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London Underground
Underground.svg
Info
Locale Greater London, Chiltern, Epping Forest, Three Rivers and Watford
Transit type Rapid transit
Number of lines 11
Number of stations 270 served (260 owned)
Daily ridership 2.95 million (approximate)[1][2]
3.4 million (weekdays) (approximate)[3]
Operation
Began operation 10 January 1863
Operator(s) Transport for London
Technical
System length 400 kilometres (250 mi) (approximate)[1]
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) Standard gauge
Part of a series of articles on
The Tube
Underground.svg
Overview
London Transport Portal
.The London Underground is a rapid transit system serving a large part of Greater London and neighbouring areas of Essex, Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire in the UK. With its first section opening in 1863, it was the first underground railway system in the world.^ Underground rapid transit systems .
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The London Underground is an all- electric metro railway system that covers much of the conurbation of Greater London and some neighbouring areas.
  • London Underground - Metro Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC metro.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The world's first public underground railway was the Metropolitan Railway in London .
  • London Underground@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] .In 1890 it became the first to operate electric trains.^ It was also the first underground railway to operate electric trains.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ First trains start operating around 04:30, running until around 01:30.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First trains on the network start operating shortly after 5 a.m.
  • London Underground - Metro Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC metro.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .Despite the name, about 55% of the network is above ground.^ Despite its name, about 55% of the network is above ground.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • London Underground - Metro Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC metro.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is usually referred to as the Underground or the Tube - the latter deriving from the shape of the system's deep-bore tunnels - although about 55% of the network is above ground.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

.It is usually referred to officially as 'the Underground' and colloquially as the Tube, although the latter term originally applied only to the deep-level bored lines, to distinguish them from the sub-surface "cut and cover" lines that were built first.^ It is usually referred to as the Underground or the Tube - the latter deriving from the shape of the system's deep-bore tunnels - although about 55% of the network is above ground.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The first tube lines .
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sub-surface versus tube lines .
  • London Underground - Metro Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC metro.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.More recently this distinction has been lost and the whole system is now referred to as 'the Tube', even in recent years by its operator in official publicity.^ Apparently the best looking station on the Underground, and it has the added advantage of having the longest escalator on the whole tube system, which was constructed when the station was rebuilt in 1991.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A48502 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Originally, the government thought the scheme would be self-financing: now it is putting in £1 billion of public money a year.
  • LRB · James Meek: Crocodile’s Breath 17 September 2009 0:25 UTC www.lrb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Popular local names include the Underground and, more colloquially, the Tube , in reference to the cylindrical shape of the system's deep-bore tunnels.
  • London Underground - Metro Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC metro.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The earlier lines of the present London Underground network were built by various private companies.^ By 1937, when the sole Tube line to go deep into South London was renamed the Northern Line, the Underground was, in appearance and culture, recognisably similar to today’s.
  • LRB · James Meek: Crocodile’s Breath 17 September 2009 0:25 UTC www.lrb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Project Introduction Scott Wilson is the Technical Advisor to the external debt funders of the Tube Lines consortium responsible for the Jubilee, Northern and Piccadilly (JNP) lines of the London Underground network.
  • Tube Lines - London Underground PPP 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.scottwilson.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the design and building of such a train will be a long and expensive process and it is doubtful whether, under the present proposals for privatisation of the Underground's infrastructure and rolling stock, a company would be prepared to take the risk of developing such a train.
  • London Underground Rolling Stock 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.trainweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Apart from the main line railways, they became part of an integrated transport system in 1933 when the London Passenger Transport Board (LPTB) or London Transport was created.^ The LPTB soon became known as "London Transport" (LT).
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The earlier lines of the present London Underground system, built by various companies, became part of an integrated passenger transport system (which excluded the main line railways) in 1933 under the London Passenger Transport Board (LPTB).
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Template:Main Transport for London (TfL) was created in 2000 as the integrated body responsible for London's transport system.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The underground network became a single entity in 1985, when the UK government created London Underground Limited (LUL).^ The underground network became a single entity when London Underground Limited (LUL) was formed by the UK government in 1985.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The underground network became a separate entity when London Underground Limited (LUL) was set up by the UK government in 1985.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the 32 London boroughs , six ( Bexley , Bromley , Croydon , Kingston , Sutton and Hackney ) are not served by the Underground network.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .Since 2003 LUL has been a wholly owned subsidiary of Transport for London (TfL), the statutory corporation responsible for most aspects of the transport system in Greater London, which is run by a board and a commissioner appointed by the Mayor of London.^ However the day-to-day running of the corporation is left to the Commissioner of Transport for London.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Since 2003 LUL has been a wholly owned subsidiary of Transport for London (TfL), the statutory corporation responsible for most aspects of the transport system in Greater London , which is run by a board and a commissioner appointed by the Mayor of London [3] .
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Mayor is also responsible for setting TfL's budget.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7]
.The Underground has 270 stations and around 400 km (250 miles) of track,[1] making it the longest metro system in the world by route length.^ The Underground has 268 stations and approximately 400 km (250 miles) of track [4] , making it the longest underground railway in the world by route length, and one of the most served in terms of stations.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is the world's oldest underground railway system.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Underground has 268 stations and approximately 400 km (250 miles) of track, making it the longest metro system in the world by route length, and one of the most served in terms of stations.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

[8] .It also has one of the highest number of stations.^ When underground , the only thing to which one can refer in order to determine how far one has travelled is the number of stations passed.
  • London Underground@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 2007, more than one billion passenger journeys were recorded,[3] making it the third busiest metro system in Europe after Paris and Moscow.^ In 2007, over one billion passenger journeys were recorded.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With over llion passengers every day, Transport for London runs one of the busiest and most complex transportation systems in the world.
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Underground has 268 stations and approximately 400 km (250 miles) of track, making it the longest metro system in the world by route length, and one of the most served in terms of stations.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

.The tube map, with its schematic non-geographical layout and colour-coded lines, is considered a design classic, and many other transport maps worldwide have been influenced by it.^ TfL takes legal action against unauthorised use of its trademarks and of the Tube map, in spite of which unauthorised copies of the logo continue to crop up worldwide.
  • London Underground - Metro Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC metro.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TfL licences the sale of clothing and other accessories featuring its graphic elements and it takes legal action against unauthorised use of its trademarks and of the Tube map.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The lines are not as wide as Beck's design and the interchange stations are illustrated by black circles, a feature that was returned to after Beck's last map in 1960.
  • A History of the London Tube Maps 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC homepage.ntlworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

History

.Railway construction in the United Kingdom began in the early 19th century.^ Railway construction in the United Kingdom began in the early 19th century .
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By 1854 six separate railway terminals had been built just outside the centre of London: London Bridge, Euston, Paddington, King's Cross, Bishopsgate and Waterloo.^ By 1854 six separate railway terminals had been built just outside the centre of London: London Bridge, Euston, Paddington, King's Cross, Bishopsgate and Waterloo.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ By 1850 there were 7 separate railway termini located in the London area: London Bridge , Euston , Paddington , King's Cross , Shoreditch , Waterloo and Fenchurch Street .
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1850 six separate railway termini had been built just outside the centre of London: London Bridge , Euston , Paddington , King's Cross , Bishopsgate and Waterloo , with Fenchurch Street station in the City of London .
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At this point, only Fenchurch Street Station was located in the actual City of London.^ Only Fenchurch Street was located within the City of London itself.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At this point, only Fenchurch Street Station was located in the actual City of London.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Of the 33 London boroughs , only Kingston , Bexley , Bromley , Sutton and Croydon - all south of the Thames - have no Underground stations.
  • London Underground - Metro Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC metro.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Traffic congestion in the city and the surrounding areas had increased significantly in this period, partly due to the need for rail travellers to complete their journeys into the city centre by road.^ This was due in part to the fact that most people travelling to London by rail had to complete their jouneys into the city centre by cab or omnibus.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Traffic congestion in the city and the surrounding areas had increased significantly in this period, partly due to the need for rail travellers to complete their journeys into the city centre by road.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ London had also seen a large increase in road traffic congestion in this period.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The idea of building an underground railway to link the City of London with the mainline terminals had first been proposed in the 1830s, but it was not until the 1850s that the idea was taken seriously as a solution to traffic congestion.^ The world's first public underground railway was the Metropolitan Railway in London .
  • London Underground@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first underground railways .
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An underground railway to link the City of London with the mainline termini was first proposed in the 1830s, but it was not until the 1850s that the idea was taken seriously as a solution to the traffic congestion problems.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9]

The first underground railways

Construction of the Metropolitan Railway near King's Cross station, 1861
.In 1854 an Act of Parliament was passed approving the construction of an underground railway between Paddington Station and Farringdon Street via King's Cross which was to be called the Metropolitan Railway.^ In 1854 an Act of Parliament was passed approving the construction of an underground railway between Paddington Station and Farringdon Street via King's Cross , which was to be called the Metropolitan Railway .
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1854 an Act of Parliament was passed approving the construction of an underground railway between Paddington Station and Farringdon Street via King's Cross which was to be called the Metropolitan Railway.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In addition, some stations' walls are decorated in tile motifs unique to that station, such as profiles of Sherlock Holmes 's head at Baker Street , and a cross containing a crown at King's Cross St Pancras .
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Great Western Railway (GWR) gave financial backing to the project when it was agreed that a junction would be built linking the underground railway with their mainline terminus at Paddington.^ This was to be built with the support of the Great Western Railway , who helped fund the project on the grounds that a junction would be built with their mainline terminus at Paddington.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was to be built with the support of the Great Western Railway , who helped fund the project on the grounds that a junction would be built with their mainline terminus at Paddington .
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The District had reached Hammersmith in 1874 and then built a small extension to a junction with the London & South Western Railway at Studland Road (near Ravenscourt Park station), this gave the District the opportunity to run trains to Richmond in 1877 and by 1879 the company had opened an extension from Turnham Green to Ealing Broadway .
  • London Underground@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.GWR also agreed to design special trains for the new subterranean railway.^ GWR also agreed to design special trains for the new subterranean railway.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Great Western Railway (GWR) gave financial backing to the project when it was agreed that a junction would be built linking the underground railway with their mainline terminus at Paddington.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The sub-surface lines will receive 190 new trains, built by Bombardier, meaning all trains will be of the same design, giving easier maintenance.
  • London Underground - Metro Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC metro.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A shortage of funds delayed construction for several years.^ Construction was delayed for several years due to a shortage of funds.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

.The fact that this project got under way at all was largely due to the lobbying of Charles Pearson, who was Solicitor to the City of London Corporation at the time.^ The fact that this project got underway at all was largely due to the lobbying of Charles Pearson , who was Solicitor to the City of London at the time.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fact that this project got under way at all was largely due to the lobbying of Charles Pearson, who was Solicitor to the City of London Corporation at the time.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ And in 1859 it was Pearson who persuaded the City of London Corporation to help fund the scheme.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

.Pearson had supported the idea of an underground railway in London for several years.^ Pearson had supported the idea of an underground railway in London for several years.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Shortly after it was created, LT began the process of integrating the underground railways of London into one network.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ By Docklands Light Railway and London Underground The extension to the Docklands Light Railway (DLR), which opened in December 2005, directly connects the London City Airport...
  • LondonTown.com | London Underground Westminster London 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.londontown.com [Source type: News]

.He advocated plans for the demolition of the unhygienic slums which would be replaced by new accommodation for their inhabitants in the suburbs, with the new railway providing transportation to their places of work in the city centre.^ He advocated plans for the demolition of the unhygienic slums which would be replaced by new accommodation for their inhabitants in the suburbs, with the new railway providing transportation to their places of work in the city centre.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Railway Plan of London and its suburbs .
  • A History of the London Tube Maps 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC homepage.ntlworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reason why certain city like New York don't have a deep levels railway because New York is under rocks, hence why the subway is run under the street.
  • London Underground on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although he was never directly involved in the running of the Metropolitan Railway, he is widely credited as being one of the first true visionaries behind the concept of underground railways.^ The world's first public underground railway was the Metropolitan Railway in London .
  • London Underground@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first underground railways .
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although he was never directly involved in the running of the Metropolitan Railway, he is widely credited as being one of the first true visionaries behind the concept of underground railways.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

.And in 1859 it was Pearson who persuaded the City of London Corporation to help fund the scheme.^ In 1859 he finally persuaded the City of London Corporation to help fund the scheme.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And in 1859 it was Pearson who persuaded the City of London Corporation to help fund the scheme.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This was to be built with the support of the Great Western Railway , who helped fund the project on the grounds that a junction would be built with their mainline terminus at Paddington.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Work finally began in February 1860, under the guidance of chief engineer John Fowler.^ Work finally began in February 1860, under the guidance of chief engineer John Fowler.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

.Pearson died before the work was completed.^ Pearson died before the work was completed.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

.The Metropolitan Railway opened on 10 January 1863.[6] Within a few months of opening it was carrying over 26,000 passengers a day.^ The Metropolitan Railway opened on 10 January 1863.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Metropolitan opened on January 10 1863 .
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Services began on 10 January 1863 on the Metropolitan Railway .
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10] .The Hammersmith and City Railway was opened on 13 June 1864 between Hammersmith and Paddington.^ For example, the interchange between the Hammersmith and City line and other lines at Paddington.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Hammersmith and City Railway was opened on 13 June 1864 between Hammersmith and Paddington.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ By Docklands Light Railway and London Underground The extension to the Docklands Light Railway (DLR), which opened in December 2005, directly connects the London City Airport...
  • LondonTown.com | London Underground Westminster London 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.londontown.com [Source type: News]

.Services were initially operated by GWR between Hammersmith and Farringdon Street.^ Services were initially operated by GWR between Hammersmith and Farringdon Street.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Due to the rivalry that ensued between the Metropolitan and the District, the Inner Circle was not operated as a single service until the full integration of London's underground railways in the 1930s.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1854 an Act of Parliament was passed approving the construction of an underground railway between Paddington Station and Farringdon Street via King's Cross , which was to be called the Metropolitan Railway .
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By April 1865 the Metropolitan had taken over the service.^ By April 1865 the Metropolitan had taken over the service.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

.On 23 December 1865 the Metropolitan's eastern extension to Moorgate Street opened.^ On 23 December 1865 the Metropolitan's eastern extension to Moorgate Street opened.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The beginning - 1863 - 1900 10th Jan 1863 - Metropolitan railway opens its route from Bishop's Road, Paddington to Farringdon Street , a distance of 3.75 miles.
  • London Underground@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1949 the final eastern extension from Loughton to Ongar was opened, until 1957 the last stretch from Epping to Ongar was served by BR steam trains.
  • London Underground@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Later in the decade other branches were opened to Swiss Cottage, South Kensington and Addison Road, Kensington (now known as Kensington Olympia).^ Later in the decade other branches were opened to Swiss Cottage , South Kensington and Addison Road, Kensington (now known as Kensington Olympia ).
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later in the decade other branches were opened to Swiss Cottage, South Kensington and Addison Road, Kensington (now known as Kensington Olympia).
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Baker Street & Waterloo Railway opened in 1906, soon branding itself the Bakerloo , and by 1907 had been extended to Edgware Road in the north and Elephant & Castle in the south.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The railway had initially been dual gauge, allowing for the use of GWR's signature broad gauge rolling stock and the more widely used standard gauge stock.^ Links to more detailed information on Underground rolling stock: .
  • London Underground Rolling Stock 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.trainweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One FAQ often heard is why a standard tube train design is not used on all tube lines and a standard surface stock design for all surface lines.
  • London Underground Rolling Stock 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.trainweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ File:Stratford Depot 27.JPG 1996 Stock trains at Stratford Market Depot The Underground uses rolling stock built between 1960 and 2005.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Disagreements with GWR had forced the Metropolitan to switch to standard gauge in 1863 after GWR withdrew all its stock from the railway.^ Disagreements with GWR had forced the Metropolitan to switch to standard gauge in 1863 after GWR withdrew all its stock from the railway.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ One FAQ often heard is why a standard tube train design is not used on all tube lines and a standard surface stock design for all surface lines.
  • London Underground Rolling Stock 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.trainweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The railway had initially been dual gauge, allowing for the use of GWR's signature broad gauge rolling stock and the more widely used standard gauge stock.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

These differences were later patched up, however broad gauge was totally withdrawn from the railway in March 1869.
.On 24 December 1868, the Metropolitan District Railway began operating services between South Kensington and Westminster using Metropolitan Railway trains and carriages.^ On 24 December 1868, the Metropolitan District Railway began operating services between South Kensington and Westminster using Metropolitan Railway trains and carriages.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1884 the District and the Metropolitan began to operate services on the line.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ On December 24 1868 , the Metropolitan District Railway began operating services between South Kensington and Westminster using Metropolitan Railway trains and carriages.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The company, which soon became known as "the District", was first incorporated in 1864 to complete an Inner Circle railway around London in conjunction with the Metropolitan.^ The Inner Circle was finally completed in 1884.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The LPTB soon became known as "London Transport" (LT).
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The world's first public underground railway was the Metropolitan Railway in London .
  • London Underground@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was part of a plan to build both an Inner Circle line and Outer Circle line around London.^ This was part of a plan to build both an Inner Circle line and Outer Circle line around London.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Inner Circle was renamed the Circle line in 1949.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other lines swiftly followed, and by 1884 the Inner Circle (today's Circle line ) was completed as a joint venture between the Metropolitan Railway and its rival the Metropolitan District Railway .
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A fierce rivalry soon developed between the District and the Metropolitan.^ However a fierce rivalry soon developed when the independent directors on the District board became dissatisfied with the performance of the Metropolitan service providers.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Other lines swiftly followed, and by 1884 the Inner Circle (today's Circle line ) was completed as a joint venture between the Metropolitan Railway and its rival the Metropolitan District Railway .
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the meantime, the District had finished its route between West Brompton and Blackfriars in 1870, with an interchange with the Metropolitan at South Kensington.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

