlanda Airport 893,181 1
20 Newark Liberty International Airport 882,931 24
Countries with maximum passengers to/from Heathrow (2008)[63]
Rank Country/Region Passengers handled % Change
1 United States 12,601,114 10.3
2 Germany 4,124,489 6.5
3 Canada 2,531,315 2.9
4 Ireland 2,337,223 15.9
5 Spain 2,328,552 7.8
6 France 2,276,009 11.8
7 India 2,143,714 3.9
8 United Arab Emirates 2,095,646 10.3
9 Italy 2,014,961 12.4
10 Netherlands 1,750,513 7.4
11 Switzerland 1,599,277 2.8
12 South Africa 1,515,856 5.4
13 Hong Kong 1,493,864 2.8
14 Australia 1,272,470 5.1
15 Singapore 1,066,606 0.8
16 Sweden 1,044,514 0.2
17 Denmark 939,950 3.8
18 Portugal 731,343 11.2
19 Norway 703,169 1.2
20 Russia 696,571 4

Access

Public transport

Train

Heathrow Express train at Paddington station
  Heathrow area rail services
Heathrow
Connect
Heathrow
Express
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Central Central roundel1.PNG and District District roundel1.PNG lines
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Stop on track Straight track
West Ealing (closed Sundays)
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Hanwell (closed Sundays)
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Southall
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Hayes & Harlington
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Great Western Main Line
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Bus station
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Terminal 4 Heathrow Connect
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Waterloo to Reading Line to London
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Feltham for Heathrow Airport bus link
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Ashford (Surrey)
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Staines
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Heathrow Airtrack (proposed)
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Staines to Windsor Line to Windsor
Continuation forward
Waterloo to Reading Line to Reading
All Heathrow stations have step-free access.
There is free transfer between Heathrow terminals
on Heathrow Express and Heathrow Connect.

Bus and coach

Many buses and coaches operate from the large Heathrow airport central bus station serving Terminals 1, 2 and 3, and also from bus stations at Terminals 4 and 5. Services include the following:

Inter-terminal transport

Terminals 1, 2 and 3 are within walking distance of each other. Transport to Terminal 4 is by Heathrow Connect trains or bus and to Terminal 5 is by Heathrow Express trains or bus. On Heathrow Express, Heathrow Connect and local buses (but not on the London Underground) the sections between Heathrow Central, Terminal 4 and Terminal 5 are free of charge.

ULTra Personal Rapid Transport is currently being constructed as a trial shuttling passengers to and from Terminal 5. The initial trial will have 18 pods running. ULTra are small transportation pods that can fit four adults, two children, and their luggage and will be able to carry passengers directly to the terminal. The pods are battery powered and will be initially used on a four kilometre track. If the trial is successful there are plans for a roll out airport wide[67].

Taxi

Taxis are available at all terminals.

Car

Heathrow is accessible via the nearby M4 motorway and A4 road (Terminals 1–3), the M25 motorway (Terminals 4 and 5), and the A30 road (Terminal 4). There are drop off and pick up areas at all terminals and short and long stay multi-storey car parks. Additionally, there are car parks (not run by BAA) just outside the airport; these are connected to the terminals by shuttle buses.

Four parallel tunnels under one of the runways connect the M4 motorway and the A4 road to Terminals 1–3. The two larger tunnels are each two lanes wide and are used for motorised traffic. The two smaller tunnels were originally reserved for pedestrians and bicycles; to increase traffic capacity the cycle lanes have been modified to each take a single lane of cars, although bicycles still have priority over cars. Pedestrian access to the smaller tunnels has been discontinued, with the free bus services being the alternative.

