Louis XIV of France: Wikis

  
  
  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Louis XIV of France

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Louis XIV
Louis XIV (1638–1715), by Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701)
King of France and of Navarre
Reign 14 May 1643 – 1 September 1715
Coronation 7 June 1654
Predecessor Louis XIII
Successor Louis XV
Spouse Maria Theresa of Spain
Françoise d'Aubigné
Issue
Louis, le Grand Dauphin
Princess Anne Élisabeth
Princess Marie Anne
Princess Marie Thérèse
Philippe Charles, Duke of Anjou
Louis François, Duke of Anjou
Full name
Louis-Dieudonné de France
House House of Bourbon
Father Louis XIII of France
Mother Anne of Austria
Born 5 September 1638(1638-09-05)
Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France
Died 1 September 1715 (aged 76)
Palace of Versailles, Versailles, France
Burial Saint Denis Basilica, Saint-Denis, France
Signature
.Louis XIV (5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715), known as the Sun King (French: le Roi Soleil), was King of France and of Navarre.^ Louis XIV (baptized as Louis-Dieudonn, "Louis-God-given") ruled as King of France and of Navarre.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis XIV - 1640-1715 Louis XIV, also known as "The Sun King", had the longest reign of any European monarch.
  • Jean-Marc Fray - French Antiques & Decorative Arts 10 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.jeanmarcfray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Le Roi Soleil (the Sun King) – Louis XIV – ascended the throne in 1643 at the age of five.
  • History of Paris - Lonely Planet Travel Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .His reign, from 1643 to his death in 1715, began at the age of four and lasted seventy-two years, three months, and eighteen days, and is the longest documented reign of any European monarch.^ Louis XIV of France had the longest reign in European history (1643-1715).
  • Biographies — University of North Texas Libraries 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.library.unt.edu [Source type: General]

^ Thus, after a long reign of seventy-two years, Louis XIV .
  • The Baldwin Project: The Story of France by Mary Macgregor 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He reigned for seventy-two years, three months, and eighteen days, the longest documented for any European monarch to date.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

[2]
.Louis began personally governing France in 1661 after the death of his prime minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin.^ Following the death of Mazarin in 1661, Louis XIV assumed control of the government.

^ Louis XIV sole ruler of France after Cardinal Mazarin dies .
  • History of the World - By Date (1500 to 1700) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.lukemastin.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Within France, upon the death of Cardinal Mazarin, his first minister, in 1661, Louis XIV assumed personal control of the reins of government.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

[3] .An adherent of the theory of the divine right of kings, which advocates the divine origin and lack of temporal restraint of monarchical rule, Louis continued his predecessors' work of creating a centralized state governed from the capital.^ One of France's greatest kings, Louis XIV worked successfully to create an absolutist and centralized state.

^ An adherent of the theory of the divine right of kings , which advocates the divine origin and lack of temporal restraint of monarchical rule, Louis continued his predecessors' work of creating a centralised state governed from the capital.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Royalists (court: 1) divine right of king to rule .

.He sought to eliminate the remnants of feudalism persisting in parts of France and, by compelling the noble elite to inhabit his lavish Palace of Versailles, succeeded in pacifying the aristocracy, many members of which had participated in the Fronde rebellion during Louis' minority.^ Louis moved the mass of the French nobility to his court at his greatly enlarged Palace of Versailles , and French fashion spread all across Europe .

^ The nobles and clergy claimed exemption from these taxes, so the peasantry and the emerging middle class (the bourgeoisie) had to pay for all -- a remnant of feudal France.
  • French History of the Bourbon Dynasty 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.bonjourlafrance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He wanted a Palace outside, but near, Paris, and chose to build at Versailles, where his father, Louis XIII (1601-1643), had built a simple hunting lodge.
  • Chateau of Versailles 25 September 2009 9:55 UTC www.manstouch.com [Source type: General]
  • Chateau of Versailles 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC manstouch.com [Source type: General]

.For much of Louis's reign, France stood as the leading European power, engaging in three major wars—the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg, and the War of the Spanish Succession—and two minor conflicts—the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions.^ During his reign, he increased the power and influence of France in Europe, engaging in three major wars-the Franco-Dutch War , the War of the League of Augsburg , and the War of the Spanish Succession -and two minor conflicts-the War of Devolution , and the War of the Reunions .
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis XIV increased the power and influence of France in Europe, fighting three major wars —the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg, and the War of the Spanish Succession —and two minor conflicts—the War of Devolution, and the War of the Reunions.

^ It was only with the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) that Louis, and France, were truly checked.

.He encouraged and benefited from the work of prominent political, military and cultural figures such as Mazarin, Colbert, Turenne and Vauban, as well as Molière, Racine, Boileau, La Fontaine, Lully, Le Brun, Rigaud, Le Vau, Mansart, Perrault and Le Nôtre.^ He encouraged and benefited from the work of prominent political, military and cultural figures such as Mazarin , Colbert , Turenne and Vauban , as well as Molière , Racine , Boileau , La Fontaine , Lully , Le Brun , Rigaud , Le Vau , Mansart , Perrault and Le Nôtre .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under his reign, France achieved not only political and military pre-eminence, but also cultural dominance with various cultural figures such as Molire, Racine, Boileau, La Fontaine, Lully, Le Brun, Rigaud, Louis Le Vau, Jules Hardouin Mansart, Claude Perrault and Le Ntre.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Under his reign, France achieved not only political and military pre-eminence, but also cultural dominance with various cultural figures such as Molière, Racine, Boileau, La Fontaine, Lully, Rigaud, Le Brun and Le Nôtre.

.Upon his death just days before his seventy-seventh birthday, Louis was succeeded by his five-year-old great-grandson who became Louis XV.^ Upon his death just days before his seventy-seventh birthday, Louis was succeeded by his five-year-old great-grandson who became Louis XV .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Great-grandson of Louis XIV .
  • Kingdom of France - House of Capet de Bourbon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC almanachdegotha.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Rulers of France, 418-1871 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.three-peaks.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He was succeeded by his great-grandson, Louis XV .
  • Louis XIV Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Louis XIV 10 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All his intermediate heirs—his son Louis, le Grand Dauphin; the Dauphin's eldest son Louis, duc de Bourgogne; and Bourgogne's eldest son Louis, duc de Bretagne—predeceased Louis.^ Succeeded by Louis "le Grand Dauphin" .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the midst of all this public sorrow, the rejoicing and the fetes for the birth of the Duc de Bretagne son of Monseigneur le Duc de Bourgogne, were not discontinued.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The eldest of these children, Louis, Duc de Bourgogne, died in 1712, soon to be followed by Bourgogne's eldest son, Louis, Duc de Bretagne.

Contents

Birth and ancestry

.Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638 in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria.^ Louis XIV of France was born September 5, 1638, in the twenty-third year of the marriage of King Louis XIII of France and his Spanish Hapsburg queen Anne of Austria .
  • Biographies — University of North Texas Libraries 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.library.unt.edu [Source type: General]

^ May 1643, Saint-Germain-en-Laye .
  • Bourbon Dynasty 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.themolloys.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Saint-Simon and the court of Louis XIV .
  • Versailles - Syllabus 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC faculty.cua.edu [Source type: General]

.His birth came after twenty-three years of his estranged parents' childlessness, leading contemporaries to regard him as a divine gift, and his birth, a miracle.^ His birth came after the almost twenty-three years of childlessness of his estranged parents, Louis XIII and Anne of Austria .
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On his birth at the royal Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye in 1638, his parents, Louis XIII of France and Anne of Austria, who had been childless for twenty-three years, regarded him as a divine gift; hence he was christened "Louis-Dieudonné" (" Dieudonné " meaning "God-given"); he also received the titles premier fils de France ("First Son of France") as well as the more traditional title Dauphin.

^ As a result, contemporaries regarded him as a divine gift and his birth as a miracle, and, in a show of gratitude to God for the long-awaited arrival of an heir, he was named Louis-Dieudonn ("God-given").
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thus, he was named "Louis-Dieudonné" (Louis-God-given)[4]; also he bore the traditional title of French heirs apparentDauphin.^ The union of the king Louis XIII and the queen Anne of Austria, devoted in 1615, had indeed still not given of heir to the throne to France.
  • Article - Louis XIV, sun king Soleil 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.memo.fr [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis XIV (baptized as Louis-Dieudonn, "Louis-God-given") ruled as King of France and of Navarre.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The latter had entered the French army towards 1664 and had participated in several of the military campaigns of Louis XIV. The name of his regiment is not known for certain.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: Original source]

[5]
.Louis was a product of noteworthy European ruling houses.^ Louis XIV dies in 1715 after 64 years in power, making him the longest ruling leader in European history.
  • A History of France (1617-1792) - Paradox Interactive Forums 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis XIV made Versailles into a splendid stage for his personal theatrical production-the absolute rule of France.
  • The Enlightenment: The Age and Its Art 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC cla.calpoly.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Louis well knew that a general European war would follow if he accepted for his house the crown thus bequeathed.
  • Poke's Fifteen Decisive Battles 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.standin.se [Source type: Original source]

.His paternal grandparents were Henri IV and Marie de' Medici; and both his maternal grandparents were HabsburgsPhilip III of Spain and Margaret of Austria.^ Favourite of Marie de Medicis.
  • John Hinsdale Scheide Collection of Three Centuries of French History, 1510-1816: Finding Aid 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • John Hinsdale Scheide Collection of Three Centuries of French History, 1510-1816: Finding Aid 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ His paternal grandparents were Henri IV of France and Marie de' Medici , who were French and Italian respectively; while both his maternal grandparents were Habsburgs, Philip III of Spain and Margaret of Austria .
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ September 22: Anne born to Philip III of Spain and Margaret of Austria September 27: Louis XIII born to Henry IV and Marie de Medici 1610: May: Henry IV of France asassinated.
  • Emory Women Writers Resource Project : A Family Discussion Between the King and the Queen Regent, His Mother, Concerning Current Affairs, an electronic edition. Edited with an introduction by Amy Enright : critical introduction 0 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC womenwriters.library.emory.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Through them, Louis was descended from various historical figures, such as Holy Roman EmperorsCharles V and Frederick Barbarossa.^ In this manner, he counted as his ancestors various historical figures, including Charles V and Frederick Barbarossa, both Holy Roman Emperors.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles V, Holy Roman emperor — Infoplease.com .
  • rulers.html 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.fidnet.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In this manner, he counted as his ancestors various historical figures like Charles Quint and Frederick Barbarossa, both Holy Roman Emperors.

.Other ancestors included the first monarchs of a united Spain—Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon—and the founder of Russia's first dynastyRurik the Viking.^ He also found himself descended from the founder of the Rurik dynasty, Rurik the Viking, Charles I " le Téméraire ", Duc de Bourgogne, the poet Charles, Duc d'Orléans, and Giovanni de' Medici, last of the great Condottieri.

^ He was also descended from the founder of Russia's first dynasty, Rurik the Viking, as well as Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, the poet Charles, Duke of Orlans, and Giovanni de' Medici, last of the great condottieri.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Portuguese Ferdinand Magellan's expedition for Spain first to circumnavigate globe .
  • History of the World - By Date (1500 to 1700) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.lukemastin.com [Source type: Original source]

.Louis was also a descendant of Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy and the poet, Charles d'Orléans, as well as the last of the great CondottieriGiovanni de' Medici.^ Charles de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He also found himself descended from the founder of the Rurik dynasty, Rurik the Viking, Charles I " le Téméraire ", Duc de Bourgogne, the poet Charles, Duc d'Orléans, and Giovanni de' Medici, last of the great Condottieri.

^ He was also descended from the founder of Russia's first dynasty, Rurik the Viking, as well as Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, the poet Charles, Duke of Orlans, and Giovanni de' Medici, last of the great condottieri.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.Most importantly for his and his descendant's rights to the throne, Louis was descended in the direct legitimate male line from Saint Louis, and through him, from Hugh Capet, the first King of France.^ Louis XVI, king of France.
  • rulers.html 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.fidnet.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Most importantly, he traced his paternal lineage in unbroken male succession from Saint Louis, King of France.

^ Louis XIV, king of France.
  • rulers.html 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.fidnet.com [Source type: Reference]

.Tracing Louis's ancestry to the tenth generation, genealogist C. Carretier calculated his ancestry to be approximately 28% French, 26% Spanish, 11% Austro-German and 10% Portuguese, the rest being Italian, Slavic, English, Savoyard and Lorrainer.^ Although the Dutch captured Pondicherry , a French raid on the Spanish treasure port of Cartagena (in present-day Colombia) yielded a fortune of 10 000 000 livres.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ French music critic who argued that French music in general--and Lully's operas in particular--was more expressive than Italian music, which he viewed as being merely sensual.
  • Biographies — University of North Texas Libraries 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.library.unt.edu [Source type: General]

^ Each European country then gave birth to its own version of the instrument such as the German schalmei, English shawm, Old French chalemie, and Old Spanish chalemel.
  • Oboe History 25 September 2009 14:27 UTC oboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]
.Although Anne produced the heir, Louis, and his brother, Philippe, Louis XIII doubted her political abilities.^ The twins' father, Louis XIII, feared the brothers would grow up to fight over the throne, so he sent the second-born baby away to be raised in secret.
  • "Louis XIV" - free pictures, posters, history, jokes, movies, music and video downloads of France's sun king 25 September 2009 9:55 UTC ring.mithec.com [Source type: Original source]
  • "Louis XIV" - free pictures, posters, history, jokes, movies, music and video downloads of France's sun king 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC ring.mithec.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis XIV of France was born September 5, 1638, in the twenty-third year of the marriage of King Louis XIII of France and his Spanish Hapsburg queen Anne of Austria .
  • Biographies — University of North Texas Libraries 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.library.unt.edu [Source type: General]

^ The union of the king Louis XIII and the queen Anne of Austria, devoted in 1615, had indeed still not given of heir to the throne to France.
  • Article - Louis XIV, sun king Soleil 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.memo.fr [Source type: Original source]

.He thus decreed that a regency council should rule on Louis' behalf in the event of a minority.^ Personal rule of Louis XIV (1661-1715) begins; Colbert appointed to King’s Council.
  • France in America: Chronology / La France en Amérique: Chronologie 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC international.loc.gov:8081 [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus he decreed that a regency council, of which Anne would be head, should rule in his son's name during his minority; this would have diminished the Queen Mother's power.

