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Louis Pasteur

Born December 27, 1822(1822-12-27)
Dole, Jura, Franche-Comté, France
Died September 28, 1895 (aged 72)
Marnes-la-Coquette, Hauts-de-Seine, France
Nationality French
Fields Chemistry
Microbiology
Institutions Dijon Lycée
University of Strasbourg
Université Lille Nord de France
École Normale Supérieure
Alma mater École Normale Supérieure
Notable students Charles Friedel[1]
Signature
.Louis Pasteur (pronounced: [pastøʁ] December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist born in Dole.^ Louis Pasteur was born on December 27, 1822, in Dole in the Jura region of France , into the family of a poor tanner.
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^ Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 - September 28, 1895) was a French chemist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in microbiology.
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^ Pasteur died on 28 September 1895.

He is remembered for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and preventions of disease. .His discoveries reduced mortality from puerperal fever, and he created the first vaccine for rabies.^ His experiments confirmed the germ theory of disease, also reducing mortality from puerperal fever (childbed), and he created the first vaccine for rabies.
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^ Unheralded Deeds : Pasteur first tried his experimental rabies vaccine on a nine-year-old boy bitten by a rabid dog.
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^ The Creation of the Pasteur Institute: On March 1, 1886, Pasteur presented the results of his rabies treatment to the Academy of Sciences and called for the creation of a rabies vaccine center.
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.His experiments supported the germ theory of disease.^ This concept, called the germ theory of disease, was strongly debated by physicians and scientists around the world.
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^ This lack of evidence threatened his germ theory, but Pasteur was convinced an unseen microbial agent caused the disease, and proceeded to follow his procedure of finding ways to weaken it.
  • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Which brings us to another of Pasteur’s monumental achievements, the germ theory of disease.
  • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

.He was best known to the general public for inventing a method to stop milk and wine from causing sickness, a process that came to be called pasteurization.^ He is best known to the general public for showing how to stop milk and wine from going sour - this process came to be called pasteurization.
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^ T his process is now called pasteurization.
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^ Inventing the process of pasteurization and the .
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.He is regarded as one of the three main founders of microbiology, together with Ferdinand Cohn and Robert Koch.^ He is regarded as one of the three main founders of microbiology, together with Ferdinand Cohn and Robert Koch.
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.Pasteur also made many discoveries in the field of chemistry, most notably the molecular basis for the asymmetry of certain crystals.^ He also made many discoveries in the field of chemistry, most notably the asymmetry of crystals.
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^ Louis Pasteur made important contributions to the field of organic chemistry during the mid-1800s, developing various vaccines, including one for rabies, and disproving the theory of spontaneous generation.
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^ The economic benefits of this simple lab discovery were enormous, and could have made Pasteur rich.
  • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

[2] .His body lies beneath the Institute Pasteur in Paris in a spectacular vault covered in depictions of his accomplishments in Byzantine mosaics.^ The marble and mosaic crypt in the lower level of the Pasteur Institute, Paris.
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^ His remains, initially interred in the Cathedral of Notre Dame, was transferred to a permanent crypt in the Pasteur Institute, Paris (Fig 10).
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^ The Pasteur Institute funded by public and governmental subscriptions was built in Paris initially to treat victims of rabies who were coming to Pasteur's laboratory in increasing numbers.
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[3]

Contents

Early life and biography

.Louis Pasteur was born on December 27, 1822, in Dole in the Jura region of France, into the family of a poor tanner.^ Birth Date: December 27, 1822 .
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^ Louis Pasteur was born at Dole, Jura, France, December 27, 1822, and died near Saint-Cloud, September 28, 1895.
  • Modern History Sourcebook: Louis Pasteur (1822-1895): Physiological Theory ofFermentation, 1879 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Pasteur's Papers on the Germ Theory 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC biotech.law.lsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis Pasteur (1822-95) Glossary .
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.Louis grew up in the town of Arbois.^ Education and Growing Up Pasteur was born in Dole and grew up in the nearby town of Arbois, the only son of a poorly educated tanner, Jean Pasteur.
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^ Pasteur was born in Dle on December 27, 1822, the son of a tanner, and grew up in the small town of Arbois.
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[2] He gained degrees in Letters and in Mathematical Sciences before entering the École Normale Supérieure, an elite college. .After serving briefly as professor of physics at Dijon Lycée in 1848, he became professor of chemistry at the University of Strasbourg,[2] where he met and courted Marie Laurent, daughter of the university's rector, in 1849. They were married on May 29, 1849, and together had five children, only two of whom survived to adulthood, two died of typhoid and one of a brain tumor.^ Taught physics at the University of Strasbourg.
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^ In Strasbourg, Pasteur had the immense good fortune to meet and marry the University Rector's daughter Marie Laurent, who was to be his devoted wife, mother and scientific helpmate through the remainder of his life.
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^ As the result of his discovery he was made (1848) professor of physics at the Lycee of Dijon; three months later he became deputy professor of chemistry at the University of Strasburg, and full professor in 1852.
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.These personal tragedies inspired Pasteur to try to find cures for diseases such as typhoid.^ This lack of evidence threatened his germ theory, but Pasteur was convinced an unseen microbial agent caused the disease, and proceeded to follow his procedure of finding ways to weaken it.
  • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Access database ] The Association of Pasteur families An association to establish contact between any person bearing the patronymic Pasteur or who is related to a Pasteur family in the world or who is interested in such a family.
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^ Upon return, Pasteur's collaborators were disappointed to find that these stored cultures no longer killed injected chickens, nor even made them sick.
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Work on chirality and the polarization of light

Pasteur separated the left and right crystal shapes from each other to form two piles of crystals: in solution one form rotated light to the left, the other to the right, while an equal mixture of the two forms canceled each other's effect and does not rotate the polarization of light.
.In Pasteur's early work as a chemist, he resolved a problem concerning the nature of tartaric acid (1849).^ In Pasteur's early works as a chemist, he resolved a problem concerning the nature of tartaric acid (1849).
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^ Happily he started working with tartaric acid.
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^ The acid was first isolated in 1769 by the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele, who boiled tartar with chalk and decomposed the product with sulfuric acid.
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.A solution of this compound derived from living things (specifically, wine lees) rotated the plane of polarization of light passing through it.^ Mitscherlich announced that two tartaric acids, apparently identical in chemical qualities and in crystalline form, acted differently in solution toward polarized light.
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^ Third, and this may have been the critical clue to Pasteur, some of these compounds rotated light, that is they were asymmetric.
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^ Their analyses have shown that a considerable proportion of the amino acids derived from the cancer cell protein may be of the type, which rotates the plane of polarization to the right.
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.The mystery was that tartaric acid derived by chemical synthesis had no such effect, even though its chemical reactions were identical and its elemental composition was the same.^ The mystery was that tartaric acid derived by chemical synthesis had no such effect, even though its reactions were identical and its elemental composition was the same.
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^ This simple experiment proved that the organic molecules with the same chemical composition can exist in space in unique stereospecific forms.
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^ We took a flask, B, of larger capacity than the former one, which we filled about half with the same volume as before of a saccharine liquid of identically the same composition.
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[2]
.Upon examination of the minuscule crystals of sodium ammonium tartrate, Pasteur noticed that the crystals came in two asymmetric forms that were mirror images of one another.^ Upon examination of the minuscule crystals of Sodium ammonium tartrate, Pasteur noticed that the crystals came in two asymmetric forms that were mirror images of one another.
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^ In this beautiful work, and in all subsequent ones of which the ripening of fruits has been the subject, two facts of great theoretical value have escaped the notice of the authors; these are the two facts which Messrs.
  • Modern History Sourcebook: Louis Pasteur (1822-1895): Physiological Theory ofFermentation, 1879 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Upon intense examination beneath his microscope, he saw that every crystal of pure tartaric acid looked like every other one.
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.Tediously sorting the crystals by hand gave two forms of the compound: solutions of one form rotated polarized light clockwise, while the other form rotated light counterclockwise.^ He then showed that in solution one form rotated light to the left, the other to the right.
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^ An equal mixture of the two forms cancels each other's rotation.
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^ In fact, it was the great Pasteur whose first fame was based upon his picking out by hand crystals of tartaric acid, some of which had a left-sided face and others a right-sided face, thus proving that ordinary tartaric acid, which does not rotate, can be divided into one which rotates to the right and another, to the left.
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.An equal mix of the two had no polarizing effect on light.^ Mitscherlich announced that two tartaric acids, apparently identical in chemical qualities and in crystalline form, acted differently in solution toward polarized light.
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^ A fourth variety, mesotartaric acid, also without effect on the plane of polarized light, is said to be internally compensated.
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^ But there was no known source of circularly polarized light when life on Earth began.
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.Pasteur correctly deduced the molecule in question was asymmetric and could exist in two different forms that resemble one another as would left- and right-hand gloves, and that the biological source of the compound provided purely the one type.^ One type was the mirror image the other -- the way the right hand mirrors the left hand.
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^ Pasteur concluded that organic molecules could exist in one of two forms, called isomers (that is, having the same structure and differing only in mirror images of each other), which he referred to as left-handed and right-handed forms.
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^ Upon examination of the minuscule crystals of Sodium ammonium tartrate, Pasteur noticed that the crystals came in two asymmetric forms that were mirror images of one another.
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[4] This was the first time anyone had demonstrated chiral molecules.
.Pasteur's doctoral thesis on crystallography attracted the attention of M. Puillet and he helped Pasteur garner a position of professor of chemistry at the Faculté (College) of Strasbourg.^ After serving briefly as professor of physics at Dijon Lycée in 1848, he became professor of chemistry at Strasbourg University, where he met and courted Marie Laurent, daughter of the university's rector in 1849.
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^ In 1854 Pasteur was appointed Dean and professor of chemistry at the Faculty of Sciences in Lille, France.
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^ I began my researches at Clermont-Ferrand, in the laboratory, and with the help, of my friend M. Duclaux, professor of chemistry at the Faculty of Sciences of that town.
  • Modern History Sourcebook: Louis Pasteur (1822-1895): Physiological Theory ofFermentation, 1879 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Pasteur's Papers on the Germ Theory 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC biotech.law.lsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[2]
.In the year of 1854, Louis was named Dean of the new Faculty of Sciences in Lille.^ In 1854 Pasteur was appointed Dean and professor of chemistry at the Faculty of Sciences in Lille, France.
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^ The most important academic positions held by him later were those as professor of chemistry at Strasburg, 1849; dean of the Faculty of Sciences at Lille, 1854; science director of the Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris, 1857; professor of geology, physics, and chemistry at the Ecole des Beaux Arts; professor of chemistry at the Sorbonne, 1867.
  • Modern History Sourcebook: Louis Pasteur (1822-1895): Physiological Theory ofFermentation, 1879 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The most important academic positions held by him later were those as professor of chemistry at Strasburg, 1849; dean of the Faculty of Sciences at Lille, 1854; science director of the Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris, 1857; professor of geology, physics, and chemistry at the Ecole des Beaux Arts; Professor of chemistry at the Sorbonne, 1867.
  • Pasteur's Papers on the Germ Theory 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC biotech.law.lsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In 1856, he was made administrator and director of scientific studies of the École Normale Supérieure.^ Served as director of Scientific Studies at the cole Normal Suprieure.
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^ Silkworm studies: In 1865, Pasteur was summoned from Paris, where he had become administrator and director of scientific studies at the cole Normale, to come to the aid of the silk industry in southern France.
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^ In 1857 he became director of scientific studies at the Paris Ecole Normal; in 1863 professor of geology and chemistry at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, in 1867 professor of chemistry at the Sorbonne where he remained till 889 when he became the Director of the Pasteur Institute, founded in his honor.
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[2]

Germ theory

.Pasteur demonstrated that fermentation is caused by the growth of microorganisms, and that the emergent growth of bacterium in nutrient broths is not due to spontaneous generation[2] but rather to biogenesis (Omne vivum ex ovo).^ Hence, preformationists had to reject spontaneous generation, ex hypothesi .
  • Pasteur, fermentation, contagion, and proving anegative 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) objected to the idea of spontaneous generation.
  • Pasteur, fermentation, contagion, and proving anegative 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He demonstrated that wine diseases are caused by microorganisms that can be killed by heating the wine to 55deg.C for several minutes.
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Bottle en col de cygne (Swan neck duct) used by Pasteur
.He exposed boiled broths to air in vessels that contained a filter to prevent all particles from passing through to the growth medium, and even in vessels with no filter at all, with air being admitted via a long tortuous tube that would not allow dust particles to pass.^ He concluded that microbe-carrying dust particles vary with elevation and pollution, but clearly it was microbes in airborne dust, not the air itself, was the source of the life that appeared to spontaneously generate in the broth.
  • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

^ How could he create an environment open to the air, but prevent microbes in dust from getting to the broth?
  • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To prove the medium was still capable of supporting life, he exposed the sealed material to the air and it was soon teaming too.
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.Nothing grew in the broths unless the flasks were broken open; therefore, the living organisms that grew in such broths came from outside, as spores on dust, rather than spontaneously generated within the broth.^ Pasteur said: "I prefer to think that life comes from life rather than from dust."
  • Pasteur, fermentation, contagion, and proving anegative 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is not true that "spontaneous generation" has been ruled out in all cases by science; the claims disproven were more restricted than that.
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^ We then reversed the flask with the opening under the mercury, and shook it every ten minutes for more than an hour.
  • Pasteur's Papers on the Germ Theory 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC biotech.law.lsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This was one of the last and most important experiments disproving the theory of spontaneous generation.^ These experiments resulted in the demise of the theory of spontaneous generation.
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^ Louis Pasteur made important contributions to the field of organic chemistry during the mid-1800s, developing various vaccines, including one for rabies, and disproving the theory of spontaneous generation.
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^ One of the most famous experiments involved anthrax in livestock.
  • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