Bicycle

There are (mainly off-road) bicycle routes to some of the terminals[68]. Free bicycle parking places are available in car parks 1 and 1A, at Terminal 4, and to the North and South of Terminal 5's Interchange Plaza[69]

Accidents and incidents

  • On 3 March 1948, Sabena Douglas DC3 Dakota OO-AWH crashed in fog. Three crew and 19 of the 22 passengers died[70].
  • On 31 October 1950, BEA Vickers Viking G-AHPN crashed at Heathrow after hitting the runway during a go-around. Three crew and 25 passengers died[71].
  • On 1 August 1956, XA897, an Avro Vulcan strategic bomber of the Royal Air Force, crashed at Heathrow after an approach in bad weather. The Vulcan was the first to be delivered to the RAF, and was returning from a demonstration flight to Australia and New Zealand. The pilot and co-pilot ejected and survived, but the four other occupants were killed.
  • On 7 January 1960, Vickers Viscount G-AOHU of BEA was damaged beyond economic repair when the nose wheel collapsed on landing. A fire then developed and burnt out the fuselage. There were no casualties among the 59 people on board[72].
  • On 27 October 1965, BEA Vickers Vanguard G-APEE, flying from Edinburgh, crashed on Runway 28R while attempting to land in poor visibility. All 30 passengers and six crew on board died[73].
  • On 8 April 1968, BOAC Flight 712 Boeing 707 G-ARWE, departing to Australia via Singapore, suffered an engine fire just after take-off. The engine fell from the wing into a nearby gravel pit in Staines, before the plane managed to perform an emergency landing with the wing on fire. However, the plane was consumed by fire once on the ground. Five people – four passengers and a stewardess – died, while 122 survived. Barbara Harrison, a flight attendant on board who helped with the evacuation, was posthumously awarded the George Cross[74][75].
  • On 3 July 1968, G-AMAD, an Airspeed Ambassador of BKS Air Transport, dropped a wing during approach, causing the aircraft to contact the grass and swerve towards the terminal building. It hit two parked British European Airways Hawker Siddeley Trident aircraft, burst into flames and came to rest against the ground floor of the terminal building. Six of the eight crew died, as did eight horses that were on board. Trident G-ARPT was written off[76], and Trident G-ARPI was badly damaged, but subsequently repaired, only to be lost in the Staines crash in 1972.
  • On 22 January 1970, Vickers Viscount G-AWXI of British Midland Airways was damaged beyond economic repair when an engine caught fire on take-off. A successful emergency landing was made at Heathrow[77].
  • On 18 June 1972, Trident G-ARPI, operating as BEA548, crashed in a field close to the Crooked Billet Public House, Staines, two minutes after taking off. All 118 passengers and crew on board died.
British Airways flight BA038 which crash landed just short of the runway on 17 January 2008
  • On 5 November 1997, a Virgin Atlantic Airbus A340-300, G-VSKY, made an emergency landing with an undercarriage malfunction. Part of the undercarriage collapsed on landing, and both aircraft and runway were damaged. Recommendations made as a result of the accident included one that aircraft cabin door simulators should more accurately reproduce operating characteristics in an emergency, and another that cockpit voice recorders should have a two-hour duration in aircraft registered before April 1998[78].
  • On 17 January 2008, a British Airways Boeing 777-236ER, G-YMMM, operating as flight number BA038 from Beijing to London, crash-landed at Heathrow. The aircraft landed on grass short of the south runway, 27L, then slid to the edge of the runway and stopped on the threshold, its undercarriage having collapsed. It was the first accident resulting in a Boeing 777 hull loss, and eighteen minor injuries were confirmed, with 13 people being admitted to hospital. In 2009 a second interim report from the UK's Air Accidents Investigation Branch (AAIB) said that ice may have formed in the fuel lines during the flight, restricting the flow of fuel to the engines. Air accident investigators called for a component on the Rolls-Royce Trent 800 series engine to be redesigned[79].