^ Unsure of Anne as regent, Louis XIII decreed that a Regency Council, of which she was named head, should rule in Louis' name in the event he succeeded to the throne before the age of majority, intending, by its existence, to prevent her from ruling as sole regent.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.He nonetheless did name her the head of the council.^ Thus he decreed that a regency council, of which Anne would be head, should rule in his son's name during his minority; this would have diminished the Queen Mother's power.

Minority and the Fronde

.On 14 May 1643, upon Louis XIII's death and his young son's accession to the throne, Anne had his will annulled by the Parlement de Paris (a judicial body comprising mostly nobles and high clergymen), abolished the regency council and became sole regent.^ In 1610 Louis XIII succeeded to the throne.

^ Reign: 14 May 1610 - 14 May 1643 .
  • Bourbon Dynasty 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.themolloys.net [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Anne successfully challenged the will and became sole Regent.
  • Biographies — University of North Texas Libraries 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.library.unt.edu [Source type: General]

.She then entrusted power to Cardinal Mazarin.^ She entrusted power to her chief minister, the Italian -born Cardinal Mazarin, who was despised in most French political circles because of his alien non-French background (although he had already become a naturalised French subject).

^ Cardinal Mazarin continued the policies of centralization pursued by his predecessor, Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal Richelieu, seeking to augment the power of the Crown at the expense of the nobility.

^ She entrusted power to Cardinal Mazarin , who was despised in most French political circles because of his foreign origin, despite having already become a naturalized French subject.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

Europe after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648
.Subsequently, in 1648, Mazarin successfully negotiated the Peace of Westphalia.^ Europe after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 .
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This seemed to promis a lot, and Mazarin did not even make peace with Spain at the treaties of Westphalia.

^ Holland had supported Spain, indirectly, after 1635, and had signed a separate peace at Westphalia with Spain in 1648, and then again made a separate arrangement with England in 1668.
  • VQR » Force, Order, and Diplomacy In the Age of Louis XIV 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.vqronline.org [Source type: Original source]

.Although war continued between France and Spain until the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, the Peace of Westphalia ended the Thirty Years' War in Germany.^ When the treaty of Westphalia shall be agreed to between France and Philip .
  • Oracles of Nostradamus: Louis XIV 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thirty Years' War in Germany to decide Bohemian succession .
  • History of the World - By Date (1500 to 1700) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.lukemastin.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A treaty between France and Spain was signed on September 17.

.Its terms ensured Dutch independence from Spain, awarded some autonomy to the various German princes, and granted Sweden seats on the Reichstag and territories to control the mouths of the Oder, Elbe and Weser.^ This Peace ensured Dutch independence from Spain, awarded a degree of autonomy to the various German princes and granted Sweden territories which gave her control of the mouths of the Oder, Elbe, and Weser, as well as seats on the Reichstag.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This Peace ensured Dutch independence from Spain and the independence of the German princes in the Empire.

^ He had obtained some honour in Spain; he aimed at others even higher, and hoped to return to France with all the honours of a Prince of the Blood.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, it profited France the most.^ However, others believe this an exaggeration; while many left, most of France's preeminent Protestant businessmen and industrialists converted and remained.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, it was France who had the most to gain in the Peace.

^ However, it was France which had the most to gain from the terms of the Peace.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.Austria ceded to France all Habsburg lands and claims in Alsace and acknowledged French de facto sovereignty over the Three Bishoprics.^ Although Louis's coming-of-age formally ended Marie's Regency, she remained the de facto ruler of France.
  • Louis XIII of France (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The nobles and clergy claimed exemption from these taxes, so the peasantry and the emerging middle class (the bourgeoisie) had to pay for all -- a remnant of feudal France.
  • French History of the Bourbon Dynasty 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.bonjourlafrance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His coat of arms were Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or (for France) impaling Gules on a chain in cross saltire and orle Or an emerald Proper (for Navarre) .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Moreover, eager to emancipate themselves from Habsburg domination, petty German states sought French protection.^ The German states allied themselves with Prussia.

^ Austria ceded to France all Habsburg lands and claims in Alsace, and the petty German states eager to remove themselves from Habsburg domination placed themselves under French protection, leading to the further dissolution of Imperial power.

^ Austria ceded to France all Habsburg lands and claims in Alsace; and the petty German states eager to dislodge themselves from Habsburg domination placed themselves under French protection, paving the way for the formation of the League of the Rhine in 1658 and leading to the further diminution of Imperial power.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.This anticipated the 1658 formation of the League of the Rhine, leading to the further diminution of Imperial power.^ Austria ceded to France all Habsburg lands and claims in Alsace; and the petty German states eager to dislodge themselves from Habsburg domination placed themselves under French protection, paving the way for the formation of the League of the Rhine in 1658 and leading to the further diminution of Imperial power.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Austria ceded to France all Habsburg lands and claims in Alsace, and the petty German states eager to remove themselves from Habsburg domination placed themselves under French protection, leading to the further dissolution of Imperial power.

^ Though the League of the Rhine was no longer in existence, Louis had, as has been seen, entered into separate treaties with several of the German Powers, such as Bavaria and Brandenburg.

.As the Thirty Years' War petered out, a civil war—the Fronde—erupted.^ France will be greatly shaken (1648-1653) by the civil war of the Fronde, whilst Rome will be endangered by the growth of Jansenism.
  • Oracles of Nostradamus: Louis XIV 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis XIV’s childhood had been spent in the fear and disorder of a civil war between rival bands of aristocrats, the ‘Fronde’, and associated Paris with intrigue and violence.
  • Chateau of Versailles 25 September 2009 9:55 UTC www.manstouch.com [Source type: General]
  • Chateau of Versailles 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC manstouch.com [Source type: General]

^ Taxes to support the immense armies of the day far exceeded the level that had been reached in the Thirty Years' War.
  • VQR » Force, Order, and Diplomacy In the Age of Louis XIV 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.vqronline.org [Source type: Original source]

.It effectively checked France's ability to exploit the Peace of Westphalia.^ In the closing years of the Thirty Years' War, a civil war, the Fronde, which effectively curbed France's ability to make good the advantages gained in the Peace of Westphalia , broke out.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis XIV as a young child Just as the Thirty Years' War ended, a French civil war, known as the Fronde, which effectively curbed the French ability to make good the advantages gained in the Peace of Westphalia, commenced.

^ What these Courts did not declare to have been ceded to France at the Peace of Westphalia was held to be a "dependency," and under this head came Luxemburg and Strassburg.

.Mazarin had largely pursued the policies of his predecessor, Cardinal Richelieu, augmenting the Crown's power at the expense of the nobility and the Parlements.^ Cardinal Mazarin continued the policies of centralization pursued by his predecessor, Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal Richelieu, seeking to augment the power of the Crown at the expense of the nobility.

^ On the other hand, Cardinal Mazarin had continued and would continue to follow the policies of centralization pursued by his predecessor, Cardinal Richelieu, seeking to augment the power of the Crown at the expense of the nobility and the Parlements.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cardinal Richelieu dies and Cardinal Mazarin takes over .
  • History of the World - By Date (1500 to 1700) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.lukemastin.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Frondeurs, political heirs of the turbulent feudal aristocracy, originally sought to protect their traditional feudal privileges from an increasingly centralized and centralizing royal government.^ The Frondeurs originally sought to protect traditional feudal "liberties" from an increasingly centralized and centralizing royal government.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In an effort to centralize political power and avert episodes of widespread unrest, he appoints a network of intendents, or royal plenipotentiaries, in the provinces.
  • A History of France (1617-1792) - Paradox Interactive Forums 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis XIV had centralized power in the royal bureaucracy, the government departments which administered his policies.
  • Causes and Effects of the French Revolution :: European Europe History 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.123helpme.com [Source type: Original source]

.Furthermore, they believed their traditional influence and authority was being usurped by the recently ennobled (the Noblesse de Robe) who administered the Kingdom and on whom the Monarchy increasingly began to rely.^ He, as a result of the experiences derived from the Fronde, believed that his power would prevail only if he filled the high executive offices with commoners, or at least members of the relatively newer aristocracy (the " noblesse de robe "), because while he could reduce a commoner to a nonentity by dismissing him, he could not destroy the influence of a great nobleman.

^ He began Marly for the King, who also ennobled him in this same year under the title of Comte de Sagonne.
  • French Art - Reign Of Louis XIV. - Continued 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.oldandsold.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the late 18th century the nobles who made up the parlements began to feel that their traditional feudal rights were under attack and they resisted the king by refusing to register decrees.

This belief intensified their resentment.
.In 1648, Mazarin attempted to tax members of the Parlement de Paris.^ When Mazarin, strengthened by the news of the victory of Louis II de Bourbon, prince de Cond (le Grand Cond) at the Battle of Lens , arrested certain members of the Parlement in a show of force, Paris erupted in rioting and insurrection.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Normally, any such reform would have to be "enregistered" (accepted) by the Parlement of Paris (sovereign law court), but the Parlement has often rejected reform attempts in the name of protecting historic liberties.
  • French Revolutionary Chronology - print from here! 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.iub.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Efforts to reform the inequitable tax system failed, as did the attempt by René Nicolas de Maupeou to suppress opposition to reform from the parlement .
  • Louis XV King of France: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The members not only refused to comply, but also ordered all his earlier financial edicts burned.^ The members of the Parlement not only refused to comply, but also ordered all of Cardinal Mazarin's earlier financial edicts burned.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The fraudulent "Genealogical History of the House of Auvergne," which I have previously alluded to, was suppressed by royal edict, and orders given that all the copies of it should be seized.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The declaration emanating from the Chamber of St. Louis also directly challenged royal authority by stating that all financial edicts not registered with Parlement (i.e.
  • Emory Women Writers Resource Project : A Family Discussion Between the King and the Queen Regent, His Mother, Concerning Current Affairs, an electronic edition. Edited with an introduction by Amy Enright : critical introduction 0 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC womenwriters.library.emory.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Buoyed by the victory of Louis, duc d’Enghien (later le Grand Condé) at Lens, Mazarin arrested certain members in a show of force.^ Succeeded by Louis "le Grand Dauphin" .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Mazarin, strengthened by the news of the victory of Louis II de Bourbon, prince de Cond (le Grand Cond) at the Battle of Lens , arrested certain members of the Parlement in a show of force, Paris erupted in rioting and insurrection.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis XIV with Louis le Grand Dauphin .
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.Ironically, Paris erupted in rioting.^ When Cardinal Mazarin arrested certain members of the Parlement, Paris erupted in rioting and insurrection.

.A mob of angry Parisians broke into the royal palace and demanded to see their king.^ A mob of angry Parisians broke into the royal palace and demanded to see their king.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A crowd of Parisians, mainly women, marches to Versailles to protest economic hardship and demand that the royal family move to the Tuileries Palace in Paris.
  • French Revolutionary Chronology - print from here! 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.iub.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ She has said frequently that if the King should come into the convent she would refuse to see him, and would hide herself so that he could not find her.
  • The Memoirs of Louis XIV. and the Regency, v1 by Elizabeth-Charlotte, Duchesse d'Orleans - Full Text Free Book 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Led into the royal bedchamber, they gazed upon Louis, who was feigning sleep, were appeased and quietly departed.^ Led into the royal bedchamber, they gazed upon Louis XIV, who was feigning sleep, and quietly departed.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Like [James], [Louis] did not think that the admirals of the Royal Navy would betray the ex-Duke of York who used to lead them into battle.

^ The styles worn at the court of Louis XIV were followed by all who could afford to do so and gradually they were emulated by other European courts as well.

.The threat to the royal family and Monarchy prompted Anne to flee Paris with the King and his courtiers.^ Prompted by the possible danger to the royal family and the monarchy, Anne fled Paris with the king and his courtiers.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His father Antoine was Master of Royal Hunt of King Charles II. He arrived in Paris in 1687, became student of René Antoine Houasse.

^ Responding to popular pressure, the royal family returned from Versailles to Paris (6 Oct 1789).
  • Bourbon Dynasty 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.themolloys.net [Source type: Original source]

.Shortly thereafter, the conclusion of the Peace of Westphalia allowed Condé's army to return to aid Louis and his court.^ Shortly thereafter, the signing of the Peace of Westphalia allowed the French Army under Cond to return to the aid of Louis XIV and his royal court.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Shortly thereafter, the signing of the Peace of Westphalia allowed the French army under Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé to return to the aid of Louis XIV and of his royal court.

