Long Jump: Wikis

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Long jumper at the GE Money Grand Prix in Helsinki, July 2005.

The long jump is an athletics (track and field) event in which athletes combine speed, strength, and agility in an attempt to leap as far from the take-off point as possible.

Competitors run down a runway (usually coated with the same rubberized surface as running tracks, crumb rubber also vulcanized rubber) and jump as far as they can from behind a foul line (commonly referred to as the "board", and usually defined by the trailing edge of a takeoff board embedded flush with the runway surface, or a painted mark on the runway) into a pit filled with finely ground gravel or sand. The distance traveled by a jumper is often referred to as the "mark" because it is the distance to the nearest mark made in the sand from the foul line. If the competitor starts the leap with any part of the foot past the foul line, the jump is declared illegal and no distance is recorded. At the elite level, a layer of plasticine is placed immediately after the board to detect this occurrence. Otherwise, an official (similar to a referee) will watch the jump and make the determination. The competitor can initiate the jump from any point behind the foul line; however, the distance measured will always be from the foul line. Therefore, it is in the best interest of the competitor to get as close to the foul line as possible.

Usually, each competitor has a set number of attempts (typically three) to make his or her longest jump, and only the longest legal jump counts towards the results. Higher level competitions are split into two rounds: trials and finals. In competitions containing a final round, only a select number of competitors are invited to return for further competition. The number of competitors chosen to return to the final round is determined before the start of the meet by a committee composed of coaches and officials. It is standard practice to allow one more competitor than the number of scoring positions to return to the final round. For example, if a given meet allows the top eight competitors to score points, then the top nine competitors will be selected to compete in the final round. Taking an extra competitor to the final round helps to allow that athlete to move into a scoring position if the competitor can improve on his or her best mark of the competition. Final rounds are viewed as an additional three jumps, as they do not have any priority to those scored in the trial round. The competitor with the longest legal jump (from either the trial or final rounds) at the end of competition is declared the winner. (For specific rules and regulations in United States Track & Field see Rule 185[1]).

There are four main components of the long jump: the approach run, the last two strides, takeoff and action in the air, and landing. Speed in the run-up, or approach, and a high leap off the board are the fundamentals of success. Because speed is such an important factor of the approach, it is not surprising that many long jumpers also compete successfully in sprints. A classic example of this long jump / sprint doubling is performances by Carl Lewis.

The long jump is notable for two of the longest-standing world records in any track and field event. In 1935, Jesse Owens set a long jump world record (of 8.13m) that was not broken until 1960 by Ralph Boston. Later, Bob Beamon jumped 8.90 metres (29 feet, 2-1/2 inches) at the 1968 Summer Olympics at an altitude of 7,349 feet, a jump not exceeded until 1991. On August 30 of that year, Mike Powell of the United States, in a well-known show down against Carl Lewis, leapt 8.95 m (29.4 ft) at the World Championships in Tokyo, setting the current men's world record. Some jumps over 8.95 m (29.4 ft) have been officially recorded (8.99 m/29.5 ft by Mike Powell himself, 8.96 m/29.4 ft by Ivan Pedroso), but were not validated since there was either no reliable wind speed measurement available, or because wind speed exceeded 2.0 m/s. Lewis himself jumped 8.91m just before Powell's record-breaking jump with the wind exceeding the maximum allowed; this jump remains the longest never to win Olympic or World Championship gold. The current world record for women is held by Galina Chistyakova of the former Soviet Union who leapt 7.53 m (24.7 ft) in Leningrad in 1988.

Contents

History

Halteres used in athletic games in ancient Greece.