.This severely delayed the completion of the Inner Circle project as the two companies competed to build far more financially lucrative railways in the suburbs of London.^ The Inner Circle was finally completed in 1884.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This severely delayed the completion of the Inner Circle project as the two companies competed to build far more financially lucrative railways in the suburbs of London.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Railway Plan of London and its suburbs .
  • A History of the London Tube Maps 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC homepage.ntlworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The London and North Western Railway (LNWR) began running their Outer Circle service from Broad Street via Willesden Junction, Addison Road and Earl's Court to Mansion House in 1872. The Inner Circle was not completed until 1884, with the Metropolitan and the District jointly running services.^ The Inner Circle was finally completed in 1884.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another will run the Circle , District , East London , Hammersmith & City , and Metropolitan lines.
  • London Underground@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Services began on 10 January 1863 on the Metropolitan Railway .
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the meantime, the District had finished its route between West Brompton and Blackfriars in 1870, with an interchange with the Metropolitan at South Kensington.^ In 1870 the District completed its route between West Brompton and Blackfriars , with an interchange with the Metropolitan at South Kensington.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the meantime, the District had finished its route between West Brompton and Blackfriars in 1870, with an interchange with the Metropolitan at South Kensington.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ On December 24 1868 , the Metropolitan District Railway began operating services between South Kensington and Westminster using Metropolitan Railway trains and carriages.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1877, it began running its own services from Hammersmith to Richmond, on a line originally opened by the London & South Western Railway (LSWR) in 1869. The District then opened a new line from Turnham Green to Ealing in 1879[11] and extended its West Brompton branch to Fulham in 1880. Over the same decade the Metropolitan was extended to Harrow-on-the-Hill station in the north-west.^ In 1884 the District and the Metropolitan began to operate services on the line.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Hammersmith & City - this line runs from Hammersmith at its west end and through the City.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A48502 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over the decade the Metropolitan was extended to Harrow in the north-west whilst the District was extended to Ealing , Richmond and Fulham in the west and south-west.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The early tunnels were dug mainly using cut-and-cover construction methods.^ The early tunnels were dug using cut-and-cover construction methods.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The early tunnels were dug mainly using cut-and-cover construction methods.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The subsurface lines were dug by the cut-and-cover method, with the tracks running about 5 m (16 ft 5 in) below the surface.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

.This caused widespread disruption and required the demolition of several properties on the surface.^ This caused widespread disruption and required the demolition of several properties on the surface.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first trains were steam-hauled, which required effective ventilation to the surface.^ The first trains were steam-hauled, which required effective ventilation to the surface.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The tube system requires almost 4,000 trains to maintain all its services, and these come in the two varieties of deep-level and sub-surface.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A48502 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite passengers managing perfectly well on the sub-surface lines for many years, ventilation was soon required with the advent of deep-level lines.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A48502 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ventilation shafts at various points on the route allowed the engines to expel steam and bring fresh air into the tunnels.^ Ventilation shafts at various points on the route allowed the engines to expel steam and bring fresh air into the tunnels.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]
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.One such vent is at Leinster Gardens, W2.[12] In order to preserve the visual characteristics in what is still a well-to-do street, a five-foot-thick (1.5 m) concrete façade was constructed to resemble a genuine house frontage.^ In order to preserve the visual characteristics in what is still a well-to-do street, a five-foot-thick (1.5 m) concrete façade was constructed to resemble a genuine house frontage.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One such vent is at Leinster Gardens, W2.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But that's not the only disguised ventilation shaft: don't forget the "dummy houses," for instance, at 23-24 Leinster Gardens, London.

.On 7 December 1869 the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway (LB&SCR) started operating a service between Wapping and New Cross Gate on the East London Railway (ELR) using the Thames Tunnel designed by Marc Brunel, who designed the revolutionary tunnelling shield method which made its construction not only possible, but safer, and completed by his son Isambard Kingdom Brunel.^ On 7 December 1869 the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway (LB&SCR) started operating a service between Wapping and New Cross Gate on the East London Railway (ELR) using the Thames Tunnel designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ On December 7 1869 the East London Railway started operating between Wapping and New Cross Gate (then known as New Cross LBSCR) using the Thames Tunnel designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel .
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^ The long proposed Chelsea-Hackney line, which is planned to begin operation in 2025, may be part of the London Underground, which would mean it would give the network a new Northeast to South cross London line to provide more interchanges with other lines and relieve overcrowding on other lines.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

.This had opened in 1843 as a pedestrian tunnel, but in 1865 it was purchased by the ELR (a consortium of six railway companies: the Great Eastern Railway (GER); London, Brighton and South Coast Railway (LB&SCR); London, Chatham and Dover Railway (LCDR); South Eastern Railway (SER); Metropolitan Railway; and the Metropolitan District Railway) and converted into a railway tunnel.^ This had opened in 1843 as a pedestrian tunnel, but in 1865 it was purchased by the ELR (a consortium of six railway companies: the Great Eastern Railway (GER); London, Brighton and South Coast Railway (LB&SCR); London, Chatham and Dover Railway (LCDR); South Eastern Railway (SER); Metropolitan Railway; and the Metropolitan District Railway) and converted into a railway tunnel.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This had opened in 1843 as a pedestrian tunnel, and it was purchased by the East London Railway in 1865 and it was converted into a railway tunnel.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The District had reached Hammersmith in 1874 and then built a small extension to a junction with the London & South Western Railway at Studland Road (near Ravenscourt Park station), this gave the District the opportunity to run trains to Richmond in 1877 and by 1879 the company had opened an extension from Turnham Green to Ealing Broadway .
  • London Underground@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1884 the District and the Metropolitan began to operate services on the line.^ In 1884 the District and the Metropolitan began to operate services on the line.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Inner Circle was not completed until 1884, with the Metropolitan and the District jointly running services.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ On July 30 1900 the Central London Railway (now known as the Central Line ) was opened, operating services from Bank to Shepherd's Bush.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By the end of the 1880s, underground railways reached Chesham on the Metropolitan, Hounslow, Wimbledon and Whitechapel on the District and New Cross on the East London Railway.^ The world's first public underground railway was the Metropolitan Railway in London .
  • London Underground@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the end of the 1880s, underground railways reached Chesham on the Metropolitan, Hounslow, Wimbledon and Whitechapel on the District and New Cross on the East London Railway.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ By the end of the 1880s, underground trains reached Chesham on the Metropolitan, Hounslow and Wimbledon on the District and Shoreditch and New Cross on the East London Railway.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By the end of the 19th century, the Metropolitan had extended its lines far outside of London to Aylesbury, Verney Junction and Brill, creating new suburbs along the route—later publicised by the company as Metro-land.^ By the end of the 19th century, the Metropolitan had extended its lines far outside of London to Aylesbury , Verney Junction and Brill , creating new suburbs along the route.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the end of the 19th century, the Metropolitan had extended its lines far outside of London to Aylesbury, Verney Junction and Brill, creating new suburbs along the route—later publicised by the company as Metro-land.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Stations on the Metropolitan line outside Greater London are in Zones 7-9.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]
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.Right up until the 1930s the company maintained ambitions to be considered as a main line rather than an urban railway.^ Right up until the 1930s the company maintained ambitions to be considered as a main line rather than an urban railway.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The UERL also owned three tramway companies and went on to buy the London General Omnibus Company, creating an organisation colloquially known as "the Combine" which went on to dominate underground railway construction in London until the 1930s.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Writing on Twitter Cindytoytoy writes: "Well that was fun - right up until the point when the tube train I was on - yes one was running - went on fire at Highgate ".
  • London tube strike travel disruption: day two | News | guardian.co.uk 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

First tube lines

.
The nickname "the Tube" comes from the circular tube-like tunnels and platforms through which the trains travel.
^ File:Gb-lu-Angel-southbound.jpg The nickname "the Tube" comes from the circular tube-like tunnels and platforms through which the trains travel.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The shape and size of the trains are dictated by the size of the tunnels and station platform lengths.
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^ This was done because the Piccadilly and Northern Lines have short platforms at some tunnel stations requiring the driver to stop a 7-car older type train with his cab and the rear cab in the tunnel.
  • London Underground Rolling Stock 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.trainweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This photograph shows the southbound station platform at Angel tube station on the Northern Line.
.Following advances in the use of tunnelling shields, electric traction and deep-level tunnel designs, later railways were built even further underground.^ Following advances in the use of tunnelling shields , electric traction and deep-level tunnel designs, later railways were built even further underground.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was the first "deep-level" electrically operated railway in the world.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following advances in the use of tunnelling shields , electric traction and deep-level tunnel designs, later railways were built further underground.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This caused much less disruption at ground level and it was therefore cheaper and preferable to the cut-and-cover construction method.^ This caused much less disruption at ground level and it was therefore cheaper and preferable to the cut-and-cover construction method.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It was therefore cheaper and preferable.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This caused far less disruption at ground level than the cut-and-cover construction method.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The City & South London Railway (C&SLR, now part of the Northern Line) opened in 1890, between Stockwell and the now closed original terminus at King William Street.^ Most of this original route is now part of the Hammersmith and City Line .
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The City & South London Railway (C&SLR, now part of the Northern Line) opened in 1890, between Stockwell and the now closed original terminus at King William Street.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This line was eventually to become part of the Northern Line.
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.It was the first "deep-level" electrically operated railway in the world.^ It was also the first underground railway to operate electric trains.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It was the first "deep-level" electrically operated railway in the world.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The world's first public underground railway was the Metropolitan Railway in London .
  • London Underground@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13] .By 1900 it had been extended at both ends, to Clapham Common in the south and Moorgate Street (via a diversion) in the north.^ By 1900 it had been extended at both ends, to Clapham Common in the south and Moorgate Street (via a diversion) in the north.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Extending and condensing - 1900 - 1933 In 1900, the C&SLR opened extensions to Clapham Common (in the south) and Moorgate (to the north) - the Moorgate extension allowed the original terminus at King William Street to be abandoned, replaced by Bank .
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^ Several stations have been rebuilt to deal with overcrowding issues, with Clapham Common and Clapham North on the Northern line being the last remaining stations with a single narrow platform with tracks on both sides.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The second such railway, the Waterloo and City Railway (W&CR), opened in 1898.[14] It was built and run by the London and South Western Railway.^ It was built and run by the London and South Western Railway.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The second such railway, the Waterloo and City Railway, opened in 1898.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The City & South London Railway (now part of the Northern line ) opened in 1890.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 30 July 1900, the Central London Railway (now known as the Central line) was opened,[14] operating services from Bank to Shepherd's Bush.^ On 30 July 1900 the Central London Railway (now known as the Central Line) was opened, operating services from Bank to Shepherd's Bush.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Also in 1900, another company launched the Central London Railway between Shepherd's Bush and Bank, connecting the shopping area of Oxford Street with the financial area of the City.
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^ In 1884 the District and the Metropolitan began to operate services on the line.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

.It was nicknamed the "Twopenny Tube" for its flat fare and cylindrical tunnels;[15] the "tube" nickname was eventually transferred to the Underground system as a whole.^ The Central London Railway was nicknamed the "Twopenny Tube" for its flat fare and cylindrical tunnels; the "tube" nickname was eventually transferred to the Underground system as a whole.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was nicknamed the "Twopenny Tube" for its flat fare and cylindrical tunnels; the "tube" nickname was eventually transferred to the Underground system as a whole.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]
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^ More tube lines appeared following the appearance of the Central London forming the basis of the Underground system that is so familiar today.
  • London Underground@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An interchange with the C&SLR and the W&CR was provided at Bank.^ An interchange with the C&SLR was provided at Bank.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]
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.Construction had also begun in August 1898 on the Baker Street & Waterloo Railway, however work came to a halt after 18 months when funds ran out.^ Construction had also begun in August 1898 on the Baker Street & Waterloo Railway .
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However work on this railway came to a halt 18 months after it began when funds ran out.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The LPTB began a programme of new works which included a new tube line between Baker Street and Finchley Road to relieve the Metropolitan's worst bottleneck.
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[16]

Integration

.In the early 20th century the presence of six independent operators running different Underground lines caused passengers substantial inconvenience; in many places passengers had to walk some distance above ground to change between lines.^ What has changed is not the lines that have continued operating but the lines with problems.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Template:Refimprovesect In the early 20th century, the presence of six independent operators running different Underground lines caused passengers substantial inconvenience; in many places passengers had to walk some distance above ground to change between lines.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the early 20th century the presence of six independent operators running different Underground lines caused passengers substantial inconvenience; in many places passengers had to walk some distance above ground to change between lines.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The costs associated with running such a system were also heavy, and as a result many companies looked to financiers who could give them the money they needed to expand into the lucrative suburbs as well as electrify the earlier steam operated lines.^ The costs associated with running such a system were also heavy, and as a result many companies looked to financiers who could give them the money they needed to expand into the lucrative suburbs as well as electrify the earlier steam operated lines.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Template:Refimprovesect In the early 20th century, the presence of six independent operators running different Underground lines caused passengers substantial inconvenience; in many places passengers had to walk some distance above ground to change between lines.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the early 20th century the presence of six independent operators running different Underground lines caused passengers substantial inconvenience; in many places passengers had to walk some distance above ground to change between lines.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most prominent of these was Charles Yerkes, an American tycoon who secured the right to build the Charing Cross, Euston and Hampstead Railway (CCE&HR) on 1 October 1900. In March 1901, he effectively took control of the District and this enabled him to form the Metropolitan District Electric Traction Company (MDET) on 15 July.^ In March 1901 he effectively took control of the District and this enabled him to form the Metropolitan District Electric Traction Company (MDET) on 15 July.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Charing Cross Railway Station (17minutes) .
  • LondonTown.com | London Underground Westminster London 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.londontown.com [Source type: News]

^ The most prominent of these was Charles Yerkes, an American tycoon who secured the right to build the Charing Cross, Euston & Hampstead Railway (CCE&HR) on 1 October 1900.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

.Through this he acquired the Great Northern and Strand Railway and the Brompton and Piccadilly Circus Railway in September 1901, the construction of which had already been authorised by Parliament, together with the moribund Baker Street & Waterloo Railway in March 1902. On 9 April the MDET evolved into the Underground Electric Railways of London Company Ltd (UERL).^ Construction had also begun in August 1898 on the Baker Street & Waterloo Railway.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Construction had also begun in August 1898 on the Baker Street & Waterloo Railway .
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^ The newly named Great Northern, Piccadilly & Brompton Railway, combining the two projects acquired by MDET in September 1901, also opened in 1906.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

.The UERL also owned three tramway companies and went on to buy the London General Omnibus Company, creating an organisation colloquially known as "the Combine" which went on to dominate underground railway construction in London until the 1930s.^ That company also owned three tramway companies and went on to buy the London General Omnibus Company , creating an organisation colloquially known as "the Combine".
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The UERL also owned three tramway companies and went on to buy the London General Omnibus Company, creating an organisation colloquially known as "the Combine" which went on to dominate underground railway construction in London until the 1930s.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ While the first use of a roundel in a London transport context was the 19th-century symbol of the London General Omnibus Company — a wheel with a bar across the centre bearing the word GENERAL — its usage on the Underground stems from the decision in 1908 to find a more obvious way of highlighting station names on platforms.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

The Circle and District Line platforms at Embankment station
.With the financial backing of Yerkes, the District opened its South Harrow branch in 1903 and completed its link to the Metropolitan's Uxbridge branch at Rayners Lane in 1904—although services to Uxbridge on the District did not begin until 1910 due to yet another disagreement with the Metropolitan.^ By 1904 the District had opened its South Harrow branch and the MetR opened its Uxbridge branch.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Watford branch of the Metropolitan opened in 1925.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However construction did not begin until February 1860 due to financial problems.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By the end of 1905, all District Railway and Inner Circle services were run by electric trains.^ By the end of 1905 all District Railway and Inner Circle services were run by electric trains.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Inner Circle was not completed until 1884, with the Metropolitan and the District jointly running services.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The London and North Western Railway (LNWR) began running their Outer Circle service from Broad Street via Willesden Junction, Addison Road and Earl's Court to Mansion House in 1872.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

.The Baker Street & Waterloo Railway opened in 1906, soon branding itself the Bakerloo, and by 1907 it had been extended to Edgware Road in the north and Elephant & Castle in the south.^ The Baker Street & Waterloo Railway opened in 1906, soon branding itself the Bakerloo , and by 1907 had been extended to Edgware Road in the north and Elephant & Castle in the south.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Construction had also begun in August 1898 on the Baker Street & Waterloo Railway.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Construction had also begun in August 1898 on the Baker Street & Waterloo Railway .
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The newly named Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway, combining the two projects acquired by MDET in September 1901, also opened in 1906. With tunnels at an impressive depth of 200 feet below the surface, it ran from Finsbury Park to Hammersmith; a single station branch to Strand (later renamed Aldwych) was added in 1907. In the same year the CCE&HR opened from Charing Cross to Camden Town, with two northward branches, one to Golders Green and one to Highgate (now Archway).^ Charing Cross Railway Station (17minutes) .
  • LondonTown.com | London Underground Westminster London 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.londontown.com [Source type: News]