^ Eventually, Condé and Queen Marie made peace via the Treaty of Loudun , which allowed Condé great power in government, but didn't remove Concini.
  • Louis XIII of France (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Portrait of Louis, the Victor of the Fronde, portrayed as Jupiter. This painting, from 1655, is currently on display at the Palace of Versailles.
.As this first Fronde (Fronde parlementaire, 1648–1649) ended, a second (Fronde des princes, 1650–1653) began.^ After the first Fronde ( Fronde Parlementaire ) ended, the second Fronde, that of the princes, began in 1650.

^ January: Fronde des Princes continues.
  • Emory Women Writers Resource Project : A Family Discussion Between the King and the Queen Regent, His Mother, Concerning Current Affairs, an electronic edition. Edited with an introduction by Amy Enright : critical introduction 0 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC womenwriters.library.emory.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Fronde After the first Fronde (Fronde parlementaire, 1648-1649) ended, the second Fronde, that of the nobles (Fronde des princes, 1650-1653) began.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.Unlike that which preceded it, tales of sordid intrigue and half-hearted warfare characterised this second phase of upper-class insurrection.^ This second phase of upper-class insurrection was unlike that which preceded it was characterized by tales of sordid intrigue and half-hearted warfare.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.This rebellion represented to the aristocracy a protest against and a reversal of their political demotion from vassals to courtiers.^ It was conducted by aristocrats for whom it represented a protest against and an attempt to reverse the centralization of France and their consequent demotion from vassals to courtiers.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.It was headed by the highest-ranking French nobles, from Louis's uncle, Gaston, duc d'Orléans, and first cousin, la Grande Mademoiselle; to more distantly-related Princes of the Blood, like Condé, his brother, Conti, and their sister, Anne-Geneviève de Bourbon, duchesse de Longueville; to dukes of legitimised royal descent, like Henri, duc de Longueville, and François, duc de Beaufort; and to princes étrangers, such as Frédéric Maurice, duc de Bouillon, and his brother, the famous Marshal of France, Turenne, as well as Marie de Rohan, duchesse de Chevreuse; and scions of France's oldest families, like François, duc de La Rochefoucauld.^ Louis-Armand I de Bourbon-Conti, prince de Conti .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Marie-Anne de Bourbon, Mlle de Blois , duchesse de La Vallière, princesse de Conti .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Luxembourg (François-Henri de Montmorency, duc de, 1628-1695) .
  • John Hinsdale Scheide Collection of Three Centuries of French History, 1510-1816: Finding Aid 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • John Hinsdale Scheide Collection of Three Centuries of French History, 1510-1816: Finding Aid 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Louis's coming-of-age and subsequent coronation deprived the Frondeurs, claiming to act on his behalf and in his real interest against his mother and Mazarin, of their pretext for revolt.^ With the coming of the Age of Louis XIV and his subsequent coronation, the Frondeurs, who could hitherto have claimed to have been acting on his behalf and in his real interests against his Regent-mother and her first minister, had lost their pretext for revolt.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis really did not get along with anyone in his family; his mother poisoned him.
  • FinermanWorks » France - Crafting Words with Impact 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC finermanworks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Besides, the real ruler of France–the Queen Mother–had a definite grudge against Diane.
  • FinermanWorks » France - Crafting Words with Impact 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC finermanworks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thus, the Fronde gradually lost steam and ended in 1653, when Mazarin returned triumphant after having fled into exile on several occasions.^ The Fronde thus gradually lost steam until it ended in 1653, when Mazarin returned triumphant from abroad after having fled into exile on several occasions.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Having returned back into his place, he opened, after some moments of silence, this great scene by a discourse.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On both occasions, Mazarin went into voluntary exile, though his influence did not disappear from France.
  • Emory Women Writers Resource Project : A Family Discussion Between the King and the Queen Regent, His Mother, Concerning Current Affairs, an electronic edition. Edited with an introduction by Amy Enright : critical introduction 0 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC womenwriters.library.emory.edu [Source type: Original source]

Personal reign and reforms

Louis XIV, King of France, in 1661.
.On Mazarin's death in 1661, Louis assumed personal control of the reins of government.^ Following the death of Mazarin in 1661, Louis XIV assumed control of the government.

^ Within France, upon the death of Cardinal Mazarin, his first minister, in 1661, Louis XIV assumed personal control of the reins of government.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis XIV During the reign of Louis XIII (1610 43) there...established after the king took personal control...Charles Cressent .
  • Louis XV King of France: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.He was able to utilize the widespread public yearning for peace, law and order, resulting from prolonged foreign war and domestic civil strife, to further consolidate central political authority and reforms at the feudal aristocracy's expense.^ He was able to exploit the widespread public yearning for peace and order, which had resulted from the long foreign wars and domestic civil strife, caused by events such as the Fronde and abuses of the people perpetrated by some nobles, to consolidate central authority at the feudal aristocracy's expense.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Letters of William III. and Louis XIV. and their ministers; illustrative of the domestic and foreign politics of England, from the peace of Ryswick to the accession of Philip V. of Spain.

^ Jacques Soustelle attempted to restore peace--but with the Moslem rising in the Philippines and elsewhere and subsequent attacks on Christians, the French government surrendered to the inevitable: civil war.
  • Sarkozy's Louis XIV moment - Europe, World - The Independent 10 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: News]

Praising his ability to wisely choose and encourage men of talent, Chateaubriand noted that "it is the voice of genius of all kinds which sounds from the tomb of Louis".[7]
.Louis commenced his personal reign with administrative and fiscal reforms.^ The commencement of Louis' personal reign was marked by a series of administrative and fiscal reforms.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis XIV During the reign of Louis XIII (1610 43) there...established after the king took personal control...Charles Cressent .
  • Louis XV King of France: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The failure of the monarchy to solve its fiscal difficulties led directly to the French Revolution during the reign of Louis's successor, Louis XVI .
  • Louis XV King of France: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.In 1661, the treasury verged on bankruptcy.^ T he French treasury stood close to bankruptcy when Louis XIV assumed power in 1661.
  • French History of the Bourbon Dynasty 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.bonjourlafrance.com [Source type: Original source]

.To rectify the situation, Louis chose Jean-Baptiste Colbert as Contrôleur général des Finances in 1665. However, Louis first had to eliminate Nicolas Fouquet, the Surintendant des Finances.^ Colbert (Jean Baptist, marquis de Torcy, 1665-1746) .
  • John Hinsdale Scheide Collection of Three Centuries of French History, 1510-1816: Finding Aid 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • John Hinsdale Scheide Collection of Three Centuries of French History, 1510-1816: Finding Aid 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Nicolas Fouquet still reigned as surintendant.

^ Louis XIV appointed Jean-Baptiste Colbert as Contrôleur-Général des Finances in 1665.

Fouquet was charged with embezzlement. .The Parlement found him guilty and sentenced him to exile.^ Riel was tried for treason, found guilty and sentenced to death by hanging, despite concerns about his sanity.
  • Canada in the Making - Glossary 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.canadiana.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, Louis commuted the sentence to life-imprisonment and also abolished Fouquet's post.^ Pétain was sentenced to life imprisonment.

^ Louis XIV eliminated Nicolas Fouquet, the Surintendant des Finances , commuting the sentence of banishment, passed by the Parlement, to imprisonment for life, and abolished Fouquet's office.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fouquet’s achievement was his undoing as together with his mismanagement of funds and Louis made jealous by the magnificent chateau and fete, he was arrested in 1661, banished and then sentenced to life imprisonment.
  • Chateau of Versailles 25 September 2009 9:55 UTC www.manstouch.com [Source type: General]
  • Chateau of Versailles 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC manstouch.com [Source type: General]

.Although Fouquet's financial indiscretions were not really very different from Mazarin before or Colbert after him, his ambition was worrying to Louis.^ To be sure, Fouquet had committed no financial indiscretions which Mazarin had not committed before him and which Colbert would not commit afterward.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis really did not get along with anyone in his family; his mother poisoned him.
  • FinermanWorks » France - Crafting Words with Impact 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC finermanworks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis reigned peaceably and prosperously for six years before the ambition of being a conqueror and a hero seized him.

.He built an opulent château at Vaux-le-Vicomte where he lavishly entertained a comparatively poorer Louis.^ Dinner at Vaux le Vicomte .
  • Chateau of Versailles 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC manstouch.com [Source type: General]

^ Visiting his finance minister, Nicolas Fouquet, who had built the finest chateau and garden in France at Vaux-le-Vicomte, he was entertained with a fete which was one of the most magnificent in French history, Louis decided to build a chateau which was even grander and finer.
  • Chateau of Versailles 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC manstouch.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1653 he began the chateau of Vaux-le-Vicomte for Fouquet, which was finished in 1660.
  • French Art - Reign Of Louis XIV. - Continued 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.oldandsold.com [Source type: Original source]

.He appeared eager to succeed Mazarin and Richelieu in assuming power, and indiscreetly purchased and fortified Belle Île.^ He was heir of the powers of Richelieu and the treasures of Mazarin.

^ Cardinal Mazarin continued the policies of centralization pursued by his predecessor, Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal Richelieu, seeking to augment the power of the Crown at the expense of the nobility.

^ Moreover, Fouquet had competently and loyally discharged his duties, but his growing ambition to succeed Richelieu and Mazarin in power was such that Louis had to rid himself of him if he was to rule alone.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

These acts sealed his doom.
.Divested of Fouquet, Colbert reduced the national debt through more efficient taxation.^ Colbert reduced the national debt through more efficient taxation.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Colbert's efforts to reduce bureaucratic corruption and reorganize the bureaucracy began to generate revenue, although this did not suffice to begin to reverse France's growing national debt.
  • French History of the Bourbon Dynasty 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.bonjourlafrance.com [Source type: Original source]

.The principal taxes included the aides and douanes (both customs duties), the gabelle (a tax on salt), and the taille (a tax on land).^ The aides and douanes were customs duties, the gabelle a tax on salt, and the taille a tax on land.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His principal means of taxation included the aides , the douanes , the gabelle , and the taille .

^ At this time the principal French taxation devices included the aides, the douanes, the gabelle, and the taille.
  • French History of the Bourbon Dynasty 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.bonjourlafrance.com [Source type: Original source]

.Louis and Colbert also had wide-ranging plans to bolster French commerce and trade.^ Colbert also had wide-ranging plans to strengthen France through commerce and trade.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Under the direction of his minister of finance, Jean Baptiste Colbert, trade and commerce were encouraged.

^ Louis and his mercantilist advisors, especially Colbert, his minister of commerce, were certain that glory, gold, security, or power, were finite commodities.
  • VQR » Force, Order, and Diplomacy In the Age of Louis XIV 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.vqronline.org [Source type: Original source]

.Colbert's mercantilist administration established new industries and encouraged manufacturers and inventors, such as the Lyon silk manufacturers and the Manufacture des Gobelins, a producer of tapestries.^ His administration ordained new industries and encouraged manufacturers and inventors, such as the Lyon silk manufacturers and the Manufacture des Gobelins , which produced and still produces tapestries.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His administration ordained new industries and encouraged manufacturers and inventors, such as the Lyons silk manufactures and the Manufacture des Gobelins, which produced and still produces tapestries.

^ The government wished the Canadians to be concentrated in the central colony, engaged in agriculture, fishing, and such other industries as shipbuilding, lumbering, and the manufacture of some consumer goods.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: Original source]

.He also invited to France manufacturers and artisans from all over Europe, like Murano glassmakers, Swedish ironworkers, and Dutch shipbuilders.^ He also brought professional manufacturers and artisans from all over Europe, such as glassmakers from Murano, ironworkers from Sweden, and shipbuilders from the United Provinces.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He also brought professional manufacturers and artisans from all over Europe, such as glassmakers from Murano, or ironworkers from Sweden or ship-builders from the United Provinces.

^ The industries of France were nearly all in the hands of trade-guilds, and it was through these that Colbert brought the influence of the State to bear on the manufacturers.

.In this way, he aimed to decrease foreign imports while increasing French exports, hence reducing the net outflow of precious metals from France.^ In this manner, he sought to decrease French dependence on foreign imported goods while increasing French exports, and hence to decrease the flow of gold and silver out of France.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1663 he drew up a statement of the various articles imported into France and declared that they ought to be produced on French soil.

^ However, it had been at the heart of French foreign policy for decades to separate Spain from the rule of the Hapsburgs, and in fact France had been at war with Spain from 1635 to 1659.

.
Louis and his family portrayed as Roman gods in a 1670 painting by Jean Nocret.
^ Portrait of Family by Nocret (1670).
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

L to R: Louis's aunt, Henriette-Marie; his brother, Philippe, duc d'Orléans; the Duke's daughter, Marie Louise d'Orléans, and wife, Henriette-Anne Stuart; the Queen-mother, Anne of Austria; three daughters of Gaston d'Orléans; Louis XIV; the Dauphin Louis; Queen Marie-Thérèse; la Grande Mademoiselle.
.Louis also instituted reforms in military administration through Le Tellier and, his son, Louvois.^ Louis also instituted various legal reforms.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis also maintained his army but, instead of pursuing his claims through purely military action, he utilised judicial processes to extend his territory further.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The commencement of Louis' personal reign was marked by a series of administrative and fiscal reforms.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.They helped to curb the independent spirit of the nobility, imposing order on them at court and in the army.^ He weakened the nobility by ordering them to serve as members of his court, rather than as regional governors and ministers.
  • French History of the Bourbon Dynasty 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.bonjourlafrance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Le Tellier and Louvois had an important role to play in government, curbing the independent spirit of much of the nobility at court and in the army.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They were bodies of nobles who acted as royal courts.