.The experiment also supported germ theory.^ His experiments confirmed the germ theory of disease, also reducing mortality from puerperal fever (childbed), and he created the first vaccine for rabies.
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[2]
.While Pasteur was not the first to propose germ theory (Girolamo Fracastoro, Agostino Bassi, Friedrich Henle and others had suggested it earlier), he developed it and conducted experiments that clearly indicated its correctness and managed to convince most of Europe it was true.^ This lack of evidence threatened his germ theory, but Pasteur was convinced an unseen microbial agent caused the disease, and proceeded to follow his procedure of finding ways to weaken it.
  • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, the time necessary for the development of the germs and the production of that amount of yeast sufficient to cause the first appearance of fermentation varies with the state of the impregnating cells, and is longer in proportion as the cells are further removed from the period of their formation.
  • Modern History Sourcebook: Louis Pasteur (1822-1895): Physiological Theory ofFermentation, 1879 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Pasteur's Papers on the Germ Theory 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC biotech.law.lsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Air is only present in the earlier developments of their germs, and without attracting the attention of the operator, whilst in their state of anaerobian growth their life and action are of prolonged duration.
  • Modern History Sourcebook: Louis Pasteur (1822-1895): Physiological Theory ofFermentation, 1879 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Pasteur's Papers on the Germ Theory 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC biotech.law.lsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Today he is often regarded as the father of germ theory and bacteriology, together with Robert Koch.^ He is regarded as one of the three main founders of microbiology, together with Ferdinand Cohn and Robert Koch.
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^ Thanks to the germ theory of disease and the practices advanced by Joseph Lister, the dirty operating rooms of centuries past were replaced with the bastions of cleanliness we know today.
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[5]
.Pasteur's research also showed that the growth of microorganisms was responsible for spoiling beverages, such as beer, wine and milk.^ Milk, wine, beer, and fruit juices are all routinely pasteurized.
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^ He is best known to the general public for showing how to stop milk and wine from going sour - this process came to be called pasteurization.
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^ Her pioneering research led the dairy industry to begin pasteurizing all milk in the 1930s.
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.With this established, he invented a process in which liquids such as milk were heated to kill most bacteria and molds already present within them.^ He found that by heating the wine enough to kill the bacteria but not the yeast (a process that became known as pasteurization), wine could be kept from spoiling for long periods.
  • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The same experiments may be repeated with albuminous liquid, mixed with a solution of non- fermentable sugar, such as ordinary crystallized milk-sugar.
  • Pasteur's Papers on the Germ Theory 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC biotech.law.lsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Pasteurization : Pasteurization , process of heating a liquid, particularly milk, to a temperature between 55 and 70 C (131 and 158 F), to destroy harmful bacteria without materially changing the composition, flavor, or nutritive value of the liquid.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He and Claude Bernard completed the first test on April 20, 1862. This process was soon afterwards known as pasteurization.^ He found that by heating the wine enough to kill the bacteria but not the yeast (a process that became known as pasteurization), wine could be kept from spoiling for long periods.
  • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Applied to beer and milk, this process, called "pasteurization", soon came into use throughout the world.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thiers, Victor Hugo, Claude Bernard, Renan, and Taine have gone, and the lot now falls on Pasteur.
  • The Pasteur Galaxy 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC php.pasteur.net [Source type: General]

[5]
.Beverage contamination led Pasteur to the idea that microorganisms infecting animals and humans cause disease.^ In animals the disease generally can cause partial sterility, decreased milk supply, and abortion of a fetus.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pasteur realized that he had weakened the bacteria in the culture just enough, and in just the right way, that they lost the power to cause disease but retained the power to confer immunity.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Undulant Fever Controlled by Pasteurization : Undulant Fever , also known as brucellosis, infectious disease caused by various species of bacteria of the genus Brucella, transmitted to humans from lower animals, especially cattle, hogs, and goats.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He proposed preventing the entry of microorganisms into the human body, leading Joseph Lister to develop antiseptic methods in surgery.^ Slowly, but surely, through the preaching of Pasteur, Lister and other physicians antiseptic medicine and surgery became the rule.

^ In 1865 the British surgeon Joseph Lister applied Pasteurs work to surgery, developing antiseptic (germ-killing) techniques including the use of a carbolic acid spray to kill germs in the operating room before surgery.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1884 the French bacteriologist Louis Pasteur developed a preventive vaccine against rabies, and modifications of Pasteur's methods are still used in rabies therapy today.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1865, two parasitic diseases called pébrine and flacherie were killing great numbers of silkworms at Alais (now Alès).^ His most famous work was the narrative poem Syphilis sive morbus Gallicus (1530, ), which described a new sexually transmitted disease, now called syphilis, and its treatment.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Immunization, also called vaccination or inoculation, a method of stimulating resistance in the human body to specific diseases using microorganismsbacteria or virusesthat have been modified or killed.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now there were at least two different types of silkworm diseases that Pasteur came to grips with: Pebrine, in which black spots and corpuscles are generally, but not always, present on the worm.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC pyramid.spd.louisville.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • LabExplorer.com  - The Life and Times of Louis Pasteur by Dr. DavidCohn 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.labexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pasteur worked several years proving it was a microbe attacking silkworm eggs which caused the disease, and that eliminating this microbe within silkworm nurseries would eradicate the disease.^ Pasteur was studying the diseases of the silkworm.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pasteur isolated the microbe that caused the disease.
  • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pasteur realized that he had weakened the bacteria in the culture just enough, and in just the right way, that they lost the power to cause disease but retained the power to confer immunity.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2][5]
.Pasteur also discovered anaerobiosis, whereby some microorganisms can develop and live without air or oxygen, called the Pasteur effect.^ Yet Pasteur later called fermentation "life without air, or life without oxygen."
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Can this organized being live without air?
  • Modern History Sourcebook: Louis Pasteur (1822-1895): Physiological Theory ofFermentation, 1879 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Pasteur's Papers on the Germ Theory 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC biotech.law.lsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And fourth, Pasteur developed "pasteurization," a process by which harmful microbes in perishable food products are destroyed using heat, without destroying the food.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Immunology and vaccination

.Pasteur's later work on diseases included work on chicken cholera.^ Chicken Cholera: Pasteur's later work on diseases included work on chicken cholera.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pasteur then reproducibly manufactured attenuated cultures of chicken cholera vaccines by growing the cholera bacillus at 42 - 43 degrees C. at which temperature the bacillus is non-infectious.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC pyramid.spd.louisville.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • LabExplorer.com  - The Life and Times of Louis Pasteur by Dr. DavidCohn 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.labexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During this work, a culture of the responsible bacteria had spoiled and failed to induce the disease in some chickens he was infecting with the disease.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During this work, a culture of the responsible bacteria had spoiled and failed to induce the disease in some chickens he was infecting with the disease.^ During this work, a culture of the responsible bacteria had spoiled and failed to induce the disease in some chickens he was infecting with the disease.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pasteur realized that he had weakened the bacteria in the culture just enough, and in just the right way, that they lost the power to cause disease but retained the power to confer immunity.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chicken Cholera: Pasteur's later work on diseases included work on chicken cholera.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Upon reusing these healthy chickens, Pasteur discovered that he could not infect them, even with fresh bacteria; the weakened bacteria had caused the chickens to become immune to the disease, even though they had only caused mild symptoms.^ Upon reusing these healthy chickens, Pasteur discovered that he could not infect them, even with fresh bacteria; the weakened bacteria had caused the chickens to become immune to the disease, although they had not actually caused the disease.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were so named because they passed through porcelain filters that strained out the much larger germs or bacteria that Louis Pasteur had shown in the 1860's to be the cause of many kinds of communicable diseases.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pasteur considered these studies important landmarks in his investigations on infection and infectious disease.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC pyramid.spd.louisville.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • LabExplorer.com  - The Life and Times of Louis Pasteur by Dr. DavidCohn 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.labexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2][5]
.His assistant Charles Chamberland (of French origin) had been instructed to inoculate the chickens after Pasteur went on holiday.^ His assistant Charles Chamberland had been instructed to inoculate the chickens after Pasteur went on holiday.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To read the original report by Pasteur, Chamberland and Roux, click here .

^ Chamberland failed to do this, but instead went on holiday himself.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Chamberland failed to do this, but instead went on holiday himself.^ Chamberland failed to do this, but instead went on holiday himself.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His assistant Charles Chamberland had been instructed to inoculate the chickens after Pasteur went on holiday.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On his return, the month old cultures made the chickens unwell, but instead of the infection being fatal, as it usually was, the chickens recovered completely.^ On his return, the month old cultures made the chickens unwell, but instead of the infection being fatal, as usual, the chickens recovered completely.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the heat of the summer, Pasteur returned to Paris leaving the cholera cultures used for infection stored on the shelves of the Arbois laboratory.

^ No infection set in, and the young man recovered completely.
  • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

.Chamberland assumed an error had been made, and wanted to discard the apparently faulty culture when Pasteur stopped him.^ Chamberland assumed an error had been made, and wanted to discard the apparently faulty culture out when Pasteur stopped him.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Upon return, Pasteur's collaborators were disappointed to find that these stored cultures no longer killed injected chickens, nor even made them sick.

.Pasteur guessed the recovered animals now might be immune to the disease, as were the animals at Eure-et-Loir that had recovered from anthrax.^ Pasteur guessed the recovered animals now might be immune to the disease, as were the animals at Eure-et-Loir that had recovered from anthrax.
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^ Twenty-five sheep were to be controls, the other twenty-five were to be vaccinated by Pasteur and then all animals would receive a lethal dose of anthrax.

^ If attenuated cholera bacillus could render chickens resistant to the disease, would not an attenuated anthrax bacillus render sheep immune to anthrax?

[6]
.In the 1870s, he applied this immunization method to anthrax, which affected cattle, and aroused interest in combating other diseases.^ In the 1870s, he applied this immunization method to anthrax, which affected cattle, and aroused interest in combating other diseases.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pasteur's method of immunization was effective and was employed by many other physicians, eventually leading to the eradication of typhus and polio as threats.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anthrax Research: Pasteur also determined the natural history of anthrax, a fatal disease of cattle.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Louis Pasteur in his laboratory, painting by A. Edelfeldt in 1885
.Pasteur publicly claimed he had made the anthrax vaccine by exposing the bacillus to oxygen.^ Pasteur publicly claimed he had made the anthrax vaccine by exposing the bacillus to oxygen.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pasteur's oxygen method did eventually produce a vaccine but only after he had been awarded a patent on the production of an anthrax vaccine.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ French biologist Louis Pasteur also demonstrated that the bacteria caused the disease and in 1881 developed an effective vaccine against anthrax in animals.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His laboratory notebooks, now in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, in fact show Pasteur used the method of rival Jean-Joseph-Henri Toussaint, a Toulouse veterinary surgeon, to create the anthrax vaccine.^ His laboratory notebooks, now in the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris, in fact show Pasteur used the method of rival Jean-Joseph-Henri Toussaint, a Toulouse veterinary surgeon, to create the anthrax vaccine.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Henry douard Pasteur , a founder member and former chairman of the Association of Pasteur families, died on 28 September 2005 in Paris, France.
  • The Pasteur Galaxy 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC php.pasteur.net [Source type: General]

^ This raised concerns that Russia, and possibly other countries, was working on a vaccine-resistant form of anthrax for use as a biological weapon.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4][7] .This method used the oxidizing agent potassium dichromate.^ This method used the oxidizing agent potassium dichromate.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pasteur's oxygen method did eventually produce a vaccine but only after he had been awarded a patent on the production of an anthrax vaccine.^ Pasteur's oxygen method did eventually produce a vaccine but only after he had been awarded a patent on the production of an anthrax vaccine.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His laboratory notebooks, now in the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris, in fact show Pasteur used the method of rival Jean-Joseph-Henri Toussaint, a Toulouse veterinary surgeon, to create the anthrax vaccine.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pasteur's method of immunization was effective and was employed by many other physicians, eventually leading to the eradication of typhus and polio as threats.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The notion of a weak form of a disease causing immunity to the virulent version was not new; this had been known for a long time for smallpox.^ The notion of a weak form of a disease causing immunity to the virulent version was not new; this had been known for a long time for smallpox.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pasteur realized that he had weakened the bacteria in the culture just enough, and in just the right way, that they lost the power to cause disease but retained the power to confer immunity.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The difference with chicken cholera and anthrax was that the weakened form of the disease organism had been generated artificially, and so a naturally weak form of the disease organism did not need to be found.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Inoculation with smallpox was known to result in far less scarring, and greatly reduced mortality, in comparison with the naturally acquired disease.^ Inoculation with smallpox was known to result in far less scarring, and greatly reduced mortality, in comparison to the naturally acquired disease.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, the development in the 1950s of a vaccine called Strain 19, with which calves can be inoculated against the disease, has reduced greatly the incidence of bovine undulant fever in the U.S. .
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His experiments confirmed the germ theory of disease, also reducing mortality from puerperal fever (childbed), and he created the first vaccine for rabies.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.Edward Jenner had also discovered vaccination, using cowpox to give cross-immunity to smallpox (in 1796), and by Pasteur's time this had generally replaced the use of actual smallpox material in inoculation.^ Edward Jenner had also discovered vaccination, using cowpox to give cross-immunity to smallpox, and by Pasteur's time this had generally replaced the use of actual smallpox material in inoculation.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Edward Jenner had applied a similar method to smallpox in 1796 without knowledge of the infectious agent; with Pasteur, vaccination had a theory and a methodology that could be applied to many diseases.
  • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jenner, Edward: Jenner, Edward (1749-1823), British physician, who discovered the vaccine that is used against smallpox and laid the groundwork for the science of immunology.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The difference between smallpox vaccination and cholera and anthrax vaccination was that the weakened form of the latter two disease organisms had been generated artificially, and so a naturally weak form of the disease organism did not need to be found.^ The difference with chicken cholera and anthrax was that the weakened form of the disease organism had been generated artificially, and so a naturally weak form of the disease organism did not need to be found.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These were two theoretical viewpoints on the nature of the generation of new organisms: preformationists believed that the pattern of generation was included in the seed, each embryo encapsulated in its parental embryo all the way back to creation, while epigeneticists believed with Aristotle that each embryo is formed out of an undifferentiated matter by an organising form.
  • Pasteur, fermentation, contagion, and proving anegative 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mitscherlich announced that two tartaric acids, apparently identical in chemical qualities and in crystalline form, acted differently in solution toward polarized light.
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.This discovery revolutionized work in infectious diseases, and Pasteur gave these artificially weakened diseases the generic name of vaccines, to honor Jenner's discovery.^ This discovery revolutionized work in infectious diseases, and Pasteur gave these artificially weakened diseases the generic name of vaccines, to honor Jenner's discovery.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This lack of evidence threatened his germ theory, but Pasteur was convinced an unseen microbial agent caused the disease, and proceeded to follow his procedure of finding ways to weaken it.
  • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pasteur realized that he had weakened the bacteria in the culture just enough, and in just the right way, that they lost the power to cause disease but retained the power to confer immunity.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pasteur produced the first vaccine for rabies by growing the virus in rabbits, and then weakening it by drying the affected nerve tissue.^ Pasteur produced the first vaccine for rabies by growing the virus in rabbits, and then weakening it by drying the affected nerve tissue.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was the first to explain the organic basis and control of fermentation, and as his research led him more and more into bacteriology, he isolated a number of disease-producing organisms and developed vaccines to combat them - notably the dread diseases of rabies, diptheria, anthrax, and others - as well as the processes of pasteurization and sterilization.
  • Pasteur, fermentation, contagion, and proving anegative 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The rabies vaccine was initially created by Emile Roux, a French doctor and a colleague of Pasteur who had been working with a killed vaccine produced by desiccating the spinal cords of infected rabbits.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The rabies vaccine was initially created by Emile Roux, a French doctor and a colleague of Pasteur who had been working with a killed vaccine produced by desiccating the spinal cords of infected rabbits.^ The rabies vaccine was initially created by Emile Roux, a French doctor and a colleague of Pasteur who had been working with a killed vaccine produced by desiccating the spinal cords of infected rabbits.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pasteur produced the first vaccine for rabies by growing the virus in rabbits, and then weakening it by drying the affected nerve tissue.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rabies Vaccine: In 1885 Louis Pasteur created the first successful vaccine against rabies for a young boy who had been bitten 14 times by a rabid dog.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The vaccine had only been tested on eleven dogs before its first human trial.^ The vaccine had only been tested on eleven dogs before its first human trial.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, he was hauled into before a mock trial, where the accusation was, “he did not intend the A-4 to be a weapon of war, that he had only space travel in mind ...
  • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rabies Vaccine: In 1885 Louis Pasteur created the first successful vaccine against rabies for a young boy who had been bitten 14 times by a rabid dog.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2][4]
.This vaccine was first used on 9-year old Joseph Meister, on July 6, 1885, after the boy was badly mauled by a rabid dog.^ Unheralded Deeds : Pasteur first tried his experimental rabies vaccine on a nine-year-old boy bitten by a rabid dog.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This vaccine was first used on 9-year old Joseph Meister, on July 6, 1885, after the boy was badly mauled by a rabid dog.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A desperate mother with her son, Joseph Meister, who had been bitten by a mad dog, pleaded with Pasteur for help.
  • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

