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Lophotrochozoa
Fossil range: Early Cambrian - Recent
Caribbean Reef Squid or Sepioteuthis sepioidea is a complex lophotrochozoan.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Subkingdom: Eumetazoa
(unranked): Bilateria
Superphylum: Lophotrochozoa
Phyla

The Lophotrochozoa (pronounced /ləˌfɒtrɵkɵˈzoʊ.ə/, "crest-bearing animals") are a major grouping of protostome animals. The taxon was introduced in 1995 in a paper by Kenneth M Halanych et al. based on molecular data. Molecular evidence such as a result of studies of the evolution of small-subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) supports the monophyly of the phyla listed in the infobox shown at right.[1]

Contents

Terminology

The word "lophotrochozoan" is sometimes equated with spiralian.[2] When used in a broader sense (sensu lato), it can include rotifers and platyhelminthes.[3] When used sensu stricto, it refers to a subgroup of Spiralia.

Groups

The Lophotrochozoa comprise two groups, the trochozoans and the lophophorata. The exact relationships between the different phyla are not entirely certain. However, it appears that neither the lophophorates nor the trochozoa are monophyletic groups by themselves, but are mixed together.[4]

Other phyla are included on the basis of molecular data.

 

Deuterostomia



Lophotrochozoa


Entoprocta




Mollusca




Annelida




Phoronida




Brachiopoda



Nemertea









Chaetognatha




Bryozoa





Platyhelminthes



Gastrotricha





Rotifera




Myzostomida




Acoela



Gnathostomulida










Ecdysozoa



A phylogenetic tree of the Lophotrochozoa as suggested by Dunn et al. (2008)

References

  1. ^ Philippe, Hervé, Nicolas Lartillot1 and Henner Brinkmann. (2005) "Multigene Analyses of Bilaterian Animals Corroborate the Monophyly of Ecdysozoa, Lophotrochozoa, and Protostomia." Molecular Biology and Evolution 2005 22(5):1246-1253; doi:10.1093/molbev/msi111.
  2. ^ Giribet G (April 2008). "Assembling the lophotrochozoan (=spiralian) tree of life". Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. 363 (1496): 1513–22. doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2241. PMID 18192183. PMC 2614230. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=18192183.  
  3. ^ "Explanations.html". http://science.kennesaw.edu/~jdirnber/InvertZoo/Tree/Explanations.html. Retrieved 2009-06-28.  
  4. ^ a b c d Introduction to the Lophotrochozoa - accessed 8 August 2008

Further reading

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Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Spiralia
Cladus: Lophotrochozoa
Phyla: Annelida - Brachiopoda - Bryozoa - Echiura - Entoprocta - Mollusca - Nemertea - Phoronida - Sipuncula - †Hyolitha

References

  • Bleidorn, C. 2008: Lophotrochozoan relationships and parasites. A snap-shot. Parasite, 15: 329-332.
  • Gordon, D.P. (ed.) 2009: New Zealand inventory of biodiversity. Volume 1. Kingdom Animalia. Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia. Canterbury University Press, Christchurch, New Zealand.
  • Helmkampf, M.; Bruchhaus, I.; Hausdorf, B. 2008: Multigene analysis of lophophorate and chaetognath phylogenetic relationships. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 46: 206-214.
  • Passamaneck, Y.; Halanych, K.M. 2006: Lophotrochozoan phylogeny assessed with LSU and SSU data: evidence of lophophorate polyphyly. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 40: 20–28.
  • Wanninger, A. 2008: Comparative lophotrochozoan neurogenesis and larval neuroanatomy: recent advances from previously neglected taxa. Acta biologica hungarica, 59(suppl. S): 127-136.
  • Yokobori, S.-i.; Iseto, T.; Asakawa, S.; Sasaki, T.; Shimizu, N.; Yamagishi, A.; Oshima, T.; Hirose, E. 2008: Complete nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial genomes of two solitary entoprocts, Loxocorone allax and Loxosomella aloxiata: implications for lophotrochozoan phylogeny. Molecular phylogenetics & evolution, 47: 612-628.

Vernacular names

English: lophotrochozoans
Français: Lophotrochozoaires
Italiano: Lofotrocozoi
日本語: 冠輪動物上門

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