.Gone were the days when generals protracted war at the frontiers, while bickering over precedence and ignoring orders from the capital and the larger politico-diplomatic picture.^ Gone were the days when army generals, without regard to the bigger political and diplomatic picture, protracted war at the frontiers and disobeyed orders coming from the capital, while quarrelling and bickering with each other over precedence.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.No longer too were senior positions and rank the sole prerogative of the old military aristocracy (the Noblesse d'épée).^ Gone too were the days when positions of seniority and rank in the army were the sole possession of the old military aristocracy ( the noblesse d'pe ).
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Now I am of age, and not only M. du Maine is no longer prince of the blood, but he is reduced to the rank of his peerage.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis thus compelled and seduced the old military aristocracy (the noblesse d'épée ) into becoming his ceremonial courtiers, further weakening their power.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Louvois, in particular, pledged himself to modernizing the army, re-organizing it into a professional, disciplined and well-trained force.^ Louvois, in particular, pledged himself to modernizing the army, organizing it into a new professional, disciplined and well-trained force out of the old.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Spanish quickly muster a force in Castille that re-annexes Aragon, but French and German armies occupy all of the lowlands as well as several Spanish provinces.
  • A History of France (1617-1792) - Paradox Interactive Forums 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Under him, Louvois organized, Turenne, Condé, Villars, and Berwick led the armies of France, and Vauban fortified her frontiers.
  • Poke's Fifteen Decisive Battles 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.standin.se [Source type: Original source]

.He was devoted to providing for the soldiers' material well-being and morale, and even tried to direct campaigns.^ He sought to contrive and direct campaigns and devoted himself to providing for the soldiers' material well-being and morale, and he did so successfully.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For the most part, the instances of tyranny cited only provide counterpoint to the major theme which describes the power of the Queen Regent to affect the well-being of the kingdom.
  • Emory Women Writers Resource Project : A Family Discussion Between the King and the Queen Regent, His Mother, Concerning Current Affairs, an electronic edition. Edited with an introduction by Amy Enright : critical introduction 0 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC womenwriters.library.emory.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But being again detected, she was sent, without further parley, to the Bastille, well treated there, but allowed to see nobody, not even to write.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.The law also did not escape Louis's attention, as is reflected in the numerous Grandes Ordonnances he enacted.^ The Grande Ordonnance de Procdure Civile of 1667 , also known as Code Louis , was a comprehensive legal code regulating civil procedure in all of France in a uniform manner.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of Louis XIV's more infamous decrees was the Grande Ordonnance sur les Colonies of 1685 , also known as Code Noir .
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.Pre-revolutionary France was a patchwork of legal systems, with as many coutumes as there were provinces, and two co-existing legal traditions—customary law in the northern pays de droit coutumier and Roman civil law in the southern pays de droit écrit.^ It sought to provide France with a single system of law where there were two: customary law in the north, and Roman law in the south.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However I recognize that his rationalization of antiquated legal systems in the "Code Napolon" was a great progress for the principle of equality before the law and is still influencing present European legal systems.
  • Invalides- Paris, France - VirtualTourist.com 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

^ Madame de Saint-Simon and I remained up two hours before going to bed, and then went there without feeling any want of rest.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[8] .The Grande Ordonnance de Procédure Civile of 1667, also known as Code Louis, was a comprehensive legal code attempting a uniform regulation of civil procedure throughout legally irregular France.^ The Grande Ordonnance de Procdure Civile of 1667 , also known as Code Louis , was a comprehensive legal code regulating civil procedure in all of France in a uniform manner.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis de France, " le Grand Dauphin " .

^ Louis de France, le Grand Dauphin .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It prescribed inter alia baptismal, marriage and death records in the State's registers, not the Church's, and also strictly regulated the right to remonstrance of the Parlements.^ It made it compulsory to record baptisms, marriages and burials in the registers of the State (as opposed to the registers of the Church).
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is a legal booklet which records the marriage and subsequent events in the family such as births, deaths, divorce or name changes.
  • http://www.parlerparis.com/issues/pparis2-2-05.html 25 September 2009 2:22 UTC www.parlerparis.com [Source type: General]

^ In consequence of this there were no longer any baptismal extracts; no longer any certainty as to baptisms or births; and the children of the marriages solemnised in the way I have stated above were illegitimate in the eyes of the law.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[9] .The Code Louis played an important part in French legal history as the basis for the Code Napoléon, itself the origin of many modern legal codes.^ The Code Louis played an important part in France's legal history as it was the basis for Napoleon I's Code Napolon , which is itself the basis for many of Western Europe's modern legal codes.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The major legal code formulated by Louis XIV, the Code Louis , also played a large part in France's legal history as it was the basis for Napoleon I's Code Napoléon , which is itself the basis for the modern French legal codes.

^ A character based on Louis plays an important role in The Age of Unreason , a series of four alternate history novels written by American science fiction and fantasy author Gregory Keyes .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One of Louis's more infamous decrees was the Grande Ordonnance sur les Colonies of 1685, also known as Code Noir.^ Succeeded by Louis "le Grand Dauphin" .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Louis XIV with Louis le Grand Dauphin .
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of Louis XIV's more infamous decrees was the Grande Ordonnance sur les Colonies of 1685 , also known as Code Noir .
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although it sanctioned slavery, it did humanise the practice by prohibiting the separation of families.^ It granted sanction to slavery, although it did extend a measure of humanity to the practice by prohibiting the separation of families.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Code Noir granted sanction to slavery (though it did extend a measure of humanity to the practice such as prohibiting the separation of families), but no person could disown a slave in the French colonies unless he were a member of the Roman Catholic Church, and a Catholic priest had to baptise each slave.

.Additionally, in the colonies, only Roman Catholics could own slaves, and these had to be baptised.^ The Code Noir granted sanction to slavery (though it did extend a measure of humanity to the practice such as prohibiting the separation of families), but no person could disown a slave in the French colonies unless he were a member of the Roman Catholic Church, and a Catholic priest had to baptise each slave.

^ James, almost openly, aimed at a restoration of the Roman Catholic religion so complete "as to make its subsequent destruction impossible " ; and he perceived that only by means of a French alliance could he expect to carry out his policy.

^ However, no person could own a slave in the French colonies unless he was a member of the Roman Catholic Church, and a Catholic priest had to baptize each slave.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

Patronage of the arts

Painting from 1667 depicting Louis as patron of the fine arts.
.The Sun King generously financed the royal court, and supported those who worked under him.^ The Sun King proved a generous spender, dispensing large sums of money to finance the royal court, and supported those who worked under him.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The major works of the decade were tapestries, and these were either allegorical, depicting the elements and the seasons, or realist, portraying royal residences and, in particular, the history of the king.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On one occasion he arbitrarily imprisoned the clerk of the court; on another he had a Montreal judge who had annoyed him incarcerated for two months and fined 200 livres .
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: Original source]

.He brought the Académie Française under his patronage, and became its "Protector". He allowed Classical French literature to flourish by protecting such writers as Molière, Racine and La Fontaine, whose works greatly influence to this day.^ It was under his reign and indeed his patronage that Classical French Literature flourished with such writers as Molire , Jean Racine and Jean de La Fontaine whose works still hold great influence to this day.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He brought the Académie Française under his patronage, and became its "Protector".

^ He brought the Acadmie Franaise under his patronage, and became its "Protector".
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.Louis also patronised the visual arts by funding and commissioning various artists, such as Charles Le Brun, Pierre Mignard, Antoine Coysevox and Hyacinthe Rigaud whose works became famous throughout Europe.^ The visual arts also found in Louis XIV their patron for he funded and commissioned various artists, such as Charles Le Brun , Pierre Mignard , Antoine Coysevox and Hyacinthe Rigaud whose works became famed throughout Europe.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The visual arts also found in Louis XIV the ultimate patron for he funded and commissioned various artists, such as Charles Le Brun, Pierre Mignard, Antoine Coysevox, André Le Nôtre and Hyacinthe Rigaud whose works became famed throughout Europe.

^ He encouraged and benefited from the work of prominent political, military and cultural figures such as Mazarin , Colbert , Turenne and Vauban , as well as Molière , Racine , Boileau , La Fontaine , Lully , Le Brun , Rigaud , Le Vau , Mansart , Perrault and Le Nôtre .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In music, composers and musicians, like Lully, Chambonnières and François Couperin, thrived and influenced many others.^ In music, composers and musicians like Jean-Baptiste Lully, Jacques Champion de Chambonnières and François Couperin occupied the scene.

^ In music, composers and musicians like Jean-Baptiste Lully, Jacques Champion de Chambonnires and Franois Couperin thrived and influenced many others.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the same year, Lully was appointed "composer of chamber music for the king."
  • Biographies — University of North Texas Libraries 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.library.unt.edu [Source type: General]

The Cour royale and the Cour de marbre at Versailles
.Louis converted a hunting lodge built by Louis XIII into the spectacular royal Palace of Versailles through four major building campaigns.^ The Cour d'Honneur of the Château of Versailles Louis XIV had the Château of Versailles outside Paris, originally a hunting lodge built by his father, converted into a spectacular royal palace in a series of four major and distinct building campaigns.

^ He wanted a Palace outside, but near, Paris, and chose to build at Versailles, where his father, Louis XIII (1601-1643), had built a simple hunting lodge.
  • Chateau of Versailles 25 September 2009 9:55 UTC www.manstouch.com [Source type: General]
  • Chateau of Versailles 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC manstouch.com [Source type: General]

^ Louis XIV had the Palace of Versailles, outside Paris, originally a hunting lodge built by his father, converted into a spectacular royal palace in a series of four major and distinct building campaigns.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.Excepting the current chapel built in the last decade of the reign, the third building campaign had already given Versailles its present appearance.^ By the end of the third building campaign, the Chteau had taken on most of the appearance that it retains to this day, except for the current chapel built in the last decade of the reign.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By the end of the third building campaign, the Château had taken on most of the appearance that it retains to this day, except for the Royal Chapel in the last decade of the reign.

^ The Cour d'Honneur of the Château of Versailles Louis XIV had the Château of Versailles outside Paris, originally a hunting lodge built by his father, converted into a spectacular royal palace in a series of four major and distinct building campaigns.

.Louis officially moved the royal court there on 6 May 1682. Versailles was a dazzling, awe-inspiring setting for state affairs and the reception of foreign dignitaries; the King alone assumed the attention, which was not shared with the capital and people.^ Louis XIV certainly knew what he was doing when he moved to the court of Versailles in 1682.
  • Top 25 Attractions & Things To Do In France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC opentravel.com [Source type: General]

^ He officially moved there, along with the royal court, on May 6, 1682.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Then in 1682 Louis moved into a magnificent new palace at Versailles.

.Several reasons have been suggested for the creation of the extravagant and stately palace, as well as the relocation of the monarchy's seat.^ Louis had several reasons for creating such a symbol of extravagant opulence and stately grandeur, and for shifting the seat of the monarch.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

.One such is that of contemporary writer, Saint-Simon, who speculated that Louis viewed Versailles as an isolated power center where treasonous cabals could be more readily discovered and foiled.^ On the other hand, contemporary writers such as Saint-Simon speculated that Louis viewed Versailles as an isolated power center where treasonous cabals could be more readily recognized.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Saint-Simon and the court of Louis XIV .
  • Versailles - Syllabus 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC faculty.cua.edu [Source type: General]

^ However, the Duc de Saint-Simon, who did not like Louis XIV as he had not been given what he thought was his due, offered the following assessment: "There was nothing he liked so much as flattery, or, to put it more plainly, adulation; the coarser and clumsier it was, the more he relished it ...

[10] .Alternatively, the Fronde caused Louis to allegedly hate Paris, which was abandoned for a country retreat; however, his many improvements, embellishments and developments of Paris, such as the establishment of a police and street-lighting[11], lend little credence to this theory.^ However Louis also involved his country in many wars.

^ Louis XIV’s childhood had been spent in the fear and disorder of a civil war between rival bands of aristocrats, the ‘Fronde’, and associated Paris with intrigue and violence.
  • Chateau of Versailles 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC manstouch.com [Source type: General]

^ Orléans, however, would have Louis’s will annulled in the Parlement de Paris after his death and make himself sole Regent.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Paris, Louis constructed the "Hôtel des Invalides"—a military complex and home to this day for officers and soldiers rendered infirm either by injury or age.^ Louis XIV ordered the construction of the military complex known as the Hôtel des Invalides to provide a home for officers and soldiers who had served him loyally in the army, but whom either injury or age had rendered infirm.

^ Louis XIV ordered the construction of the military complex known as the " Htel des Invalides " to provide a home for the officers and soldiers who had served him loyally in the army, but who had been rendered infirm by either injury or age.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Legs are topped with sunflowers and a rais de Coeur fringe.Louis XVI period, Paris circa 1780.

.While pharmacology was still quite rudimentary, les Invalides pioneered new treatments and set new standards for hospice treatment.^ While the practice of pharmacy was still quite elementary, les Invalides pioneered new treatments and set new standards for hospice treatment.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While methods of pharmaceuticals at the time were quite elementary, the Hôtel des Invalides pioneered new treatments frequently and set a new standard for the rather barbarous hospice treatment styles of the period.

^ I allowed Biron to enter, all the more surprised because I had just quitted M. le Duc d'Orleans, and eagerly asked him the news.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.The conclusion of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1669 induced Louis to demolish the northern walls of Paris in 1670 and replace them with wide tree-lined boulevards.^ The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle .39 .