[4] .This was done at some personal risk for Pasteur, since he was not a licensed physician and could have faced prosecution for treating the boy.^ This was done at some personal risk for Pasteur, since he was not a licensed physician and could have faced prosecution for treating the boy.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1885, a young boy and his mother arrived at Pasteurs laboratory; the boy had been bitten badly by a rabid dog, and Pasteur was urged to treat him with his new method.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, left without treatment, the boy faced almost certain death from rabies.^ At the end of the treatment, which lasted ten days, the boy was being inoculated with the most potent rabies virus known; he recovered and remained healthy.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

After consulting with colleagues, Pasteur decided to go ahead with the treatment. .The treatment proved to be a spectacular success, with Meister avoiding the disease; thus, Pasteur was hailed as a hero and the legal matter was not pursued.^ Fortunately, the treatment proved to be a spectacular success, with Meister avoiding the disease; thus, Pasteur was hailed as a hero and the legal matter was not pursued.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In accordance with Pasteur's wishes, the Institute was founded as a clinic for rabies treatment, a research center for infectious disease and a teaching center.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the whole countryside watching, Pasteur announced in advance that only 100% success would prove his theory right.
  • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

.The treatment's success laid the foundations for the manufacture of many other vaccines.^ The treatment's success laid the foundations for the manufacture of many other vaccines.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first of the Pasteur Institutes was also built on the basis of this achievement.^ The first of the Pasteur Institutes was also built on the basis of this achievement.
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^ In 1891, the first Foreign Institut Pasteur was founded in Saigon (today Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam) launching what was to become a vast international network of Instituts Pasteur.
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^ Learn More About Louis Pasteur Visit the Pasteur Institute which he founded, and see where they have listed his achievements .
  • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

[4]
Legal risk was not the only kind Pasteur undertook. In The Story of San Michele, Axel Munthe writes of the rabies vaccine research:
Pasteur himself was absolutely fearless. .Anxious to secure a sample of saliva straight from the jaws of a rabid dog, I once saw him with the glass tube held between his lips draw a few drops of the deadly saliva from the mouth of a rabid bull-dog, held on the table by two assistants, their hands protected by leather gloves.^ So from the ground up at Tuskegee, George set to work with the equivalent of two loaves and a few fishes, handing them over to the Lord to multiply them.
  • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1885, a young boy and his mother arrived at Pasteurs laboratory; the boy had been bitten badly by a rabid dog, and Pasteur was urged to treat him with his new method.
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Louis Pasteur portrait in his later years.
.Because of his study in germs, Pasteur encouraged doctors to sanitize their hands and equipment before surgery.^ Pasteur extended these studies to such other problems as the souring of milk, and he proposed a similar solution: heating the milk to a high temperature and pressure before bottling.
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^ Pasteurs studies convinced him that he was right; however, and in the course of his career he extended the germ theory to explain the causes of many diseases.
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^ In 1865 the British surgeon Joseph Lister applied Pasteurs work to surgery, developing antiseptic (germ-killing) techniques including the use of a carbolic acid spray to kill germs in the operating room before surgery.
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Prior to this, few doctors or their assistants practiced the procedure of washing their hands and equipment.

Allegations of deception

.In 1995, the centennial of the death of Louis Pasteur, the New York Times ran an article titled "Pasteur's Deception". After having thoroughly read Pasteur's lab notes the science historian Gerald L. Geison declared that Pasteur had given a misleading account of the preparation of the anthrax vaccine used in the experiment at Pouilly-le-Fort.^ His laboratory notebooks, now in the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris, in fact show Pasteur used the method of rival Jean-Joseph-Henri Toussaint, a Toulouse veterinary surgeon, to create the anthrax vaccine.
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^ Ultra-High Temperature (UHT) pasteurization, a relatively new technique, is used to sterilize foods for aseptic packaging.
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^ Jenner, Edward: Jenner, Edward (1749-1823), British physician, who discovered the vaccine that is used against smallpox and laid the groundwork for the science of immunology.
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[8]

Faith and spirituality

.Catholic observers often said that Louis Pasteur remained through out his whole life an ardent Christian.^ They were so named because they passed through porcelain filters that strained out the much larger germs or bacteria that Louis Pasteur had shown in the 1860's to be the cause of many kinds of communicable diseases.
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^ Pasteur said: "I prefer to think that life comes from life rather than from dust."
  • Pasteur, fermentation, contagion, and proving anegative 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A biographical film of his life has also been made, entitled The Story of Louis Pasteur.
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.According to his grandson Pasteur Vallery-Radot, however, Pasteur had only kept from his Catholic background a spiritualism without religious practice.^ Descendent regardless, it was a distortion for Vallery-Radot to assert that Pasteur was favorable to ideas of evolution.
  • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His son-in-law said that “he believed in the divine impulse which has created the Universe; with the yearnings of his heart he proclaimed the immortality of the soul.” His grandson said, ”Pasteur respected the religion of his forefathers; he had profound Christian ideals, but he was not, as has been asserted, an observant Catholic” (Vallery-Radot, p.
  • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His grandson wrote, “Pasteur’s health was undermined by a life overcharged with ideas, emotions, work, and struggles” (Vallery-Radot, p.
  • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

[9] .Maurice Vallery-Radot, grandson of the brother of the son-in-law of Pasteur and outspoken Catholic, holds that Pasteur fundamentally remained catholic, but does not claim that he went to mass.^ His son-in-law said that “he believed in the divine impulse which has created the Universe; with the yearnings of his heart he proclaimed the immortality of the soul.” His grandson said, ”Pasteur respected the religion of his forefathers; he had profound Christian ideals, but he was not, as has been asserted, an observant Catholic” (Vallery-Radot, p.
  • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Descendent regardless, it was a distortion for Vallery-Radot to assert that Pasteur was favorable to ideas of evolution.
  • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His grandson wrote, “Pasteur’s health was undermined by a life overcharged with ideas, emotions, work, and struggles” (Vallery-Radot, p.
  • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

[10] .According to both Pasteur Vallery-Radot and Maurice Vallery-Radot, the well-known quotation attributed to Pasteur: "The more I know, the more nearly is my faith that of the Breton peasant.^ Could I but know all, I would have the faith of a Breton peasant woman."
  • Pasteur, fermentation, contagion, and proving anegative 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Could I but know all I would have the faith of a Breton peasant woman."
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^ When asked about his faith, Pasteur would reply: "The more I know, the more does my faith approach that of the Breton peasant.
  • Pasteur, fermentation, contagion, and proving anegative 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Original source]

.Could I but know all I would have the faith of a Breton peasant's wife."^ He declared "The more I know, the more nearly is my faith that of the Breton peasant.
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^ Could I but know all, I would have the faith of a Breton peasant woman."
  • Pasteur, fermentation, contagion, and proving anegative 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Could I but know all I would have the faith of a Breton peasant woman."
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[2] is apocryphal.[11]

Principal works

.Pasteur's principal works are: "Etudes sur le Vin", (1866); "Etudes sur le Vinaigre" (1868); "Etudes sur la Maladie des Vers à Soie" (2 vols., 1870); "Quelques Réflexions sur la Science en France" (1871); "Etudes sur la Bière" (1876); "Les Microbes organisés, leur rôle dans la Fermentation, la Putréfaction et la Contagion" (1878); "Discours de Réception de M.L. Pasteur à l'Académie Française" (1882); "Traitement de la Rage" (1886).^ [Footnote: PASTEUR, Comptes rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, vol.
  • Pasteur's Papers on the Germ Theory 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC biotech.law.lsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ [Footnote 6: Pasteur, Comptes rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, vol.
  • Modern History Sourcebook: Louis Pasteur (1822-1895): Physiological Theory ofFermentation, 1879 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Pasteur's principal works are: "Etudes sur le Vin", (1866); "Etudes sur le Vinnaigre" (1868); "Etudes sur la Maladie des Vers Soie" (2 vols., 1870); "Quelques Rflexions sur la Science en France" (1871); "Etudes sur la Bire" (1876); "Les Microbes organiss, leur rle dans la Fermentation, la Putrfaction et la Contagion" (1878); "Discours de Rception de M.L. Pasteur l'Acadmie Franaise" (1882); "Traitement de la Rage" (1886).
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[2]

Honors and final days

.His death occurred in 1895, near Paris, from complications of a series of strokes that had started in 1868.[4] He died while listening to the story of St Vincent de Paul, whom he admired and sought to emulate.^ He died in 1895, near Paris, from complications caused by a series of strokes that had begun plaguing him as far back as 1868.
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^ Louis Pasteur was born at Dole, Jura, France, December 27, 1822, and died near Saint-Cloud, September 28, 1895.
  • Modern History Sourcebook: Louis Pasteur (1822-1895): Physiological Theory ofFermentation, 1879 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Pasteur's Papers on the Germ Theory 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC biotech.law.lsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He died with his rosary in his hand, after listening to the life of St. Vincent de Paul which he had asked to have read to him, because he thought that his work like that of St. Vincent would do much to save suffering children.
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[2] .He was buried in the Cathedral of Notre Dame, but his remains were reinterred in a crypt in the Institut Pasteur, Paris, where he is remembered for his life-saving work.^ He was buried in the Cathedral of Notre Dame, but his remains were soon placed in a crypt in the Institut Pasteur, Paris.
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^ Pasteur was convinced that the microbes he studied were the agents of infection, and proved it with a series of remarkable, life-saving and industry-saving discoveries.
  • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pasteur spent the rest of his life working on the causes of various diseasesincluding septicemia, cholera, diphtheria, fowl cholera, tuberculosis, and smallpoxand their prevention by means of vaccination.
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.Pasteur won the Leeuwenhoek medal, microbiology's highest Dutch honor in Arts and Sciences, in 1895. He was a Grand Croix of the Legion of Honor–one of only 75 in all of France.^ Pasteur won the Leeuwenhoek medal, microbiology's highest honor, in 1895.
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^ Bechamp, Pastuer, and Fermentation: About 1854, Professor Pierre Jacques Antoine Beauchamp, one of France's greatest scientists, then Professor at the School of Pharmacy in the Faculty of Science at Strasbourg, later (1857-75) Professor of Medical Chemistry and Pharmacy at the University of Montpelier, a member of many scientific societies, and a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor, took up the study of fermentation.
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^ So far we have seen that neither Redi, Spallanzani nor Pasteur disproved the origination of life in all cases, only in particular cases.
  • Pasteur, fermentation, contagion, and proving anegative 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Original source]

.Both Institute Pasteur and Université Louis Pasteur were named after him.^ Louis Pasteur Institute: Inaugurated in 1888, the Pasteur Institute ranks as one of the foremost research centers in the world.
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^ 'Louis Pasteur' (in English), Embassy of France in Canada, Pasteur.fr - 'The Institut Pasteur: Foundation Dedicated to the milk through biological research, education and public health activities' (in English) .
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^ The process is named after the French chemist Louis Pasteur, who devised it in 1865 to inhibit fermentation of wine and milk.
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In many localities worldwide, there are streets named in his honor. .For example, in the USA: the Medical school at Stanford University, Palo Alto and Irvine, California, Boston, Massachusetts and Polk, Florida, adjacent to the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio; Jonquière, Québec; San Salvador de Jujuy and Buenos Aires (Argentina), Yarmouth and Norfolk in the United Kingdom, Jericho and Wulguru in Queensland, (Australia); Phnom Penh in Cambodia; Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam; Batna in Algeria; Bandung in Indonesia, Tehran in Iran, Milan in Italy and Cluj-Napoca and Bucharest in Romania.^ In 1891, the first Foreign Institut Pasteur was founded in Saigon (today Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam) launching what was to become a vast international network of Instituts Pasteur.
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.Also there is a Pasteur institute in Ootakamund, a hill station in south India, which is involved in vaccine trials and also rabies diagnosis.^ Pasteur produced the first vaccine for rabies by growing the virus in rabbits, and then weakening it by drying the affected nerve tissue.
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^ Rabies Vaccine: In 1885 Louis Pasteur created the first successful vaccine against rabies for a young boy who had been bitten 14 times by a rabid dog.
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^ Pasteurs vaccine against rabies was a milestone in the field of immunization, one of the most effective forms of preventive medicine the world has yet seen.
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Statements

.In his triumphal lecture at the Sorbonne in 1864, Pasteur said "Never will the doctrine of spontaneous generation recover from the mortal blow struck by this simple experiment" (referring to his swan-neck flask experiment wherein he proved that fermenting microorganisms would not form in a flask containing fermentable juice until an entry path was created for them).^ This problem led to his famous swan-necked flask experiment.
  • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He would say triumphantly, “Never again shall the doctrine of spontaneous generation recover from the mortal blow that this one simple experiment has dealt it.” What was the experiment that gave him such confidence?
  • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pasteur, fermentation, contagion, and proving a negative .
  • Pasteur, fermentation, contagion, and proving anegative 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Original source]

[4][12][13]