The long jump was one of the events of the pentathlon of the original Olympics in Ancient Greece. Long Jump was the only known jumping event in these Ancient Olympic Games. All events that occurred at the Olympic Games were initially supposed to act as a form of training for warfare. The long jump emerged probably because it mirrored the crossing of obstacles such as streams and ravines.[2] After investigating the surviving depictions of the ancient event it is believed that unlike the modern day event, athletes were only allowed a short running start.[2] The athletes carried a weight in each hand, which were called halteres(between 1 and 4.5 kg). These weights were swung forward as the athlete jumped in order to increase momentum. It is commonly believed that the jumper would throw the weights behind him in mid-air to increase his forward momentum; however, halteres were held throughout the duration of the jump. Swinging them down and back at the end of the jump would change the athlete's center of gravity and allow the athlete to stretch his legs outward, increasing his distance. The jump itself was made from the bater ("that which is trod upon"). It was most likely a simple board placed on the stadium track which was removed after the event (Miller, 66). The jumpers would land in what was called a skamma ("dug-up" area) (Miller, 66). The idea that this was a pit full of sand is wrong. Sand in the jumping pit is a modern invention (Miller, 66). The skamma was simply a temporary area dug up for that occasion and not something that remained over time. The long jump was considered one of the most difficult of the events held at the Games since a great deal of skill was required. Music was often played during the jump and Philostratus says that pipes at times would accompany the jump so as to provide a rhythm for the complex movements of the halteres by the athlete.[2] Philostratos is quoted as saying, "The rules regard jumping as the most difficult of the competitions, and they allow the jumper to be given advantages in rhythm by the use of the flute, and in weight by the use of the halter." (Miller, 67). Most notable in the ancient sport was a man called Chionis, who in the 656BC Olympics staged a jump of 7.05 metres (23 feet and 1.7 inches).[3]

There has been some argument by modern scholars over the long jump. Some have attempted to recreate it as a triple jump. The images provide the only evidence for the action so it is more well received that it was much like today's long jump. The main reason some want to call it a triple jump is the presence of a source that claims there once was a fifty five ancient foot jump done by a man named Phayllos (Miller, 68).

The long jump has been part of modern Olympic competition since the inception of the Games in 1896. In 1914, Dr. Harry Eaton Stewart recommended the "running broad jump" as a standardized track and field event for women.[4] However, it was not until 1928 that women were allowed to compete in the event at the Olympic level (See Athletics - track and field).

The approach

The objective of the approach is to gradually accelerate to a maximum controlled speed at takeoff. The most important factor for the distance traveled by an object is its velocity at takeoff - both the speed and angle. Elite jumpers usually leave the ground at an angle of twenty degrees or less; therefore, it is more beneficial for a jumper to focus on the speed component of the jump. The greater the speed at takeoff, the longer the trajectory of the center of mass will be. The importance of a takeoff speed is a factor in the success of sprinters in this event.

The length of the approach is usually consistent distance for an athlete. Approaches can vary between 12 and 19 strides on the novice and intermediate levels, while at the elite level they are closer to between 20 and 22 strides. The exact distance and number of strides in an approach depends on the jumper's experience, sprinting technique, and conditioning level. Consistency in the approach is important as it is the competitor's objective to get as close to the front of the takeoff board as possible without crossing the line with any part of the foot.

Inconsistent approaches are a common problem in the event. As a result the approach is usually practiced by athletes about 6-8 times per jumping session (see Training below).

The last two strides

The objective of the last two strides is to prepare the body for takeoff while conserving as much speed as possible.

The penultimate (second to last) stride is longer than the last stride. The competitor begins to lower his or her center of gravity to prepare the body for the vertical impulse. The final stride is shorter because the body is beginning to raise the center of gravity in preparation for takeoff.

The last two strides are extremely important because they determine the velocity with which the competitor will enter the jump--the greater the velocity, the better the jump.

Takeoff

The objective of the takeoff is to create a vertical impulse through the athlete's center of gravity while maintaining balance and control.

This phase is one of the most technical parts of the long jump. Jumpers must be conscious to place the foot flat on the ground, because jumping off either the heels or the toes negatively affects the jump. Taking off from the board heel-first has a braking effect, which decreases velocity and strains the joints. Jumping off the toes decreases stability, putting the leg at risk of buckling or collapsing from underneath the jumper. While concentrating on foot placement, the athlete must also work to maintain proper body position, keeping the torso upright and moving the hips forward and up to achieve the maximum distance from board contact to foot release.

There are four main styles of takeoff: the kick style, double-arm style, sprint takeoff, and the power sprint or bounding takeoff.

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Kick

The kick style takeoff is a style of takeoff where the athlete actively cycles the leg before a full impulse has been directed into the board then landing into the pit.