^ In the same year the CCE&HR opened from Charing Cross to Camden Town, with two northward branches, one to Golders Green and one to Highgate (now Archway).
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ With tunnels at an impressive depth of 200 feet below the surface, it ran from Finsbury Park to Hammersmith; a single station branch to Strand (later renamed Aldwych) was added in 1907.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

.Independent ventures did continue in the early part of the 20th century.^ Independent ventures did continue in the early part of the 20th century.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Template:Refimprovesect In the early 20th century, the presence of six independent operators running different Underground lines caused passengers substantial inconvenience; in many places passengers had to walk some distance above ground to change between lines.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the early 20th century the presence of six independent operators running different Underground lines caused passengers substantial inconvenience; in many places passengers had to walk some distance above ground to change between lines.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The independent Great Northern & City Railway opened in 1904 between Finsbury Park and Moorgate.^ The only remaining independent underground railway in London, the Great Northern and City Railway (which ran a service between Moorgate and Finsbury Park ), was acquired by the Metropolitan in the same year.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before those schemes were implemented the independent Great Northern & City Railway opened in 1904 between Finsbury Park and Moorgate .
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The independent Great Northern & City Railway opened in 1904 between Finsbury Park and Moorgate.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

.It was the only tube line of sufficient diameter to be capable of handling main line stock, and it was originally intended to be part of a main line railway.^ It was the only tube line of sufficient diameter to be capable of handling main-line stock, but remained separate from the main line network.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the monopoly of the Combine asserted itself, only the Metropolitan Railway stayed away from this process of integration, retaining pretensions of being considered to be a main-line railway.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The earlier lines of the present London Underground system, built by various companies, became part of an integrated passenger transport system (which excluded the main line railways) in 1933 under the London Passenger Transport Board (LPTB).
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However money soon ran out and the route remained separate from the main line network until the 1970s.^ However money soon ran out and the route remained separate from the main line network until the 1970s.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ However work on this railway came to a halt 18 months after it began when funds ran out.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This consisted of plans to extend some lines, to take over the operation of others from the main-line railway companies, and to electrify the entire network.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The C&SLR was also extended northwards to Euston by 1907.
.In early 1908, in an effort to increase passenger numbers, the underground railway operators agreed to promote their services jointly as "the Underground", publishing new adverts and creating a free publicity map of the network for the purpose.^ In early 1908 the underground railway operators agreed to promote their services jointly as "the Underground", creating a free publicity map of the network for the purpose.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In early 1908, in an effort to increase passenger numbers, the underground railway operators agreed to promote their services jointly as "the Underground", publishing new adverts and creating a free publicity map of the network for the purpose.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In the early 20th century the presence of six independent operators running different Underground lines caused passengers substantial inconvenience; in many places passengers had to walk some distance above ground to change between lines.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The map featured a key labelling the Bakerloo Railway, the Central London Railway, the City & South London Railway, the District Railway, the Great Northern & City Railway, the Hampstead Railway (the shortened name of the CCE&HR), the Metropolitan Railway and the Piccadilly Railway.^ The London Underground's 11 lines are the Bakerloo line , Central line , Circle line , District line , Hammersmith & City line , Jubilee line , Metropolitan line , Northern line , Piccadilly line , Victoria line , and Waterloo & City line .
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The map featured a key labelling the Bakerloo Railway, the Central London Railway, the City & South London Railway, the District Railway, the Great Northern & City Railway, the Hampstead Railway (the shortened name of the CCE&HR), the Metropolitan Railway and the Piccadilly Railway.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The City & South London Railway (now part of the Northern line ) opened in 1890.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some other railways appeared on the map but with less prominence than the aforementioned lines.^ Some other railways appeared on the map but with less prominence than the aforementioned lines.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ (Some of it degenerates into a "my map's bigger than your map" argument, but the rest is fascinating).
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other lines swiftly followed, and by 1884 the Inner Circle (today's Circle line ) was completed as a joint venture between the Metropolitan Railway and its rival the Metropolitan District Railway .
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These included part of the ELR (although the map wasn't big enough to fit in the whole line) and the Waterloo and City Railway.^ Waterloo & City line .
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is not necessary to cover every section of track on the system, although some versions of the game stipulate that all lines, including the Waterloo & City line, should be used.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A48502 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The oldest part of today's Underground network is the Central line between Leyton and Loughton , which opened as a railway seven years before the Underground itself.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As the latter was owned by a main line railway company, it was not included in this early phase of integration.^ As the latter was owned by a main line railway company it wasn't included in this early phase of integration.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ As the monopoly of the Combine asserted itself, only the Metropolitan Railway stayed away from this process of integration, retaining pretensions of being considered to be a main-line railway.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The earlier lines of the present London Underground system, built by various companies, became part of an integrated passenger transport system (which excluded the main line railways) in 1933 under the London Passenger Transport Board (LPTB).
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As part of the process, "The Underground" name appeared on stations for the first time[17] and electric ticket-issuing machines were also introduced.^ As part of the process, "The Underground" name appeared on stations for the first time and electric ticket-issuing machines were also introduced.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The origins of station names of the London Underground .
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each station displays the Underground roundel, often containing the station's name in the central bar, at entrances and repeatedly along the platform, so that the name can easily be seen by passengers on arriving trains.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was followed in 1913 by the first appearance of the famous circle and horizontal bar symbol, known as "the roundel",[18] designed by Edward Johnston.^ This was followed in 1913 by the first appearance of the famous circle and horizontal bar symbol, known as "the roundel", designed by Edward Johnston.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Template:Refimprovesect Edward Johnston designed TfL's distinctive sans-serif typeface , in 1916.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The company, which soon became known as "the District", was first incorporated in 1864 to complete an Inner Circle railway around London in conjunction with the Metropolitan.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

[17]
.On 1 January 1913 the UERL absorbed two other independent tube lines, the C&SLR and the Central London Railway.^ UERL also took over the District Railway and absorbed the Central London and C&SLR in 1913.
  • London Underground@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 1 January 1913 the UERL absorbed two other independent tube lines, the C&SLR and the Central London Railway.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ On 1 January 1913 the UERL absorbed two other independent tube lines, the City & South London Railway (now part of the Northern Line ) and the Central London Railway (now known as the Central Line ), the latter having opened an important east-west cross-city line from Bank to Shepherd's Bush on 30 July 1900 .
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As the Combine expanded, only the Metropolitan stayed away from this process of integration, retaining its ambition to be considered as a main line railway.^ As the monopoly of the Combine asserted itself, only the Metropolitan Railway stayed away from this process of integration, retaining pretensions of being considered to be a main-line railway.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the Combine expanded, only the Metropolitan stayed away from this process of integration, retaining its ambition to be considered as a main line railway.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Other lines swiftly followed, and by 1884 the Inner Circle (today's Circle line ) was completed as a joint venture between the Metropolitan Railway and its rival the Metropolitan District Railway .
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Proposals were put forward for a merger between the two companies in 1913 but the plan was rejected by the Metropolitan.^ Proposals were put forward for a merger between the two companies in 1913 but the plan was rejected by the Metropolitan.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

.In the same year the company asserted its independence by buying out the cash strapped Great Northern and City Railway.^ The only remaining independent underground railway in London, the Great Northern and City Railway (which ran a service between Moorgate and Finsbury Park ), was acquired by the Metropolitan in the same year.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The City & South London Railway (now part of the Northern line ) opened in 1890.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It also sought a character of its own. The Metropolitan Surplus Lands Committee had been formed in 1887 to develop accommodation alongside the railway and in 1919 Metropolitan Railway Country Estates Ltd. was founded to capitalise on the post-World War One demand for housing. This ensured that the Metropolitan would retain an independent image until the creation of London Transport in 1933.
.The Metropolitan also sought to electrify its lines.^ This phase of the programme was completed when the Metropolitan Line was electrified to Chesham in 1960.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1905 most of the lines of the Metropolitan and District were finally electrified.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The District and the Metropolitan had agreed to use the low voltage DC system for the Inner Circle, comprising two electric rails to power the trains, back in 1901. At the start of 1905 electric trains began to work the Uxbridge branch and from 1 November 1906 electric locomotives took trains as far as Wembley Park where steam trains took over.^ They are round circles with two triangular arrows inside them, each pointing to the side of the train where the platform can be expected.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sky has more on the Bus "ripped in two" , plus Bradley Anderson told Sky News that he was involved in the Edgware Road incident on a Circle line train.

^ By 1904 the District had opened its South Harrow branch and the MetR opened its Uxbridge branch.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This changeover point was moved to Harrow on 19 July 1908. The Hammersmith & City branch had also been upgraded to electric working on 5 November 1906. The electrification of the ELR followed on 31 March 1913, the same year as the opening of its extension to Whitechapel and Shoreditch.^ The Hammersmith & City branch had also been upgraded to electric working on 5 November 1906.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This changeover point was moved to Harrow on 19 July 1908.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The electrification of the ELR followed on 31 March 1913, the same year as the opening of its extension to Whitechapel and Shoreditch.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

.Following the Grouping Act of 1921, which merged all the cash strapped main line railways into four companies (thus obliterating the original consortium that had built the ELR), the Metropolitan agreed to run passenger services on the line.^ Following the Grouping Act of 1921, which merged all the cash strapped main line railways into four companies (thus obliterating the original consortium that had built the ELR), the Metropolitan agreed to run passenger services on the line.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ As the monopoly of the Combine asserted itself, only the Metropolitan Railway stayed away from this process of integration, retaining pretensions of being considered to be a main-line railway.
  • London Underground - Railways 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC railways.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This had opened in 1843 as a pedestrian tunnel, but in 1865 it was purchased by the ELR (a consortium of six railway companies: the Great Eastern Railway (GER); London, Brighton and South Coast Railway (LB&SCR); London, Chatham and Dover Railway (LCDR); South Eastern Railway (SER); Metropolitan Railway; and the Metropolitan District Railway) and converted into a railway tunnel.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

The Bakerloo line extension to Queen's Park was completed in 1915, and the service extended to Watford Junction via the London and North Western Railway tracks in 1917. The extension of the Central line to Ealing Broadway was delayed by the war until 1920.
.The major development of the 1920s was the integration of the CCE&HR and the C&SLR and extensions to form what was to become the Northern line.^ This line was eventually to become part of the Northern Line.
  • London Underground@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The major development of the 1920s was the integration of the CCE&HR and the C&SLR and extensions to form what was to become the Northern line.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Programs for the extension of the Northern and Central lines and improvements to the Metropolitan line were halted.
  • London Underground@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This necessitated enlargement of the older parts of the C&SLR, which had been built on a modest scale.^ This necessitated enlargement of the older parts of the C&SLR, which had been built on a modest scale.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

The integration required temporary closures during 1922—24. The Golders Green branch was extended to Edgware in 1924, and the southern end was extended to Morden in 1926.
.The Watford branch of the Metropolitan opened in 1925 and in the same year electrification was extended to Rickmansworth.^ The Watford branch of the Metropolitan opened in 1925 and in the same year electrification was extended to Rickmansworth.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ At the same time, the St John's Wood Railway Company opened a line Baker Street to Swiss Cottage was opened in 1868, which was extended to Willesden Green in 1879 (the company amalgamated with the Metropolitan Railway Company in the same year) and to Harrow-on-the-Hill in 1880).
  • London Underground@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the same year the CCE&HR opened from Charing Cross to Camden Town, with two northward branches, one to Golders Green and one to Highgate (now Archway).
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

The last major work completed by the Metropolitan was the branch to Stanmore which opened in 1932.
.By 1933 the Combine had completed the Cockfosters branch of the Piccadilly Line, with through services running (via realigned tracks between Hammersmith and Acton Town) to Hounslow West and Uxbridge.^ Hammersmith & City - this line runs from Hammersmith at its west end and through the City.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A48502 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1933 the Combine had completed the Cockfosters branch of the Piccadilly Line, with through services running (via realigned tracks between Hammersmith and Acton Town) to Hounslow West and Uxbridge.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ On the Underground a top-contact third rail is beside the track, energised at +420 V DC, and a top-contact fourth rail is centrally between the running rails, at -210 V DC, which combine to provide a traction voltage of 630 V DC. .
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

London Transport

.In 1933 the Combine, the Metropolitan and all the municipal and independent bus and tram undertakings were merged into the London Passenger Transport Board (LPTB), a self-supporting and unsubsidised public corporation which came into being on 1 July 1933. The LPTB soon became known as London Transport (LT).^ The LPTB soon became known as "London Transport" (LT).
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Trains into London all halted.

^ In 1933 the Combine, the Metropolitan and all the municipal and independent bus and tram undertakings were merged into the London Passenger Transport Board (LPTB), a self-supporting and unsubsidised public corporation which came into being on 1 July 1933.
  • London Underground - London Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC london.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

.Shortly after it was created, LT began the process of integrating the underground railways of London into one network.^ By Docklands Light Railway and London Underground The extension to the Docklands Light Railway (DLR), which opened in December 2005, directly connects the London City Airport...
  • LondonTown.com | London Underground Westminster London 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.londontown.com [Source type: News]

^ Response to London Underground Map RESPONSE TO ROY CHAN: The transition from the angular map to the curved version is an interesting one.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At one moment, they showed an animated version of the Underground map as it is morphing into a map that reflected true geographical distances--a most dramatic comparison.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All the separate railways were given new names in order to become lines within it.^ They also develop a new system to solve the problem of repetitive place names where there are multiple stations on multiple lines.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A free map of these lines, designed by Harry Beck, was issued in 1933. It featured the District Line, the Bakerloo Line, the Piccadilly Line, the Edgware, Highgate and Morden Line, the Metropolitan Line, the Great Northern & City Line, the East London Line and the Central London Line.^ Bakerloo line Central line Circle line District line East London line Hammersmith & City line Jubilee line Metropolitan line Northern line Piccadilly line Victoria line Waterloo & City line .
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The London Underground's 11 lines are the Bakerloo line , Central line , Circle line , District line , Hammersmith & City line , Jubilee line , Metropolitan line , Northern line , Piccadilly line , Victoria line , and Waterloo & City line .
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ London Underground lines 4 Bakerloo line Central line Circle line District line East London line Hammersmith & City line Jubilee line Metropolitan line Northern line Piccadilly line Victoria line Waterloo & City line 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 .
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.Commonly regarded as a design classic, an updated version of this map is still in use today.^ The London Underground map which we all use today was invented by Harry Beck in 1933.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A48502 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Response to London Underground Map The geographically accurate version, which provides distance and orientation data not available on the classic Underground map, is very nice.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A new design might also stimulate the use of alternative paths different from the ones suggested by the original map.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Waterloo & City line was not included in this map as it was still owned by a main line railway (the Southern Railway since 1923) and not LT.
.LT announced a scheme for the expansion and modernisation of the network entitled the New Works Programme, which had followed the announcement of improvement proposals for the Metropolitan Line.^ London Transport set in motion a scheme for the expansion of the network, the 1935–1940 New Works Programme .
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This phase of the programme was completed when the Metropolitan Line was electrified to Chesham in 1960.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other lines swiftly followed, and by 1884 the Inner Circle (today's Circle line ) was completed as a joint venture between the Metropolitan Railway and its rival the Metropolitan District Railway .
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This consisted of plans to extend some lines, to take over the operation of others from main-line railway companies, and to electrify the entire network.^ This consisted of plans to extend some lines, to take over the operation of others from the main-line railway companies, and to electrify the entire network.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tokyo uses upper and lower case letters to distinguish some lines ("M" for the main Marunouchi-line, and "m" for a section of the Marunouchi line that serves only a part of northwest Tokyo).
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other lines swiftly followed, and by 1884 the Inner Circle (today's Circle line ) was completed as a joint venture between the Metropolitan Railway and its rival the Metropolitan District Railway .
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the 1930s and 1940s, several sections of main-line railways were converted into surface lines of the Underground system.^ During the 1930s and 1940s, several sections of main-line railway were converted into (surface) lines of the Underground.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is the world's oldest underground railway system.
  • London Underground - Worldwide Trams Wiki 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC trams.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tokyo uses upper and lower case letters to distinguish some lines ("M" for the main Marunouchi-line, and "m" for a section of the Marunouchi line that serves only a part of northwest Tokyo).
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The oldest part of today's Underground network is the Central line between Leyton and Loughton, which opened as a railway seven years before the Underground itself.^ Known colloquially as 'the tube', it is the oldest underground railway in the world, having been shaped over the years by many different people , and has developed both its own etiquette and its own species of mosquito .
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A48502 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ London Buses roundel London Underground roundel ring Central line (Underground) Prohibition safety signs .
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Drivers on the central and victoria line don't even do anything apart from open and close the doors.
  • London tube strike travel disruption: day two | News | guardian.co.uk 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

LT also sought to abandon routes which made a significant financial loss. Soon after the LPTB started operating, services to Verney Junction and Brill on the Metropolitan Railway were stopped. The renamed "Metropolitan Line" terminus was moved to Aylesbury.
The outbreak of World War II delayed all the expansion schemes. .From mid-1940, the Blitz led to the use of many Underground stations as shelters during air raids and overnight.^ Challengers must visit every station on the Underground network by using the Underground, public transport and their own two feet.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A48502 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Underground has many abandoned lines and stations , which are still sitting there in a strangely unnerving way - unnerving, anyway, for those who have seen Quatermass and the Pit .
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A48502 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the stations lie underground so that the disused platforms can be seen from the train, and retain a use as emergency exits.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A48502 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The authorities initially tried to discourage and prevent this, but later supplied bunks, latrines, and catering facilities. .Later in the war, eight London deep-level shelters were constructed under stations, ostensibly to be used as shelters (each deep-level shelter could hold 8,000 people) though plans were in place to convert them for a new express line parallel to the Northern line after the war.^ Plan a route between them, preferably using three lines or less - interchanging adds time to the journey, but is sometimes inevitable.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A48502 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sub-surface trains run on the Circle, District, East London, Metropolitan and Hammersmith & City lines, and have substantially more headroom than the smaller deep-level trains.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A48502 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of course, an indicator is that there are more stations on the Northern line route, but the map seems to indicate that the Victoria line follows a less direct path.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some stations (now mostly disused) were converted into government offices: for example, Down Street was used for the headquarters of the Railway Executive Committee and was also used for meetings of the War Cabinet before the Cabinet War Rooms were completed;[19] Brompton Road was used as a control room for anti-aircraft guns and the remains of the surface building are still used by London's University Royal Naval Unit (URNU) and University London Air Squadron (ULAS).^ Response to London Underground Map For those who don't use the Tube map daily, some explanation.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blair statement - "I've just attended a meeting of the government's emergency committee...