^ When Charles Martel’s grandson, Charlemagne (768–814), moved his capital to Aix-la-Chapelle (today’s Aachen in Germany ), Paris’ fate was sealed.
  • History of Paris - Lonely Planet Travel Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chapter VIII.: Conquest of Franche-comtÉ—peace of Aix-la-chapelle.
  • Online Library of Liberty - CHAPTER XXIII.: PRIVATE ANECDOTES OF THE REIGN OF LOUIS XIV. - The Works of Voltaire, Vol. XII (Age of Louis XIV) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[12]
.The Louvre and many other royal residences were also renovated and improved.^ He also improved the Louvre , as well as many other royal residences.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He also improved the Palais du Louvre, as well as many other royal residences.

^ Many others, too, of these forest rovers, outlawed by royal edicts, found in the governor of Montreal a protector, under similar conditions.
  • Count Frontenac and New France under Louis XIV by Francis Parkman - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/7) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Originally, Louis hired Bernini to plan additions to the Louvre.^ Originally, when planning additions to the Louvre, Louis XIV had hired Gian Lorenzo Bernini as architect.

^ Originally when he was planning additions to the Louvre Louis XIV had hired Gian Lorenzo Bernini as architect.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Bernini's place, Louis chose the French architect Claude Perrault , whose work on the "Perrault Wing" of the Louvre is widely-celebrated.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, these plans would have meant the destruction of much of the existing structure, replacing it with an Italian summer villa in the centre of Paris.^ However, his plans for the Louvre would have called for the destruction of much of the existing structure, replacing it with a most awkward-looking Italian summer villa in the centre of Paris.

^ However, his plans for the Louvre would have called for the destruction of much of the existing structure, replacing it with an Italian summer villa in the centre of Paris.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1664 he began his works of destruction on the Tuileries, destroying de l'Orme's spiral staircase, and replacing the circular Dome by the wretched quadrangular dome which existed till 1871.
  • French Art - Reign Of Louis XIV. - Continued 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.oldandsold.com [Source type: Original source]

Bernini's plans were eventually shelved in favour of Perrault's elegant colonnade. .With the relocation of the court to Versailles, the Louvre was given over to the Arts and the public.^ French artists are given generous commissions to experiment in such crucibles of creativity as Versailles, the Palace of Fontainebleau and the Louvre.
  • A History of France (1617-1792) - Paradox Interactive Forums 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

[13]
.In June 1686, on the advice of his secret wife, Madame de Maintenon, Louis signed letters patent creating the "Institut de Saint-Louis" at Saint-Cyr for "filles pauvres de la noblesse" (poor noble girls) between the ages of seven and twenty.^ Letter signed, 28 June 1568 .
  • John Hinsdale Scheide Collection of Three Centuries of French History, 1510-1816: Finding Aid 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • John Hinsdale Scheide Collection of Three Centuries of French History, 1510-1816: Finding Aid 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Letter signed, Luneville, 9 June 1721 .
  • John Hinsdale Scheide Collection of Three Centuries of French History, 1510-1816: Finding Aid 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • John Hinsdale Scheide Collection of Three Centuries of French History, 1510-1816: Finding Aid 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Madame de Maintenon and the King.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[14] .Construction had begun two years previously.^ Construction had begun two years previously.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

."Saint-Cyr" was at the time the only educational institution for girls in France that was not a convent.^ "Saint-Cyr" was at the time the only educational institution for girls in France that was not a convent.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.Admission of the 250 students was dependent on evidence documenting at least four generations of nobility on their father's side.^ The 250 demoiselles admitted were required to provide documentary evidence of at least four generations of nobility on their father's side.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

[14] .Mme de Maintenon took great pleasure in this school and was finally to die there.^ Madame de Maintenon took great pleasure in this school and was finally to die there.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ SHORT PAPER 4 : What do you make of Mme de Clèves "final answer" (i.e.
  • Versailles - Syllabus 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC faculty.cua.edu [Source type: General]

^ Finally de Gaulle called an election and there was a right wing backlash.

[14]
Royal styles of
King Louis XIV
Par la grâce de Dieu, Roi de France et de Navarre
Blason France moderne.svg
Reference style His Most Christian Majesty
Spoken style Your Most Christian Majesty
Alternative style Monsieur Le Roi

Early wars in the Low Countries

.The death of Philip IV of Spain in 1665 precipitated the War of Devolution.^ To Louis, who, like Mazarin, desired the annexation to France of the Spanish Low Countries, none of de Witt's suggestions were acceptable ; and the death of Philip IV of Spain, on September 17, 1665, seemed a suitable opportunity for pressing the supposed claims of the King of France.

^ After Louis XIV's father-in-law and uncle, Philip IV of Spain, died in 1665, Philip IV's son (by his second wife) became Charles II of Spain.

^ By the abovementioned treaty, Louis XIV became engaged to marry the daughter of Philip IV of Spain, Maria Theresa ( Marie-Thérèse d'Autriche ).

.In 1660, Louis had married Philip IV's eldest daughter, Maria Theresa, as part of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659. The marriage treaty specified that Maria Theresa was to renounce all claims to Spanish territory for herself and all her descendants.^ He descended from Maria Anna (Philip III’s youngest daughter).
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the abovementioned treaty, Louis XIV became engaged to marry the daughter of Philip IV of Spain, Maria Theresa ( Marie-Thérèse d'Autriche ).

^ Louis married Maria Theresa of Spain (Marie-Thérèse d'Espagne) in 1660.
  • French History of the Bourbon Dynasty 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.bonjourlafrance.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, Mazarin and Lionne had incorporated a word ("moyennant") making the renunciation conditional on the full payment of a Spanish dowry of 500,000 écus.^ They were married on June 9, 1660; under the terms of the marriage contract, upon and in return for the full payment of a large dowry (50,000 gold écus), to be paid in three installments, Maria Theresa would find herself satisfied and agree to renounce all claims to the Spanish Monarchy and its territories.

[15] .This was never paid and would later play a part persuading Charles II of Spain to leave his empire to Anjou (later Philip V of Spain)—the grandson of Louis and Maria Theresa.^ When Charles II of Spain made Philip V his heir, Louis XIV violated the contract.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Acknowledging that his empire could only remain undivided by bequeathing it entirely to a Frenchman or an Austrian, and pressured by his German wife, Maria Anna of Neuburg , Charles II named the Archduke Charles as sole heir.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1774, Louis XV is succeeded by his only son Louis XIV. Louis is married to Marie Antoinette, the daughter of Empress Maria Theresa of Austria.
  • A History of France (1617-1792) - Paradox Interactive Forums 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

Notwithstanding the non-payment of the dowry, the War of Devolution had the "devolution" of lands as pretext. .In Brabant, children of the first marriage traditionally were not disadvantaged by their parents’ remarriages, and still inherited property.^ He argued that the custom of Brabant required that a child should not suffer from his or her father's remarriage, hence having precedence in inheritance over children of the second or subsequent marriages.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was based upon the so-called jus devolutonis-a local custom of Brabant and Hainault, by which, though a man might have married more than once, the children of his first marriage succeeded to his property.

^ Henry himself favored the idea of obtaining an annulment of his first marriage and taking Gabrielle d'Estrée as a bride, who had already borne him three children.
  • French History of the Bourbon Dynasty 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.bonjourlafrance.com [Source type: Original source]

.Louis's wife was Philip IV's daughter by his first marriage, while the new King of Spain, Charles II, was his son by a subsequent marriage.^ After Louis XIV's father-in-law and uncle, Philip IV of Spain, died in 1665, Philip IV's son (by his second wife) became Charles II of Spain.

^ When Charles II of Spain made Philip V his heir, Louis XIV violated the contract.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Philip was the first Bourbon king of Spain.
  • Kingdom of France - House of Capet de Bourbon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC almanachdegotha.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Thus, Brabant allegedly "devolved" on Maria Theresa. This excuse led to the War of Devolution.
.Internal problems of the Dutch Republic aided Louis's designs on the Spanish Netherlands.^ Problems internal to the Republic of the Seven United Provinces (the Netherlands) aided Louis XIV's designs on the Low Countries.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Louis also sent troops to the Spanish Netherlands, evicting the Dutch garrisons from the " Barrier " and securing Dutch recognition of Philip V. In 1701, he transferred the asiento to France, alienating English traders.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But in March, 1665, war had broken out between England and Holland; and Louis was, by the treaty of April, 1662, bound to aid the Dutch.

.The most prominent politician in the United Provinces at the time, Johan de Witt, Grand Pensionary, feared the ambition of the young William III, Prince of Orange.^ The most prominent political figure in the United Provinces at the time, Johan de Witt , Grand Pensionary , feared the ambition of the young William III, Prince of Orange , who in seeking to seize control might thus deprive De Witt of supreme power in the Republic and restore the House of Orange to the influence it had hitherto enjoyed until the death of William II, Prince of Orange.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Johan de Witt .
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The most prominent political figure in the United Provinces at the time, Johan de Witt, Grand Pensionary, feared the ambition of the young William III, Prince of Orange , who in seeking to seize control might thus deprive De Witt of supreme power in the Republic and restore the House of Orange to the influence it had hitherto enjoyed until the death of William II, Prince of Orange.

.He feared the dispossession of supreme power and the restoration of the House of Orange to the influence it had enjoyed before the death of William II, Prince of Orange.^ The most prominent political figure in the United Provinces at the time, Johan de Witt , Grand Pensionary , feared the ambition of the young William III, Prince of Orange , who in seeking to seize control might thus deprive De Witt of supreme power in the Republic and restore the House of Orange to the influence it had hitherto enjoyed until the death of William II, Prince of Orange.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The most prominent political figure in the United Provinces at the time, Johan de Witt, Grand Pensionary, feared the ambition of the young William III, Prince of Orange , who in seeking to seize control might thus deprive De Witt of supreme power in the Republic and restore the House of Orange to the influence it had hitherto enjoyed until the death of William II, Prince of Orange.

^ Before the death of Colbert another influence besides that of Louvois had begun to be strong with the King.

.However, shocked by the rapidity of French successes and fearful of the future, the Dutch turned on their French allies and ended the Second Anglo-Dutch War with England.^ The French naval victory at the Battle of Beachy Head in 1690, however, was offset by the Anglo-Dutch naval victory at the Battles of Barfleur and La Hougue in 1692; but neither side was able to entirely defeat the opposing navy.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They were the War of Devolution 1667-1668, the War Dutch War 1672-1678, the War of the League of Augsburg (1689-1697) and the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1713).

^ Shocked by the rapidity of French successes and fearful of the future, the United Provinces turned on their former friends and put aside their differences with England and, when joined by Sweden , formed a Triple Alliance in 1668.

.Joined by Sweden, they formed a Triple Alliance in 1668. The threat of escalation and a secret treaty partitioning the Spanish succession with the Emperor, the other major claimant, induced Louis to make peace.^ Faced with the threat of the spread of war and having signed a secret treaty partitioning the Spanish succession with the Emperor, the other major claimant, Louis XIV agreed to make peace.

^ Faced with the threat of escalation and having signed a secret treaty partitioning the Spanish succession with the Emperor, the other major claimant, Louis XIV agreed to make peace.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Shocked by the rapidity of French successes and fearful of the future, the United Provinces turned on their former friends and put aside their differences with England and, when joined by Sweden , formed a Triple Alliance in 1668.

Louis XIV in 1673
.The Triple Alliance did not last very long.^ The Triple Alliance did not last very long.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Reception of Le Grand Condé at Versailles , by Jean-Léon Gérôme (1878) The Triple Alliance did not last very long.

^ The task of breaking up the Triple Alliance itself, however, did not prove to be one of insuperable difficulty.

.In 1670, Charles II of England, bribed by France, signed the secret Treaty of Dover, allying with France.^ England under Charles II .

^ In 1670, Charles II, lured by French bribes and pensions, signed the secret Treaty of Dover, entering into an alliance with France; the two kingdoms, along with certain Rhineland German princes, declared war on the United Provinces in 1672, sparking off the Franco-Dutch War.

^ Memoirs of the authors adolescence during World War II, when her family escaped from Poland to temporary haven in France, Portugal, England, and finally the United States.
  • The Splendors of Versailles--Teachers' Guide Supplement 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC splendors-versailles.org [Source type: News]

.The two kingdoms, along with certain Rhineland princes, declared war on the United Provinces in 1672, sparking off the Franco-Dutch War.^ In 1670, Charles II, lured by French bribes and pensions, signed the secret Treaty of Dover, entering into an alliance with France; the two kingdoms, along with certain Rhineland German princes, declared war on the United Provinces in 1672, sparking off the Franco-Dutch War.

^ In 1670, Charles II, lured by French bribes and pensions, signed the secret Treaty of Dover , entering into an alliance with France; the two kingdoms, along with certain Rhineland German princes, declared war on the United Provinces in 1672, sparking off the Franco-Dutch War .
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They were the War of Devolution 1667-1668, the War Dutch War 1672-1678, the War of the League of Augsburg (1689-1697) and the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1713).

.The rapid invasion and occupation of most of the Netherlands precipitated a coup, toppling De Witt and placing William III in power.^ The rapid invasion and occupation of most of the Netherlands precipitated a coup, which toppled De Witt and allowed William III, Prince of Orange, to seize power.