Double-arm

The double-arm style of takeoff works by moving both arms in a vertical direction as the competitor takes off. This produces a high hip height and a large vertical impulse.

Sprint

The sprint takeoff is the style most widely instructed by coaching staff. This is a classic single-arm action that resembles a jumper in full stride. It is an efficient takeoff style for maintaining velocity through takeoff.

Power sprint or bounding

The power sprint takeoff, or bounding takeoff, is arguably one of the most effective styles. Very similar to the sprint style, the body resembles a sprinter in full stride. However, there is one major difference. The arm that pushes back on takeoff (the arm on the side of the takeoff leg) fully extends backward, rather than remaining at a bent position. This additional extension increases the impulse at takeoff.

The "correct" style of takeoff will vary from athlete to athlete.

Action in the air and landing

There are three major flight techniques for the long jump: the hang, the sail and the hitch-kick. Each technique is to combat the forward rotation experienced from take-off but is basically down to preference from the athlete. It is important to note that once the body is airborne, there is nothing that the athlete can do to change the direction they are travelling and consequently where they are going to land in the pit. However, it can be argued that certain techniques influence an athlete's landing, which can have an impact on distance measured. For example, if an athlete lands feet first but falls back because they are not correctly balanced, a lower distance will be measured.

Training

The long jump generally requires training in a variety of areas. These areas include, but are not limited to, those listed below.

Jumping

Long Jumpers tend to practice jumping 1-2 times a week. Approaches, or run-throughs, are repeated sometimes up to 6-8 times per session.

Over-distance running

Over-distance running workouts helps the athlete jump a further distance than their set goal. For example, having a 100m runner practice by running 200m repeats on a track. This is specifically concentrated in the season when athletes are working on building endurance. Specific over-distance running workouts are performed 1-2 times a week. This is great for building sprint endurance, which is required in competitions where the athlete is sprinting down the runway 3-6 times.

Weight training

During pre-season training and early in the competition season weight training tends to play a major role. It is customary for a long jumper to weight train up to 4 times a week, focusing mainly on quick movements involving the legs and trunk. Some athletes perform Olympic lifts in training. Athletes use low repetition and emphasize speed to maximize the strength increase while minimizing adding additional weight to their frame.

Plyometrics

Plyometrics, including running up and down stairs and hurdle bounding, can be incorporated into workouts, generally twice a week. This allows an athlete to work on agility and explosiveness.

Bounding

Bounding is any sort of continuous jumping or leaping. Bounding drills usually require single leg bounding, double-leg bounding, or some variation of the two. The focus of bounding drills is usually to spend less time on the ground as possible and working on technical accuracy, fluidity, and jumping endurance and strength. Technically, bounding is part of plyometrics, as a form of a running exercise such as high knees and butt kicks.

Flexibility

Flexibility is an often forgotten tool for long jumpers. Effective flexibility prevents injury, which can be important for high impact events such as the long jump. It also helps the athlete sprint down the runway.

A common tool in many long jump workouts is the use of video taping. This lets the athlete to go back and watch their own progress as well as letting the athlete compare their own footage to that of some of the world class jumpers.

Training styles, duration, and intensity varies immensely from athlete to athlete and is based on the experience and strength of the athlete as well as on their coaching style.

World record progression

World record progression for the Long Jump.

Men

MARK ATHLETE VENUE DATE
7.61  Peter O'Connor (IRL)* Dublin 1901-08-05
7.69  Edward Gourdin (USA) Cambridge 1923-07-23
7.76  Robert LeGendre (USA) Paris 1924-07-07
7.89  William DeHart Hubbard (USA) Chicago 1925-06-13
7.90  Edward Hamm (USA) Cambridge 1928-07-07
7.93  Sylvio Cator (HAI) Paris 1928-09-09
7.98  Chuhei Nambu (JPN) Tokyo 1931-10-27
8.13  Jesse Owens (USA) Ann Arbor 1935-05-25
8.21  Ralph Boston (USA) Walnut 1960-08-12
8.24  Ralph Boston (USA) Modesto 1961-05-27
8.28  Ralph Boston (USA) Moscow 1961-07-16
8.31  Igor Ter-Ovanesyan (URS) Yerevan 1962-06-10
8.31  Ralph Boston (USA) Kingston 1964-08-15
8.34  Ralph Boston (USA) Los Angeles 1964-09-12
8.35  Ralph Boston (USA) Modesto 1965-05-29
8.35  Igor Ter-Ovanesyan (URS) Mexico City 1967-10-19
8.90  Bob Beamon (USA) Mexico City 1968-10-18
8.95  Mike Powell (USA) Tokyo 1991-08-30