^ I often used to use bus stop maps to orient myself while walking somewhere in London, now I have to pack an A-Z. -- American in London ( email ), April 15, 2003 .
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the war one of the last acts of the LPTB was to give the go-ahead for the completion of the postponed Central Line extensions.^ One source observed: "It was like the infantry going to war, or like they were going on a hiking holiday."
  • London bombings: 77 questions concerning 7/7. Update - Democratic Underground 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.democraticunderground.com [Source type: News]

The western extension to West Ruislip was completed in 1948, and the eastern extension to Epping in 1949; the single-line branch from Epping to Ongar was taken over and electrified in 1957.

Nationalisation

.On 1 January 1948 London Transport was nationalised by the incumbent Labour government, together with the four remaining main line railway companies, and incorporated into the operations of the British Transport Commission (BTC).^ This book gives guidance on all Transport for London’s corporate, mode and safety colours and also details the colours used on the London Underground lines.
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Transport for London claims that half the lines on the London Underground are running.
  • London tube strike travel disruption: day two | News | guardian.co.uk 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Corporate colours Transport for London have a set of Corporate colours which are used across the business units, specific modes of transport, safety signs and certain London Underground lines.
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.The LPTB was replaced by the London Transport Executive (LTE).^ Response to London Underground maps The London Transport Museum does sell a map of the underground with musicians replacing the station names.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This brought the Underground under the remit of central government for the first time in its history.
The implementation of nationalised railways was a move of necessity as well as ideology. The main-line railways had struggled to cope with a war economy in the First World War and by the end of World War Two the four remaining companies were on the verge of bankruptcy. Nationalisation was the easiest way to save the railways in the short term and provide money to fix wartime damage. .The BTC necessarily prioritised the reconstruction of its main-line railways over the maintenance of the Underground network.^ You are here: Scott Wilson Group plc > Projects > Transportation > Railways > Tube Lines - London Underground PPP Tube Lines - London Underground PPP .
  • Tube Lines - London Underground PPP 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.scottwilson.com [Source type: Academic]

The unfinished parts of the New Works Programme were gradually shelved or postponed.
.However the BTC did authorise the completion of the electrification of the network, seeking to replace steam locomotives on the parts of the system where they still operated.^ These diagrams might not become as iconic for the city as in the case of London, but they still make navigation on the network easier for passengers.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This phase of the program was completed when the Metropolitan Line was electrified to Chesham in 1960. Steam locomotives were fully withdrawn from London Underground passenger services on 9 September 1961, when British Railways took over the operations of the Metropolitan line between Amersham and Aylesbury.^ I remember keeping an exhaustive log of every trip we took on the Underground ("Circle Line: Sloane Square to South Kensington.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Millions of passengers had another difficult commute into work as the RMT's 48-hour strike over pay and jobs on the London Underground continues.
  • London tube strike travel disruption: day two | News | guardian.co.uk 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ We also conduct an annual review of the performance and revenues regime between London Underground and Tube Lines.
  • Tube Lines - London Underground PPP 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.scottwilson.com [Source type: Academic]

The last steam shunting and freight locomotive was withdrawn from service in 1971.[18]
.In 1963 the LTE was replaced by the London Transport Board, directly accountable to the Ministry of Transport.^ Response to London Underground maps The London Transport Museum does sell a map of the underground with musicians replacing the station names.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

GLC Control

.On 1 January 1970, the Greater London Council (GLC) took over responsibility for London Transport, again under the formal title London Transport Executive.^ Response to London Underground maps I had a short telephone conversation with the Transport Museum.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Response to London Underground Map I took the Tufte seminar in Boston yesterday, which has prompted me to check out some of these discussions.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Response to London Underground maps Please note that the link given to the Underground map poster at London Transport Museum is incorrect.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This period is perhaps the most controversial in London's transport history, characterised by staff shortages and a severe lack of funding from central government.^ With over llion passengers every day, Transport for London runs one of the busiest and most complex transportation systems in the world.
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Additional logos Transport for London has several other logos other than the roundels used to identify the modes.
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

In 1980 the Labour-led GLC began the 'Fares Fair' project, which increased local taxation in order to lower ticket prices. The campaign was initially successful and usage of the Tube significantly increased. .But serious objections to the policy came from the London Borough of Bromley, an area of London which has no Underground stations.^ Response to London Underground Map In all this discussion, I'm surprised that the Tokyo subway gets no mention!
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like London's, the DC Metro map is seriously distorted; downtown stations that are four blocks apart are spaced the same as suburban stations almost four miles apart.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Response to London Underground Map The maps in Milan's carriages are notable for their station icons.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Council resented the subsidy as it would be of little benefit to its residents. .The council took the GLC to the Law Lords who ruled that the policy was illegal based on their interpretation of the Transport (London) Act 1969. They ruled that the Act stipulated that London Transport must plan, as far as was possible, to break even.^ This is obscene and transport for london should use this opportunitiy to break the union once and for all.
  • London tube strike travel disruption: day two | News | guardian.co.uk 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

In line with this judgement, 'Fares Fair' was therefore reversed, leading to a 100% increase in fares in 1982 and a subsequent decline in passenger numbers. The scandal prompted Margaret Thatcher's Conservative Government to remove the London Transport from the GLC's control in 1984, a development that turned out to be a prelude to the abolition of the GLC in 1986.
.However the period saw the first real postwar investment in the network with the opening of the carefully planned Victoria Line, which was built on a diagonal northeast-southwest alignment beneath central London, incorporating centralised signalling control and automatically driven trains.^ An unofficial London tube map form 2003 when the Central line was closed after a crash .
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some things are hard to put forth in a map however; for example, some trains only go as far as the last transfer on the dark green line, and then switch automatically to blue, while others go all the way.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But the map doesn't tell me that the Victoria line is usually faster, with more frequent trains.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It opened in stages between 1968 and 1971. The Piccadilly line was extended to Heathrow Airport in 1977, and the Jubilee line was opened in 1979, taking over part of the Bakerloo line, with new tunnels between Baker Street and Charing Cross.^ Here's an updated list of stations closed because of the strike: Charing Cross, Goldhawk Road, King's Cross St.Pancras, Paddington (Hammersmith and City Line), Southwark, St.John's Wood, Warren Street, and Wood Lane.
  • London tube strike travel disruption: day two | News | guardian.co.uk 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Near normal services at Charing Cross, Blackfriars, Marylebone, Victoria, Fenchurch Street (though the latter's worth avoiding).

^ Finally, each time a new station or line is temporarily closed or opened, the signs and maps in every line and coach get updated overnight.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There was also one important legacy from the 'Fares Fair' scheme, the introduction of ticket zones, which remain in use today.^ BBC radio say there was evidence of explosives being used at one of the sites .

London Regional Transport

In 1984 Margaret Thatcher's Conservative Government removed London Transport from the GLC's control, replacing it with London Regional Transport (LRT) on 19 June 1984 - a statutory corporation for which the Secretary of State for Transport was directly responsible. The Government planned to modernise the system while slashing its subsidy from taxpayers and ratepayers. .As part of this strategy London Underground Limited was set up on 1 April 1985 as a wholly owned subsidiary of LRT to run the network.^ Response to London Underground Map I agree with Martin on trying to come up with large scale 3D maps.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Corporate colours Transport for London have a set of Corporate colours which are used across the business units, specific modes of transport, safety signs and certain London Underground lines.
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Response to London Underground maps Stuttgart's city rail map has a unique feature - the non major cardinal lines are set at 30deg, not 45deg as in Beck's masterpiece.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The prognosis for LRT was good. Oliver Green, the then Curator of the London Transport Museum, wrote in 1987:
.In its first annual report, London Underground Ltd was able to announce that more passengers had used the system than ever before.^ With over llion passengers every day, Transport for London runs one of the busiest and most complex transportation systems in the world.
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This book gives guidance on all Transport for London’s corporate, mode and safety colours and also details the colours used on the London Underground lines.
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Response to London Underground Map Two subway map bits: The NYC Transit Museum displays examples of subway maps from the system's entire history.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1985-86 the Underground carried 762 million passengers - well above its previous record total of 720 million in 1948. At the same time costs have been significantly reduced with a new system of train overhaul and the introduction of more driver-only operation.^ Millions of passengers had another difficult commute into work as the RMT's 48-hour strike over pay and jobs on the London Underground continues.
  • London tube strike travel disruption: day two | News | guardian.co.uk 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Sky has more on the Bus "ripped in two" , plus Bradley Anderson told Sky News that he was involved in the Edgware Road incident on a Circle line train.

^ It's absolutely stupid that you can only get two prams on a bus at the same time.
  • Overheard Underground. Tube Gossip. Overheard on the London Underground. 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.themanwhofellasleep.com [Source type: Original source]

.Work is well in hand on the conversion of station booking offices to take the new Underground Ticketing System (UTS)...and prototype trials for the next generation of tube trains (1990) stock started in late 1986. As the London Underground celebrates its 125th anniversary in 1988, the future looks promising.^ The London Underground For information about a station, including nearby attractions, hotels, restaurants, shops and bars and clubs select from the list below.

^ This book gives guidance on all Transport for London’s corporate, mode and safety colours and also details the colours used on the London Underground lines.
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Response to London Underground Map Two subway map bits: The NYC Transit Museum displays examples of subway maps from the system's entire history.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]
However, cost-cutting was not without its critics. .At 19:30 on 18 November 1987 a fire swept through King's Cross St Pancras Underground station, the busiest station on the network, killing 31 people.^ Trains are running out of London from King's Cross and St Pancras.

^ At King's Cross, scene of one of the worst Underground disasters ever back in the late 1980s, people were using umbrellas to smash windows of the trains.

^ Here's an updated list of stations closed because of the strike: Charing Cross, Goldhawk Road, King's Cross St.Pancras, Paddington (Hammersmith and City Line), Southwark, St.John's Wood, Warren Street, and Wood Lane.
  • London tube strike travel disruption: day two | News | guardian.co.uk 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.It later turned out that the fire had started in an escalator shaft serving the Piccadilly Line, which was burnt out along with the top level (entrances and ticket hall) of the deep-level tube station.^ WITHIN tube stations between lines?
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So I imagined the London tube map as an airline route map, with the flight looping up and then back to the next station along, and redrew it.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, Shinjuku also happens to be a very popular station with two other subway lines serving it: the Marunouchi line (M) and the O-edo line (E).
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The escalator on which the fire started had been built just before World War II.^ The news just started on France 3, and they're discussing a fire in southwestern france.

The steps and sides of the escalator were partly made of wood, meaning that they burned quickly and easily. .Although smoking was banned on the subsurface sections of the London Underground in February 1985 (a consequence of the Oxford Circus fire), the fire was most probably caused by a commuter discarding a burning match, which fell down the side of the escalator onto the running track (Fennell 1988, p. 111).^ Harry Beck's diagram of the 7+ lines of the London Underground, although geographically inaccurate, provides a coherent overview of a complex system.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Response to London Underground Map Speaking of maps of the underground -- I visited New York City this past weekend, and noticed that some of the newer cars have maps of the line the car is running.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The running track had not been cleaned in some time and was covered in grease and fibrous detritus. .The Member of Parliament for the area, Frank Dobson, informed the House of Commons that the number of transportation employees at the station, which handled 200,000 passengers every day at the time, had been cut from 16 to ten, and the cleaning staff from 14 to two.^ With over llion passengers every day, Transport for London runs one of the busiest and most complex transportation systems in the world.
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ten controlled explosions were carried out on the car and hundreds of members of the public evacuated from the area, causing the train station to close and serious disruption to services.
  • London bombings: 77 questions concerning 7/7. Update - Democratic Underground 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.democraticunderground.com [Source type: News]

[21] The tragic event led to the abolition of wooden escalators at all Underground stations and pledges of greater investment.
.In 1994, with the privatisation of British Rail, LRT took control of the Waterloo and City line, incorporating it into the Underground network for the first time.^ Waterloo & City line .
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I remember keeping an exhaustive log of every trip we took on the Underground ("Circle Line: Sloane Square to South Kensington.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bakerloo line (Underground) London Rail roundel ring .
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.This year also saw the end of services on the little used Epping-Ongar branch of the Central Line and the Aldwych branch of the Piccadilly Line after it was agreed that necessary maintenance and upgrade work would not be cost-effective.^ The obvious thing, however, would be a legend that would list the lines that are not working and the delay.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lindsay took the Piccadilly Line towards Russell Square, and Hussain, the youngster, is thought to have made for the Bank branch of the Northern Line, heading towards Camden.
  • London bombings: 77 questions concerning 7/7. Update - Democratic Underground 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.democraticunderground.com [Source type: News]

^ Perhaps rendering problem line(s) in the grey currently used for working lines would be better.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1999 the Jubilee line extension to Stratford in London's East End was completed.^ East London line .
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Jubilee line (Underground) London Travel Information symbol .
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bakerloo line Central line Circle line District line East London line Hammersmith & City line Jubilee line Metropolitan line Northern line Piccadilly line Victoria line Waterloo & City line .
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

This plan included the opening of a completely refurbished interchange station at Westminster. .The Jubilee line's old terminal platforms at Charing Cross were closed but maintained operable for emergencies.^ Here's an updated list of stations closed because of the strike: Charing Cross, Goldhawk Road, King's Cross St.Pancras, Paddington (Hammersmith and City Line), Southwark, St.John's Wood, Warren Street, and Wood Lane.
  • London tube strike travel disruption: day two | News | guardian.co.uk 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

Public Private Partnership

.Transport for London (TfL) replaced LRT in 2000, a development that coincided with the creation of a directly-elected Mayor of London and the London Assembly.^ Although iconic, the groundbreaking map design solution created by Harry Beck (London Transport) has many inherent problems.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transport for London (TfL) distributed the map last weekend without the River Thames and the fare zones marked on it.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Response to London Underground maps The London Transport Museum does sell a map of the underground with musicians replacing the station names.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In January 2003 the Underground began operating as a Public-Private Partnership (PPP), whereby the infrastructure and rolling stock were maintained by two private companies (Metronet and Tube Lines) under 30-year contracts, while London Underground Limited remained publicly owned and operated by TfL.
PPP was controversial from the start. .Supporters of the change claimed that the private sector would eliminate the inefficiencies of public-sector enterprises and take on the risks associated with running the network, while opponents said that the need to make profits would reduce the investment and public-service aspects of the Underground.^ This is a wonderful disincentive for much-needed foreign investment in Britain, a disincentive to be reliant on public transport and a total disincentive for any normal person to associate him or herself with a militant union.
  • London tube strike travel disruption: day two | News | guardian.co.uk 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ A colleague, who was on the night shift, said that at 1.30am - when no trains were running - it said that all trains operating a good service.
  • London tube strike travel disruption: day two | News | guardian.co.uk 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ A rail network map isn't just about how to get from A to B. A rail network map is about the identity of the business or organisation running services on those lines.??
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The scheme was put in jeopardy when Metronet, which was responsible for two-thirds of the network, went into administration on 18 July 2007[22][23] after costs for its projects spiralled out of control. The case for PPP was further weakened a year later when it emerged that Metronet's demise had cost the UK government £2 billion. The five private companies that made up the Metronet alliance had to pay £70m each towards paying off the debts acquired by the consortium. But under a deal struck with the Government in 2003 the companies were protected from any further liability. The UK taxpayer therefore had to foot the rest of the bill. This undermined the argument that the PPP would place the risks involved in running the network into the hands of the private sector.[24]
TfL took over the responsibilities of Metronet following its collapse. .The Government made concerted efforts to find another private firm to fill the void but none came forward.^ When police raided the house after the attack, they found the bathtub filled with enough home-made explosives to make another 10kg bomb of the type.
  • London bombings: 77 questions concerning 7/7. Update - Democratic Underground 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.democraticunderground.com [Source type: News]