Terrorism and security incidents

  • On 8 June 1968, James Earl Ray, the man convicted of the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., was captured and arrested at Heathrow Airport while he was trying to leave the United Kingdom on a false Canadian passport[80].
  • On 19 May 1974, the IRA planted a series of bombs in the Terminal 1 car park. Two people were injured by the explosions[81].
  • On 26 November 1983, the Brinks Mat robbery occurred, in which 6,800 gold bars worth nearly £26 million were taken from the Brink's Mat vault near Heathrow. Only a fraction of the gold was ever recovered, and only two men were convicted of the crime[82].
  • On 17 April 1986, semtex explosives were found in the bag of a pregnant Irishwoman attempting to board an El Al flight. The explosives had been given to her by her Jordanian boyfriend and father of their unborn child Nizar Hindawi. The incident became known as the Hindawi Affair[83].
  • On 21 December 1988, Pan Am Flight 103 from Heathrow to New York/JFK was blown up over Lockerbie, Scotland, killing all 259 on board and 11 other people on the ground.
  • In 1994, over a six-day period, Heathrow was targeted three times (8, 10, and 13 March) by the IRA, who fired 12 mortars. Heathrow was a symbolic target due to its importance to the UK economy, and much disruption was caused when areas of the airport were closed over the period. The gravity of the incident was heightened by the fact that the Queen was being flown back to Heathrow by the RAF on 10 March[84].
  • In March 2002, thieves stole US$3 million that had arrived on a South African Airways flight[85].
  • In February 2003, the British Army was deployed to Heathrow, along with 1,000 police officers, in response to intelligence reports suggesting that al-Qaeda terrorists might launch surface-to-air missile attacks at British or American airliners[86].
  • On 17 May 2004, Scotland Yard's Flying Squad foiled an attempt by seven men to steal £40 million in gold bullion and a similar quantity of cash from the Swissport warehouse at Heathrow.[87]
  • On 10 August 2006, the airport became the focus of changes in security protocol, following the revelation of a supposed al-Qaeda terrorist plot. New security rules were put in force immediately, causing lengthy delays and inconvenience to passengers. These included the prohibition of carry-on luggage (except essential items such as travel documents and medication) and all liquids – although this rule was later relaxed to allow the carrying on board of liquid medications and baby milk, provided that they were tasted first by passengers at the security checkpoint[citation needed].
  • On 25 February 2008, Greenpeace activists protesting against the planned third runway managed to cross the tarmac and climb on top of a British Airways Airbus A320, which had just arrived from Manchester Airport. At about 09:45 GMT the protesters unveiled a banner, saying "Climate Emergency – No Third Runway", over the aircraft's tailfin, and by 11:00 GMT four arrests had been made[88].
  • On 13 March 2008, a man with a rucksack scaled the perimeter fence onto runway 27R, and ran across the grounds, resulting in his subsequent arrest. A controlled explosion of his bag took place, although nothing suspicious was found, and the Metropolitan Police later said that the incident had not been terrorism related[89].

Future expansion

British Airways aircraft seen here at Terminal 4. (The airline has since moved to Terminals 3 and 5)

In January 2009 the Transport Secretary Geoff Hoon announced that the UK government supports the expansion of Heathrow by building a third runway (2200 m) and sixth terminal building.[90] This decision follows the 2003 white paper on the future of air transport in the UK,[91] and a public consultation in November 2007.[92] This was a controversial decision which met widespread opposition because of its greenhouse gas emissions, destruction of local communities, and noise and air pollution.

A plan to make Heathrow an international railway exchange has also been proposed with the potential construction of Heathrow Hub railway station.[93]

In July 2009, Heathrow Airport Limited submitted an application to the Secretary of State for Transport seeking to gain authorisation to develop a new rail link to Heathrow Terminal 5 to be known as Heathrow Airtrack.[94] The rail link would address the current lack of public transport available to the South West of the Airport by connecting to Guildford, Reading and London Waterloo. BAA state that the scheme should add significantly to their aim of increasing the proportion of people using public transport to travel to the Airport.[95]