Remembrances

.Avenue Louis Pasteur in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area in Boston, Massachusetts is named in his honor.^ The process is named after the French chemist Louis Pasteur, who devised it in 1865 to inhibit fermentation of wine and milk.
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^ This discovery revolutionized work in infectious diseases, and Pasteur gave these artificially weakened diseases the generic name of vaccines, to honor Jenner's discovery.
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The street was named in the french fashion (i.e. "Ave" before the name, rather than after) to further emphasize this.[14] It is on this street that the prestigious Boston Latin School is located.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Asimov, Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology 2nd Revised edition
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n  James J. Walsh (1913). "Louis Pasteur". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Louis_Pasteur. 
  3. ^ Campbell, D. M. (January, 1915). "The Pasteur Institute of Paris". American Journal of Vetrinary Medicine (Chicago, Ill.: D. M. Campbell) 10 (1): 29–31. http://books.google.com/books?id=u8FUAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q=&f=false. Retrieved February 8, 2010. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g David V. Cohn (December 18, 2006). "Pasteur". University of Louisville. http://pyramid.spd.louisville.edu/~eri/fos/interest1.html. Retrieved 2007-12-02. "Fortunately, Pasteur's colleagues Chamberlain [sic] and Roux followed up the results of a research physician Jean-Joseph-Henri Toussaint who reported a year earlier that carbolic-acid/heated anthrax serum would immunize against anthrax. These results were difficult to reproduce and discarded although, as it turned out, Toussaint was on the right track. This led Pasteur and his assistants to substitute an anthrax vaccine prepared by a method not dissimilar to that of Toussaint and different from what Pasteur had announced." 
  5. ^ a b c d Ullmann, Agnes (August 2007). "Pasteur-Koch: Distinctive Ways of Thinking about Infectious Diseases". Microbe (American Society for Microbiology) 2 (8): 383–7. http://forms.asm.org/microbe/index.asp?bid=52099. Retrieved December 12, 2007. 
  6. ^ Sternberg, George M. (1901). A Textbook of Bacteriology. New York: William Wood and Company. pp. 278–9. http://books.google.com/books?id=uNziSqWxtBwC&pg=PA278&lpg=PA278&dq=pasteur+loir+anthrax&source=web&ots=zhAyWjV5CL&sig=W-ODafIbuqkV5eE9AyI0rmpnDv8#v=onepage&q=pasteur%20loir%20anthrax&f=false. 
  7. ^ Adrien Loir (1938). Le mouvement sanitaire. pp. 18, 160. 
  8. ^ See Gerald Geison, The Private Science of Louis Pasteur, Princeton University Press, 1995. ISBN 069101552X.
  9. ^ Pasteur Vallery-Radot, Letter to Paul Dupuy, 1939, quoted by Hilaire Cuny, Pasteur et le mystère de la vie, Paris, Seghers, 1963, p. 53–54. Patrice Pinet, Pasteur et la philosophie, Paris, 2005, p. 134–135, quotes analogous assertions of Pasteur Vallery-Radot, with references to Pasteur Vallery-Radot, Pasteur inconnu, p. 232, and André George, Pasteur, Paris, 1958, p. 187. According to Maurice Vallery-Radot (Pasteur, 1994, p. 378), the false quotation appeared for the first time in the Semaine religieuse .... du diocèse de Versailles, October 6, 1895, p. 153, shortly after the death of Pasteur.
  10. ^ Vallery-Radot, Maurice (1994). Pasteur. Paris: Perrin. pp. 377–407. 
  11. ^ Pasteur Vallery-Radot, Letter to Paul Dupuy, 1939, quoted by Hilaire Cuny, Pasteur et le mystère de la vie, Paris, Seghers, 1963, p. 53–54. According to Maurice Vallery-Radot (Pasteur, 1994, p. 378), the false quotation appeared for the first time in the Semaine religieuse .... du diocèse de Versailles, October 6, 1895, p. 153, shortly after the death of Pasteur.
  12. ^ Fox, Sidney W.; Klaus Dose (1972). Molecular Evolution and the Origin of Life. W.H Freeman and Company, San Francisco. pp. 4.171. ISBN 0824766199. 
  13. ^ Oparin, Aleksandr I. (1953). Origin of Life. Dover Publications, New York. p. 196. ISBN 0486602133. 
  14. ^ Pasteur Foundation, Pasteur Memorials USA

References

  • Debré, P.; E. Forster (1998). Louis Pasteur. .Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press.^ Johns Hopkins University Press, October 2000; ISBN 0-801-86529-8.
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    ISBN 0-8018-5808-9.
     
  • Duclaux, E.Translated by Erwin F. Smith and Florence Hedges (1920). .Louis Pasteur: The History of a Mind.^ Louis Pasteur believed that “fortune favors the prepared mind.” Lister was about to illustrate this proverb.
    • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Modern History Sourcebook: Louis Pasteur (1822-1895): Physiological Theory of Fermentation, 1879 Back to Modern History SourceBook .
    • Modern History Sourcebook: Louis Pasteur (1822-1895): Physiological Theory ofFermentation, 1879 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Modern History Sourcebook: Louis Pasteur (1822-1895): Physiological Theory of Fermentation, 1879 .
    • Modern History Sourcebook: Louis Pasteur (1822-1895): Physiological Theory ofFermentation, 1879 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: W. B. Saunders Company.
     
  • Geison, Gerald L. (1995). .The private science of Louis Pasteur.^ Louis Pasteur built his reputation and altered the course of twentieth century science by plagiarizing and distorting the work Antoine Beauchamp.
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    ^ The fruits of the Christian world view in science were ripe and sweet in the life of Louis Pasteur, and we are all the better for it.
    • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Science Hero: Louis Pasteur .
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    .Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.^ Waksman at Rutgers University in New Jersey started a search for an agent, which might supplement the action of penicillin.
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    ISBN 0-691-03442-7.
     
  • Latour, Bruno (1988). The Pasteurization of France. Boston: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-65761-6. 

External links

.
The complete work of Pasteur, BNF (Bibliothèque nationale de France)
Preceded by
Émile Littré
Seat 17
Académie française

1881–1895
Succeeded by
Gaston Paris

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

In the fields of observation chance favors only the prepared mind.
.Louis Pasteur (27 December 182228 September 1895) French microbiologist, chemist, pioneer of the "Germ theory of disease", and inventor of the process of Pasteurization.^ Louis Pasteur Outstanding scientist and opponent of evolution (1822-1895) .
  • Creationist claims about Pasteur and SpontaneousGeneration 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) objected to the idea of spontaneous generation.
  • Pasteur, fermentation, contagion, and proving anegative 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis Pasteur ( pronounced: [pastøʁ] December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist born in Dole .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sourced

.
I am on the edge of mysteries and the veil is getting thinner and thinner.
  • I am on the edge of mysteries and the veil is getting thinner and thinner.
    • Letter (December 1851); as quoted in The Great Influenza: The Epic Story of the Deadliest Plague In History (2004) by John M. Barry
    • Variant translations:
      I am on the verge of mysteries and the veil is getting thinner and thinner. The nights seem to me too long...^ The Great Depression Mother Teresa of Calcutta Quotes, Biography, Facts, Letters, Accomplishments, Faith, and more.
      • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

      I am often scolded by Madame Pasteur, but I tell her I shall lead her to fame. .
      • Microbe Hunters (1926) by Paul De Kruif
    • My plan of study is traced for this coming year...^ Microbe Hunters by Paul DeKruif Discusses: yeast globules anthrax blood silkworm diseases .
      • Amazon.com: Louis Pasteur, free lance of science: Ren J Dubos: Books 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]
      • Amazon.com: Louis Pasteur Free Lance of Science: Rene Dubos: Books 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

      .I am hoping to develop it shortly in the most successful manner...^ Rabies The final and certainly most famous success of Pasteur's research was the development of a vaccine against rabies or hydrophobia as it is also known.
      • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC pyramid.spd.louisville.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • LabExplorer.com  - The Life and Times of Louis Pasteur by Dr. DavidCohn 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.labexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .I think that I have already told you that I am on the verge of mysteries, and that the veil which covers them is getting thinner and thinner.^ The fact is, as I already told you, my first portrait was exhibited in the reception area where people come to see students.

      The nights seem to me too long, yet I do not complain... I am often scolded by Mme. Pasteur, but I console her by telling her that I shall lead her to fame. .
      • The Life of Pasteur (1916) by René Vallery-Radot
  • Dans les champs de l'observation le hasard ne favorise que les esprits préparés.
    • In the fields of observation chance favors only the prepared mind.
    • Lecture, University of Lille (7 December 1854)
    • Alternate translations of this or similar statements include:
      • Chance favors the prepared mind.
      • Fortune favors the prepared mind.
      • In the field of observation, chance favors the prepared mind.
      • Where observation is concerned, chance favors only the prepared mind.
  • There does not exist a category of science to which one can give the name applied science.^ Pasteur dans le monde.
    • la Galaxie des Pasteur - Abner Pasteur v. John Jones, et al. (New Bern, 1801) 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC pasteur.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ One does not do rocket science alone!
    • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In 1854, he was named Dean of the new College of Science in Lille.
    • Louis Pasteur: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .There are sciences and the applications of science, bound together as the fruit of the tree which bears it.
    • Revue Scientifique (1871)
      • Variant translation: There are no such things as applied sciences, only applications of science.
  • L' univers est dissymetrique...
    • The universe is asymmetric and I am persuaded that life, as it is known to us, is a direct result of the asymmetry of the universe or of its indirect consequences.^ Hence when the Earth was first fit for life, there was no living thing on it.
      • Pasteur, fermentation, contagion, and proving anegative 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ The principal Ms.Fong was one of the only things holding it together and she retired.
      • Junior High School 67 Louis Pasteur public School in DALLAS TEXAS 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC hellolocal.com [Source type: General]

      ^ The word “university” represents some thing really hard, and the only one who can enjoy it is the person really like it.
      • 1st Louis Pasteur (3/3) - Science Student Visit Abroad Program - sotory - School of Science, the University of Tokyo 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      The universe is asymmetric.
    • Works Vol. .1 (1 June 1874) Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences
  • I beseech you to take interest in these sacred domains so expressively called laboratories.^ [Footnote: PASTEUR, Comptes rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, vol.
    • Pasteur's Papers on the Germ Theory 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC biotech.law.lsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ (Comptes rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, t.
    • Pasteur's Papers on the Germ Theory 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC biotech.law.lsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ BERTHELOT, Comptes rendus de l'Academie.
    • Pasteur's Papers on the Germ Theory 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC biotech.law.lsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Ask that there be more and that they be adorned for these are the temples of the future, wealth and well-being.^ Ask that there be more and that they be adorned for these are the temples of the future, wealth and well-being.
    • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.vigyanprasar.gov.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ These are problems for the distant future, if they are ever to be solved by man."
    • Pasteur, fermentation, contagion, and proving anegative 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Indeed, the swarming vibrios were bound to remain there, the tartrate of lime being still more insoluble in water saturated with carbonate of lime than it is in pure water.
    • Modern History Sourcebook: Louis Pasteur (1822-1895): Physiological Theory ofFermentation, 1879 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Pasteur's Papers on the Germ Theory 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC biotech.law.lsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .It is here that humanity will grow, strengthen and improve.^ It is here that humanity will grow, strengthen and improve.
    • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Here, humanity will learn to read progress and individual harmony in the works of nature, while humanity's own works are all too often those of barbarism, fanaticism and destruction.^ Here, humanity will learn to read progress and individual harmony in the works of nature, while humanity's own works are all too often those of barbarism, fanaticism and destruction."
    • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It is here that humanity will learn to read progress and individual harmony in the works of nature, while humanity’s own works are all too often those of barbarism, fanaticism and destruction.” Pasteur was a great patriot.

    ^ Considering all he did with the peanut, what about all those plant uses yet to be discovered, in tropical rain forests or your own backyard?
    • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

    • Statement of 1878, as quoted in Crystals and Life : A Personal Journey (2002) by Celerino Abad Zapatero, p. .139
  • Posterity will one day laugh at the foolishness of modern materialistic philosophers. The more I study nature, the more I stand amazed at the work of the Creator.^ I have lived and worked as one little part of Your boundless creation.
    • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He said, “The more I study nature, the more I stand amazed at the works of the Creator.” Despite the evolution that permeates today’s Pasteur Institute, evolutionists cannot claim Louis Pasteur as their own.
    • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Government and private researchers are working on new anthrax vaccines that they hope will be more potent, safer and require only one or two shots.
    • Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, S.O.S. ATTENTATS, Le Monde, Louis Pasteur, anthrax, bioterrorism, Michael Osterholm, Patrick Schlievert, Nobel Prize, University of Wine 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.mbbnet.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    I pray while I am engaged at my work in the laboratory.
    • As quoted in The Literary Digest (18 October 1902)
Let me tell you the secret that has led me to my goal. .My strength lies solely in my tenacity.
  • He who proclaims the existence of the Infinite, and none can avoid it — accumulates in that affirmation more of the supernatural than is to be found in all the miracles of all the religions; for the notion of the Infinite presents that double character that forces itself upon us and yet is incomprehensible.^ What he could not above all understand is the failure of scientists to recognize the demonstration of the existence of the Creator that there is in the world around us.
    • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Louis Pasteur 1822 - 1895 Who contributed more to the saving of human lives than any other scientist?
    • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is not true that "spontaneous generation" has been ruled out in all cases by science; the claims disproven were more restricted than that.
    • Pasteur, fermentation, contagion, and proving anegative 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Original source]

    When this notion seizes upon our understanding we can but kneel ... I see everywhere the inevitable expression of the Infinite in the world; through it the supernatural is at the bottom of every heart. The idea of God is a form of the idea of the Infinite. .As long as the mystery of the infinite weighs on human thought, temples will be erected for the worship of the Infinite, whether God is called Brahma, Allah, Jehovah, or Jesus; and on the pavement of these temples, men will be seen kneeling, prostrated, annihilated by the thought of the Infinite.^ These men called themselves Christians.