Source:[5]

*Ireland in 1901 was still part of the United Kingdom; however O'Connor considered himself Irish and was competing on this occasion as a member of the Irish Amateur Athletic Association. In the source above he is listed as "GBI/IRL".

Women

MARK ATHLETE VENUE DATE
5.98  Kinue Hitomi (JPN) Osaka 1928-05-20
6.12  Christel Schultz (Germany) Berlin 1939-07-30
6.25  Francina Blankers-Koen (NED) Leiden 1943-09-19
6.28  Yvette Williams (NZL) Gisborne 1954-02-20
6.28  Galina Vinogradova (URS) Moscow 1955-09-11
6.31  Galina Vinogradova (URS) Tbilisi 1955-11-18
6.35  Elżbieta Krzesińska (POL) Budapest 1956-08-20
6.35  Elżbieta Krzesińska (POL) Melbourne 1956-11-27
6.40  Hildrun Claus (GDR) Erfurt 1960-08-07
6.42  Hildrun Claus (GDR) Berlin 1961-06-23
6.48  Tatjana Shtshelkanova (URS) Moscow 1961-07-16
6.53  Tatjana Shtshelkanova (URS) Leipzig 1962-06-10
6.70  Tatjana Shtshelkanova (URS) Moscow 1964-07-04
6.76  Mary Rand (GBR) Tokyo 1964-10-14
6.82  Viorica Viscopoleanu (ROU) Mexico City 1968-10-14
6.84  Heide Rosendahl (FRG) Turin 1970-09-03
6.92  Angela Voigt (GDR) Dresden 1976-05-09
6.99  Siegrun Siegl (GDR) Dresden 1976-07-26
7.07  Vilma Bardauskienė (URS) Kishinyov 1978-08-18
7.09  Vilma Bardauskienė (URS) Prague 1978-08-29
7.20  Valy Ionescu (ROU) Bucharest 1982-08-01
7.21  Anişoara Cuşmir (ROU) Bucharest 1983-05-15
7.43  Anişoara Cuşmir (ROU) Bucharest 1983-06-04
7.44  Heike Drechsler (GDR) Berlin 1985-09-22
7.45  Heike Drechsler (GDR) Tallinn 1986-06-21
7.45  Heike Drechsler (GDR) Dresden 1986-07-03
7.45  Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA) Dresden 1987-08-13
7.52  Galina Chistyakova (URS) Leningrad 1988-06-11


Source:[6]

Top ten performers

Accurate as of September 2, 2009.

Men

Mark* Wind** Athlete Nationality Venue Date
8.95 0.3 Mike Powell  United States Tokyo August 30, 1991
8.90A 2.0 Bob Beamon  United States Mexico City October 18, 1968
8.87 -0.2 Carl Lewis  United States Tokyo August 30, 1991
8.86A 1.9 Robert Emmiyan  Soviet Union Tsakhkadzor May 22, 1987
8.74 1.4 Larry Myricks  United States Indianapolis July 18, 1988
8.74A 2.0 Erick Walder  United States El Paso April 2, 1994
8.74 -1.2 Dwight Phillips  United States Eugene June 7, 2009
8.73 1.2 Irving Saladino  Panama Hengelo May 24, 2008
8.71 1.9 Iván Pedroso  Cuba Salamanca July 18, 1995
8.66 1.6 Loúis Tsátoumas  Greece Kalamáta June 2, 2007

*(meters), **(metres/second)

A = Altitude (above 1000 metres)
Source:[7]