The Conservative and Liberal Democrats parties have announced that, should they win the 2010 General Election, they will prevent the construction of any third runway or further material expansion of the airport's operating capacity. The Conservative Mayor of London, Boris Johnson, admits that London needs more airport capacity but opposes the expansion for Heathrow for a new airport in the Thames Estuary.[96]

See also


Notes

  1. ^ a b c London Heathrow - EGLL
  2. ^ a b Annual UK Airport Statistics: 2009 - annual
  3. ^ Busiest Airports - The Busiest Airports in the World
  4. ^ UK airports owned and operated by BAA
  5. ^ BAA: "Who we are"
  6. ^ a b "Heathrow’s Terminal 2 closes as work on its £1 billion replacement gets underway". BAA Limited. http://www.heathrowairport.com/portal/page/Heathrow%5EGeneral%5EOur%20business%20and%20community%5EMedia%20centre%5ENews%20releases%5EResults/72b601271e115210VgnVCM10000036821c0a____/a22889d8759a0010VgnVCM200000357e120a____/. Retrieved 23 November 2009. 
  7. ^ http://www.cnn.com/2009/BUSINESS/01/15/heathrow.third.runway/index.html
  8. ^ BBC News
  9. ^ CAA Aerodrome Licence
  10. ^ "What's In A Name?". www.thisislongford.com. http://www.thisislongford.com/heathrow.htm. Retrieved 13 August 2006. 
  11. ^ a b John Arlidge (3 June 2007). "Heathrow's Terminal 5 velocity". The Times. http://travel.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/travel/business/article1834039.ece. Retrieved 14 June 2007. 
  12. ^ Harold Balfour (later Lord Balfour), then Under-Secretary of State for Air (1938–44), wrote in his 1973 autobiography, Wings over Westminster, that he deliberately deceived the government committee into believing a requisition was necessary so Heathrow could be used as a base for long-range transport aircraft in support of the war with Japan. In fact Balfour wrote that he always intended the site to be used for civil aviation, and used a wartime emergency requisition order to avoid a lengthy and costly public inquiry.
  13. ^ Wimpey - The First 100 Years: page 28
  14. ^ Woodley, Charles (1992). Golden Age - British Civil Aviation 1945–1965. pp. 9–10. ISBN 1 85310 259 8. 
  15. ^ a b Heathrow Terminal Three Information
  16. ^ British Pathe news reel 31.10 dated June 1955 (www.britishpathe.com)
  17. ^ Air Ministry and Ministry of Civil Aviation: Records (R Series Files) BT 217/551
  18. ^ "BAA Heathrow: Our History". BAA. http://www.heathrowairport.com/portal/page/General/Heathrow%5EGeneral%5EOur+business+and+community%5EHeathrow+lowdown%5EOur+history/12223de26aa32010VgnVCM100000147e120a____/448c6a4c7f1b0010VgnVCM200000357e120a____/. Retrieved 11 November 2007. 
  19. ^ The Economist, The man who bought trouble. Consulted on 18 July 2007.
  20. ^ BAA's UK airports Consulted on 23 October 2007
  21. ^ a b CAA International Air Passenger Traffic Route Analysis 2008
  22. ^ "Terminal 5 second satellite building due to open in 2010". BBC News. 11 March 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/in_depth/629/629/7288007.stm. Retrieved 27 March 2008. 
  23. ^ a b c d "Debut A380 flight lands in London". BBC News. 18 March 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/7301455.stm. Retrieved 19 March 2008. 
  24. ^ "Super Jumbo Makes A Flying Visit". Sky News. 18 May 2006. http://www.sky.com/skynews/article/0,,30000-1222051,00.html. Retrieved 31 May 2008. 