    ^ A crowd of these long vibrios were to be seen creeping slowly along, with a sinuous movement, showing three, four, or even five flexures.
    • Modern History Sourcebook: Louis Pasteur (1822-1895): Physiological Theory ofFermentation, 1879 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Pasteur's Papers on the Germ Theory 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC biotech.law.lsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • As quoted by Sir William Osler in his introduction to The Life of Pasteur (1907) by Rene Vallery-Radot, as translated by R .L. Devonshire (1923)
  • Blessed is he who carries within himself a God, an ideal, and who obeys it: ideal of art, ideal of science, ideal of the gospel virtues, therein lie the springs of great thoughts and great actions; they all reflect light from the Infinite.
    • As quoted by Sir William Osler in his introduction to The Life of Pasteur (1907) by Rene Vallery-Radot, as translated by R .L. Devonshire (1923)
    • Variant translation: Blessed is he who carries within himself a god and an ideal and who obeys it — an ideal of art, of science, or gospel virtues.^ "These are the living springs of great thoughts and great actions.
      • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ In his address Pasteur said further "These are the living springs of great thoughts and great actions.
      • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Happy the man who bears within him a divinity, an ideal of beauty and obeys it; and ideal of art, and ideal of science, an ideal of country, and ideal of the virtues of the Gospel.
      • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .Therein lie the springs of great thoughts and great actions; they all reflect light from the Infinite.^ "These are the living springs of great thoughts and great actions.
      • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ These are facts of so great importance, and so intimately connected with the theory of fermentation, that it is indispensable to endeavour to establish them experimentally, with all the exactness of which they will admit.
      • Modern History Sourcebook: Louis Pasteur (1822-1895): Physiological Theory ofFermentation, 1879 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
      • Pasteur's Papers on the Germ Theory 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC biotech.law.lsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ In his address Pasteur said further "These are the living springs of great thoughts and great actions.
      • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      • As quoted in The Wordsworth Dictionary of Quotations (1998) by Connie Robertson, p. 320
  • Do not let yourself be tainted with a barren skepticism.
    • As quoted in The Louisville & Nashville Employes' Magazine Vol. 20 (1944)‎, p. .28
  • Science knows no country, because knowledge belongs to humanity, and is the torch which illuminates the world. Science is the highest personification of the nation because that nation will remain the first which carries the furthest the works of thought and intelligence.^ "I am utterly convinced that Science and Peace will triumph against Ignorance and War," he wrote, "that nations will eventually unite not to destroy but to edify, and that the future will belong to those who have done the most for the sake of suffering humanity."
    • Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, S.O.S. ATTENTATS, Le Monde, Louis Pasteur, anthrax, bioterrorism, Michael Osterholm, Patrick Schlievert, Nobel Prize, University of Wine 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.mbbnet.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Lechartier and Bellamy, who at first had prudently drawn no theoretical conclusions from their work, now entirely agree with the theory we have advanced.
    • Modern History Sourcebook: Louis Pasteur (1822-1895): Physiological Theory ofFermentation, 1879 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Pasteur's Papers on the Germ Theory 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC biotech.law.lsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But because Darwinism was so entrenched, even many of the Christians in science acquiesced, being told the evidence was overwhelming in favor of the new popular theory of the world.
    • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • As quoted in Louis Pasteur, Free Lance of Science (1960) by René Jules Dubos, Ch.^ This review is from: Louis Pasteur (Da Capo Series in Science) (Paperback) This a rounded portrait of a scientific career and of nineteenth century science.
      • Amazon.com: Louis Pasteur, free lance of science: Ren J Dubos: Books 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

      ^ SCIENCE HERO: LOUIS PASTEUR by Jennifer from St. Paul Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) was the great French scientist whose work has saved millions of lives.
      • The My Hero Project - Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.myhero.com [Source type: Academic]

      ^ R. J. Dubos, Louis Pasteur : Free Lance of Science (1986) and Pasteur and Modern Science (rev...
      • Pasteur Louis: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

      .3 "Pasteur in Action"
  • One does not ask of one who suffers: What is your country and what is your religion?^ When asked about his faith, Pasteur would reply: "The more I know, the more does my faith approach that of the Breton peasant.
    • Pasteur, fermentation, contagion, and proving anegative 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Russians, who suffered severely from rabies, from the bites of mad wolves on the steppes, found it of great service, and the tsar honored Pasteur by a personal visit.
    • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ He knew this meant abandoning his fatherland (and who, in spite of evil leaders, does not have some heart for his own country?
    • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

    One merely says: You suffer, that is enough for me...
    .
    • As quoted in Louis Pasteur, Free Lance of Science (1960) by René Jules Dubos, Ch.^ This review is from: Louis Pasteur (Da Capo Series in Science) (Paperback) This a rounded portrait of a scientific career and of nineteenth century science.
      • Amazon.com: Louis Pasteur, free lance of science: Ren J Dubos: Books 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

      ^ SCIENCE HERO: LOUIS PASTEUR by Jennifer from St. Paul Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) was the great French scientist whose work has saved millions of lives.
      • The My Hero Project - Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.myhero.com [Source type: Academic]

      ^ R. J. Dubos, Louis Pasteur : Free Lance of Science (1986) and Pasteur and Modern Science (rev...
      • Pasteur Louis: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

      .3 "Pasteur in Action"
  • I am utterly convinced that Science and Peace will triumph over Ignorance and War, that nations will eventually unite not to destroy but to edify, and that the future will belong to those who have done the most for the sake of suffering humanity.
    • As quoted in Louis Pasteur, Free Lance of Science (1960) by René Jules Dubos, Ch.^ Too moved to speak, Pasteur gave his son his address, which contained these self-effacing words, You delegates of foreign countries who have come a long way to show your sympathy for France, have given me the greatest joy a man can feel who believes that Science and Peace will prevail over Ignorance and War, that the nations will learn to understand each other, not for destruction but for advancement, and that the future belongs to those who have done most for suffering mankind.
      • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Pasteur was responsible for some of the most important theoretical concepts and practical applications of modern science.

      ^ Among the observers to whom I allude, even M. Pasteur is to be found, who, even in his most recent communications, omits to state definitely what is the nature of many of the ferments which he has studied, with the exception, however, of those which belong to the cryptogamic group called torulaceae.
      • Modern History Sourcebook: Louis Pasteur (1822-1895): Physiological Theory ofFermentation, 1879 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
      • Pasteur's Papers on the Germ Theory 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC biotech.law.lsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

      .3 "Pasteur in Action"
    • The Greeks have given us one of the most beautiful words of our language, the word "enthusiasm" — a God within. The grandeur of the acts of men are measured by the inspiration from which they spring.^ Henrietta Swan Leavitt, however, would always be most famous of the group: she helped us measure the universe.
      • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Pasteur then performed one of the simplest and yet most elegant experiments in the annals of chemistry.
      • LabExplorer.com  - The Life and Times of Louis Pasteur by Dr. DavidCohn 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.labexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ If astronomers could determine the distance to one Cepheid, they could calibrate the relationship and use it as a measuring stick.
      • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

      .Happy is he who bears a God within.
    • As quoted in Spiritual Literacy : Reading the Sacred in Everyday Life (1998) by Frederic Brussat and Mary Ann Brussat
  • Let me tell you the secret that has led me to my goal.^ Happy the man who bears within him a divinity, an ideal of beauty and obeys it; and ideal of art, and ideal of science, an ideal of country, and ideal of the virtues of the Gospel.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The details of that message, that he shared countless times to attentive audiences, is his own adaptation of the well-known Four Spiritual Laws from Campus Crusade for Christ: God loves you and has a wonderful plan for your life.
    • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ [Irwin quotes John 3:16] Man is sinful and separated from God, thus he cannot know and experience Gods love and plan for his life.
    • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

    .My strength lies solely in my tenacity.
    • As quoted in There's a Spiritual Solution to Every Problem (2001) by Wayne W. Dyer
  • A bottle of wine contains more philosophy than all the books in the world.^ 'A bottle of wine contains more philosophy than all the books in the world.'
    • Home Renovation & Building Forum • View topic - My vegie garden plan 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC forum.homeone.com.au [Source type: General]

    ^ I start _________________ 'A bottle of wine contains more philosophy than all the books in the world.'
    • Home Renovation & Building Forum • View topic - My vegie garden plan 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC forum.homeone.com.au [Source type: General]

    ^ I'm hoping that once I make my backyard more secure the rabbits wont be able to get in - by secure I mean finishing all the pathways etc up to the fence so that there are no longer any gaps for them to get in through and also maybe putting some wood up under the fence from the outside _________________ 'A bottle of wine contains more philosophy than all the books in the world.'
    • Home Renovation & Building Forum • View topic - My vegie garden plan 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC forum.homeone.com.au [Source type: General]

    .
    • The Mammoth Book of Zingers, Quips, and One-Liners (2004) by Geoff Tibballs
  • Science brings men nearer to God.
    • As quoted in Letter to an Atheist (2007) by Michael Patrick Leahy, p.^ Henry Morris quotes him as saying, “Could I but know all, I would have the faith of a Breton peasant woman” ( Men of Science, Men of God , p.
      • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Men of Science-Men of God by Henry Morris ISBN 0-89051-080-6 Copyright © 1982, 1988.
      • Pasteur, fermentation, contagion, and proving anegative 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ But “Carver never hesitated to confess his faith in the God of the Bible, and attributed all his success and ability to God,” says Henry Morris ( Men of Science, Men of God , p.
      • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

      .61
  • I have the faith of a Breton peasant and by the time I die I hope to have the faith of a Breton peasant's wife.^ A well-known quotation illustrating this is attributed to him: "I have the faith of a Breton peasant, and by the time I die I hope to have the faith of a Breton peasant's wife."
    • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ "The more I know, the more nearly is my faith that of the Breton peasant.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A well-known quotation illustrating this is attributed to him: "The more I know, the more nearly is my faith that of the Breton peasant.
    • Louis Pasteur: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • As quoted in Letter to an Atheist (2007) by Michael Patrick Leahy, p. 61

Misattributed

  • It is surmounting difficulties that makes heroes.
    • Lajos Kossuth (also known as Louis Kossoth), as quoted in Human Development in Action (1942) by University of California, and The Forbes Book of Business Quotations (1997) by Edward C. Goodman and Ted Goodman

External links

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.Medical warning!
This article is from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica.^ This article is from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica.

.Medical science has made many leaps forward since it has been written.^ Medical science has made many leaps forward since it has been written.

^ His thought is still present, reflected in many phases of  contemporary biochemical, biological and medical science.

^ However, since the Germ is so profitable, the medical world has written off his final statements as the madness of a dying man.
  • Louis Pasteur And the Myth of Pasteurization 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.mnwelldir.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is not a site for medical advice, when you need information on a medical condition, consult a professional instead.^ This is not a site for medical advice, when you need information on a medical condition, consult a professional instead.

^ Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
  • Louis Pasteur Biography (1822-1895) 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you have difficulty accessing any portions of this site due to incompatibility with adaptive technology or need the information in an alternative format, please contact Larry Allen .
  • Scientist of the Quarter Spring 2009: Louis Pasteur - Science and Engineering Library - Ohio State University Libraries 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.lib.ohio-state.edu [Source type: Academic]

.LOUIS PASTEUR (1822-1895), French chemist, was born, on the 27th of December 1822, at Dole, Franche-Comte, where his father carried on the business of a tanner.^ Louis Pasteur (1822–1895), a French chemist and bacteriologist, was a pioneer in the fields of bacteriology and preventive medicine .

^ Louis Pasteur was a French chemist working as a teacher in a university.
  • Louis Pasteur Exercise from the Education Forum 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.educationforum.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pasteur Crossword from the Education Forum 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.educationforum.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Louis Pasteur was born on Dec.
  • Article: Louis Pasteur--scientist.(MEDICAL HISTORY) - Child Life | HighBeam Research - FREE trial 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.highbeam.com [Source type: Academic]

.Shortly afterwards the Pasteur family removed to Arbois, where Louis attended the Ecole primaire, and later the college of that place.^ Shortly afterwards the Pasteur family removed to Arbois, where Louis attended the École primaire, and later the collège of that place.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ecole doctorale Louis Pasteur .

^ Shortly afterwards the Pasteur family removed to Arbois , where Louis attended the Ecole primaire, and later the college of that place.

.Here he apparently did not especially distinguish himself, belonging to the class of bons ordinaires. Fortunately at Arbois he came under the influence of an excellent teacher in the person of the director of the college, who must have discerned in the quiet boy the germs of greatness, as he constantly spoke to him of his future career at the Ecole normale in Paris.^ Here he apparently did not especially distinguish himself, belonging to the class of bons ordinaires .
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Here he apparently did not especially distinguish himself, belonging to the class of bons ordinaires.

^ Fortunately at Arbois he came under the influence of an excellent teacher in the person of the director of the college, who must have discerned in the quiet boy the germs of greatness, as he constantly spoke to him of his future career at the Ecole normale in Paris .

.In October 1838 Louis was sent with a friend to the metropolis, to a school in the Quartier Latin, preparatory to the Ecole normale.^ In October 1838 Louis was sent with a friend to the metropolis, to a school in the Quartier Latin, preparatory to the École Normale.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In October 1838 Louis was sent with a friend to the metropolis , to a school in the Quartier Latin , preparatory to the Ecole normale.

^ A bit farther down Avenue Louis Pasteur is the Boston Latin School, the oldest school in the United States, having been founded in 1635.
  • SurfWax: News, Reviews and Articles On Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC news.surfwax.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But he did not remain long in Paris, for, being a nervous and excitable boy, his health broke down, and he yearned for his home in Franche-Comte.^ But he did not remain long in Paris, for, being a nervous and excitable boy, his health broke down, and he yearned for his home in Franche-Comte.

^ But he did not remain long in Paris, for, being a nervous and excitable boy, his health broke down, and he yearned for his home in Franche-Comté.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the end of the treatment, which lasted ten days, the boy was being inoculated with the most potent rabies virus known; he recovered and remained healthy.
  • PASTEUR, Louis 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Louis Pasteur 1822-1895 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.universityscience.ie [Source type: Academic]
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

"If only I could smell the tannery once more," said he to his companion, "I should feel well." So home he went, though not for long, as his ambition was still to become a normalien, and to this. end he entered the Royal College of Besancon, "en attendant l'heureux jour ou je serais admis a l'ecole normale." Step by step he attained his end; in 1840 he won his "bachelier es. lettres," and shortly afterwards he received an appointment as assistant mathematical master in the college. .Two years later he passed the examination for the "baccalaureat es sciences" enabling him to become candidate for the Ecole normale.^ Two years later he passed the examination for the "baccalauréat ès sciences" enabling him to become candidate for the École Normale.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Two years later he passed the examination for the "baccalaureat es sciences" enabling him to become candidate for the Ecole normale.

^ One year later, he entered the Ecole Normale, 4 th on the list.

.But here something (probably the examiner) was at fault, for a note was attached to Pasteur's diploma stating that he was only "mediocre" in chemistry.^ But here something (probably the examiner) was at fault , for a note was attached to Pasteur's diploma stating that he was only "mediocre" in chemistry .

^ But here something (probably the examiner) was at fault, for a note was attached to Pasteur's diploma stating that he was only "mediocre" in chemistry.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis Pasteur Here's a picture of Pasteur examining a portion of a spinal cord.

.In those early days and early trials the dominant note of Pasteur's life was sounded.^ In those early days and early trials the dominant note of Pasteur's life was sounded.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ More than any other person, Louis Pasteur helped to increase the life expectancy of man in the late nineteenth and early twentieth Century.
  • Louis Pasteur Biogarphy | Biography Online 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.biographyonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Charbonnet becomes reconciled in a way with Pasteur and his science, but now life sends Pasteur a trial: he suffers a brain haemorrhage it really took place in 1868 -.
  • pasteur fresnadillo 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.usal.es [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To his sisters he writes: "Ces trois choses, la volonte, le travail, le succes, se partagent toute l'existence humaine.^ To his sisters he writes: "Ces trois choses, la volonté, le travail, le succès, se partagent toute l'existence humaine.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To his sisters he writes: "Ces trois choses, la volonte, le travail, le succes, se partagent toute l'existence humaine.

^ La volonté ouvre la porte aux carrieres brillantes et heureuses; le travail les franchit, et une fois arrive au terme du voyage, le succès vient couronner l'oeuvre."
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

La volonte ouvre la porte aux carrieres brillantes et heureuses; le travail les franchit, et une fois arrive au terme du voyage, le succes vient couronner l'oeuvre." Throughout his life, and to the very end, "work" was his constant inspiration. .On his deathbed he turned to the devoted pupils who watched over their master's last hours.^ On his deathbed he turned to the devoted pupils who watched over their master's last hours.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

."Ou en etes-vous ?"^ Ce que vous avez appris, reu et entendu de moi, et ce que vous avez vu en moi, pratiquez-le.