Women

Mark* Wind** Athlete Nationality Venue Date
7.52 1.4 Galina Chistyakova  Soviet Union Leningrad June 11, 1988
7.49 1.3 Jackie Joyner-Kersee  United States New York May 22, 1994
7.48 1.2 Heike Drechsler  East Germany Neubrandenburg July 9, 1988
7.43 1.4 Anişoara Cuşmir  Romania Bucharest June 4, 1983
7.42 2.0 Tatyana Kotova  Russia Annecy June 23, 2002
7.39 0.5 Yelena Belevskaya  Soviet Union Bryansk July 18, 1987
7.37 N/A Inessa Kravets  Ukraine Kiev June 13, 1992
7.33 0.4 Tatyana Lebedeva  Russia Tula July 31, 2004
7.31 1.5 Yelena Khlopotnova  Soviet Union Alma Ata September 12, 1985
7.31 -0.1 Marion Jones  United States Zürich August 12, 1998

*(meters), **(meters/second)
Source:[8]

Best Year Performance

Men's Seasons Best (Outdoor)

YEAR DISTANCE ATHLETE PLACE
1960 8.21  Ralph Boston (USA) Walnut
1961 8.28  Ralph Boston (USA) Moscow
1962 8.31  Igor Ter-Ovanesyan (URS) Yerevan
1963 8.20  Ralph Boston (USA) Modesto
1964 8.34  Ralph Boston (USA) Los Angeles
1965 8.35  Ralph Boston (USA) Modesto
1966 8.23  Igor Ter-Ovanesyan (URS) Leselidze
1967 8.35  Igor Ter-Ovanesyan (URS) Mexico City
1968 8.90  Bob Beamon (USA) Mexico City
1969 8.21  Igor Ter-Ovanesyan (URS)
 Waldemar Stepian (POL)
Odessa
Chorzów
1970 8.35  Josef Schwarz (FRG) Stuttgart
1971 8.23  Norman Tate (USA) El Paso
1972 8.34  Randy Williams (USA) Munich
1973 8.24  James McAlister (USA) Westwood
1974 8.30  Arnie Robinson (USA) Modesto
1975 8.45  Nenad Stekić (YUG) Montreal
1976 8.35  Arnie Robinson (USA) Montreal
1977 8.27  Nenad Stekić (YUG) Nova Gorica
1978 8.32  Nenad Stekić (YUG) Rovereto
1979 8.52  Larry Myricks (USA) Montreal
1980 8.54  Lutz Dombrowski (GDR) Moscow
1981 8.62  Carl Lewis (USA) Sacramento
1982 8.76  Carl Lewis (USA) Indianapolis
1983 8.79  Carl Lewis (USA) Indianapolis
1984 8.71  Carl Lewis (USA) Westwood
1985 8.62  Carl Lewis (USA) Brussels
1986 8.61  Robert Emmiyan (URS) Moscow
1987 8.86  Robert Emmiyan (URS) Tsakhkadzor
1988 8.76  Carl Lewis (USA) Indianapolis
1989 8.70  Larry Myricks (USA) Houston
1990 8.66  Mike Powell (USA) Villeneuve d'Ascq
1991 8.95  Mike Powell (USA) Tokyo
1992 8.68  Carl Lewis (USA) Barcelona
1993 8.70  Mike Powell (USA) Salamanca
1994 8.74  Erick Walder (USA) El Paso
1995 8.71  Iván Pedroso (CUB) Salamanca
1996 8.58  Erick Walder (USA) Springfield
1997 8.63  Iván Pedroso (CUB) Padua
1998 8.60  James Beckford (JAM) Bad Langensalza
1999 8.60  Iván Pedroso (CUB) Padua
2000 8.65  Iván Pedroso (CUB) Jena
2001 8.41  James Beckford (JAM) Turin
2002 8.52  Savanté Stringfellow (USA) Palo Alto
2003 8.53  Yago Lamela (ESP) Castellón de la Plana
2004 8.60  Dwight Phillips (USA) Linz
2005 8.60  Dwight Phillips (USA) Helsinki
2006 8.56  Irving Saladino (PAN) Rio de Janeiro
2007 8.66  Louis Tsatoumas (GRE) Kalamáta
2008 8.73  Irving Saladino (PAN) Hengelo
2009 8.74  Dwight Phillips (USA) Eugene

Women's Seasons Best (Outdoor)