  25. ^ "Thiefrow gang lifts £1m of duty-free". The Sun. 11 November 2008. http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/news/article1915827.ece. Retrieved 29 November 2009. 
  26. ^ Heathrow's hidden gems
  27. ^ "Landing at Heathrow". BBC. 18 January 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7196158.stm. Retrieved 20 January 2008. 
  28. ^ BAA Heathrow (2004/05) (PDF). Flight Evaluation Report 2004/05. http://www.heathrowairport.com/assets//B2CPortal/Static%20Files/New2005Booklet.pdf. Retrieved 2 November 2007. 
  29. ^ In westerly operations, aircraft continue to operate in a westerly direction with up to a 5-knot (9.3 km/h; 5.8 mph) easterly tailwind.
  30. ^ "Night noise". http://www.heathrowairport.com/portal/page/HeathrowNoise%5EConsultation+and+schemes%5ENight+noise/225f1b1e25b09010VgnVCM10000036821c0a____/448c6a4c7f1b0010VgnVCM200000357e120a____/. Retrieved 30 October 2007. 
  31. ^ Heathrow, Gatwick and Stansted
  32. ^ "IATA attacks higher landing charges at British airports". http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5izyYRsZKFHEIOR6WYbdtInUOLqgA. Retrieved 14 March 2008. 
  33. ^ "American, BA drop alliance plans". CNN Money. 25 January 2002. http://money.cnn.com/2002/01/25/news/amr_ba/. Retrieved 31 May 2008. 
  34. ^ "BA boss joins attack on Heathrow". BBC. 1 August 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/6926150.stm. Retrieved 28 October 2007. 
  35. ^ "Heathrow voted world's least favourite airport". The Daily Telegraph. 30 October 2007. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/main.jhtml?xml=/travel/2007/10/30/et-airport-130.xml. Retrieved 30 October 2007. 
  36. ^ Airport CoOrdination Ltd (February 2002) (PDF). Submission to the CAA Regarding Peak Periods at Heathrow. http://www.caa.co.uk/docs/5/ergdocs/baajan03/acl2baajan03.pdf. Retrieved 13 January 2008. 
  37. ^ "BAA Heathrow: Mixed mode". BAA. http://www.heathrowairport.com/portal/page/General/Heathrow%5EGeneral%5EOur+business+and+community%5EFuture+growth%5EMixed+mode/1c8851dcd7423110VgnVCM10000036821c0a____/448c6a4c7f1b0010VgnVCM200000357e120a____/. Retrieved 11 November 2007. 
  38. ^ "BA pushes for 'mixed mode' at Heathrow". UK-Airport-News.info. http://www.uk-airport-news.info/heathrow-airport-news-161206a.htm. Retrieved 31 May 2008. 
  39. ^ "Heathrow is defeated in its attempt to ban environmental campaigners". The Times. 7 August 2007. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article2211142.ece. Retrieved 9 August 2007. 
  40. ^ "Passenger Traffic for past 12 months". Airports Council International. http://www.airports.org/cda/aci_common/display/main/aci_content07_c.jsp?zn=aci&cp=1-5-212-218-224_666_2__. Retrieved 9 August 2007. 
  41. ^ "Vulnerable to foreign competition". BAA Limited. http://www.heathrowairport.com/portal/page/LHR%5EAbout+BAA+Heathrow%5EEconomic+benefits%5EVulnerable+to+foreign+competition/c72b4f7d45523110VgnVCM10000036821c0a____/448c6a4c7f1b0010VgnVCM200000357e120a____/. Retrieved 9 August 2007. 
  42. ^ Above Us The Skies: The Story Of BAA - 1991 (Michael Donne - BAA plc), p. 40
  43. ^ "Heathrow Terminal revamp unveiled". BBC News. 10 August 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/london/8192795.stm. Retrieved 28 November 2009. 