^ The rapid invasion and occupation of most of the Netherlands precipitated a coup, which toppled De Witt and allowed William III to seize power.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The most prominent political figure in the United Provinces at the time, Johan de Witt , Grand Pensionary , feared the ambition of the young William III, Prince of Orange , who in seeking to seize control might thus deprive De Witt of supreme power in the Republic and restore the House of Orange to the influence it had hitherto enjoyed until the death of William II, Prince of Orange.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

While Spain, the Emperor and the rest of the Empire joined William III, the English withdrew from the war by the Treaty of Westminster in 1674.
.Despite diplomatic reverses, the French continued to triumph against overwhelming opposing forces.^ Despite these diplomatic and military reverses, the war continued with brilliant French victories against the overwhelming forces of the opposing coalition.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1669, a Venetian embassy came to France to beg for aid against the Turks, who for more than two years had attacked Candia in overwhelming force.
  • Count Frontenac and New France under Louis XIV by Francis Parkman - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/7) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even with several great European alliances opposing him, he continued to triumph and to increase French territory, power and influence.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

.A few weeks in 1674 saw the fall of the Spanish territory of Franche-Comté to French armies under Louis.^ In a matter of weeks in 1674, the Spanish territory of Franche Comt fell to the French armies under the eyes of the king; while Cond defeated a much larger combined army, with Austrian, Spanish and Dutch contingents, under the Prince of Orange, at the Battle of Seneffe , preventing them from descending on Paris.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis also maintained his army but, instead of pursuing his claims through purely military action, he utilised judicial processes to extend his territory further.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a matter of weeks in 1674, the Spanish territory of Franche Comté fell to the French armies under the eyes of the king; while the Prince de Condé defeated a much larger combined army, with Austrian, Spanish and Dutch contingents, under the Prince of Orange, preventing them from descending on Paris.

.Greatly outnumbered, Condé defeated William III's coalition army, comprising Austrians, Spaniards and Dutchmen, at the Battle of Seneffe, forestalling a descent on Paris.^ In a matter of weeks in 1674, the Spanish territory of Franche Comté fell to the French armies under the eyes of the king; while the Prince de Condé defeated a much larger combined army, with Austrian, Spanish and Dutch contingents, under the Prince of Orange, preventing them from descending on Paris.

^ In a matter of weeks in 1674, the Spanish territory of Franche Comt fell to the French armies under the eyes of the king; while Cond defeated a much larger combined army, with Austrian, Spanish and Dutch contingents, under the Prince of Orange, at the Battle of Seneffe , preventing them from descending on Paris.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Battle of the Boyne Battle of the Boyne between James II and William III, 11 June 1690.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the 1674–1675 winter, the outnumbered Turenne, conducting a daring and brilliant campaign, beat the Imperial armies under Raimondo Montecuccoli, expelling them from Alsace across the Rhine, and recovering the province.^ Seneff in Flanders; while on the Rhine Turenne conducted a most brilliant campaign.

^ In the winter of 1674-1675, the outnumbered Vicomte de Turenne, through a most daring and brilliant of campaigns, inflicted defeat upon the Imperial armies under Montecuccoli, drove them out of Alsace and back across the Rhine, and recovered the province for Louis XIV. Through a series of feints, marches and counter-marches towards the end of the war, Louis XIV led his army to besiege and capture Ghent, an action which dissuaded Charles II and his English Parliament from declaring war upon France and which allowed him, in a very superior position, to force the allies to the negotiating table.

^ In the winter of 1674-1675, the outnumbered Turenne , through a most daring and brilliant campaign, inflicted defeat upon the Imperial armies under Raimondo Montecuccoli , drove them out of Alsace and back across the Rhine, and recovered the province for Louis XIV. Through a series of feints, marches and counter-marches towards the end of the war, Louis XIV led his army to besiege and capture Ghent, an action which dissuaded Charles II and his English Parliament from declaring war on France and which allowed Louis, in a very superior position, to force the allies to the negotiating table.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.Through a series of feints, marches and counter-marches at the close of the war, Louis besieged and captured Ghent, a critical action dissuading the English Parliament from declaring war on France.^ In the winter of 1674-1675, the outnumbered Vicomte de Turenne, through a most daring and brilliant of campaigns, inflicted defeat upon the Imperial armies under Montecuccoli, drove them out of Alsace and back across the Rhine, and recovered the province for Louis XIV. Through a series of feints, marches and counter-marches towards the end of the war, Louis XIV led his army to besiege and capture Ghent, an action which dissuaded Charles II and his English Parliament from declaring war upon France and which allowed him, in a very superior position, to force the allies to the negotiating table.

^ He involved France in a long series of costly, almost continuous wars with Holland , Austria and England , which gained France territory but terrified its neighbours and nearly bankrupted the treasury.
  • History of Paris - Lonely Planet Travel Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Louis personally supervised the capture of Mons and the reputedly impregnable fortress of Namur ; and Luxembourg’s capture of Charleroi gave France the defensive line of the Sambre .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It also allowed Louis to impose peace on the allies in a very superior position.^ Shortly thereafter, the signing of the Peace of Westphalia allowed the French Army under Cond to return to the aid of Louis XIV and his royal court.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Emperor made peace with France very reluctantly, and it was not till October 30 that William III induced him to agree to a treaty with Louis.

.After six years, war exhausted Europe, and negotiations commenced, accomplished in 1678 with the Treaty of Nijmegen.^ After six years, Europe was exhausted by war, and peace negotiations commenced, being accomplished in 1678 with the Treaty of Nijmegen .
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After six years, Europe was exhausted by war, and peace negotiations commenced, being accomplished in 1678 with the Treaty of Nijmegen.

^ Describes the conflict between France and England known as the Hundred Years War and explains how its results were felt everywhere in Europe.
  • The Splendors of Versailles--Teachers' Guide Supplement 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC splendors-versailles.org [Source type: News]

.While Louis returned all captured Dutch territory, he gained more territory in the Spanish Netherlands and retained Franche-Comté.^ While Louis XIV returned all captured Dutch territory, he gained more towns and associated lands in the Spanish Netherlands and retained Franche-Comt, which had been captured by Louis and his army in a matter of weeks.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the Dutch captured Pondicherry , a French raid on the Spanish treasure port of Cartagena (in present-day Colombia) yielded a fortune of 10 000 000 livres.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, Louis also sent troops to the Spanish Netherlands, evicting the Dutch garrisons from the " Barrier " and securing Dutch recognition of Philip V. In 1701, he transferred the asiento to France, alienating English traders.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Thereafter, he intervened in the Scanian War, forcing Brandenburg-Prussia into the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye and Denmark-Norway into the Treaty of Fontainebleau and the Peace of Lund, all in 1679.
Silver coin of Louis XIV, dated 1674
Obverse. .The Latin inscription is LVDOVICVS XIIII D[EI] GRA[TIA] ("Louis XIV, by the grace of God").^ Louis XIV (baptized as Louis-Dieudonn, "Louis-God-given") ruled as King of France and of Navarre.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This book, however, makes the case that Louis XIV, in everything he did, worked to style himself as an absolute leader, a god-like ruler.
  • France books 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gedpage.com [Source type: General]

^ The inscription in Latin on the obverse reads "LVDOVICUS XIIII D[EI] GRA[TIA]" and on the reverse "FRAN[CIA] ET NAVARRAE REX" (translated into English as "LOUIS XIIII (Louis XIV) , BY THE GRACE OF GOD, KING OF FRANCE AND OF NAVARRE").

Reverse. .The Latin inscription is FRAN[CIÆ] ET NAVARRÆ REX 1674 ("King of France and of Navarre, 1674").^ Reverse: The Latin inscription is FRAN[CI] ET NAVARR REX 1674 ("King of France and of Navarre, 1674").
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ordonnance de Louys XIV roy de France et de Navarre donnée à S. Germain en Laye au mois d'avril [microform].

^ Louis XIV (baptized as Louis-Dieudonn, "Louis-God-given") ruled as King of France and of Navarre.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.Nijmegen further increased French influence in Europe, but did not satisfy Louis.^ Nijmegen further increased French influence in Europe, but did not satisfy Louis.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Treaty of Nijmegen further increased France's influence in Europe, but did not satisfy Louis XIV. The King dismissed his foreign minister Simon Arnauld, Marquis de Pomponne in 1679, viewed as too fearful and as having compromised too much with the allies.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ French Catholic leaders applauded, but Protestants across Europe were horrified, and even Pope Innocent XI , still arguing with Louis over Gallicanism, criticised the violence.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He dismissed his foreign minister Simon Arnauld, marquis de Pomponne in 1679, viewed as timorous and as having compromised too much with the allies.^ He dismissed his foreign minister Simon Arnauld, marquis de Pomponne in 1679, viewed as timorous and as having compromised too much with the allies.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Treaty of Nijmegen further increased France's influence in Europe, but did not satisfy Louis XIV. The King dismissed his foreign minister, Simon Arnauld, marquis de Pomponne, in 1679, as he was viewed as having compromised too much with the allies and for being too much of a pacifist.

^ The Treaty of Nijmegen further increased France's influence in Europe, but did not satisfy Louis XIV. The King dismissed his foreign minister Simon Arnauld, Marquis de Pomponne in 1679, viewed as too fearful and as having compromised too much with the allies.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.Louis also maintained his army but, instead of pursuing his claims through purely military action, he utilised judicial processes to extend his territory further.^ Louis XIV also kept up his army but, instead of pursuing his claims through purely military action, utilized judicial processes to accomplish further territorial aggrandizement.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis also maintained his army but, instead of pursuing his claims through purely military action, he utilised judicial processes to extend his territory further.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Louis also desired to gain Strasbourg, an important strategic outpost through which various Imperial armies had in the previous wars crossed over the Rhine to invade France.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.The ambiguous nature of contemporary treaties allowed Louis to claim the dependencies and lands of territory ceded to him in previous treaties, but which effectively were distinct.^ Thanks to the ambiguous nature of treaties of the time, Louis was able to claim that the territories ceded to him in previous treaties ought to be ceded along with all their dependencies and lands which had formerly belonged to them, but had separated over the years, as had in fact been stipulated in the peace treaties.

^ The ambiguous nature of contemporary treaties allowed Louis to claim the dependencies and lands of territory ceded to him in previous treaties, but which effectively were distinct.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thanks to the ambiguous nature of treaties of the time, Louis was able to claim that the territories ceded to him in previous treaties ought to be ceded along with all their dependencies and lands which had formerly belonged to them, as had in fact been stipulated in the peace treaties, but had separated over the years.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.Louis sought cities and territories such as Luxembourg and Casale, for their strategic position on the frontier, and access to the Po river valley in the heart of northern Italy respectively.^ Louis sought to gain cities such as Luxembourg, for its strategic offensive and defensive position on the frontier, as well as Casale, which would give him access to the Po River valley in the heart of Northern Italy.

^ Louis sought cities and territories such as Luxembourg and Casale , for their strategic position on the frontier, and access to the Po river valley in the heart of northern Italy respectively.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Louis sought to gain cities and territories such as Luxembourg, for its strategic offensive and defensive position on the frontier, as well as Casale, which would give him access to the Po river valley in the heart of Northern Italy.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.He also desired Strasbourg, an important strategic outpost through which various Imperial armies had previously crossed the Rhine into France.^ Louis also desired to gain Strasbourg, an important strategic outpost through which various Imperial armies had in the previous wars crossed over the Rhine to invade France.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Queen desired not less to abandon Spain, which she hated, and to return into France and reign, where she hoped to lead a life of less seclusion, and much more agreeable.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1663 he drew up a statement of the various articles imported into France and declared that they ought to be produced on French soil.

.Strasbourg was a part of Alsace, but had not been ceded with the rest of Habsburg-ruled Alsace in the Peace of Westphalia.^ Strasbourg was a part of Alsace, but had not been ceded with the rest of Habsburg-ruled Alsace in the Peace of Westphalia.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Peace of Westphalia humiliated Habsburg ambitions in the Holy Roman Empire and Europe and laid rest to the idea of the Empire having secular dominion over the entire Christendom.

^ The Peace of Westphalia humiliated Habsburg ambitions in Europe and laid to rest any notion that the Empire held secular dominion over all of Christendom.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.Louis seized these and other territories in the period leading up to and during the War of the Reunions.^ At Metz, Besanon, Breisach, and Tournay " Chambers of Reunion " were set up, for the purpose of adjudging to France certain territories and towns on the left bank of the Rhine.

^ It was in part to avenge these losses that Louis XVI sided with the colonists in the American War of Independence (1775–83).
  • History of Paris - Lonely Planet Travel Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In regard to these various wars, which plunged Europe in mourning and rage for nearly fifty years, Louis is generally censured by historians.

.Infuriated by Louis's capture of parts of the Spanish Netherlands, Spain declared war.^ Infuriated by Louis’s capture of parts of the Spanish Netherlands, Spain declared war.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the Spanish throne was not then vacant, Louis contented himself with asserting his claim to the immediate possession of the Spanish Netherlands.

^ Beginning with Imperial aggression in Italy even before war was officially declared, the War of the Spanish Succession almost lasted till Louis’s death, proving costly for him.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, abandoned by their Austrians allies and minimally supported by the Dutch, the Spanish were quickly reduced, and, by the Truce of Ratisbon in 1684, ceded most of the conquered territories to France for a duration of 20 years.^ Southwestern France was quickly conquered.
  • FinermanWorks » France - Crafting Words with Impact 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC finermanworks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the battles of Marsaglia and Staffarde, France was victorious over the allied forces under Victor Amadeus, Duke of Savoy, overrunning his dominion and reducing the territory under his effective command to the area around Turin.