TfL and the Department for Transport have since agreed to allow TfL to continue operating the areas that were formerly the responsibility of Metronet. An independent panel will review TfL's investment programme. .This leaves two-thirds of the Underground network completely under the control of TfL. The Secretary of State for Transport, Lord Adonis, has hinted that a separate arrangement might be made for the Bakerloo line at a later date.^ Response to London Underground Map London Underground uses the map on a web page to provide passengers with the up-to-date status of their network.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New Tube design Removing zones from a new map of the London Underground network has made it "confusing", a passenger watchdog said.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But, although diagrams underground "maps" have their own language made of symbols, colors, text and lines.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25]
.Maintenance on the Jubilee, Northern and Piccadilly lines remains the responsibility of Tube Lines, although this too has not been without controversy.^ Lindsay took the Piccadilly Line towards Russell Square, and Hussain, the youngster, is thought to have made for the Bank branch of the Northern Line, heading towards Camden.
  • London bombings: 77 questions concerning 7/7. Update - Democratic Underground 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.democraticunderground.com [Source type: News]

.The relationship between London Underground and Tube Lines has deteriorated with disagreements over priorities, estimates and whether Tubes Lines has sufficient funds to meet its commitments.^ London Underground: Battle lines are drawn .
  • London Underground: Battle lines are drawn | The Socialist 6 January 2010 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.socialistparty.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ WITHIN tube stations between lines?
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Response to London Underground Map Prior to finding this thread about the Tube Map, I discovered Rodcorp's site while searching for information about the "flaws" in Beck's map.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] Each side appears to be openly criticising the other, and the situation shows no signs of improving. .However, Tube Lines appears to be more stable than Metronet was prior to its demise.^ This is a larger map than a TfL tube map, with more information that is more time consuming for the novice user to consult.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Transport for London

.Transport for London (TfL) was created in 2000 as the integrated body responsible for London's transport system.^ With over llion passengers every day, Transport for London runs one of the busiest and most complex transportation systems in the world.
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Response to London Underground Map Two subway map bits: The NYC Transit Museum displays examples of subway maps from the system's entire history.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transport for London (TfL) distributed the map last weekend without the River Thames and the fare zones marked on it.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It replaced London Regional Transport.^ Response to London Underground maps The London Transport Museum does sell a map of the underground with musicians replacing the station names.
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It assumed control of London Underground Limited in July 2003.[27]
TfL is part of the Greater London Authority and is constituted as a statutory corporation regulated under local government finance rules.[28] .It has three subsidiaries: London Transport Insurance (Guernsey) Ltd., the TfL Pension Fund Trustee Co.^ Transport for London (TfL) distributed the map last weekend without the River Thames and the fare zones marked on it.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TfL Mode specific colours Transport for London has developed a well designed, confident, clear visual identity system for all their business units.
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

Ltd. and Transport Trading Ltd (TTL). .TTL has six wholly-owned subsidiaries, one of which is London Underground Limited.^ Why did the Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police Ian Blair himself speak of six events?: 1118 London's Metropolitan Police Commissioner Sir Ian Blair tells the BBC he knows of "about six explosions", one on a bus and the others related to Underground stations.
  • London bombings: 77 questions concerning 7/7. Update - Democratic Underground 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.democraticunderground.com [Source type: News]

^ Response to London Underground Map Which neatly ties together this thread with the one about traffic signals and roundabouts.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Response to London Underground Map RESPONSE TO ROY CHAN: The transition from the angular map to the curved version is an interesting one.
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The TfL Board is appointed by the Mayor of London. .The Mayor also sets the structure and level of public transport fares in London.^ Transport for London (TfL) distributed the map last weekend without the River Thames and the fare zones marked on it.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However the day-to-day running of the corporation is left to the Commissioner of Transport for London.^ Transport for London's website hasn't been this busy since snow day in February, according to Hitwise.
  • London tube strike travel disruption: day two | News | guardian.co.uk 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Transport for London claims that half the lines on the London Underground are running.
  • London tube strike travel disruption: day two | News | guardian.co.uk 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

The current Commissioner is Peter Hendy.[29]
.The Mayor is responsible for producing an integrated transport strategy for London and for consulting the GLA, TfL, local councils and others on the strategy.^ Transport for London (TfL) distributed the map last weekend without the River Thames and the fare zones marked on it.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Response to London Underground maps I had a short telephone conversation with the Transport Museum.
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^ Response to London Underground Map I just read this discussion and was surprised not to see mention of the version of the map produced at the Delft University in the Netherlands.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Mayor is also responsible for setting TfL's budget. The GLA is consulted on the Mayor's transport strategy, and inspects and approves the Mayor's budget. It is able to summon the Mayor and senior staff to account for TfL's performance. .London TravelWatch, a body appointed by and reporting to the Assembly, deals with complaints about transport in London.^ Update: BBC now reports "reports of an explosion", and says Transport for London are saying it's thanks to a power failure.

[30]

Infrastructure

Stations and lines

.The London Underground's 11 lines are the Bakerloo line, Central line, Circle line, District line, Hammersmith & City line, Jubilee line, Metropolitan line, Northern line, Piccadilly line, Victoria line, and Waterloo & City line.^ London Underground lines 4 Bakerloo line Central line Circle line District line East London line Hammersmith & City line Jubilee line Metropolitan line Northern line Piccadilly line Victoria line Waterloo & City line 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 .
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bakerloo line Central line Circle line District line East London line Hammersmith & City line Jubilee line Metropolitan line Northern line Piccadilly line Victoria line Waterloo & City line .
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Transport for London roundel Roundel bars except ‘Buses’ Policing on the Underground symbol Lost Property symbol Piccadilly line (Underground) Preferred text colour for posters and front covers .
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.Until 2007 there was a twelfth line, the East London line, but this has closed for rebuilding work.^ East London line .
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An unofficial London tube map form 2003 when the Central line was closed after a crash .
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bakerloo line Central line Circle line District line East London line Hammersmith & City line Jubilee line Metropolitan line Northern line Piccadilly line Victoria line Waterloo & City line .
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

It will be reopen as part of London Overground - part of the National Rail network and eventually connected to its North London Line - in 2010.
London Underground lines[citation needed]
Name Map colour[31] First
operated
First section
opened*
Name dates
from
Type Length
(km)
Length
(miles)
Stations Current Stock Future Stock Journeys
per annum (x 1,000)
Average journeys
per mile (x 1,000)
Bakerloo line Brown 1906 1906 1906 Deep level 23.2 14.50 25 1972 Stock 104,000 7,172
Central line Red 1900 1856 1900 Deep level 74.0 46.00 49 1992 Stock n/a 199,000 4,326
Circle line Yellow 1884 1863 1949 Subsurface 22.5 14.00 26 C Stock S Stock from 2010 74,000 5,286
District line Green 1868 1868 1868–1905 Subsurface 64.0 40.00 55 C Stock and D78 Stock S stock from 2013 188,000 4,700
Hammersmith & City line Pink 1988 (1863 as Metropolitan line) 1858 1988 Subsurface 26.5 16.50 26 C Stock S Stock from 2010 50,000 3,030
Jubilee line Silver 1979 1879 1979 Deep level 36.2 22.50 25 1996 Stock n/a 127,584 5,670
Metropolitan line Dark Magenta 1863 1863 1863 Subsurface 66.7 41.50 35 A Stock S Stock from 2010 58,000 1,398
Northern line Black 1890 1867 1937 Deep level 58.0 36.00 48 1995 Stock 206,987 5,743
Piccadilly line Dark Blue 1906 1869 1906 Deep level 71.0 44.30 52 1973 Stock 2014 Stock from 2014/2015 176,177 3,977
Victoria line Light Blue 1968 1968 1968 Deep level 21.0 13.25 16 1967 Stock 2009 Stock currently being rolled out. 174,000 13,132
Waterloo & City line Turquoise 1898 1898 1898 Deep level 2.5 1.50 2 1992 Stock n/a 9,616 6,410
* Where a year is shown that is earlier than that shown for First operated, this indicates that the line operates over a route first operated by another Underground line or by another railway company.
† Prior to 1994, the Waterloo & City line was operated by British Rail and its predecessors.
.The Underground serves 270 stations by rail; an additional six stations that were on the East London line are temporarily served by Underground replacement buses.^ East London line .
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bakerloo line (Underground) London Rail roundel ring .
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Transport for London roundel Roundel bars except ‘Buses’ Policing on the Underground symbol Lost Property symbol Piccadilly line (Underground) Preferred text colour for posters and front covers .
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.Fourteen Underground stations are outside Greater London, of which five (Amersham, Chalfont & Latimer, Chesham, Chorleywood, Epping) are beyond the M25 London Orbital motorway.^ Response to London Underground maps The London Transport Museum does sell a map of the underground with musicians replacing the station names.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Delft version, underground routes in the center of London are rendered topographically, those outside diagrammatically.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Response to London Underground Map The maps in Milan's carriages are notable for their station icons.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of the 32 London boroughs, six (Bexley, Bromley, Croydon, Kingston, Lewisham and Sutton) are not served by the Underground network, while Hackney only has Old Street and Manor House on its boundaries.^ The link given is the the 'London connections' poster, showing not only the underground but alos regional rail services in the South East of England.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Response to London Underground Map London Underground uses the map on a web page to provide passengers with the up-to-date status of their network.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New Tube design Removing zones from a new map of the London Underground network has made it "confusing", a passenger watchdog said.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Zone 1 (central zone) of the Underground (and DLR) network in a geographically more accurate layout than the usual Tube map, using the same style.
.
Underground trains come in two sizes, larger subsurface trains and smaller tube trains.
^ How come then that other trains on the same line didnt collide with the bombed tubes?
  • London bombings: 77 questions concerning 7/7. Update - Democratic Underground 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.democraticunderground.com [Source type: News]

A Metropolitan line A Stock train (left) passes a Piccadilly line 1973 Stock train (right) in the siding at Rayners Lane
Lines on the Underground can be classified into two types: subsurface and deep-level. .The subsurface lines were dug by the cut-and-cover method, with the tracks running about 5 m (16 ft 5 in) below the surface.^ A rail network map isn't just about how to get from A to B. A rail network map is about the identity of the business or organisation running services on those lines.??
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The deep-level or tube lines, bored using a tunnelling shield, run about 20 m (65 ft 7 in) below the surface (although this varies considerably), with each track in a separate tunnel.^ The new map, designed by Rafa Sanudo (paid 95000 euros, but I am not sure about this) has a higher level of line generalisation by not presenting any 45 degrees line.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A rail network map isn't just about how to get from A to B. A rail network map is about the identity of the business or organisation running services on those lines.??
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These tunnels can have a diameter as small as 3.56 m (11 ft 8 in), and the loading gauge is thus considerably smaller than on the subsurface lines. Lines of both types usually emerge on to the surface outside the central area.
.While the tube lines are for the most part self-contained, the subsurface lines are part of an interconnected network: each shares track with at least two other lines.^ However, Shinjuku also happens to be a very popular station with two other subway lines serving it: the Marunouchi line (M) and the O-edo line (E).
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "S" for the Shinjuku Line), and stations on each line are given a two digit number indicating the station number starting from the southwestern part of metropolitan Tokyo.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The subsurface arrangement is similar to the New York City Subway, which also runs separate "lines" over shared tracks.^ The New York subway knock-off of the London classic was widely ridiculed because of its over-stylized and geographically inaccurate character.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Response to London Underground Map Speaking of maps of the underground -- I visited New York City this past weekend, and noticed that some of the newer cars have maps of the line the car is running.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'm 34 now, and I still get a little intimidated looking at a subway map of New York.
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Rolling stock and electrification

1996 Stock trains at Stratford Market Depot
.The Underground uses rolling stock built between 1960 and 2005. Stock on subsurface lines is identified by a letter (such as A Stock, used on the Metropolitan line), while tube stock is identified by the year in which it was designed (for example, 1996 Stock, used on the Jubilee line).^ WITHIN tube stations between lines?
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Response to London Underground Map For those who don't use the Tube map daily, some explanation.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Response to London Underground maps Time maps were done about 25 years ago for the Tokyo subway by a famous Japanese map designer.
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.All lines are worked by a single type of stock except the District line, which uses both C and D Stock.^ Perhaps rendering problem line(s) in the grey currently used for working lines would be better.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Two types of stock are currently being developed — 2009 Stock for the Victoria line and S stock for the subsurface lines, with the Metropolitan line A Stock due to be replaced first.^ "S" for the Shinjuku Line), and stations on each line are given a two digit number indicating the station number starting from the southwestern part of metropolitan Tokyo.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Rollout of both is expected to begin about 2009. In addition to the electric multiple units described above, there is engineering stock, such as ballast trains and brake vans, identified by a 1-3 letter prefix then a number.
.The Underground is one of the few networks in the world that uses a four-rail system.^ Response to London Underground Map Tokyo/Singapore: A similar coding system has been in use in the Singapore MRT system.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At King's Cross, scene of one of the worst Underground disasters ever back in the late 1980s, people were using umbrellas to smash windows of the trains.

^ Response to London Underground Map London Underground uses the map on a web page to provide passengers with the up-to-date status of their network.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The additional rail carries the electrical return that on third-rail and overhead networks is provided by the running rails.^ A rail network map isn't just about how to get from A to B. A rail network map is about the identity of the business or organisation running services on those lines.??
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

On the Underground a top-contact third rail is beside the track, energised at +420 V DC, and a top-contact fourth rail is centrally between the running rails, at -210 V DC, which combine to provide a traction voltage of 630 V DC.
In cases where the lines are shared with mainline trains which use a three-rail system, the third rail is set at +630 V, and the fourth rail at 0 V DC.[32]

Cooling

.In summer, temperatures on parts of the London Underground can become very uncomfortable due to its deep and poorly ventilated tube tunnels: temperatures as high as 47 °C (117 °F) were reported in the 2006 European heat wave.^ Response to London Underground Map Prior to finding this thread about the Tube Map, I discovered Rodcorp's site while searching for information about the "flaws" in Beck's map.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Response to London Underground Map Hi Benjamin, Re "the Tube map with short walks pencilled in.
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^ Response to London Underground Map I've combined the 'geographically accurate' tube map with a Nasa satellite image of London, to give another impression.
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[33] .Posters may be observed on the Underground network advising passengers to carry a bottle of water to help keep cool.^ New Tube design Removing zones from a new map of the London Underground network has made it "confusing", a passenger watchdog said.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Response to London Underground Map London Underground uses the map on a web page to provide passengers with the up-to-date status of their network.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34] 2009 stock and new S-stock trains will have air conditioning.

Planned improvements and expansions

A diagram at Ealing Common, showing the layout of the Piccadilly line at London Heathrow Airport
.There are many planned improvements to the London Underground.^ Response to London Underground maps At the URL mentioned immediately above, there is an email address for images.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Response to London Underground Map A substantial guide to the London Underground Map and its many many variations: http://www.metafilter.com/mefi/40242 -- Edward Tufte, March 9, 2005 .
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Response to London Underground Map There must be a better way than the white stripes.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A new station opened on the Piccadilly line at Heathrow Airport Terminal 5 on 27 March 2008 and is the first extension of the London Underground since 1999.[35] Each line is being upgraded to improve capacity and reliability, with new computerised signalling, automatic train operation (ATO), track replacement and station refurbishment, and, where needed, new rolling stock.^ Response to London Underground Map The metro maps displayed inside the carriages (not the ones on the walls of stations, or printed in leaflets) on the Marseilles metro take the standards of cartographical precision to a new low that I haven't seen anywhere else.
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^ There was twisted metal from the train laying on the track which we had to pass as well as injured people who needed urgent medical attention.

^ Response to London Underground Map Figure-ground contrast is too strong, making white lines too active.
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.A trial programme for a groundwater cooling system in Victoria station took place in 2006 and 2007; it aimed to determine whether such a system would be feasible and effective if in widespread use.^ I took at photo of the system map at Shinjuku Station when I was there recently.
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^ They also develop a new system to solve the problem of repetitive place names where there are multiple stations on multiple lines.
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^ If all Tokyo guidebooks and ALL Tokyo Metro signs (including those outside the stations) use the same system, it might actually help.
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[36] .A trial of mobile phone coverage on the Waterloo & City line[37] aims to determine whether coverage can be extended across the rest of the Underground network.^ Have they closed the mobile phone network or not?

^ Poons - the mobile phone networks are still up, but most of the capacity is being reserved for emergency calls.

^ Response to London Underground Map Speaking of maps of the underground -- I visited New York City this past weekend, and noticed that some of the newer cars have maps of the line the car is running.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although not part of London Underground, the Crossrail scheme will provide a new route across central London integrated with the tube network.^ Response to London Underground Map Prior to finding this thread about the Tube Map, I discovered Rodcorp's site while searching for information about the "flaws" in Beck's map.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Response to London Underground Map Yes, 99-2 is better, especially at preserving the classic rectangular core in central London.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Response to London Underground maps Enough to make the type readable; perhaps 7" or 8" across.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The long proposed Chelsea-Hackney line, which is planned to begin operation in 2025, may be part of the London Underground, which would mean it would give the network a new Northeast to South cross-London line to provide more interchanges with other lines and relieve overcrowding on other lines.^ I remember keeping an exhaustive log of every trip we took on the Underground ("Circle Line: Sloane Square to South Kensington.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Response to London Underground maps What size would you like?
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am reading this site from Boston, and it is giving me a far better indication of what is happening in London and how people there are coping than any of our television networks.