  44. ^ Last call for Heathrow Terminal 2 BBC News Online. 23 November 2009
  45. ^ "BAA Heathrow unveils plans to re-develop Terminal 3". BAA Plc. http://www.heathrowairport.com/portal/controller/dispatcher.jsp?CiID=12d6b6c0100c0110VgnVCM10000036821c0a____&ChID=10b35109350d3110VgnVCM10000036821c0a____&Ct=B2C_CT_PRESS_RELEASE&CtID=a22889d8759a0010VgnVCM200000357e120a____&ChPath=Home%5EHeathrow%5EHeathrow+press+releases. Retrieved 1 December 2008. 
  46. ^ "Terminal 4's £100m new check-in area reaches the top". BAA Plc. http://www.heathrowairport.com/portal/page/Heathrow%5EGeneral%5EOur%20business%20and%20community%5EMedia%20centre%5ENews%20releases%5EResults/97dd2706f959d110VgnVCM10000036821c0a____/a22889d8759a0010VgnVCM200000357e120a____/. Retrieved 30 November 2008. 
  47. ^ "Queen opens new Heathrow Terminal". BBC. 14 March 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7294618.stm. Retrieved 14 March 2008. 
  48. ^ "British Airways reveals what went wrong with Terminal 5". Computer Weekly. 14 May 2008. http://www.computerweekly.com/Articles/2008/05/14/230680/british-airways-reveals-what-went-wrong-with-terminal.htm. Retrieved 17 May 2008. 
  49. ^ "Heathrow Terminal 5: retail destination or gateway to Britain?". Brandrepublic. 14 March 2008. http://www.brandrepublic.com/News/790908/Heathrow-Terminal-5-retail-destination-gateway-Britain/. Retrieved 28 March 2008. 
  50. ^ "ULTra PRT - Latest Schedule". ATS ULTra. 2009. http://www.ultraprt.com/cms/index.php?page=latest-schedule. Retrieved 2 September 2009. 
  51. ^ http://airseychelles.biz/listing/index.php?lg=UK&rr=47&per=4%7C2010
  52. ^ http://www.flykingfisher.com/media-center/press-releases/kingfisher-airlines-to-start-new-delhi-–-london-flights.aspx
  53. ^ http://www.virgin-atlantic.com/en/gb/specialoffers/londontoghana.jsp
  54. ^ [1]
  55. ^ "Heathrow looks ahead", Airports(Key Publishing), September/October 2007, P30
  56. ^ SkyTeam Carriers Will Operate Out of Terminal 4 at London Heathrow (Official Press Release: 6 June 2006)
  57. ^ http://www.flybmi.com/bmi/en-gb/about-us/information-centre/press-releases/20090618.aspx
  58. ^ http://www.heathrowairport.com/portal/page/Heathrow%5EGeneral%5EFlight+information%5EAirline+moves/336f89c6f65b4210VgnVCM10000036821c0a____/448c6a4c7f1b0010VgnVCM200000357e120a____/
  59. ^ "BAA Heathrow Home Page". BAA. http://www.heathrowairport.com/portal/page/Heathrow%5EGeneral%5EOur+business+and+community%5EHeathrow+Lowdown%5EHeathrow+at+a+Glance/08ba07077d3d2010VgnVCM100000147e120a____/448c6a4c7f1b0010VgnVCM200000357e120a____/. Retrieved 18 February 2009. 
  60. ^ "Passenger Traffic 2007 FINAL". Airports Council International. http://www.airports.org/cda/aci_common/display/main/aci_content07_c.jsp?zn=aci&cp=1-5-54-55_666_2__. Retrieved 17 February 2009. 
  61. ^ "Traffic Movements 2007 FINAL". Airports Council International. http://www.airports.org/cda/aci_common/display/main/aci_content07_c.jsp?zn=aci&cp=1-5-54-57_666_2__. Retrieved 17 February 2009. 
  62. ^ "Cargo Traffic 2007 FINAL". Airports Council International. http://www.airports.org/cda/aci_common/display/main/aci_content07_c.jsp?zn=aci&cp=1-5-54-4819_666_2__. Retrieved 17 February 2009. 
  63. ^ Table 12 1 Intl Air Pax Route Analysis 2008
  64. ^ BAA Heathrow: Coaches
  65. ^ BAA Heathrow: Railair
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