YEAR DISTANCE ATHLETE PLACE
1976 6.99  Siegrun Siegl (GDR) Dresden
1978 7.09  Vilma Bardauskienė (URS) Prague
1979 6.90  Brigitte Wujak (GDR) Potsdam
1980 7.06  Tatyana Kolpakova (URS) Moscow
1981 6.96  Jodi Anderson (USA) Colorado Springs
1982 7.20  Valy Ionescu (ROU) Bucharest
1983 7.43  Anisoara Cusmir (ROU) Bucharest
1984 7.40  Heike Drechsler (GDR) Dresden
1985 7.44  Heike Drechsler (GDR) Berlin
1986 7.45  Heike Drechsler (GDR) Tallinn
1987 7.45  Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA) Indianapolis
1988 7.52  Galina Chistyakova (URS) Leningrad
1989 7.24  Galina Chistyakova (URS) Volgograd
1990 7.35  Galina Chistyakova (URS) Bratislava
1991 7.37  Heike Drechsler (GER) Sestriere
1992 7.48  Heike Drechsler (GER) Lausanne
1993 7.21  Heike Drechsler (GER) Zürich
1994 7.49  Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA) New York City
1995 7.07  Heike Drechsler (GER) Linz
1996 7.20  Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA) Atlanta
1997 7.05  Lyudmila Galkina (RUS) Athens
1998 7.31  Marion Jones (USA) Eugene
1999 7.26  Maurren Higa Maggi (BRA) Bogotá
2000 7.09  Fiona May (ITA) Rio de Janeiro
2001 7.12  Tatyana Kotova (RUS) Turin
2002 7.42  Tatyana Kotova (RUS) Annecy
2003 7.06  Maurren Higa Maggi (BRA) Milan
2004 7.33  Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS) Tula
2005 7.04  Irina Simagina (RUS) Sochi
2006 7.12  Tatyana Kotova (RUS) Novosibirsk
2007 7.21  Lyudmila Kolchanova (RUS) Sochi
2008 7.12  Naide Gomes (POR) Monaco
2009 7.10  Brittney Reese (USA) Berlin

National records

  • As of October 3, 2009.

Men

NATION DISTANCE ATHLETE VENUE DATE
 USA 8.95 m Mike Powell Tokyo 1991-08-30
 URS 8.86 m Robert Emmiyan Tsakhkadzor 1987-05-22
 PAN 8.73 m Irving Saladino Hengelo 2008-05-24
 CUB 8.71 m Iván Pedroso Salamanca 1995-07-18
 GRE 8.66 m Louis Tsatoumas Kalamata 2007-06-02
 JAM 8.62 m James Beckford Orlando 1997-04-05
 ESP 8.56 m Yago Lamela Turin 1999-06-24
 GER 8.54 m Lutz Dombrowski Moscow 1980-07-28
 RSA 8.50 m Godfrey Mokoena Madrid 2009-07-04
 AUS 8.49 m Jai Taurima Sydney 2000-09-28
 KSA 8.48 m Mohamed Salman Al-Khuwalidi Sotteville 2006-07-02
 ITA 8.47 m Andrew Howe Osaka 2007-08-30
 RUS 8.46 m Leonid Voloshin Tallinn 1988-07-05
 SEN 8.46 m Cheikh Tidiane Touré Bad Langensalza 1997-06-15
 YUG 8.45 m Nenad Stekić Montreal 1975-07-25
 GHA 8.43 m Ignisious Gaisah Rome 2006-07-14
 FRA 8.42 m Salim Sdiri Pierre-Bénite 2009-06-12
 BAH 8.41 m Craig Hepburn Nassau 1993-06-17
 MAR 8.38 m Yahya Berrabah Rabat 2009-05-23
 SLO 8.40 m Gregor Cankar Celje 1997-05-18
 CHN 8.40 m Lao Jianfeng Zhaoqing 1997-05-28
 BRA 8.40 m Douglas de Souza Sao Paulo 1995-02-15
 ROU 8.37 m Bogdan Tudor Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt 1995-07-09
 POR 8.36 m Carlos Calado Lisboa 1997-06-20
 UKR 8.35 m Sergey Layevskiy
Roman Shchurenko
Dnepropetrovsk
Kiev
1988-07-16
2000-07-25
 TWN 8.34 m Nai Huei-Fang Shanghai 1993-05-14
 VEN 8.34 m Victor Castillo Cochabamba 2004-05-30
 BUL 8.33 m Ivaylo Mladenov Seville 1995-06-03
 BLR 8.33 m Aleksandr Glovatskiy Sestriere 1996-08-07
 EGY 8.31 m Hassine Hatem Moursal Oslo 1999-06-30
 HUN 8.30 m László Szalma Budapest 1985-07-07
 AUT 8.30 m Andreas Steiner Innsbruck 1988-06-04
 ZIM 8.30 m Ngonidzashe Makusha Des Moines 2008-06-12
 GBR 8.30 m Greg Rutherford Berlin 2009-08-20
 MRI 8.28 m Jonathan Chimier Athens August 2004
 POL 8.28 m Grzegorz Marciniszyn Malles 2001-07-14
 NGR 8.27 m Yussuf Alli Lagos 1989-08-08
 BOT 8.27 m Gable Garenamotse Rhede 2006-08-20
 CZE 8.25 m Milan Mikuláš Prague 1988-07-16
 MDA 8.25 m Sergey Podgainiy Kishinyov 1990-08-18
 JPN 8.25 m Masaki Morinaga[9] Shizuoka 1992-05-05
 BEL 8.25 m Erik Nijs Hechtel 1996-07-06
 DEN 8.25 m Morten Jensen Göteborg 2005-07-03
 NAM 8.24 m Stephan Louw Germiston 2008-01-12
 CRO 8.23 m Siniša Ergotić Zagreb 2002-06-05
 FIN 8.22 m Tommi Evilä Göteborg 2008-06-28
 SWE 8.21 m Mattias Sunneborn Malmö 1996-06-27
 KOR 8.20 m Kim Deok Hyeon Beograd 2009-07-12
 EST 8.10 m Erki Nool Götzis 1995-05-27
 PER 8.09 m Louis Tristan[10] Tunja 2006-10-1