However, it is still on the drawing-board. It was first proposed in 1901 and has been in planning since then. .In 2007 the line was passed over to Cross London Rail Ltd, the current developers of Crossrail.^ Response to London Underground maps Stuttgart's city rail map has a unique feature - the non major cardinal lines are set at 30deg, not 45deg as in Beck's masterpiece.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Therefore, the line may be either part of the London Underground network or the National Rail network.^ Bakerloo line (Underground) London Rail roundel ring .
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Victoria line (Underground) London River Services roundel ring .
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This book gives guidance on all Transport for London’s corporate, mode and safety colours and also details the colours used on the London Underground lines.
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

There are advantages and disadvantages for both.
.The Croxley Rail Link proposal envisages diverting the Metropolitan line Watford branch to Watford Junction station along a disused railway track.^ While the map of Portland, Oregon's MAX Light rail lines in the following link is somewhat cluttered, it does illustrate my point.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "S" for the Shinjuku Line), and stations on each line are given a two digit number indicating the station number starting from the southwestern part of metropolitan Tokyo.
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The project awaits funding from the Department for Transport, and remains at the proposal stage.[38]
.London Mayor Boris Johnson suggested he may be thinking of extending the Bakerloo line to Lewisham, Catford and Hayes as South London lacks Underground lines but has a major Suburban rail network instead.^ Boris Johnson salutes Londoners' spirit .
  • London tube strike travel disruption: day two | News | guardian.co.uk 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Bakerloo line (Underground) London Rail roundel ring .
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I remember keeping an exhaustive log of every trip we took on the Underground ("Circle Line: Sloane Square to South Kensington.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]

Travelling

Ticketing

London Underground One-Day Travelcard
London Underground Oyster Card
London Authorities' Freedom Pass (disabled version)
.The Underground uses TfL's Travelcard zones to calculate fares.^ Transport for London (TfL) distributed the map last weekend without the River Thames and the fare zones marked on it.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Response to London Underground Map The fare zones have been on versions of the map for quite a while now.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Greater London is divided into 6 zones; Zone 1 is the most central, with a boundary just beyond the Circle line, and Zone 6 is the outermost and includes London Heathrow Airport.^ I don't normally go into Central London, but I was there last night.

^ He emails: "Roads into London are already pretty bad, with the long delays already on the A40 from the M25 - all the way into central London, more or less.
  • London tube strike travel disruption: day two | News | guardian.co.uk 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ London Underground lines 4 Bakerloo line Central line Circle line District line East London line Hammersmith & City line Jubilee line Metropolitan line Northern line Piccadilly line Victoria line Waterloo & City line 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 .
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

Stations on the Metropolitan line outside Greater London are in Zones 7-9.[40]
.Travelcard zones 7–9 also apply on the Euston-Watford Junction line (part of the London Overground) as far as Watford High Street.^ I know euston has the south bound northern line next to the south bound victoria line but how far is it to walk between the victoria line and circle line at victoria?
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Watford Junction is outside these zones and special fares apply.
There are staffed ticket offices, some open for limited periods only, and ticket machines usable at any time. Some machines that sell a limited range of tickets accept coins only, other touch-screen machines accept coins and banknotes, and usually give change. These machines also accept major credit and debit cards: some newer machines accept cards only.
.More recently, TfL has introduced the Oyster card, a smartcard with an embedded contactless RFID chip, that travellers can obtain, charge with credit, and use to pay for travel.^ It uses the same method I recently used for a follow-up to Oskar Karlin's work; a dynamic redrawing of the geographic tube map using travel time instead of distance.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Like Travelcards they can be used on the Underground, the Overground, buses, trams and the Docklands Light Railway.^ Docklands Light Railway DLR turquoise .
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mode specific colours London Underground London Buses Docklands Light Railway London Trams Public Carriage Office Victoria Coach Station Street Management London River Services London Dial-a-Ride London Rail .
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

.The Oyster card is cheaper to operate than cash ticketing or the older-style magnetic-strip-based Travelcards, and the Underground is encouraging passengers to use Oyster cards instead of Travelcards and cash (on buses) by implementing significant price differences.^ Response to London Underground Map London Underground uses the map on a web page to provide passengers with the up-to-date status of their network.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Oyster-based Travelcards can be used on National Rail throughout London. Pay-as-you-go is available on a restricted, but increasing, number of routes.[41][42]
Since the GLC days there has been a concessionary fare scheme for disabled and elderly London residents. .This is in effect a free Annual All-Zones Travelcard; it is available for free travel on TfL-operated routes at all times, a peak-hour time restriction on the elderly version having recently been abolished.^ If not, screen grabs for Oxford Circus and Elephant and Castle travel times are available.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It uses the same method I recently used for a follow-up to Oskar Karlin's work; a dynamic redrawing of the geographic tube map using travel time instead of distance.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thames Clippers Due to the explosions in London today we are putting on free travel on the river on all of our boats.

.It is also available on National Rail services within the London area, at all times except between 04:30 and 09:30, Monday to Friday, for both versions.^ London Ambulance Service getting overloaded - all units concentrating on explosions.

^ The tube lines move when switching between views, giving a sense of both the distortion applied to create the schematic and the changes in the map since the original version.
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^ Bus services beginning to return to central London, bar the King's Cross, Russell Square and Aldgate areas.

These permits are renewable bi-annually, in March of every even-numbered year; since 2006 the scheme has been called the "Freedom Pass" and the permit itself has been in effect an Oyster Card, though it does not bear that name. .Starting in 2010, the Freedom Pass will have an embedded holder's photograph (instead of being used with a separate Photocard as at present) and will last five years between renewals.^ It was my best Christmas present last year.
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[citation needed]
.For tourists or other non-residents, not needing to travel in the morning peak period, the all-day travelcard is one of the better ticketing options available.^ Sorry it's not available as a PDF yet, but I intend to get that done one of these days...
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These are available from any underground station. These cost around £7.50 and allow unlimited travel on the network from 9:30am onwards for the rest of the day. .This provides excellent value for money and a huge saving considering one single journey on the network can cost close to £5. However, for some travellers it will be more advantageous to buy a Pay-as-You-Go Oystercard; the issue of children complicates the fare structure for short-term visitors further, leading to a slew of websites attempting to help visitors through the ticketing system.^ And the Beck formula doesn't work for many other systems, for example, the Paris map using his formula is no more helpful in planning a journey than the geographic one.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I hope you have fire extinguishers in the building, you are going to need them very shortly" I'm sure that will help you numb nuts, come back when you've grown a brain.

^ They've drawn the network in more of a geographical layout and have also incorporated some of the major streets, parks, and landmarks.
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[43] Travel cards for multiple days are also available.

Penalty fares and fare evasion

In addition to automatic and staffed ticket gates, the Underground is patrolled by both uniformed and plain-clothes ticket inspectors with hand-held Oyster-card readers. .Passengers travelling without a ticket valid for their entire journey are required to pay a penalty fare of £50 (or £25 if paid within 21 days) and can be prosecuted for fare evasion under the Regulation of Railways Act 1889, under which they are subject to a fine of up to £1,000, or three months' imprisonment.^ I had to chat up three loads of women before they'd let me into the club.
  • Overheard Underground. Tube Gossip. Overheard on the London Underground. 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.themanwhofellasleep.com [Source type: Original source]

Oyster card pre-pay users who have failed to touch in at the start of their journey are charged the maximum cash fare (£4, or £5 at some National Rail stations) upon touching out. In addition, an Oyster card user who has failed to touch in at the start of their journey and who is detected mid-journey (i.e. on a train) by an Inspector is now liable to a penalty fare of £50, which is reduced to £25 if paid within 21 days. No £4 maximum charge will be applied to their destination as the inspector will apply an 'exit token' to their card.
While the Conditions of Carriage require period Travelcard holders to touch in and touch out at the start and end of their journey, any Oyster card user who has a valid period Travelcard covering their entire journey is not liable to pay a penalty fare where they have not touched in. .Neither the Conditions of Carriage nor Schedule 17 of the Greater London Authority Act 1999, which shows how and when penalty fares can be issued, would allow the issuing of a penalty fare to a traveller who had already paid the correct fare for their journey.^ The aim of the white stripes, it appears, is to distinguish those stations that belong simultaneously to two fare zones (a measure designed to allow travellers to buy cheaper Travelcards, particularly when travelling from the outer London to the inner suburbs).
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Jubilee line platforms (London Bridge station)

Delays

.According to statistics obtained under the Freedom of Information Act, the average commuter on the Metropolitan line wasted three days, 10 hours and 25 minutes in 2006 due to delays (not including missed connections).^ For this reason, my wife much preferred the bus - until she got stuck in London traffic for an hour covering the same distance as a 10 minute tube ride.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Freedom of Information Act .
  • London Underground: Battle lines are drawn | The Socialist 6 January 2010 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.socialistparty.org.uk [Source type: News]

[44] .Between 17 September 2006 and 14 October 2006, figures show that 211 train services were delayed by more than 15 minutes.^ After waiting for maybe 15 minutes or more we were rescued by emergency services and had to walk the remainder of the way down the track to Aldgate station.

^ The Beck map encourages people to take a train between two stations when other forms of transport would be far more suitable.
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[45] Passengers are entitled to a refund if their journey is delayed by 15 minutes or more due to circumstances within the control of TfL.[46]

Hours of operation

Sign explaining improvement works. This can be found inside every tube train.
.The Underground does not run 24 hours a day (except at New Year and major public events - such as the Queen's Golden Jubilee in 2002 and the Opening and Closing Ceremonies of the London Olympics in 2012) because most lines have only two tracks (one in each direction) and therefore need to close at night for cleaning and planned maintenance work.^ For one night only!
  • Overheard Underground. Tube Gossip. Overheard on the London Underground. 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.themanwhofellasleep.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, the O-edo line loops around Tokyo, serving Shinjuku in two directions, therefore giving it two codes on the same line: E01 and E27!
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I know it is early days but when we get talk of one or two confirmed casualties is it possible that they and the suspected suicide bombers are one and the same?..

.September 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] First trains start operating from approximately 04:45, generally for shorter journeys such as the Piccadilly Line's Osterley-Heathrow only rather than the full length of the line, with the remainder operating by 05:30, running until around 01:00. Unlike systems such as the New York City Subway, few segments of the Underground have third or fourth tracks that allow trains to be routed around maintenance sites.^ There are only a handful of subway lines.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Response to London Underground Map Two subway map bits: The NYC Transit Museum displays examples of subway maps from the system's entire history.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With excellent color printing, classic British railroad typography (by Edward Johnson), and, in the modern style, only horizontal, vertical, and 45 degree lines, the map became a beautiful organizing image of London.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Recently, greater use has been made of weekend closures of parts of the system for scheduled engineering work.^ It uses the same method I recently used for a follow-up to Oskar Karlin's work; a dynamic redrawing of the geographic tube map using travel time instead of distance.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Accessibility

Westminster station — extensive structures are required to support Portcullis House above.
.Accessibility by people with mobility problems was not considered when most of the system was built, and most older stations are inaccessible to disabled people.^ They also develop a new system to solve the problem of repetitive place names where there are multiple stations on multiple lines.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BART It's quite a unique problem with San Francisco's BART and MUNI Light Rail that most lines go to the Market Street stations, on the same platform for each direction.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

More recent stations were designed for accessibility, but retrofitting accessibility features to old stations is at best prohibitively expensive and technically extremely difficult, and often impossible. Even when there are already escalators or lifts, there are often steps between the lift or escalator landings and the platforms.
.Most stations on the surface have at least a short flight of stairs to gain access from street level, and the great majority of below-ground stations require use of stairs or some of the system's 410 escalators.^ They've drawn the network in more of a geographical layout and have also incorporated some of the major streets, parks, and landmarks.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If all Tokyo guidebooks and ALL Tokyo Metro signs (including those outside the stations) use the same system, it might actually help.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (NOTE: Two of the Japanese versions don't have these codes, perhaps since most Tokyo folks are already used to the Tokyo Metro system.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There are also some lengthy walks and further flights of steps required to gain access to platforms. The emergency stairs at Covent Garden station have 193 steps to reach the exit (equivalent to climbing to the top of a 15-floor building),[47] so passengers are advised to use the lifts as climbing the steps can be dangerous.
.TfL produces a map indicating which stations are accessible, and since 2004 line maps indicate with a wheelchair symbol those stations that provide step-free access from street level.^ The black lines around stations tells the subway rider that those codes are indeed the same station, which at the same time also indicates the versatility of the station as a transfer point.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new map, designed by Rafa Sanudo (paid 95000 euros, but I am not sure about this) has a higher level of line generalisation by not presenting any 45 degrees line.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of course, an indicator is that there are more stations on the Northern line route, but the map seems to indicate that the Victoria line follows a less direct path.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Step height from platform to train is up to 300 mm (11.8 in), and there can be a large gap between the train and curved platforms. Only the Jubilee Line Extension is completely accessible.
.TfL plans that by 2020 there should be a network of over 100 fully accessible stations, consisting of those recently built or rebuilt, and a handful of suburban stations that happen to have level access, along with selected 'key stations', which will be rebuilt.^ I am reading this site from Boston, and it is giving me a far better indication of what is happening in London and how people there are coping than any of our television networks.

^ I disagree with the notion that the tube map should be seen as flawed because there's information missing (physical distance between stations, for example).
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I took at photo of the system map at Shinjuku Station when I was there recently.
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.These key stations have been chosen due to high usage, interchange potential, and geographic spread, so that up to 75% of journeys will be achievable step-free.^ Many stations are geographically very close and you can end up spending half an hour in stuffy tunnels when you could have worked overground for five minutes.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Escalators

.The escalators in Underground stations include some of the longest in Europe, and all are custom-built.^ This is claimed to date from at least 1946 as it includes some station re-namings but there is some evidence of closed stations that indicates it may have been begun in the 1930s.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The longest escalator is at Angel station, 60 m (197 ft) long, with a vertical rise of 27.5 m (90 ft).[1] .They run 20 hours a day, 364 days a year, with 95% of them operational at any one time, and can cope with 13,000 passengers per hour.^ With over llion passengers every day, Transport for London runs one of the busiest and most complex transportation systems in the world.
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I know it is early days but when we get talk of one or two confirmed casualties is it possible that they and the suspected suicide bombers are one and the same?..

^ In Russia it snows every day and they still manage to run a country.
  • Overheard Underground. Tube Gossip. Overheard on the London Underground. 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.themanwhofellasleep.com [Source type: Original source]

Standing on the right
.Signs ask people using escalators on the Underground to stand on the right-hand side so as not to obstruct those in a hurry walking past them on the left.^ If all Tokyo guidebooks and ALL Tokyo Metro signs (including those outside the stations) use the same system, it might actually help.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At King's Cross, scene of one of the worst Underground disasters ever back in the late 1980s, people were using umbrellas to smash windows of the trains.

^ Response to London Underground Map My guess is that the designer believed that the directionality of the carriage itself would overpower the right-to-left bias that normally governs.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The explanation for overtaking on the left, although road traffic in Britain overtakes on the right, is that, unlike modern "comb" escalators, where the end of the moving stairway is at right angles to the direction of travel, older "shunt" escalators ended with a diagonal so that the stairway finished sooner for the right foot than for the left.^ For example, a directional sign showing which track is the Red Line vs. Orange"((Red Dot)+(left arrow)) ((Orange Dot)+(right arrow))" -- AJ Valinote ( email ), November 7, 2003 .
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The idea was to allow passengers to keep their left foot on a moving stairway as they stepped off with their right.^ Didn't keep me from getting a little lost, since the signage everywhere else is generally lacking or inaccurate, but it was easier to tell if I was going in the right direction and when to get off the train.
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.Passengers who chose not to walk down the escalators were asked to stand on the right so that anyone wishing to overtake them at the end would be able to take advantage of the extra section of moving stairway.^ And walking up and down the aisle shamelessly scanning the passengers for celebrities.
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^ Anyone wishing to give blood or who would like to know where their nearest blood collection session is should call 0845 7 711 711 or log on to www.blood.co.uk.

[48]

Overcrowding

.Overcrowding on the Underground has been of concern for years and is very much the norm for most commuters especially during the morning and evening rush hours.^ "We had no warning from any organisation" "During rush hour we would be running 500 trains...

^ Response to London Underground maps Concerning Derick Fay's complaint about BART: the reason trains are not announced simply as "Red Line inbound" is that, during rush hour, some trains turn around at Concord or Mission Street.
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.Stations which have a particular problem include Camden Town station and Covent Garden, which accordingly have access restrictions at certain times.^ Something a little different Could anybody perhaps help me, and telle me where I can get the architectural drawings of the Camden Town Tube Station?
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In response to your question, obviously not many people do realise that the Beck map distorts distances, otherwise Transport for London wouldn't have such bad congestion problems at Covent Garden station.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49] Restrictions are introduced at other stations when necessary. Several stations have been rebuilt to deal with overcrowding issues, with Clapham Common and Clapham North on the Northern line being the last remaining stations with a single narrow platform with tracks on both sides. On particularly busy occasions, such as football matches, British Transport Police may be present to help with crowd management.
.Some stations are closed or are made exit-only stations due to overcrowding in peak periods.^ This is claimed to date from at least 1946 as it includes some station re-namings but there is some evidence of closed stations that indicates it may have been begun in the 1930s.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At other times trains simply do not stop at the overcrowded station and go onto the next closest station, in places where there is another station within walking distance.^ Kowloon has been stretched wider considerably, as a reference, the walking distance between Olympic <-> Mongkok MTR <-> Mongkok KCR (as Mongkok East on my version) is around 15 minutes each trip, similar to walking to the next station in downtown.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those maps have dots at each stop represented, and the dot will turn to black of the train is not going to stop at a station.
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^ Distance between stops and geographical orientation are of very secondary interest to finding the correct train.
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Overcrowding can also be limited by temporarily disallowing passengers from passing through ticket gates to the platforms at some stations.
According to a 2003 House of Commons report,[50] commuters faced a "daily trauma" and were forced to travel in "intolerable conditions".