^ "Ou en etes-vous ?"

he exclaimed. "Que faitesvous?" and ended' by repeating his favourite words, ."Il faut travailler."^ "Il faut travailler."
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.The first incentive to his serious study of chemistry was given by hearing J. B. A. Dumas lecture at the Sorbonne; and ere long he broke new ground for himself, A. J. Balard having given him an opportunity for chemical work by appointing him to the post of laboratory assistant.^ The first incentive to his serious study of chemistry was given by hearing Jean-Baptiste-André Dumas lecture at the Sorbonne; and before long he broke new ground for himself, A. J. Balard having given him an opportunity for chemical work by appointing him to the post of laboratory assistant.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first incentive to his serious study of chemistry was given by hearing J. B. A. Dumas lecture at the Sorbonne ; and ere long he broke new ground for himself, A. J. Balard having given him an opportunity for chemical work by appointing him to the post of laboratory assistant.

^ He courageously broke new ground.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creation.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A few words of explanation concerning Pasteur's first research are necessary to give the key to all his future work.^ Pasteur was, first of all, a humanitarian.
  • Untitled Document 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC drinc.ucdavis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A few words of explanation concerning Pasteur's first research are necessary to give the key to all his future work.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Though largely unsuccessful at first, it was this research that Pasteur would use to bring to light the fact that contagions were indeed the cause of disease.
  • Louis Pasteur Biography 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.allsands.com [Source type: Academic]

.What was the secret power which enabled him to bring under the domain of scientific laws phenomena of disease which had so far baffled human endeavour?^ What was the secret power which enabled him to bring under the domain of scientific laws phenomena of disease which had so far baffled human endeavor?
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What was the secret power which enabled him to bring under the domain of scientific laws phenomena of disease which had so far baffled human endeavour?

^ Disease with the microbe All its studies little by little led Pasteur to medicine, because there is not far from the fermentation with the putrefaction and of the putrefaction to the morbid puses and other phenomena.
  • Folder - Pasteur, Louis 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.memo.fr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It simply consisted iri the application, to the elucidation of these complex problems, of the exact methods of chemical and physical research.^ It simply consisted in the application, to the elucidation of these complex problems, of the exact methods of chemical and physical research.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It simply consisted iri the application, to the elucidation of these complex problems, of the exact methods of chemical and physical research.

^ The modern scientific methods of microbiology and genetic research demonstrate the irreducible complexity of life to such a degree as to make the possibility of these theories more science fiction than fact.
  • The Rise & Fall of Evolution « Ezra Project Theological Discussion & Submissions 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC theezraproject.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Perhaps the most remarkable discovery of modern chemistry is the existence of compounds, which, whilst possessing an identical composition, are absolutely different bodies, judged of by their properties.^ Perhaps the most remarkable discovery of modern chemistry is the existence of compounds, which, whilst possessing an identical composition, are absolutely different bodies, judged of by their properties.

^ Perhaps the most remarkable discovery of modern chemistry is the existence of compounds, which, while possessing an identical composition, are absolutely different bodies, judged of by their properties.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While working toward his doctorate, Pasteur proved that two organic compounds that had the same chemical composition could have different crystalline structures.

.The first of the numerous cases of isomerism now known was noted, but unexplained, by J. J. Berzelius.^ The first of the numerous cases of isomerism now known was noted, but unexplained, by J. J. Berzelius.

^ The first of the numerous cases of isomerism now known was noted, but unexplained, by Jöns Jacob Berzelius .
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1862, Pasteur first tested the process, what is known now as pasteurization , by which milk and other liquids are heated to remove bacteria.
  • Louis Pasteur against Disease: French Chemist and Microbiologist, Famous for Pasteurization 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC great-scientists.suite101.com [Source type: Academic]

.It was that of two tartaric acids, deposited from wine-lees.^ It was that of two tartaric acids, deposited from wine-lees.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was that of two tartaric acids, deposited from wine -lees.

^ Crystallography In 1848, Pasteur was researching crystals for his doctorate in a laboratory when he came upon two such compounds with the same chemical composition - tartaric acid and paratartaric acid.
  • Louis Pasteur - Major Achievements 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.wfu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The different behaviour of these two acids to a ray of polarized light was subsequently observed by J. B. Biot.^ The different behavior of these two acids to a ray of polarized light was subsequently observed by J. B. Biot.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The different behaviour of these two acids to a ray of polarized light was subsequently observed by J. B. Biot.

^ Moreover, all absorbed oxygen is recovered in carbonic acid, less the difference that may always result from the coefficients of solubility of two gases in the experimental liquid.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC web.lemoyne.edu [Source type: Original source]

.One possessed the power of turning the plane of the polarized ray to the right; the other possessed no rotary power.^ One plane turned to the right and the other created no effect at all.
  • Electronic Journal of Science Education V3 N1 - September 1998 -Crowther, Editorial 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC ejse.southwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One possessed the power of turning the plane of the polarized ray to the right; the other possessed no rotary power.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He found the two forms of this acid which could rotate the plane of polarization of light, one to the right and the other to the left.
  • The Life Of LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.freeessay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Still no explanation of this singular fact was forthcoming, and it was reserved for the young chemist from FrancheComte to solve a problem which had baffled the greatest chemists and physicists of the time.^ Still no explanation of this singular fact was forthcoming, and it was reserved for the young chemist from Franche-Comté to solve a problem which had baffled the greatest chemists and physicists of the time.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Still no explanation of this singular fact was forthcoming, and it was reserved for the young chemist from FrancheComte to solve a problem which had baffled the greatest chemists and physicists of the time.

^ This problem had baffled even the greatest chemists of that time.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creation.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pasteur proved that the inactivity of the one acid depended upon the fact that it was composed of two isomeric constituents: one the ordinary or dextrorotary acid, and the other a new acid, which possessed an equally powerful left-handed action.^ Contagion, on the other hand, was equally critical.
  • Pasteur, fermentation, contagion, and proving anegative 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Pasteur proved that the inactivity of the one acid depended upon the fact that it was composed of two isomeric constituents: one the ordinary or dextrorotary acid, and the other a new acid, which possessed an equally powerful left-handed action.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Pasteur proved that this was because the acid is actually not one acid but a mixture of different acids.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.zephyrus.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The veteran Biot whose acquaintance Pasteur had made, was incredulous.^ The veteran Biot whose acquaintance Pasteur had made, was incredulous.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

He insisted on the repetition of the experiment in his presence; and when convinced of the truth of the explanation he exclaimed to the discoverer: "Mon cher enfant, j'ai tant aime les sciences dans ma vie que cela me fait battre le cceur." Thus at one step Pasteur gained a place of honour among the chemists of the day, and was immediately appointed professor of chemistry at the Faculte of Science at Strasburg, where he soon afterwards married Mlle Laurent, who proved herself to be a true and noble helpmeet. .Next he sought to prepare the inactive form of the acid by artificial means; and after great and long-continued labour he succeeded, and was led to the commencement of his classical researches on fermentation, by the observation that when the inactive acid was placed in contact with a special form of mould (Penicillium glaucum) the right-handed acid alone was destroyed, the left-handed variety remained unchanged.^ Next he sought to prepare the inactive form of the acid by artificial means; and after great and long-continued labor he succeeded, and was led to the commencement of his classical researches on fermentation, by the observation that when the inactive acid was placed in contact with a special form of mould ( Penicillium glaucum ) the right-handed acid alone was destroyed, the left-handed variety remained unchanged.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Next he sought to prepare the inactive form of the acid by artificial means; and after great and long-continued labour he succeeded, and was led to the commencement of his classical researches on fermentation , by the observation that when the inactive acid was placed in contact with a special form of mould ( Penicillium glaucum ) the right-handed acid alone was destroyed, the left-handed variety remained unchanged.

^ As long as it was sealed, the contents remained unchanged.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC pyramid.spd.louisville.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • LabExplorer.com  - The Life and Times of Louis Pasteur by Dr. DavidCohn 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.labexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.So well was his position as a leading man of science now established that in 1854 he was appointed professor of chemistry and dean of the Faculte des Sciences at Lille.^ In 1854, Pasteur was appointed Dean and professor of chemistry at the Faculty of Sciences in Lille, France.
  • Inventor of the Week: Archive 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1854 Pasteur was appointed Dean and professor of chemistry at the Faculty of Sciences in Lille, France.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC pyramid.spd.louisville.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • LabExplorer.com  - The Life and Times of Louis Pasteur by Dr. DavidCohn 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.labexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1854, Pasteur became the Dean of the new Faculty of Sciences in Lille.
  • Louis Pasteur Biography - Louis Pasteur Childhood, Chemist and Microbiologist Louis Pasteur Profile 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC lifestyle.iloveindia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In his inaugural address he used significant words, the truth of which was soon manifested in his case: "In the field of observation chance only favours those who are prepared." The diseases or sicknesses of beer and wine had from time immemorial baffled all attempts at cure. .Pasteur one day visited a brewery containing both sound and unsound beer.^ Pasteur one day visited a brewery containing both sound and unsound beer.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The birth of a child, the beginning of a new year, both remind us of what Louis Pasteur once said: "I am inspired by two feelings when I approach a child: tenderness for what he or she is today, and respect for what he or she may one day become."
  • Pasteur Foundation | Facebook 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: General]

^ As for the last 2 days staying in Paris, we visited the Institute Pasteur and several art museums.
  • 1st Louis Pasteur (3/3) - Science Student Visit Abroad Program - sotory - School of Science, the University of Tokyo 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He examined the yeasts under the microscope, and at once saw that the globules from the sound beer were nearly spherical, whilst those from the sour beer were elongated; and this led him to a discovery, the consequences of which have revolutionized chemical as well as biological science, inasmuch as it was the beginning of that wonderful series of experimental researches in which he proved conclusively that the notion of spontaneous generation is a chimera.^ He examined the yeasts under the microscope , and at once saw that the globules from the sound beer were nearly spherical, whilst those from the sour beer were elongated; and this led him to a discovery, the consequences of which have revolutionized chemical as well as biological science, inasmuch as it was the beginning of that wonderful series of experimental researches in which he proved conclusively that the notion of spontaneous generation is a chimera.

^ He examined the yeasts under the microscope, and at once saw that the globules from the sound beer were nearly spherical, while those from the sour beer were elongated; and this led him to a discovery, the consequences of which have revolutionized chemical as well as biological science, inasmuch as it was the beginning of that wonderful series of experimental researches in which he proved conclusively that the notion of spontaneous generation is a chimera.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Does not it violate the notion of Spontaneous Generation?
  • Louis Pasteur and the Theory of Biogenesis 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.brighthub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Up to this time the phenomenon of fermentation was considered strange and obscure.^ Up to this time the phenomenon of fermentation was considered strange and obscure.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Explanations had indeed been put forward by men as eminent as Berzelius and Liebig, but they lacked experimental foundation.^ Explanations had indeed been put forward by men as eminent as Berzelius and Liebig, but they lacked experimental foundation.

^ Explanations had indeed been put forward by men as eminent as Berzelius and Justus Liebig , but they lacked experimental foundation.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Before this discovery, all explanations of fermentation had lacked experimental foundation; Pasteur showed that milk could be soured by injecting a number of organisms from buttermilk or beer but could be kept unchanged if such organisms were excluded.
  • Louis Pasteur Biography - Biography.com 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.biography.com [Source type: Academic]

.This was given in the most complete degree by Pasteur.^ This was given in the most complete degree by Pasteur.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His most, famous contribution, the treatment for hydrophobia, was first applied in 1885 and within a year great contributions were received for the establishment of the Institute Pasteur, which was completed late in 1888.
  • Untitled Document 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC drinc.ucdavis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pasteur was appointed assistant to the chemist A.J. Balard at the Ecole Normale, in 1946, and attended courses given by Jean-Baptiste Dumas, then France’s most celebrated chemist, at the Sorbonne.

.For he proved that the various changes occurring in the several processes of fermentation - as, for example, in the vinous, where alcohol is the chief product; in the acetous, where vinegar appears; and in the lactic, where milk turns sour - are invariably due to the presence and' growth of minute organisms called ferments.^ Fermentation can also be unhealthy, such as when it turns milk sour.

^ From alcoholic fermentation Pasteur processed to study lactic fermentation; then to butyric microoganisma.

^ These germs turn milk sour.

.Exclude every trace of these organisms, and no change occurs.^ Exclude every trace of these organisms, and no change occurs.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He developed a process of gently heating foodstuffs like milks to kill these organisms without changing the flavour or nutritional value.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creation.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • phorum - Health & Medicine Forum at Asiawind - Louis Pasteur - outstanding scientist 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.asiawind.com [Source type: General]

.Brewers' wort remains unchanged for years, milk keeps permanently sweet, and these and other complex liquids remain unaltered when freely exposed to air from which all these minute organisms are removed.^ Brewers' wort remains unchanged for years, milk keeps permanently sweet, and these and other complex liquids remain unaltered when freely exposed to air from which all these minute organisms are removed.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In his experiment, Pasteur exposed boiled broth to air in a modified Florence Flask through a filter that kept out all foreign particles - and indeed, nothing happened to the liquid.
  • EPO - Louis Pasteur (1822-1895, France): Pasteurisation 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.epo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The theory says that new cells are formed from other existing cells and the cell is a fundamental unit of structure, physiology, and organization in all living organisms.
  • How did Louis Pasteur contribute to cell theory? - Yahoo! Answers 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

."The chemical act of fermentation," writes Pasteur, "is essentially a correlative phenomenon of a vital act beginning and ending with it."^ "The chemical act of fermentation", writes Pasteur, "is essentially a correlative phenomenon of a vital act beginning and ending with it."
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "The chemical act of fermentation," writes Pasteur, "is essentially a correlative phenomenon of a vital act beginning and ending with it."

^ M. Pasteur regards fermentation in the following light: The chemical action of fermentation is essentially a phenomenon correlative with a vital action, beginning and ending with it.
  • Modern History Sourcebook: Louis Pasteur (1822-1895): Physiological Theory ofFermentation, 1879 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Pasteur's Papers on the Germ Theory 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC biotech.law.lsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.But we may ask, as Pasteur did, Why does beer or milk become sour on exposure to ordinary air?^ But we may ask, as Pasteur did, Why does beer or milk become sour on exposure to ordinary air?
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Pasteur did not stop with milk.

^ So we must ask - what did Pasteur prove?
  • Pasteur, fermentation, contagion, and proving anegative 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Original source]

.Are these invisible germs which cause fermentation always present in the atmosphere?^ Are these invisible germs which cause fermentation always present in the atmosphere ?

^ Are these invisible germs which cause fermentation always present in the atmosphere?
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some microorganisms (or germs as Pasteur called them) are helpful, such as those that cause grapes to ferment and become wine, or those that cause milk to ripen and become cheese.
  • Enslow Publishers, Inc � Publishing the Best K-12 Nonfiction Books! 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.enslow.com [Source type: General]

or are they not generated from the organic, but the non-organized constituents of the fermentable liquid? .In other words, are these organisms not spontaneously generated?^ In other words, are these organisms not spontaneously generated?
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nothing grew in the broths; therefore, the living organisms that grew in such broths came from outside, as spores on dust, rather than being spontaneously generated within the broth.