^ At the Battles of Marsaglia and of Staffarde , France was victorious over the allied forces under Victor Amadeus, Duke of Savoy, overrunning his dominion and reducing the territory under his effective command to merely the area around Turin.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

[16]

Non-European relations and the colonies

.French colonies multiplied in the Americas, Asia and Africa.^ French colonies abroad were multiplying in the Americas, Asia and Africa , while diplomatic relations had been initiated with countries as far afield as Siam and Persia.

^ In the sphere of foreign affairs outside Europe, French colonies were multiplying in the Americas, Asia and Africa, while diplomatic relations had been initiated with countries as far afield as Siam (through the embassy of Chaumont), India and Persia.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile, almost all of the other French colonies and protectorates in Africa had demanded and achieved independence.
  • History of Paris - Lonely Planet Travel Information 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Descending down the Mississippi, discovered in 1673 by Jolliet and Marquette, Cavelier de La Salle claimed the vast Mississippi basin in 1682 and named it "Louisiane", after Louis.^ Descending down the Mississippi , discovered in 1673 by Jolliet and Marquette , Cavelier de La Salle claimed the vast Mississippi basin in 1682 and named it " Louisiane ", after Louis.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, the explorer René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claimed and named, in 1682, the basin of the Mississippi River in North America " Louisiane " in honour of Louis XIV (Both the Louisiana Territory and the State of Louisiana in the United States formed part of Louisiane ), while French Jesuits could be seen at the Manchu Court in China .

^ For example, the explorer Ren Robert Cavelier, sieur de La Salle claimed and named, in 1682, the basin of the Mississippi River in North America, "Louisiane" , in honor of Louis XIV, while French Jesuits and missionaries could be seen at the court of the Manchu Emperor Kangxi in China.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.Meanwhile, diplomatic relations were initiated with distant countries.^ Meanwhile, diplomatic relations were initiated with distant countries.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ French colonies abroad were multiplying in the Americas, Asia and Africa , while diplomatic relations had been initiated with countries as far afield as Siam and Persia.

^ In the sphere of foreign affairs outside Europe, French colonies were multiplying in the Americas, Asia and Africa, while diplomatic relations had been initiated with countries as far afield as Siam (through the embassy of Chaumont), India and Persia.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1669, Suleiman Aga led an Ottoman embassy, reviving the old Franco-Ottoman alliance.^ In 1669, Suleiman Aga led an Ottoman embassy, reviving the old Franco-Ottoman alliance .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] .Moreover, in 1682, the Sultan of Morocco, Moulay Ismail, allowed consular and commercial establishments,[18] and Moroccan ambassador Abdallah bin Aisha was sent to the court of Louis XIV in 1699. In 1715, Louis received a Persian embassy.^ In 1715, Louis received a Persian embassy .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Siamese Embassy to Louis XIV: 1686 .
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, in 1682, the Sultan of Morocco, Moulay Ismail , allowed consular and commercial establishments, [ 18 ] and Moroccan ambassador Abdallah bin Aisha was sent to the court of Louis XIV in 1699.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
Siamese embassy of King Narai to Louis XIV in 1686, led by Kosa Pan.
^ Siamese Embassy to Louis XIV: 1686 .
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis XIV, king of France.
  • rulers.html 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.fidnet.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Persian embassy to Louis XIV in 1715.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Painting by Nicolas Larmessin.
.Siam also dispatched an embassy in 1684, reciprocated by the French magnificently the next year under Chevalier de Chaumont.^ At the commencement of the next year (1697) the eldest son of the Comte d'Auvergne completed his dishonour by a duel he fought with the Chevalier de Caylus, on account of a tavern broil, and a dispute about some wenches.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He began Marly for the King, who also ennobled him in this same year under the title of Comte de Sagonne.
  • French Art - Reign Of Louis XIV. - Continued 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.oldandsold.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the sphere of foreign affairs outside Europe, French colonies were multiplying in the Americas, Asia and Africa, while diplomatic relations had been initiated with countries as far afield as Siam (through the embassy of Chaumont), India and Persia.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.This, in turn, was succeeded by another Siamese embassy under Kosa Pan superbly received at Versailles in 1686. Another embassy was reciprocated in 1687 under Simon de la Loubère and French influence grew at the Siamese court, which granted France Mergui as a naval base.^ Siamese Embassy to Louis XIV: 1686 .
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Another embassy was reciprocated in 1687 under Simon de la Loubère and French influence grew at the Siamese court, which granted France Mergui as a naval base.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This, in turn, was succeeded by another Siamese embassy under Kosa Pan superbly received at Versailles in 1686.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, Narai's death and the execution of his pro-French minister Phaulkon ended this era of French influence in 1688 with the Siege of Bangkok.^ Richelieu, Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal (1585-1642) French cleric and politician; prime minister from 1624 until his death.
  • Canada in the Making - Glossary 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.canadiana.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This explains, I fancy, the joy of the King at the death of his minister; for it saved him from executing the plan he had resolved on.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There, on July 27, 1675, Turenne fell, and \vith his death the great successes of the French ended.

[19]
.France also actively participated to the Jesuit China missions, as Louis XIV sent in 1685 a mission of five Jesuits "mathematicians" to China in an attempt to break the Portuguese predominance: Jean de Fontaney (1643–1710), Joachim Bouvet(1656–1730), Jean-François Gerbillon (1654–1707), Louis Le Comte (1655–1728) and Claude de Visdelou (1656–1737).^ Louis XIV (France) (1638-1715) King of France from 1643 to 1715.
  • Canada in the Making - Glossary 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.canadiana.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Le Gendre, Louis, 1655-1733.

^ France also actively participated to the Jesuit China missions , as Louis XIV sent in 1685 a mission of five Jesuits "mathematicians" to China in an attempt to break the Portuguese predominance: Jean de Fontaney (1643-1710), Joachim Bouvet (1656-1730), Jean-François Gerbillon (1654-1707), Louis Le Comte (1655-1728) and Claude de Visdelou (1656-1737).
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20] .While French Jesuits were found at the court of the Manchu Kangxi Emperor in China, Louis received the visit of a Chinese Jesuit, Michael Shen Fu-Tsung, by 1684.[21] Furthermore, several years later, he had at his court a Chinese librarian and translator— Arcadio Huang.^ While French Jesuits were found at the court of the Manchu Kangxi Emperor in China, Louis received the visit of a Chinese Jesuit, Michael Shen Fu-Tsung , by 1684.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, several years later, he had at his court a Chinese librarian and translator— Arcadio Huang .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In France, Louis XIV received the visit of a Chinese Jesuit named Michael Shen Fu-Tsung as early as 1684, and a few years later he had a Chinese librarian and translator at his court, named Arcadio Huang .
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

[22][23]

Height of power

.By the early 1680s, therefore, Louis had greatly augmented French influence in the world.^ By the early 1680's, Louis XIV had greatly augmented his and France's influence and power in Europe and the world.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By the early 1680s, therefore, Louis had greatly augmented French influence in the world.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the early 1680s, Louis XIV had greatly augmented France's influence and power in Europe and the world.

.Domestically, he successfully increased the Crown's influence and authority over the Church and aristocracy.^ Domestically, he successfully increased the Crown’s influence and authority over the Church and aristocracy.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Domestically, Louis XIV succeeded in establishing and increasing the influence and central authority of the King of France at the expense of the Church and aristocracy.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.Louis initially supported traditional Gallicanism, which limited papal authority in France, and convened an Assemblée du Clergé in November 1681. Before its dissolution eight months later, the Assembly had accepted the Declaration of the Clergy of France, which increased royal authority at the expense of papal power.^ Louis XIV was also in the process of reinforcing the traditional Gallicanism, a doctrine limiting the authority of the Pope in France.

^ Before it was dissolved in June 1682, it had agreed to the Declaration of the Clergy of France.

^ Before its dissolution eight months later, the Assembly had accepted the Declaration of the Clergy of France , which increased royal authority at the expense of papal power.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Without royal approval, neither bishops could leave France nor appeals be made to the Pope.^ Bishops were not to leave France without royal approval; no government officials could be excommunicated for acts committed in pursuance of their duties; and no appeal could be made to the Pope without the approval of the king.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Without royal approval, neither bishops could leave France nor appeals be made to the Pope.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bishops were not to leave France without the royal approbation; no government officials could be excommunicated for acts committed in pursuance of their duties; and no appeal could be made to the Pope without the approval of the king.

.Moreover, government officials could not be excommunicated for acts committed in pursuance of their duties; and while the King could make ecclesiastical law, all papal regulations without royal assent were invalid in France.^ The king was allowed to enact ecclesiastical laws, and all regulations made by the Pope were deemed invalid in France without the assent of the monarch.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Bishops were not to leave France without royal approval; no government officials could be excommunicated for acts committed in pursuance of their duties; and no appeal could be made to the Pope without the approval of the king.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, government officials could not be excommunicated for acts committed in pursuance of their duties; and while the King could make ecclesiastical law, all papal regulations without royal assent were invalid in France.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Pope unsurprisingly repudiated the Declaration.^ The Pope unsurprisingly repudiated the Declaration.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
.By attaching them to his court, Louis also achieved increased control over the French aristocracy.^ By attaching them to his court, Louis also achieved increased control over the French aristocracy.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The process was continued by his grandson Louis IX (1226-1270) and by the late 13th century the French kings had control of most of France.

^ While French Jesuits were found at the court of the Manchu Kangxi Emperor in China, Louis received the visit of a Chinese Jesuit, Michael Shen Fu-Tsung , by 1684.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pensions and privileges necessary to live in a style appropriate to their rank were only possible by waiting constantly on Louis.^ Pensions and privileges necessary to live in a style appropriate to their rank were only possible by waiting constantly on Louis.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only by being in constant attendance upon him were they able to gain the pensions and privileges necessary to lead lives considered appropriate to their rank.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

[10] .Moreover, by entertaining, impressing and domesticating them with extravagant luxury and other distractions, Louis expected them to remain under his scrutiny.^ Moreover, by entertaining, impressing and domesticating them with extravagant luxury and other distractions, Louis expected them to remain under his scrutiny.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Louis entertained his permanent visitors with extravagant luxury and other distractions which helped him awe and domesticate his hitherto unruly nobility.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was scarcely to be expected, perhaps, that M. du Maine would remain altogether quiet under the disgrace which had been heaped upon him by the proceedings at the Bed of Justice.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.This prevented them from passing time on their own estates and in their regional power-bases, from which they historically waged local wars and plotted resistance to royal authority.^ He had resisted the royal authority, and insulted its representative.
  • Count Frontenac and New France under Louis XIV by Francis Parkman - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/7) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He expected them to spend the majority of the year under his close watch instead of on their own estates and in their regional power-bases, where historically nobles waged local wars with neighbors or plotted resistance to royal authority.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was nominal president of all the Councils and head of all Courts and tribunals; he had the custody of the royal seal, so that all acts of the royal authority passed through his hands.

.Louis thus compelled and seduced the old military aristocracy (the noblesse d'épée) into becoming his ceremonial courtiers, further weakening their power.^ Louis thus compelled and seduced the old military aristocracy (the noblesse d'épée ) into becoming his ceremonial courtiers, further weakening their power.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus Louis XIV half-forced, half-seduced the noblesse d'pe into serving him ceremonially as courtiers, while he appointed commoners or newer nobles as ministers and regional intendants .
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gone too were the days when positions of seniority and rank in the army were the sole possession of the old military aristocracy ( the noblesse d'pe ).
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.Louis's actions could find their rationale in the Fronde, which had resulted in his judging that royal power depended on commoners and relatively-newer bureaucratic aristocrats (the nobles de robe), who could be simply dismissed, filling the high executive offices, rather than a grandee of ancient lineage whose entrenched influence was more difficult to destroy.^ As a result of the Fronde, Louis believed that his power would prevail only if he filled high executive offices with commoners, or at least members of the relatively newer bureaucratic aristocracy ( the noblesse de robe ), because, he believed, while he could reduce a commoner to a nonentity by simply dismissing him, he could not destroy the entrenched influence of a great nobleman of ancient lineage as easily.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He, as a result of the experiences derived from the Fronde, believed that his power would prevail only if he filled the high executive offices with commoners, or at least members of the relatively newer aristocracy (the " noblesse de robe "), because while he could reduce a commoner to a nonentity by dismissing him, he could not destroy the influence of a great nobleman.