Safety

.Accidents on the Underground network, which carries around a billion passengers a year, are rare.^ Response to London Underground Map London Underground uses the map on a web page to provide passengers with the up-to-date status of their network.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New Tube design Removing zones from a new map of the London Underground network has made it "confusing", a passenger watchdog said.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There is one fatal accident for every 300 million journeys.[51] .There are several safety warnings given to passengers, such as the 'mind the gap' announcement and the regular announcements for passengers to keep behind the yellow line.^ Circle line (Underground) Warning safety signs .
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

Relatively few accidents are caused by overcrowding on the platforms, and staff monitor platforms and passageways at busy times to prevent people entering the system if they become overcrowded.
Most fatalities on the network are suicides. .Most platforms at deep tube stations have pits beneath the track, originally constructed to aid drainage of water from the platforms, but they also help prevent death or serious injury when a passenger falls or jumps in front of a train.^ They are round circles with two triangular arrows inside them, each pointing to the side of the train where the platform can be expected.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Something a little different Could anybody perhaps help me, and telle me where I can get the architectural drawings of the Camden Town Tube Station?
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BART It's quite a unique problem with San Francisco's BART and MUNI Light Rail that most lines go to the Market Street stations, on the same platform for each direction.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52]

Design and the arts

The London Underground roundel, seen here at Piccadilly Circus
.TfL's Tube map and "roundel" logo are instantly recognisable by any Londoner, almost any Briton, and many people around the world.^ The Tube and its graphic brilliance-- from maps to signage to displays--has fascinated me ever since I was 12 on a visit to London.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Response to London Underground Map Prior to finding this thread about the Tube Map, I discovered Rodcorp's site while searching for information about the "flaws" in Beck's map.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transport for London (TfL) distributed the map last weekend without the River Thames and the fare zones marked on it.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It has become a major pop culture symbol.
.TfL licenses the sale of clothing and other accessories featuring its graphic elements and it takes legal action against unauthorised use of its trademarks and of the Tube map.^ I've added an element to the design rules of the current tube map to show distance between some stations in metres.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Response to London Underground Map For those who don't use the Tube map daily, some explanation.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It uses the same method I recently used for a follow-up to Oskar Karlin's work; a dynamic redrawing of the geographic tube map using travel time instead of distance.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Nevertheless, unauthorised copies of the logo continue to crop up worldwide.

Map

.The original maps were often street maps with the lines superimposed, but as well as being visually complex, this produced problems of space, as central stations were far closer together than outlying ones.^ A greater problem with the tube map is the disproportionate spacing between stations.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The tube lines move when switching between views, giving a sense of both the distortion applied to create the schematic and the changes in the map since the original version.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main line station circles and ovals are too large and overpower the map.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The modern stylised Tube map evolved from a design by electrical engineer Harry Beck in 1933.[53] It is characterized by a schematic non-geographical layout (thought to have been based on circuit diagrams) and the use of colour coding for lines.^ The main problem with the Tube map is that it is geographically inaccurate.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This book gives guidance on all Transport for London’s corporate, mode and safety colours and also details the colours used on the London Underground lines.
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Response to London Underground Map Prior to finding this thread about the Tube Map, I discovered Rodcorp's site while searching for information about the "flaws" in Beck's map.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The map is now considered a design classic; virtually every major urban rail system in the world now has a similar map, and many bus companies have also adopted the concept.^ With over llion passengers every day, Transport for London runs one of the busiest and most complex transportation systems in the world.
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As a friend said, if I posted the map online and let some locals know, a million will know and some people from the rail companies will try to fetch me...
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Response to London Underground maps Stuttgart's city rail map has a unique feature - the non major cardinal lines are set at 30deg, not 45deg as in Beck's masterpiece.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are many references in culture to the map, including parodies of it using different station-names, particularly in London advertisements for unrelated products & services.^ The Greater Manchester map indicates the city centre by the use of a large capital M and usefully shows the platform layout at the divided Piccadilly station.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I seldom used the bus, as I found the London bus route map to be unintelligible.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Tsing Ye" station name might look better in the upper left corner of the island Is there anything that can be done with the "greyed" area at the top of the map.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Typography

.Edward Johnston designed TfL's distinctive sans-serif typeface, in 1916. The typeface is still in use today although substantially modified in 1979 by Eiichi Kono at Banks & Miles to produce "New Johnston". It is noted for the curl at the bottom of the minuscule (lower case) l, which other sans-serif typefaces have discarded, and for the diamond-shaped tittle on the lower case i and j, whose shape also appears in the full stop, and is the origin of other punctuation marks in the face.^ An excellent account of the redesign of New Johnston, the font used by London Transport and the initial specifications for the original typeface.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LBC News radio is still reporting "power surges", but also advising "get away from the City, but don't use public transport".

^ Tokyo uses upper and lower case letters to distinguish some lines ("M" for the main Marunouchi-line, and "m" for a section of the Marunouchi line that serves only a part of northwest Tokyo).
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.TfL owns the copyright to and exercises control over the New Johnston typeface, but a close approximation of the face exists in the TrueType computer font Paddington, and the Gill Sans typeface also takes inspiration from Johnston.^ An excellent account of the redesign of New Johnston, the font used by London Transport and the initial specifications for the original typeface.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The roundel

The use of the roundel with the station name in the blue bar dates from 1908. The roundel seen above can be found at Leytonstone tube station.
A few of the Roundels used.
The origins of the roundel, in earlier years known as the 'bulls-eye' or 'target', are obscure. .While the first use of a roundel in a London transport context was the 19th-century symbol of the London General Omnibus Company — a wheel with a bar across the centre bearing the word GENERAL — its usage on the Underground stems from the decision in 1908 to find a more obvious way of highlighting station names on platforms.^ An excellent account of the redesign of New Johnston, the font used by London Transport and the initial specifications for the original typeface.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Response to London Underground maps I had a short telephone conversation with the Transport Museum.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some are already well-known, including the Great Bear Map (replacing tube station names with famous people) and the geographical map, posted here previously.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The red circle with blue name bar was quickly adopted, with the word "UNDERGROUND" across the bar, as an early corporate identity.^ Corporate blue Corporate red Corporate grey .
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ London Underground Corporate blue and Corporate red .
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Safety colours Safety blue Safety red Corporate yellow Corporate green .
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

[54] The logo was modified by Edward Johnston in 1919.
.Each station displays the Underground roundel, often containing the station's name in the central bar, at entrances and repeatedly along the platform, so that the name can easily be seen by passengers on arriving trains.^ You always see a list of coming stops in the entrance, in the platform and inside the train.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Maybe I'm just too spoiled with the Hong Kong MTR. They had designated platform with color-coded signs for each direction of each line, and with displays of which stations the trains are heading to on every train.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Response to London Underground maps Looks very good; the place names sit very well along the route lines.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The roundel has been used for buses and the tube for many years, and since TfL took control it has been applied to other transport types (taxi, tram, DLR, etc.^ The tube lines move when switching between views, giving a sense of both the distortion applied to create the schematic and the changes in the map since the original version.
  • Ask E.T.: London Underground maps (+ worldwide subway maps) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.edwardtufte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additional logos Transport for London has several other logos other than the roundels used to identify the modes.
  • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

) in different colour pairs. The roundel has to some extent become a symbol for London itself.
The 100th anniversary of the roundel was celebrated by TfL commissioning 100 news works that celebrate the design.

Contribution to arts

An Edwardian tile pattern at Russell Square tube station
The Underground currently sponsors and contributes to the arts via its Platform for Art and Poems on the Underground projects. Poster and billboard space (and in the case of Gloucester Road tube station, an entire disused platform) is given over to artwork and poetry to "create an environment for positive impact and to enhance and enrich the journeys of ... passengers".
Its artistic legacy includes the employment since the 1920s of many well-known graphic designers, illustrators and artists for its own publicity posters. Designers who produced work for the Underground in the 1920s and 1930s include Man Ray, Edward McKnight Kauffer and Fougasse. In recent years the Underground has commissioned work from leading artists including R. B. Kitaj, John Bellany and Howard Hodgkin.
In architecture, Leslie Green established a house style for the new stations built in the first decade of the 20th century for the Bakerloo, Piccadilly and Northern lines which included individual Edwardian tile patterns on platform walls.[55] In the 1920s and 1930s, Charles Holden designed a series of modernist and art-deco stations for which the Underground remains famous. Holden's design for the Underground's headquarters building at 55 Broadway included avant-garde sculptures by Jacob Epstein, Eric Gill and Henry Moore (his first public commission). Misha Black was appointed design consultant for the 1960s Victoria Line, contributing to the line's uniform look,[56] while the 1990s extension of the Jubilee line featured stations designed by leading architects such as Norman Foster, Michael Hopkins, Will Alsop and Ian Ritchie. These architects were commissioned by Roland Paoletti, chief architect for the Jubilee Line Extension (JLE).
Many stations also feature unique interior designs to help passenger identification. Often these have themes of local significance. Tiling at Baker Street incorporates repetitions of Sherlock Holmes's silhouette. Tottenham Court Road features semi-abstract mosaics by Eduardo Paolozzi representing the local music industry at Denmark Street. Northern line platforms at Charing Cross feature murals by David Gentleman of the construction of Charing Cross itself.

In popular culture

Model of a London underground carriage in Miniland
The Underground has been featured in many movies and television shows, including Sliding Doors, Tube Tales and Neverwhere. The London Underground Film Office handles over 100 requests per month.[citation needed] The Underground has also featured in music such as The Jam's "Down in the Tube Station at Midnight" and in literature such as the graphic novel V for Vendetta. Popular legends about the Underground being haunted persist to this day.[57]
After placing a number of spoof announcements on her web page, London Underground voiceover artiste Emma Clarke had further contracts cancelled in 2007.[58][59]
The announcement "mind the gap", heard when trains stop at certain platforms, has also become a well known catchphrase, as well as a name of a band.
The Amateur Transplants have made a spoof of the song "Going Underground" by The Jam, and changed the name to London Underground. The song reflects on the Underground in explicit and less than complimentary terms.
The London Underground map serves as a playing field for the conceptual game of Mornington Crescent, and the board game The London Game.

Records

.
  • Longest Journey without changing trains- Central Line from West Ruislip to Epping at 34.1 miles (54.9 km) taking 1 hour 28 minutes.
  • Shortest Distance between stations- Leicester Square to Covent Garden at 0.16 miles (0.25 km) on the Piccadilly Line.
  • Shortest Escalator - At Chancery Lane station at 30 ft (9.1m) with 50 steps.
  • Longest Escalator - At Angel station at 197 ft (60m) taking 80 seconds to complete to carry passengers up and down.
  • Deepest lift shaft - At Hampstead station at 181 ft.^ BBC World Service is back up British Telecom are apparently going to shut down all phone lines soon, so I may go offline without warning.

    ^ The next Circle Line train will be along in fifteen minutes!
    • Overheard Underground. Tube Gossip. Overheard on the London Underground. 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.themanwhofellasleep.com [Source type: Original source]

    (55.2m).
  • Deepest Station - Hampstead at 192 ft (67.4m) below street level.
  • Shallowest Underground Station - Redbridge on the Central Line[citation needed]
  • Highest Station - Amersham at 490 ft (149.4m) above sea level.
  • Furthest Outpost - Chesham (formerly Ongar before the closure of the Epping to Ongar branch in 1994).
  • Longest distance between adjacent stations - Between Chalfont and Latimer and Chesham at 3.89 miles (6.26 km).
  • Line serving the most stations - The District Line serving 60 stations.
  • Busiest Station - Victoria Station with 76 million passengers a year.[60]
  • .
  • Highest point above ground level - Dollis Brook viaduct on the Northern Line's Mill Hill East branch at 60 ft.^ Bakerloo line Central line Circle line District line East London line Hammersmith & City line Jubilee line Metropolitan line Northern line Piccadilly line Victoria line Waterloo & City line .
    • Brand Identity: London Underground (Color Standards) 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Academic]

    (18.3m).
  • Only line to connect with an airport - The Piccadilly Line since 1977 has operated connections to Heathrow airport.
  • Shortest Line - Waterloo and City line, between Waterloo and Bank with no intermediate stations at 1.5 miles (2.41 km).
  • Fewest stations: Waterloo & City Line with two stations.
  • Fastest visit to all London Underground stations: 16 hours, 44 minutes and 16 seconds.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Average daily ridership taken as a daily average of yearly ridership (1073 million) divided by 364 (an average year minus Christmas Day). Yearly figure according to ""Key facts". Transport for London. http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/modesoftransport/londonunderground/1608.aspx. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 
  2. ^ The London Underground
  3. ^ a b "Tube breaks record for passenger numbers". Transport for London. 2007-12-27. http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/media/newscentre/archive/7103.aspx. Retrieved 2009-02-17. 
  4. ^ Wolmar 2004, p. 18.
  5. ^ Wolmar 2004, p. 135.
  6. ^ a b "History". Transport for London. http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/modesoftransport/londonunderground/1604.aspx. Retrieved 2007-03-31. 
  7. ^ "How do I find out about transport in London?". Greater London Authority. http://www.london.gov.uk/help/faq.jsp#transport. Retrieved 2008-06-05. 
  8. ^ http://mic-ro.com/metro/table.html - Metrobits.org
  9. ^ Green 1987, pp. 3–4.
  10. ^ Green 1987, p. 5.
  11. ^ Clegg, Gillian (1995). Chiswick Past. Historical Publications Ltd. , at p. 72
  12. ^ Slocombe, Mike (January 2007). "23/24 Leinster Gardens, Paddington, London W2". London Landmarks. Urban75. http://www.urban75.org/london/leinster.html. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
  13. ^ Wolmar 2004, p. 4.
  14. ^ a b Rose 2005.
  15. ^ Wolmar 2004, pp.154–155.
  16. ^ Wolmar 2004, p. 168.
  17. ^ a b "London Underground Factsheet" (PDF). Transport for London. http://www.tfl.gov.uk/assets/downloads/corporate/london-underground-fact-sheet.pdf. Retrieved 2008-09-13. 
  18. ^ a b http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/modesoftransport/londonunderground/history/1606.aspx
  19. ^ Conner, J.E. (1999). "Down Street". London's Disused Underground Stations. Capital Transport. pp. 33. ISBN 185414-250-X. 
  20. ^ Oliver Green, Illustrated History of the London Underground, page 66
  21. ^ Smolowe, Jill; Flamini, Roland (30 November 1987). "Britain Escalator to An Inferno". Time (New York). http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,966071-2,00.html. 
  22. ^ "Metronet calls in administrators". BBC News Online (London). 18 July 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/6903977.stm. 
  23. ^ "PPP Administration". Metronet Rail. http://www.metronetrail.com/default.asp?sID=1184745625515. Retrieved 2008-06-05. 
  24. ^ Railway Magazine. April 2008. , at p.6
  25. ^ Wright, Robert (30 October 2009). "TfL to maintain control of former Metronet Tube lines". Financial Times (London). http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/d704fcd6-c4f1-11de-8d54-00144feab49a.html?nclick_check=1. 
  26. ^ Milmo, Dan (29 September 2009). "London Underground slams Tube Lines' plan for tube overhaul". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2009/sep/29/london-underground-tube-lines. 
  27. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Greater London Authority. http://www.london.gov.uk/help/faq.jsp#tube. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
  28. ^ "Company information". Transport for London. http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/about-tfl/4510.aspx. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
  29. ^ "Chief Officers". Transport for London. http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/about-tfl/1434.aspx. Retrieved 2008-09-13. 
  30. ^ "Transport". Greater London Authority. http://www.london.gov.uk/gla/transport.jsp. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
  31. ^ London Underground. "Corporate identity — colour standards". Transport for London. http://static.scribd.com/docs/6wfl4g62vle8w.swf?INITIAL_VIEW=width. Retrieved 2007-12-22. 
  32. ^ "Train Blog: London Underground tidbits". http://trainblog.com/tags/subway-underground-metro/. Retrieved 2009-03-16. 
  33. ^ Griffiths, Emma (18 July 2006). "Baking hot at Baker Street". BBC News Online (London). http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/london/5191604.stm. 
  34. ^ "Carry a bottle of water TfL poster". Flickr. http://www.flickr.com/photos/anniemole/166070278/. 
  35. ^ "First Piccadilly line trains travel to Heathrow Terminal 5". Transport for London. 2007-07-18. http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/media/newscentre/archive/5507.aspx. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
  36. ^ "Subsurface network (SSL) upgrade". alwaystouchout.com. 2006-12-07. http://www.alwaystouchout.com/project/39. Retrieved 2007-01-10. 
  37. ^ "Mobile phone trial on the Waterloo & City line". Transport for London. 2007-03-15. http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/media/newscentre/archive/4577.aspx. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
  38. ^ "Croxley Rail Link - Next steps". Transport for London. http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/projectsandschemes/networkandservices/6153.aspx. Retrieved 22 January 2010. 
  39. ^ "Johnson considers Bakerloo extension". Transport for London. http://www.regen.net/news/login/884153/. Retrieved 2009-02-02.  (subscription required)
  40. ^ "Numbered zones for stations". Watford Observer. 24 November 2007. http://www.watfordobserver.co.uk/news/1855280.numbered_zones_for_stations/. 
  41. ^ "Oyster Help". Transport for London. http://transportforlondon.custhelp.com/cgi-bin/transportforlondon.cfg/php/enduser/std_adp.php?p_sid=&p_lva=&p_li=&p_faqid=%2011. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
  42. ^ Transport for London (10 May 2006). "Transport Secretary and Mayor of London announce new Oyster deal". Press release. http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/media/newscentre/archive/3597.aspx. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
  43. ^ What's the best London travelcard option for visitors?, Money Saving London.
  44. ^ Stephens, Alex (6 December 2006). "Tube wastes three days a year of your life". The Harrow Observer. http://www.harrowobserver.co.uk/west-london-news/tm_headline=tube-wastes-three-days-a-year-of-your-life&method=full&objectid=18244569&siteid=53431-name_page.html. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
  45. ^ "London Underground performance update". Transport for London. http://www.tfl.gov.uk/tfl/corporate/modesoftransport/tube/performance/. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
  46. ^ "Customer refunds". Transport for London. http://www.tfl.gov.uk/tfl/tickets/refunds/tuberefund/. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
  47. ^ "London's shortest tube journey". Time Out. 17 April 2007. http://www.timeout.com/london/features/2816.html. Retrieved 2008-06-05. "I have important advice for you. Never ever, under any circumstances, take the stairs. Don't do it because although you think it might be quicker than waiting for the lift it won't be, and the ascent will destroy you. There are 193 steps, and that's the equivalent of climbing to the top of a 15-storey building." 
  48. ^ Malvern, Jack (21 October 2009). "Mystery over Tube escalator etiquette cleared up by restored film". The Times (London). http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/film/london_film_festival/article6883065.ece. 
  49. ^ "Tube Map" (PDF). Transport for London. May 2008. http://www.tfl.gov.uk/assets/downloads/Standard-Tube-map.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
  50. ^ "Commuters face 'daily trauma'". BBC News Online (London). 15 October 2003. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/3191562.stm. 
  51. ^ "Safety first". The Economist (London). 23 October 2003. Retrieved 3 December 2006.
  52. ^ Coats, T. J.; Walter, D. P. (1999-10-09). "Effect of station design on death in the London Underground: observational study". British Medical Journal (British Medical Association) (319): 957. PMID 10514158. http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/319/7215/957. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
  53. ^ Beck, Harry. "Tube Map". Transport for London. http://www.tfl.gov.uk/assets/images/general/beckmap1.jpg. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
  54. ^ "History of the roundel". London Transport Museum. http://www.ltmcollection.org/roundel/about/detailedhistory.html. Retrieved 2008-11-15. 
  55. ^ Many of these tile patterns survive, though a significant number of these are now replicas – "London Underground's Edwardian Tile Patterns". Doug Rose. http://www.dougrose.co.uk/. Retrieved 2007-07-12. 
  56. ^ "Black, Sir Misha". 20th Century London. http://www.20thcenturylondon.org.uk/server.php?show=conInformationRecord.150. Retrieved 2008-06-25. 
  57. ^ "London Underground Ghosts". BBC h2g2. http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/alabaster/A673391. Retrieved 2007-10-14. 
  58. ^ Griffiths, Peter (26 November 2007). "Subway announcer fired over spoof messages". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSL2663927720071126. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
  59. ^ Clarke, Emma. "Spoof london Underground Announcements". Emma Clarke – Voiceover and writer for radio, television and new media. http://www.emmaclarke.com/fun/mind-the-gap/spoof-london-underground-announcements. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
  60. ^ "Key Facts". Transport for London. http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/modesoftransport/londonunderground/1608.aspx. Retrieved 21 January 2010. 