^ Nothing grew in the broths; therefore, the living organisms that grew in such broths came from outside, as spores on dust, rather than spontaneously generated within the broth.
  • CHEMISTS OF THE WORLD 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC che-mix.utm.com.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Louis Pasteur: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The controversy on this question was waged with spirit on both sides; but in the end Pasteur came off victorious, and in a series of the most delicate and most intricate experimental researches he proved that when the atmospheric germs are absolutely excluded no changes take place.^ The controversy on this question was waged with spirit on both sides; but in the end Pasteur came off victorious, and in a series of the most delicate and most intricate experimental researches he proved that when the atmospheric germs are absolutely excluded no changes take place.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1888 the Pasteur Institute was established to treat cases of rabies and today it is one of the world's most famous centres of biological research.
  • Science :: :: Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.dimdima.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Louis Pasteur was a French chemist whose research led to the germ theory of infection and the development of the process of pasteurization.
  • Picture History : Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.picturehistory.com [Source type: General]

.In the interior of the grape, in the healthy blood, no such germs exist; crush the grape, wound the flesh, and expose them to the ordinary air, then changes, either fermentative or putrefactive, run their course.^ In the interior of the grape, in the healthy blood, no such germs exist; crush the grape, wound the flesh, and expose them to the ordinary air, then changes, either fermentative or putrefactive, run their course.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the interior of the grape , in the healthy blood, no such germs exist; crush the grape, wound the flesh, and expose them to the ordinary air, then changes, either fermentative or putrefactive, run their course.

^ He demonstrated that when no contamination by living contagion took place, the process of fermentation or putrefaction did not take place.
  • The Life Of LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.freeessay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But place the crushed fruit or the wounded animal under conditions which preclude the presence or destroy the life of the germ, and again no change takes place; the grape juice remains sweet and the wound clean.^ But place the crushed fruit or the wounded animal under conditions which preclude the presence or destroy the life of the germ, and again no change takes place; the grape juice remains sweet and the wound clean.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He demonstrated that when no contamination by living contagion took place, the process of fermentation or putrefaction did not take place.
  • The Life Of LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.freeessay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the interior of the grape, in the healthy blood, no such germs exist; crush the grape, wound the flesh, and expose them to the ordinary air, then changes, either fermentative or putrefactive, run their course.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.The application of these facts to surgical operations, in the able hands of Lord Lister, was productive of the most beneficent results, and has indeed revolutionized surgical practice.^ The application of these facts to surgical operations, in the able hands of Lord Lister, was productive of the most beneficent results, and has indeed revolutionized surgical practice.

^ The application of these facts to surgical operations, in the able hands of Joseph Lister , was productive of the most beneficent results, and has indeed revolutionized surgical practice.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lord Lister was concerned with the number of people who died after having operations in hospital.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.zephyrus.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pasteur was now the acknowledged head of the greatest chemical movement of the time, the recipient of honours both from his own country and abroad, and installed at the E. normale in Paris in a dignified and important post.^ Pasteur was now the acknowledged head of the greatest chemical movement of the time, the recipient of honours both from his own country and abroad, and installed at the E. normale in Paris in a dignified and important post.

^ Pasteur was now the acknowledged head of the greatest chemical movement of the time, the recipient of honors both from his own country and abroad, and installed at the École Normale in Paris in a dignified and important post.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis Pasteur was born nearly 73 years ago - in December27, 1822 at DIe in the Jura, the son of a tanner, who had fought his country's battles with honour.
  • la Galaxie des Pasteur - Death of Louis Pasteur - The Times 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC php.pasteur.net [Source type: Original source]

.Not, however, was it without grave opposition from powerful friends in the Academy that Pasteur carried on his work.^ Not, however, was it without grave opposition from powerful friends in the Academy that Pasteur carried on his work.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He was, however, determined to carry on with his work.
  • The Assemblies Website - Current Assemblies 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.assemblies.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ On the contrary, in the case of Pasteur, we see clearly that the power of his genius comes from multiple sources, very much in opposition to his intelligence, character and temperament.

.Biot - who loved and admired him as a son - publicly announced that his enterprise was chimerical and the problem insoluble; Dumas evidently thought so too, for he advised Pasteur not to spend more of his time on such a subject.^ Biot - who loved and admired him as a son - publicly announced that his enterprise was chimerical and the problem insoluble; Dumas evidently thought so too, for he advised Pasteur not to spend more of his time on such a subject.

^ Jean-Baptiste Biot -- who loved and admired him as a son -- publicly announced that his enterprise was chimerical and the problem insoluble; Dumas evidently thought so too, for he advised Pasteur not to spend more of his time on such a subject.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Louis Pasteur was a boy, his teacher thought he wasn't very bright because he thought a long time before answering questions.

.Yet he persevered: "Travailler, travailler toujours" was his motto, and his patience was rewarded by results which have not merely rendered his name immortal, but have benefited humanity in a way and to a degree for which no one could have ventured to hope.^ Yet he persevered: "Travailler, travailler toujours" was his motto, and his patience was rewarded by results which have not merely rendered his name immortal, but have benefited humanity in a way and to a degree for which no one could have ventured to hope.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet he persevered: "Travailler, travailler toujours" was his motto , and his patience was rewarded by results which have not merely rendered his name immortal, but have benefited humanity in a way and to a degree for which no one could have ventured to hope.

^ No new sets could be built; previously used ones were merely redecorated.
  • The Story of Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.tcm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To begin with a comparatively small, though not unimportant, matter, Pasteur's discoveries on fermentation inaugurated a new era in the brewing and wine-making industries.^ He described the scientific basis for fermentation, wine-making, and the brewing of beer.
  • Louis Pasteur And the Myth of Pasteurization 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.mnwelldir.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To begin with a comparatively small, though not unimportant, matter, Pasteur's discoveries on fermentation inaugurated a new era in the brewing and wine-making industries.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Pasteurs account on his new discoveries in the field of fermentation, such as in beer and wine.
  • Pathfinder: The Life and Discoveries of Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.sdst.org [Source type: Academic]

.Empiricism, hitherto the only guide, if indeed a guide at all, was replaced by exact scientific knowledge; the connexion of each phenomenon with a controllable cause was established, and rule-of-thumb and quackery banished for ever by the free gift to the world of the results of his researches.^ Empiricism , hitherto the only guide, if indeed a guide at all, was replaced by exact scientific knowledge; the connexion of each phenomenon with a controllable cause was established, and rule-of-thumb and quackery banished for ever by the free gift to the world of the results of his researches.

^ Empiricism, hitherto the only guide, if indeed a guide at all, was replaced by exact scientific knowledge; the connection of each phenomenon with a controllable cause was established, and rule-of-thumb and quackery banished forever by the free gift to the world of the results of his researches.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The world was then ringing with acclaim for the wonderful results that he had been securing in saving the hundreds of lives of terror-stricken people, from all parts of Europe from the dread scourge of hydrophobia.
  • Untitled Document 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC drinc.ucdavis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But his powers of patient research and of quick and exact observation were about to be put to a severe test.^ But his powers of patient research and of quick and exact observation were about to be put to a severe test.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An anti-rabies serum prepared from horses and rabbits seemed particularly suited for patients with severe bites about the head and neck.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An epidemic of a fatal character had ruined the French silk producers.^ An epidemic of a fatal character had ruined the French silk producers.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1865, the silk industry of France faced an economic ruin by an epidemic among silkworms.
  • The Life Of LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.freeessay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pasteur demonstrated its absolute truth and his practical ability by taking charge of the villa of the French Prince Imperial, where the silk industry had been ruined.
  • Louis Pasteur - Original Catholic Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC oce.catholic.com [Source type: Academic]
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Dumas, a native of the Alais district, where the disease was rampant, urged Pasteur to undertake its investigation.^ Dumas, a native of the Alais district, where the disease was rampant, urged Pasteur to undertake its investigation.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The first disease investigated by Pasteur was that of chicken cholera , an epidemic which destroyed io% of the French fowls; after the application of the preventive method the death-rate was reduced to below i %.

^ Pasteur then recognised that infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms, and his research soon led others to investigate sterilisation, disinfection, vaccines, and eventually antibiotics.
  • WikiAnswers - Who was Louis Pasteur and what did he do 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.Up to that time he had never seen a silkworm, and hesitated to attempt so difficult a task; but at the reiterated request of his friend he consented, and in June 1865 went to the south of France for the purpose of studying the disease on the spot.^ Pasteur was studying the diseases of the silkworm.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Up to that time he had never seen a silkworm, and hesitated to attempt so difficult a task; but at the reiterated request of his friend he consented, and in June 1865 went to the south of France for the purpose of studying the disease on the spot.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1865 the silk industry in France was threatened by disease that was killing the silkworm.

.In September of the same year he was able to announce results which pointed to the means of securing immunity from the dreaded plague.^ In September of the same year he was able to announce results which pointed to the means of securing immunity from the dreaded plague .

^ In September of the same year he was able to announce results which pointed to the means of securing immunity from the dreaded plague.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The world was then ringing with acclaim for the wonderful results that he had been securing in saving the hundreds of lives of terror-stricken people, from all parts of Europe from the dread scourge of hydrophobia.
  • Untitled Document 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC drinc.ucdavis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The history of this research, of the gradual elimination of the unimportant conditions, of the recognition of those which controlled the disease, is one of the most fascinating chapters of scientific discovery.^ The history of this research, of the gradual elimination of the unimportant conditions, of the recognition of those which controlled the disease, is one of the most fascinating chapters of scientific discovery.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His discovery that most infectious diseases are caused by germs, known as the "germ theory of disease," is one of the most important in medical history.
  • Louis Pasteur | Chemist 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.lucidcafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ideas were now beginning to formulate in his mind, they were to eventually lead to the most important single medical discovery of all time, the 'germ theory' of disease.

.Suffice it here to say that careful experiment and accurate observation succeeded in ascertaining the cause of the disease and in preventing its recurrence, thus bringing back to prosperity the silk trade of France, with all that this entails.^ Suffice it here to say that careful experiment and accurate observation succeeded in ascertaining the cause of the disease and in preventing its recurrence, thus bringing back to prosperity the silk trade of France, with all that this entails.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He found that the minute "corpuscle" found among the silkworms was really a disease germ, and by a careful series of experiments demonstrated that its havoc could be greatly diminished if not stopped by taking measures to prevent the propagation of diseased eggs.
  • la Galaxie des Pasteur - Death of Louis Pasteur - The Times 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC php.pasteur.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If an antibody were sufficient to prevent disease, then adults who had childhood chicken pox would never get shingles, which is caused by the very same virus.
  • The Robert Scott Bell Blog: A view on vaccination you never see in the pharmaceutically-hypnotized mainstream media 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC robertscottbell.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

"There is no greater charm," says Pasteur, "for the investigator than to make new discoveries; but his pleasure is heightened when he sees that they have a direct application to practical life." Pasteur had the good fortune, and just reward, of seeing the results of his work applied to the benefit both of the human race and of the animal world. .It is to him that the world is indebted for the introduction of methods which have already worked wonders, and bid fair to render possible the preventive treatment of all infectious diseases.^ It is to him that the world is indebted for the introduction of methods which have already worked wonders, and bid fair to render possible the preventive treatment of all infectious diseases.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Pasteur Foundation of the Pasteur Institute www.pasteurfoundation.org The Pasteur Foundation, a 501(c)(3) nonprofit corporation, works to raise funds to support the world-renowned Institut Pasteur in Paris, France, whose mission is to improve public health by contributing to the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases.
  • Pasteur Foundation | Facebook 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: General]

^ Elected a member of the Acadmie Franaise in April 27 1882, Pasteur was now to undertake research that was to proved most spectacular of all, the preventative treatment of rabies.

.Just as each kind of fermentation possesses a definite organized ferment, so many diseases are dependent on the presence of a distinct microbe; and just as the gardener can pick out and grow a given plant or vegetable, so the bacteriologist can (in most cases) eliminate the adventitious and grow the special organism - in other words, can obtain a pure cultivation which has the power of bringing about the special disease.^ In other words, when its respiratory power becomes null, its fermentative power is at its greatest.
  • Modern History Sourcebook: Louis Pasteur (1822-1895): Physiological Theory ofFermentation, 1879 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Pasteur's Papers on the Germ Theory 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC biotech.law.lsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Just as each kind of fermentation possesses a definite organized ferment, so many diseases are dependent on the presence of a distinct microbe; and just as the gardener can pick out and grow a given plant or vegetable , so the bacteriologist can (in most cases) eliminate the adventitious and grow the special organism - in other words, can obtain a pure cultivation which has the power of bringing about the special disease.

^ Just as each kind of fermentation possesses a definite organized ferment, so many diseases are dependent on the presence of a distinct microbe; and just as the gardener can pick out and grow a given plant or vegetable, so the bacteriologist can (in many cases) eliminate the adventitious and grow the special organism -- in other words, can obtain a pure cultivation which has the power of bringing about the special disease.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.But by a process of successive and continued artificial cultures under different conditions, the virus of the organism is found to become attenuated; and when this weakened virus is administered, the animal is rendered immune against further attacks.^ But by a process of successive and continued artificial cultures under different conditions, the virus of the organism is found to become attenuated; and when this weakened virus is administered, the animal is rendered immune against further attacks.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This is also caused by the presence of a microbe, of which the virus can also be attenuated, and by inoculation of this weakened virus the animal rendered immune.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He cultivated it artificially and after a time his cultures would not produce the disease in fowl, though it served to protect them against injections of virulent cultures which would kill "control" fowl.
  • Louis Pasteur - Original Catholic Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC oce.catholic.com [Source type: Academic]
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first disease investigated by Pasteur was that of chicken cholera, an epidemic which destroyed io% of the French fowls; after the application of the preventive method the death-rate was reduced to below i %.^ Chicken Cholera: Pasteur's later work on diseases included work on chicken cholera.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pasteur's later work on diseases included work on chicken cholera.
  • CHEMISTS OF THE WORLD 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC che-mix.utm.com.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first disease investigated by Pasteur was that of chicken cholera , an epidemic which destroyed io% of the French fowls; after the application of the preventive method the death-rate was reduced to below i %.

.Next came the successful attempt to deal with the fatal cattle scourge known as anthrax.^ Next came the successful attempt to deal with the fatal cattle scourge known as anthrax .

^ Next came the successful attempt to deal with the fatal cattle scourge known as anthrax.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He found further that he could by heat reduce the vitality of the anthrax microbe, so that it produced but a mild form of the disease which would protect cattle against the fatal form.
  • Louis Pasteur - Original Catholic Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC oce.catholic.com [Source type: Academic]

.This is also caused by the presence of a microbe, of which the virus can also be attenuated, and by inoculation of this weakened virus the animal rendered immune.^ This is also caused by the presence of a microbe, of which the virus can also be attenuated, and by inoculation of this weakened virus the animal rendered immune.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But by a process of successive and continued artificial cultures under different conditions, the virus of the organism is found to become attenuated; and when this weakened virus is administered, the animal is rendered immune against further attacks.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Pasteur realized the microbe in question had become "heat-attenuated" or weakened by the heat, but that once a chicken caught the disease, even a mild case, it was immune to more severe infections.
  • Louis Pasteur And Robert Koch 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.allsands.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many millions of sheep and oxen all over the world have thus been treated, and the rate of mortality reduced from io to less than %.^ Many millions of sheep and oxen all over the world have thus been treated, and the rate of mortality reduced from to to less than 1%.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many millions of sheep and oxen all over the world have thus been treated, and the rate of mortality reduced from io to less than %.