Long jump on coinage

Track and field events have been selected as a main motif in numerous collectors' coins. One of the recent samples is the €10 Greek Long Jump commemorative coin, minted in 2003 to commemorate the 2004 Summer Olympics. The obverse of the coin portrays a modern athlete at the moment he is touching the ground, while the ancient athlete in the background is shown while starting off his jump, as he is seen on a black-figure vase of the 5th century BC.

References

  • Stephen G. Miller, Ancient Greek Athletics. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004.
  1. ^ "USATF – 2006 Competition Rules". USA Track & Field. http://www.usatf.com/about/rules/2006/. Retrieved 2006-10-29. 
  2. ^ a b c Swaddling, Judith. The Ancient Olympic Games. University of Texas Pres. ISBN 0292777515. 
  3. ^ "Ancient Origins". The Times/The Sunday Times. http://www.times-olympics.co.uk/communities/athletics/athleticsancient.html. Retrieved 2006-10-29. 
  4. ^ Tricard, Louise Mead (1996-07-01). American Women's Track & Field: A History, 1895 Through 1980. McFarland & Company. pp. 60–61. ISBN 0-7864-0219-9. 
  5. ^ The Athletics Site: world record progression
  6. ^ The Athletics Site: world record progression
  7. ^ Long Jump All Time Men iaaf.org
  8. ^ Long Jump All Time Women iaaf.org
  9. ^ National Records JAAF
  10. ^ IAAF - Brazil confirms its South American domination in Tunja

External links

See also

  • Guthrie, Mark (2003). Coach Track & Field Successfully. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics. pp. 149–155. ISBN 0-7360-4274-1. 
  • Rogers, Joseph L. (2000). USA Track & Field Coaching Manual. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics. pp. 141–157. ISBN 0-88011-604-8. 
  • Ernie Gregoire, Larry Myricks. (1991). World Class Track & Field Series: Long Jump. [VHS]. Ames, IA: Championship Books & Video Productions. 

Simple English


The long jump is a sport in athletics (track and field), where a athletes compete by comparing lengths of jumps. where athletes try to jump as far as they can. The athlete runs as fast as they can down the run way to the jumping pit which is made of sand. when they are at the mark where they are told to jump, the athlete jumps as far as they can into the sand pit.


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