Further reading

  • Day, John R.; Reed, John (2001-12-31). The Story of London's Underground (8th ed.). London: Capital Transport. ISBN 1854142453. 
  • Franch, John (2006). Robber Baron: The Life of Charles Tyson Yerkes. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 9780252030994. 
  • Garland, Ken (1994-12-05). Mr. Beck's Underground Map. London: Capital Transport. ISBN 1854141686. 
  • Green, Oliver (1987). The London Underground, An illustrated history. Ian Allan Ltd. ISBN 1854142089. 
  • Harris, Cyril M. (1977). What's in a Name? The origins of station names of the London Underground. ISBN 1854142410. 
  • Hutchinson, Harold F. (1963). London Transport Posters. London Transport. ISBN 085329027X. 
  • Jackson, Alan; Croome, Desmond (1993-05-10). Rails Through The Clay. Capital Transport. ISBN 1854141511. 
  • Lawrence, David (1994-12-05). Underground Architecture. Capital Transport. ISBN 1854141600. 
  • Lee, Charles E. (1973). The Bakerloo line, a brief history. London: London Transport. OCLC 59999073.  (and similar volumes covering other lines, published 1972-1976)
  • Meek, James (2005-05-05). "Crocodile's Breath". London Review of Books. http://www.lrb.co.uk/v27/n09/meek01_.html. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
  • Menear, Laurence (1983). London's Underground Stations, a Social and Architectural Study. Midas Books. ISBN 9780859361248. OCLC 12695214. 
  • Rose, Douglas (2005). The London Underground: A Diagrammatic History. Capital Transport. ISBN 978-1-85414-315-0. 
  • Saler, Michael (1999). The Avant-Garde in Interwar England: 'Medieval Modernism' and the London Underground. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195147189. 
  • Saler, Michael (January 1995). "The 'Medieval Modern' Underground: Terminus of the Avant-Garde". Modernism/modernity 2 (1): 113–144. http://muse.jhu.edu/login?uri=/journals/modernism-modernity/v002/2.1saler.html. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
  • Wolmar, Christian (2002-11-15). .Down the Tube: the Battle for London's Underground.^ London Underground: Battle lines are drawn .
    • London Underground: Battle lines are drawn | The Socialist 6 January 2010 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.socialistparty.org.uk [Source type: News]

    Aurum Press. ISBN 1854108727.
     
  • Wolmar, Christian (2004). The Subterranean Railway: How the London Underground Was Built and How It Changed the City For Ever. Atlantic. ISBN 1-84354-023-1. 

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Alternative forms

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Proper noun

Plural
-
.
  1. The London underground railway system.^ The Tube - London's famous underground railway .
    • MySpace - The Tube - London's famous underground railway - 28 - Hombre - UK - myspace.com/londonundergroundtube 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Underground and the railways of London amazed the people.
    • The London Underground 9 January 2010 1:20 UTC www.loyno.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ But the London Underground is more than a railway.
    • London Underground: Trains and Drains 9 February 2010 15:015 UTC bucks.ac.uk [Source type: News]

    Abbreviated as Underground.

Simple English

London Underground
Info
Locale Greater London, Chiltern, Epping Forest, Three Rivers and Watford
Transit type Rapid transit
Number of lines 11
Number of stations 270 served (260 owned)
Daily ridership 2.95 million (approximate)[1][2]
3.4 million (weekdays) (approximate)[3]
Operation
Began operation 10 January 1863
Operator(s) Transport for London
Technical
System length 400 kilometres (250 mi) (approximate)[1]
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge
Part of a series of articles on

The Tube

Overview

History
Infrastructure
Stations
Trains
Popular Culture
Map

The London Underground is a system of electric trains operating in London, United Kingdom. It is the oldest Underground railway in the world. It started running in 1863 as Metropolitan Railway. After the opening the system was copied in many other cities, for example New York and Madrid. Even though it is called the Underground about half of it is above the ground. The "Tube" is a slang name for the London Underground, because the tunnels for some of the lines are round tubes running through the ground. The Underground has got 274 stations and over 408 km of track. Some lines and stations were also closed after a time, for example Aldwych. From 2006-2007 over 1 billion passengers used the underground.

Underground train systems in other cities may be called metros or subways (in North America). Subway is used in Britain to refer to underground walkways.

Contents

History

File:Why London Underground is nicknamed The
The nickname "the Tube" comes from the round tunnels some trains use. The 'tube train' shown is in a tunnel near Hendon Central Station, London.

Beginnings

The Metropolitan Line was the first part of the Underground to be made. It was opened in 1863. It then ran between Paddington and Farringdon. It took 40,000 passengers per day. Later it was made longer. The District Line was built by a different company. In 1884, the Circle Line was finished. All these lines used steam engines at first.

In 1890, a line using electric trains was opened. It was much deeper below ground than the other lines. Now it is part of the Northern Line. More lines like this were opened. People liked them, so in 1905 the lines that used steam engines were changed to use electric trains.

Into the 20th century

Because the different lines were run by different companies, changing lines was difficult. Between 1900 and 1902 Charles Yerkes bought most of the companies and formed a company named Underground Electric Railways of London Company Ltd, short UERL.

In the 1930s and 1940s

In 1933 a company was formed of all the bus, tram and underground companies, called London Passenger Transport Board (LPTB). It planned to make the network longer, but the Second World War stopped this. In the war, some Underground stations were used as shelters against bombs.

After the war

After the war more passengers used the underground. Because of that they built the Victoria Line which took over many passengers. The Piccadilly Line was built farther to Heathrow Airport in 1977. The Jubilee Line was opened in 1979. In 1999 the Jubilee Line was built longer to Stratford.

Network

File:London Underground Zone
Zone 1 (central zone) of the Underground network as it would look in reality

Trains

The system uses two kinds of trains, a big one and a small one. The big ones are used for the rectangular tunnels (District Line, Metropolitan Line, Circle Line), the small ones for the round tunnels. The underground uses trains built between 1960 and 1996

Stations

The Underground's trains usually drive to 270 stations.

14 Stations are outside of London.

Lines

Here is a list of the London Underground lines

London Underground lines
Name First section
opened
Name dates
from
Type Length
/km
Length
/miles
Stations Journeys
per year (1000's)
Bakerloo line 1906 1906 Deep level 23.2 14.5 25 95,947
Central line 1900 1900 Deep level 74 46 49 183,582
Circle line 1884 1949 Sub-surface 22.5 14 27 68,485
District line 1868 1868-1905 Sub-surface 64 40 60 172,879
East London line 1869 1980s Sub-surface 7.4 4.6 8 10,429
Hammersmith & City line 1863 1988 Sub-surface 26.5 16.5 28 45,845
Jubilee line 1879 1979 Deep level 36.2 22.5 27 127,584
Metropolitan line 1863 1863 Sub-surface 66.7 41.5 34 53,697
Northern line 1890 1937 Deep level 58 36 50 206,734
Piccadilly line 1906 1906 Deep level 71 44.3 52 176,177
Victoria line 1968 1968 Deep level 21 13.25 16 161,319
Waterloo & City line 1898 1898 Deep level 2.5 1.5 2 9,616

Tickets

The Underground uses zones to collect fares. Zone 1 is the most central, with a boundary just beyond the Circle Line, and Zone 6 is the outermost and includes London Heathrow Airport. Stations on the Metropolitan Line outside London are in special Zones A to D.

There are ticket offices, some open only in the rush-hour, and ticket machines, which can be used at any time. Some machines take coins only, other touch-screen machines take coins and English notes, and usually give change. These machines also take credit and debit cards: some newer machines accept cards only.

Summary of ticket types

The following tickets are available from London Underground and TfL ticket offices to use on the Underground:

Ticket Paper Oyster Off peak version Notes
Single Yes Yes Yes (on Oyster) Paper tickets are more expensive.
Day Travelcard Yes No Yes The maximum daily spend on Oyster is capped at 50p below the Travelcard price.
3-day Travelcard Yes No Yes
Weekly Travelcard No Yes No
Monthly Travelcard No Yes No Requires registration.
Annual Travelcard No Yes No Requires registration.

There is also the Oyster Card, a plastic card (like a credit card) which stores credit (money and Travelcards) which the owner uses to pay for Underground travel. The user must "charge" (put money onto) their card at a ticket machine then touch the card on the yellow readers to pay for their journey. Since its introduction in 2002 it has become very popular with regular travellers, as the prices are much cheaper if you use an Oyster card.

Station access

When most of the stations in the London Underground system were built, disabled and wheelchair access was not considered. While many above-ground stations have only a few steps to the platform, nearly all Underground stations have some of the systems's 410 escalators and 112 lifts (elevators). Newer stations include disabled access, and many older stations install disabled access when they are refurbished or rebuilt. Since 2004, maps inside the trains show which stations have step-free access from street level. Transport for London plan to have a network of over 100 fully accessible stations by 2020, which means that 75% of Tube journeys can be made with step-free access.

The escalators in the London Underground system are some of the longest in Europe. They run 20 hours a day, 364 days a year and are used by 13,000 people per hour, with 95% of them running at one time.

Safety

Accidents

File:Westminster station
Platform Screen Doors at Westminster Station.

There have been relatively few accidents in the Underground's history. Most happen if people accidentally fall onto the tracks. In some stations there are pits in the middle of the track to stop people being injured if they fall onto the track. Newly rebuilt parts of the system, especially on the Jubilee line, have platform doors. These doors only open when a train stops and prevent people falling or jumping onto the tracks.

Platform doors

In recent years, refurbished and rebuilt parts of the Underground, especially the Jubilee Line (around Westminster) have had sliding platform doors installed to prevent people falling off the platform onto the tracks, and discourage/prevent suicides.

Bomb Attacks

In the 30s, 70s and 90s the Underground was bombed many times by the IRA, and for this reason there have been no wastebins in or around stations until very recently, when clear plastic sacks were introduced in some parts of the system. On 7th July 2005 there were three attacks by radical Islamic terrorists on two Circle Line trains and on one Piccadilly Line.

Smoking

Smoking is not allowed in any part of the underground. This ban happened after a fire in King's Cross Station in 1987.

The future

Piccadilly Line extension to Terminal 5

File:Piccadilly T5
A map at Ealing Broadway station, showing the layout of the Piccadilly Line at London Heathrow Airport once the T5 Extension opens.

A new station is being built on the Piccadilly Line for the new Terminal 5 of Heathrow Airport. The new part is called the PiccEx. It has two-platform station, two sidings where trains can be put, a ventilation shaft and two escape shafts. Building of the two tunnels, the ventilation shaft, one escape shaft and parts of T5 station have been finished and tracks are being laid. The junction between PiccEx and the Heathrow Loop is being built. This work required that the tunnel between Terminal 4 and Terminals 1,2,3 could not be used until 17 September 2006. The extensionopened in 2008.

East London Line extension

There are plans to extend the East London Line (ELL) to the north and the south.Shoreditch station was closed in June 2006 and the line north of Whitechapel will run on the old Broad Street viaduct to Dalston and along the North London Line to Highbury & Islington, for a interchange with the Victoria Line. To the south, two branches are planned, using railway lines, that are already built. The first will run to West Croydon, the second to Clapham Junction.

The new stations north of Whitechapel will be:

  • Shoreditch High Street
  • Hoxton
  • Haggerston
  • Dalston Junction

The East London Line will become a more important line, and when the extension is open it will be run as part of the London Overground.

Criticism

The commuters of London often complain about the Underground. Even newspapers, especially the Evening Standard, often criticises the system.

Usually the complaints are about delays, overcrowding and the fares. Sometimes even strikes happen among London Underground Staff. An example is planned strike over staff pay.

Fares

London Underground fares are now the most expensive of any rail system around the world, including the luxorious Orient Express, and they continue to rise at very high levels.[1][2]. Concern has also been raised over the huge difference between oyster card fares and cash fares, with the criticism that the high cash fares will discourage tourists and day visitors to London from travelling around the City.[3].

Delays

Because the underground is a very old system, engineering work is often needed and often causes delays. There can be other reasons as well, for example signal failures or other breakdowns. Customers can claim a refund if their tube journey is delayed for more than 15 minutes due to problems within the control of Transport For London [4].

Overcrowding

Because many more commuters use the underground than planned, overcrowding often happens. This can cause stress and frustration with the underground system among commuters. According to a report by MPs, commuters face "a daily trauma" and are often forced to travel in "intolerable conditions"[5]

Industrial action

Because so many passengers travel on the London Underground network every day, strikes or industrial actions on the Underground network have a very high impact on London's traffic and can impact on London's economy. London Underground and the rail unions claim to be under high pressure from the working public, private businesses and government departments.

Strike actions on the London Underground occur for a number of reasons, including health and safety, working conditions and pay levels. There were several such strikes in the late 1970's.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Average daily ridership taken as a daily average of yearly ridership (1073 million) divided by 364 (an average year minus Christmas Day). Yearly figure according to ""Key facts". Transport for London. http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/modesoftransport/londonunderground/1608.aspx. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 
  2. The London Underground
  3. "Tube breaks record for passenger numbers". Transport for London. 2007-12-27. http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/media/newscentre/archive/7103.aspx. Retrieved 2009-02-17. 

Other Websites

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 25, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on London Underground, which are similar to those in the above article.








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