^ Inoculation with smallpox was known to result in far less scarring, and greatly reduced mortality, in comparison to the naturally acquired disease.
  • ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF LOUIS PASTEUR 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fjcollazo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CHEMISTS OF THE WORLD 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC che-mix.utm.com.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Louis Pasteur: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As to the money value of these discoveries, T. H. Huxley gave it as his opinion that it was sufficient to cover the whole cost of the war indemnity paid by France to Germany in 1870.
.The most interesting of Pasteur's investigations in preventive and curative medicine remains to be told.^ The most interesting of Pasteur's investigations in preventive and curative medicine remains to be told.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The first disease investigated by Pasteur was that of chicken cholera , an epidemic which destroyed io% of the French fowls; after the application of the preventive method the death-rate was reduced to below i %.

^ The first disease investigated by Pasteur was that of chicken cholera, an epidemic which destroyed 10% of the French fowls; after the application of the preventive method the death rate was reduced to below 1%.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is no less than a cure for the dread disease of hydrophobia in man and of rabies in animals; and the interest of the achievement is not only that he successfully combated one of the most mysterious and most fell diseases to which man is subject, but also that this was accomplished in spite of the fact that the special microbe causing the disease had not been isolated.^ Pasteur isolated the microbe that caused the disease.
  • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is no less than a cure for the dread disease of hydrophobia in man and of rabies in animals; and the interest of the achievement is not only that he successfully combated one of the most mysterious and most fell diseases to which man is subject, but also that this was accomplished in spite of the fact that the special microbe causing the disease had not been isolated.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thousands of people suffering from bites from rabid animals, from all lands, have been treated in this institute, and the death-rate from this most horrible of all diseases has been reduced to less than i %.

.To begin with, Pasteur, in studying the malady in dogs, came to the conclusion that the virus had its seat in the nerve centres, and he proved that the injection of a portion of the matter of the spinal column of a rabid dog into the body of a healthy one produces in the latter with certainty the symptoms of rabies.^ To begin with, Pasteur, in studying the malady in dogs, came to the conclusion that the virus had its seat in the nerve centres, and he proved that the injection of a portion of the matter of the spinal column of a rabid dog into the body of a healthy one produces in the latter with certainty the symptoms of rabies.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He demonstrated this by injecting a portion of the medulla oblongata, of a rabid dog, into that of a healthy animal, producing the symtoms of rabies.

^ When an extract from the spinal column of an rabid dog was injected into healthy animals symptoms of rabies were produced.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.zephyrus.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The next step was to endeavour so to modify and weaken the virus as to enable it to be used as a preventive or as an antitoxin.^ The next step was to endeavor so to modify and weaken the virus as to enable it to be used as a preventive or as an antitoxin.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The next step was to endeavour so to modify and weaken the virus as to enable it to be used as a preventive or as an antitoxin.

.This, after long and serious labour, he effected; the dog thus inoculated proved to be immune when bitten by a rabid animal.^ This, after long and serious labor, he effected; the dog thus inoculated proved to be immune when bitten by a rabid animal.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This, after long and serious labour, he effected; the dog thus inoculated proved to be immune when bitten by a rabid animal.

^ A number of dogs were inoculated, the same number were untreated, and both sets were bitten by rabid animals.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

But this was not enough. .Would the inoculation of the attenuated virus have a remedial effect on an animal already bitten ?^ Would the inoculation of the attenuated virus have a remedial effect on an animal already bitten?
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This, after long and serious labor, he effected; the dog thus inoculated proved to be immune when bitten by a rabid animal.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He used the dry tissue of infected animals to eventually obtain an attenuated form of the virus suitable for injection into humans.

.If so, it might be possible to save the lives of persons bitten by mad dogs.^ If so, it might be possible to save the lives of persons bitten by mad dogs.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He was a young shepherd also bitten by a mad dog.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC pyramid.spd.louisville.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • LabExplorer.com  - The Life and Times of Louis Pasteur by Dr. DavidCohn 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.labexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the olden days people bitten by mad dogs died a sure and horrible death due to rabies.
  • Science :: :: Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.dimdima.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Here again experiment was successful.^ Here again experiment was successful.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.A number of dogs were inoculated, the same number were untreated, and both sets were bitten by rabid animals.^ A number of dogs were inoculated, the same number were untreated, and both sets were bitten by rabid animals.

^ In 1885, a young boy and his mother arrived at Pasteur’s laboratory; the boy had been bitten badly by a rabid dog, and Pasteur was urged to treat him with his new method.
  • PASTEUR, Louis 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 6 July 1885 Pasteur used his vaccine to saved the life of Joseph Meister, a nine-year-old boy who had been bitten by a rabid dog.

.All the treated dogs lived; all the untreated died from rabies.^ The untreated sheep died and the treated sheep lived.
  • Louis Pasteur Biography - family, children, parents, school, son, old, information, born, college, time, year 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.notablebiographies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All the treated dogs lived; all the untreated died from rabies.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They died at a higher rate than TB patients who hadn't been treated at all.
  • Liberation Wellness | All posts tagged 'pasteur' 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.visionarytrainers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was, however, one thing to experiment on dogs, and quite another to do so on human beings.^ It was, however, one thing to experiment on dogs, and quite another to do so on human beings.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If the host bites another animal or a human being, or if some of its infected saliva enters an open wound, the victim may get rabies.

^ Pasteur and his assistants had been working for some years on rabies, when by chance they acquired a dog that had become rabid after being bitten by another dog with rabies.
  • http://www.dinweb.org/dinweb/DINMuseum/Louis%20Pasteur.asp 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.dinweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nevertheless Pasteur was bold enough to try.^ Nevertheless Pasteur was bold enough to try.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.The trial was successful, and by doing so he earned the gratitude of the human race.^ The trial was successful, and by doing so he earned the gratitude of the human race.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Then, on the 14th of November 1888, the Institut Pasteur was founded.^ In 1888 a grateful France founded the Pasteur Institute.
  • Louis Pasteur Biography - family, children, parents, school, son, old, information, born, college, time, year 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.notablebiographies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then, on the 14th of November 1888, the Institut Pasteur was founded.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Inauguration of the Pasteur Institute on 14 November 1888.
  • The Pasteur Institute 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thousands of people suffering from bites from rabid animals, from all lands, have been treated in this institute, and the death-rate from this most horrible of all diseases has been reduced to less than i %.^ Thousands of people suffering from bites from rabid animals, from all lands, have been treated in this institute, and the death-rate from this most horrible of all diseases has been reduced to less than i %.

^ Thousands of people suffering from bites from rabid animals, from all lands, have been treated in this institute, and the death rate from this most horrible of all diseases has been reduced to less than 1%.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is no less than a cure for the dread disease of hydrophobia in man and of rabies in animals; and the interest of the achievement is not only that he successfully combated one of the most mysterious and most fell diseases to which man is subject, but also that this was accomplished in spite of the fact that the special microbe causing the disease had not been isolated.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Not only in Paris, but in many cities throughout the world, institutes on the model of the original one have been set up and are doing beneficent work, all arising from the genius and labour of one man.^ Not only in Paris, but in many cities throughout the world, institutes on the model of the original one have been set up and are doing beneficent work, all arising from the genius and labor of one man.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Not only in Paris, but in many cities throughout the world, institutes on the model of the original one have been set up and are doing beneficent work, all arising from the genius and labour of one man.

^ Strasbourg is one of the loveliest cities in the world.
  • 1st Louis Pasteur (3/3) - Science Student Visit Abroad Program - sotory - School of Science, the University of Tokyo 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the inauguration of the institute Pasteur closed his oration with the following words: "Two opposing laws seem to me now in contest.^ At the inauguration of the institute Pasteur closed his oration with the following words: "Two opposing laws seem to me now in contest.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The early important biographies by mile Duclaux, Pasteur's successor as director of the Institute, and his son-in-law Ren Vallery-Radot fostered the myth Pasteur had created.
  • Microbelibrary - Pasteur Redux: A Different Perspective 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.microbelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This same message dominates the finest painting ever done of Pasteur, that by Lon Bonnat (1886), which is now in the Muse Pasteur at the Pasteur Institute.
  • Microbelibrary - Pasteur Redux: A Different Perspective 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.microbelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The one, a law of blood and death, opening out each day new modes of destruction, forces nations to be always ready for the battle.^ The one, a law of blood and death, opening out each day new modes of destruction, forces nations to be always ready for the battle.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As death took place on the sixteenth of March at six in the morning, it seems that the blood contained a microscopic parasite at least three days before.
  • Pasteur's Papers on the Germ Theory 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC biotech.law.lsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The three laws Mendel deduced seem common-sense now, but were radically new in his day: Law of Paired Factors (Genes): Traits come in pairs (alleles), and each parent contributes just one of the alleles.
  • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

.The other, a law of peace, work and health, whose only aim is to deliver man from the calamities which beset him.^ The other, a law of peace, work and health, whose only aim is to deliver man from the calamities which beset him.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The other obstacle Pasteur raised to evolution was his law of biogenesis , the principle that only life begets life.
  • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Based on his work on fermentation, it seemed obvious to him that the sources of yeasts and other micro-organisms that were found during fermentation and putrefaction entered from the outside, for example, from the air.
  • http://www.dinweb.org/dinweb/DINMuseum/Louis%20Pasteur.asp 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.dinweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The one seeks violent conquests, the other the relief of mankind.^ The one seeks violent conquests, the other the relief of mankind.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The two domains are distinct, and woe unto him who seeks to make the one encroach upon the other in the current imperfect state of our knowledge."

.The one places a single life above all victories, the other sacrifices hundreds of thousands of lives to the ambition of a single individual.^ The one places a single life above all victories, the other sacrifices hundreds of thousands of lives to the ambition of a single individual.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The world was then ringing with acclaim for the wonderful results that he had been securing in saving the hundreds of lives of terror-stricken people, from all parts of Europe from the dread scourge of hydrophobia.
  • Untitled Document 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC drinc.ucdavis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pasteur was directly responsible for the deaths of hundreds of people inoculated with his unproven vaccines, and indirectly for thousands more when disease was introduced by other unproven procedures developed by Pasteur.
  • Liberation Wellness | All posts tagged 'pasteur' 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.visionarytrainers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The law of which we are the instruments strives even through the, carnage to cure the wounds due to the law of war.^ The law of which we are the instruments strives even through the carnage to cure the wounds due to the law of war.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The law of which we are the instruments strives even through the, carnage to cure the wounds due to the law of war.

.Treatment by our antiseptic methods may preserve the lives of thousands of soldiers.^ Treatment by our antiseptic methods may preserve the lives of thousands of soldiers.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He may be regarded as the founder of modern stereo-chemistry; and his discovery that living organisms are the cause of fermentation is the basis of the whole modern germ- theory of disease and of the antiseptic method of treatment.
  • Pasteur's Papers on the Germ Theory 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC biotech.law.lsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He may be regarded as the founder of modern stereo-chemistry; and his discovery that living organisms are the cause of fermentation is the basis of the whole modern germ-theory of disease and of the antiseptic method of treatment.
  • Modern History Sourcebook: Louis Pasteur (1822-1895): Physiological Theory ofFermentation, 1879 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Which of these two laws will prevail, God only knows.^ Which of these two laws will prevail, God only knows.
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis Pasteur - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A message like For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son (John 3:16) is not an outworking of natural laws and mathematics.
  • World's Greatest Creation Scientists from Y1K to Y2K 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC creationsafaris.com [Source type: Original source]

.But of this we may be sure, that science, in obeying the law of humanity, will always labour to enlarge the frontiers of life."^ But of this we may be sure, that science, in obeying the law of humanity, will always labour to enlarge the frontiers of life."

^ But of this we may be sure, that science, in obeying the law of humanity, will always labor to enlarge the frontiers of life."
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

Rich in years and in honours, but simple-minded and affectionate as a child, this great benefactor to his species passed quietly away near St Cloud on the 28th of September 1895.
.Mention need only be made of Pasteur's chief works, as follows: Etudes sur le y in (1866), Etudes sur le vinaigre (,868), Etudes sur la maladie des vers a soie (1870), Etudes sur la biere (1876).^ Mention need only be made of Pasteur's chief works, as follows: Études sur le vin (1866), Études sur le vinaigre (1868), Études sur la maladie des vers à soie (1870), Études sur la bière (1876).
  • Louis Pasteur 10 January 2010 7:15 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Les études sur la bière de Louis Pasteur Notes .

^ La nouvelle vie de Pasteur .

He began the practice of inoculation for hydrophobia in 1885.
.See Vie de Pasteur, by Rene Vallerey-Radot (Paris, 1900).^ See Vie de Pasteur, by Rene Vallerey-Radot (Paris, 1900).

^ La nouvelle vie de Pasteur .

^ Debrés expansive study is now the best one-volume introduction to the man and his work, replacing René Duboss Louis Pasteur, franc-tireur de la science (1955) and the hopelessly hagiographic Vie de Pasteur (1900) by the scientists son-in-law René Vallery-Radot.

(H. E. R.).


Simple English

File:Louis
Louis Pasteur, microbiologist and chemist known for germ theory and vaccinations to reduce diseases.

Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French microbiologist and chemist.[1] He and also his wife, Marie, are best known for their experiments supporting the Germ theory of disease, and he is also known for his vaccinations, most notably the first vaccine against rabies. He made many discoveries in the field of chemistry, most notably the asymmetry (different shapes) of crystals. He is also well known for his way of keeping milk and wine from going sour for longer. That process is called pasteurization.

Pasteur's later work on diseases included work on chicken cholera. During this work, Pasteur noticed how a culture of the responsible bacteria had spoiled, and it failed to induce the disease in some chickens which he was infecting with the disease.

Early life

Louis Pasteur was born on December 27, 1822, in Dole in the Jura region of France, into the family of a poor tanner. Louis grew up in the town of Arbois.[2] He gained degrees in Letters and in Mathematical Sciences before entering the École Normale Supérieure, an elite college. After serving briefly as professor of physics at Dijon Lycée in 1848, he became professor of chemistry at the University of Strasbourg,[2] where he met and courted Marie Laurent, daughter of the university's rector, in 1849.

Louis Pasteur and Marie were married on May 29, 1849, and together had five children. Only two survived to adulthood; his other three children had died of typhoid fever. These personal tragedies inspired Pasteur to try to find cures for diseases, such as typhoid.

References

  1. "Pasteur, Louis - Biographical entry - Encyclopedia of Australian Science". eoas.info. http://www.eoas.info/biogs/P000693b.htm. Retrieved 23 March 2010. 
  2. 2.0 2.1  James J. Walsh (1913). "Louis Pasteur". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
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