^ Louis’s actions could find their rationale in the Fronde , which had resulted in his judging that royal power depended on commoners and relatively-newer bureaucratic aristocrats (the nobles de robe ), who could be simply dismissed, filling the high executive offices, rather than a grandee of ancient lineage whose entrenched influence was more difficult to destroy.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Doge of Genoa at Versailles on 15 May 1685
Reparation faite à Louis XIV par le Doge de Gênes.15 mai 1685 by Claude Guy Halle, Versailles
.In fact, Louis's final victory over the nobility ensured the end of major French civil wars until the Revolution about a hundred years later.^ The Doge of Genoa at Versailles on the 15 May 1685 Reparation faite à Louis XIV par le Doge de Gênes.15 mai 1685 by Claude Guy Halle , Versailles In fact, Louis’s final victory over the nobility ensured the end of major French civil wars until the Revolution about a hundred years later.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hundred years war .
  • The Splendors of Versailles--Teachers' Guide Supplement 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC splendors-versailles.org [Source type: News]

^ He expected them to spend the majority of the year under his close watch instead of on their own estates and in their regional power-bases, where historically nobles waged local wars with neighbors or plotted resistance to royal authority.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.Indeed, John A. Lynn calculated that a significant reduction in years with civil war occurred after Louis.^ Marquis de Louvois Franois Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois, was the French Secretary of State for War for a significant part of the reign of Louis XIV. .
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bloody civil war raged in Russia for the next two years as the anti-Bolshevik White Army battled the Communists for control.
  • Today in History November 7 25 September 2009 14:27 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ In the closing years of the Thirty Years' War, a civil war, the Fronde, which effectively curbed France's ability to make good the advantages gained in the Peace of Westphalia , broke out.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

[24]
.While the 1680s would see France becoming more isolated from its former allies[25], by 1685, Louis's power did stand at its apogee.^ By 1685, Louis XIV stood at the apogee of his power.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While the 1680s would see France becoming more isolated from its former allies [ 25 ] , by 1685, Louis’s power did stand at its apogee.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand, contemporary writers such as Saint-Simon speculated that Louis viewed Versailles as an isolated power center where treasonous cabals could be more readily recognized.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.His policy of Reunions had brought France to its greatest extent during his reign.^ His policy of Reunions had brought France to its greatest extent during his reign.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During his reign, he increased the power and influence of France in Europe, engaging in three major wars-the Franco-Dutch War , the War of the League of Augsburg , and the War of the Spanish Succession -and two minor conflicts-the War of Devolution , and the War of the Reunions .
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The remainder of the reign of Louis XIV exhibits little of general interest in the domestic policy and development of France.

.Furthermore, bombardment of the Barbary pirate strongholds of Algiers and Tripoli resulted in favourable treaties and the liberation of Christian slaves.^ Furthermore, bombardment of the Barbary pirate strongholds of Algiers and Tripoli resulted in favourable treaties and the liberation of Christian slaves.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also, Genoese support of Spain in previous wars led Louis to command in 1684 the naval bombardment of Genoa.^ Also, Genoese support of Spain in previous wars led Louis to command in 1684 the naval bombardment of Genoa .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Infuriated by Louis’s capture of parts of the Spanish Netherlands, Spain declared war.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After having his city bombarded by the French in 1685 from the sea as punishment for having supported the Spanish and having granted them use of Genoese ships in the Franco-Dutch War, the Doge of Genoa travelled to Versailles where he was received amidst courtly magnificence and made his apologies and peace to Louis XIV. Louis XIV's Queen, Marie-Thérèse, died in 1683.

This produced Genoese submission and an official apology by the Doge at Versailles.
English pamphlet criticizing Louis XIV and Mehmed IV for their respective roles in the Siege of Vienna in 1683 ("Without the help of the Most Christian/ Against the Most Antichristian/ Monarch").
.Moreover, Louis informed the Turks of his neutrality in an Austro-Turkish war and even massed troops during the Reunions on the western frontier of the Holy Roman Empire.^ Moreover, Louis informed the Turks of his neutrality in an Austro-Turkish war and even massed troops during the Reunions on the western frontier of the Holy Roman Empire.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reassured, the Turks allowed the 20-year Austro-Turkish Peace of Vasvár to lapse and moved on the offensive.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The death of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor and elder son of Leopold I made the prospect of an empire as large as that of Charles V being ruled by the Archduke Charles dangerously possible.

[26] .Reassured, the Turkish allowed the 20-year Austro-Turkish Peace of Vasvár to lapse and moved on the offensive.^ Reassured, the Turks allowed the 20-year Austro-Turkish Peace of Vasvár to lapse and moved on the offensive.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27] .Thus began the Great Turkish War in 1683 which would last till 1699 and which greatly distracted the Emperor from French endeavours.^ Thus began the Great Turkish War in 1683 which would last till 1699 and which greatly distracted the Emperor from French endeavours.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of France's chief rivals, the Holy Roman Empire, was occupied in fighting the Ottoman Empire in the Great Turkish War , which began in 1683 and lasted till 1699.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was impossible for the Emperor, with the Turkish War on his hands, to oppose the French successfully; and on August 15 the Truce of Rati&bon was concluded by Leopold and the Empire with Louis.

.The Ottoman Grand Vizier nearly captured Vienna before being defeated by the King of Poland and his Polish-Imperial army.^ The Ottoman Grand Vizier had almost captured Vienna, but at the last moment John III Sobieski, King of Poland led an army of Polish and Imperial forces to victory at the Battle of Vienna in 1683 .
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Ottoman Grand Vizier nearly captured Vienna before being defeated by the King of Poland and his Polish-Imperial army.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Ottoman Grand Vizier had almost captured Vienna , but at the last moment King John III Sobieski of Poland led an army of Polish, German and Austrian forces to final victory at the Battle of Vienna in 1683.

.Notwithstanding the end of immediate danger to Vienna, however, Leopold I was still neither in a position to reverse Louis's gains by the Truce of Ratisbon nor able to fully concentrate on the War of the League of Augsburg later.^ Notwithstanding the end of immediate danger to Vienna, however, Leopold I was still neither in a position to reverse Louis’s gains by the Truce of Ratisbon nor able to fully concentrate on the War of the League of Augsburg later.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were the War of Devolution 1667-1668, the War Dutch War 1672-1678, the War of the League of Augsburg (1689-1697) and the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1713).

^ After repelling the Ottoman attack on Vienna, the Emperor was no longer in imminent danger from the Turks; nevertheless he did not attempt to regain the territories annexed by Louis XIV. Rather, he acquiesced to the fait accompli of the Truce.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

Personal life

.Maria Theresa died in 1683. On his queen's demise, Louis remarked that she had caused him unease on no other occasion.^ S ince Henry of Navarre was a descendant of King Louis IX, King Henry III had no choice but to recognize him as the legitimate successor.
  • French History of the Bourbon Dynasty 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.bonjourlafrance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Jesuits, glad no doubt to lay him under some slight obligation, lent him their church for the ceremony that he meditated, and aided in decorating it for the occasion.
  • Count Frontenac and New France under Louis XIV by Francis Parkman - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/7) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I had no inclination to cause him any vexation, and therefore preferred exercising my own patience.
  • The Memoirs of Louis XIV. and the Regency, v1 by Elizabeth-Charlotte, Duchesse d'Orleans - Full Text Free Book 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.She gave birth to six children.^ She gave birth to six children.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Only one survived to adulthood, the eldest known as le Grand Dauphin or "Monseigneur".
.However, Louis had not remained faithful for long after their marriage in 1660. He took as mistresses Mademoiselle de La Vallière; Madame de Montespan; and Angélique de Fontanges.^ He took as mistresses Mademoiselle de La Vallière ; Madame de Montespan ; and Angélique de Fontanges .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The accouchements of Madame de Montespan were public.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Memoirs of Madame la Marquise de Montespan, written by herself.

.Consequently, he produced many illegitimate children, most of whom were married to members of cadet branches of the royal family.^ Consequently, he produced many illegitimate children, most of whom were married to members of cadet branches of the royal family .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result, he produced many illegitimate children, most of whom were joined in marriage with members of cadet branches of the royal family itself.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He exercised from the first an extraordinary influence over all the Indians with whom he came in contact; and he persuaded the most savage and refractory of them, the Iroquois, to place eight of their children in his hands.
  • Count Frontenac and New France under Louis XIV by Francis Parkman - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/7) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Nonetheless, Louis proved more faithful to his second wife, Madame de Maintenon, whom he secretly married probably on 10 October 1683 at Versailles.^ Madame de Maintenon and the King.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He communicated it to Madame de Maintenon, by whom it reached the King.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He also wrote to Madame de Maintenon.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[14] .Although never announced or discussed publicly, this marriage was an open secret and would last until his death.^ Although never announced or discussed publicly, this marriage was an open secret and would last until his death.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was an "open secret" as it was generally known but was never discussed or announced publicly, and would last to his death.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was not until 1710 that the last of the Camisard leaders was hunted down ; but Protestantism was never really extirpated from the valleys of the Cevennes.

[28]

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

Louis XIV in 1685, the year he revoked the Edict of Nantes.
.The suggestion that Madame de Maintenon caused the persecution of Protestants and the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, which had awarded Huguenots political and religious freedom, is now being questioned.^ Madame de Maintenon and the King.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He also wrote to Madame de Maintenon.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Madame de Maintenon .
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]
  • CMH5 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.uni-mannheim.de [Source type: Original source]

[29] .Louis himself saw the persistence of Protestantism as a disgraceful reminder of royal powerlessness; after all, the Edict was Henry IV's pragmatic concession to end the longstanding Wars of Religion.^ Louis himself saw the persistence of Protestantism as a disgraceful reminder of royal powerlessness; after all, the Edict was Henri IV’s pragmatic concession to end the longstanding Wars of Religion .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The book was condemned by royal edict, and the shock of disgrace hastened Vauban's death (1707).

^ The year 1672 and the outbreak of the war with the United Netherlands mark the end of the pacific period of Louis XIV's reign, throughout which Colbert's had been the chief influence over the royal mind.

.Moreover, since the 1555 Peace of Augsburg, the prevailing contemporary European principle to assure socio-political stability was "cuius regio, eius religio"— the religion of the ruler should be the religion of the realm.^ This was enshrined in the principle of "cuius regio, eius religio" , which defined religious policy throughout Europe since its establishment, by the Peace of Augsburg , in 1555.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, since the 1555 Peace of Augsburg , the prevailing contemporary European principle to assure socio-political stability was " cuius regio, eius religio "— the religion of the ruler should be the religion of the realm.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But since the Peace of Westphalia religion had been steadily losing its influence as an active force in European politics.

[30]
.Responding to petitions, Louis initially excluded Protestants from office, constrained the meeting of synods, closed churches outside Edict-stipulated areas, banned Protestant outdoor preachers, and prohibited domestic Protestant migration.^ Responding to petitions, Louis initially excluded Protestants from office, constrained the meeting of synods, closed churches outside Edict-stipulated areas, banned Protestant outdoor preachers, and prohibited domestic Protestant migration.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 15 October 1685, citing the extensive conversion of Protestants which rendered privileges for the remainder redundant, Louis revoked the Edict of Nantes with that of Fontainebleau .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In any case, the Edict of Fontainebleau exiled pastors, demolished churches, instituted forced baptisms and banned Protestant groups.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He also disallowed Protestant-Catholic intermarriages if objections existed, encouraged missions to the Protestants and rewarded converts to Catholicism.^ He also disallowed Protestant-Catholic intermarriages if objections existed, encouraged missions to the Protestants and rewarded converts to Catholicism.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Court adopted the view that Protestantism in France had almost ceased to exist, and that the Protestants had, of their own free will and uncoerced, flocked to reunion with the Catholic Church.

^ It declared that children of Protestant parents might declare themselves converted to Catholicism at the age of seven.

[31] Despite this discrimination, Protestants did not rebel, instead there occurred a steady conversion of Protestants, especially the noble elites.
.However, in 1681, things changed.^ However, in 1681, things changed.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

."cuius regio, eius religio" generally had also meant that subjects who refused to convert could emigrate.^ Moreover, since the 1555 Peace of Augsburg , the prevailing contemporary European principle to assure socio-political stability was " cuius regio, eius religio "— the religion of the ruler should be the religion of the realm.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was enshrined in the principle of "cuius regio, eius religio" , which defined religious policy throughout Europe since its establishment, by the Peace of Augsburg , in 1555.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It banished from the realm any Protestant minister who refused to convert to Roman Catholicism.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.Louis banned emigration and effectively insisted all Protestants must be converted.^ Louis banned emigration and effectively insisted all Protestants must be converted.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Secondly, following René de Marillac and Louvois's proposal, he began quartering dragoons in Protestant homes.^ Secondly, following René de Marillac and Louvois’s proposal, he began quartering dragoons in Protestant homes.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

While legal, the dragonnades inflicted on Protestants severe financial strain and atrocious abuse. .Between 300 000 and 400 000 Huguenots converted as it entailed financial rewards and exemption from the dragonnades.^ Between 300 000 and 400 000 Huguenots converted as it entailed financial rewards and exemption from the dragonnades .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32]
.On 15 October 1685, citing the extensive conversion of Protestants which rendered privileges for the remainder redundant, Louis revoked the Edict of Nantes with that of Fontainebleau.^ On 15 October 1685, citing the extensive conversion of Protestants which rendered privileges for the remainder redundant, Louis revoked the Edict of Nantes with that of Fontainebleau .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Louis XIV in 1685, the year he revoked the Edict of Nantes .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore in 1685 Louis revoked the Edict of Nantes, which granted the Huguenots religious toleration.

[3] .Louis may have been seeking to placate the Catholic Church that chafed under his numerous restrictions, or he may have acted to regain international prestige after the defeat of the Turks without French aid, or even to end the last remaining division in French society dating to the Wars of Religion.^ Louis may have been seeking to placate the Catholic Church that chafed under his numerous restrictions, or he may have acted to regain international prestige after the defeat of the Turks without French aid, or even to end the last remaining division in French society dating to the Wars of Religion.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ French Catholic leaders applauded, but Protestants across Europe were horrified, and even Pope Innocent XI , still arguing with Louis over Gallicanism, criticised the violence.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Louis’s reign eventually served as an example to Enlightenment Europe, and French became the lingua franca for the entire European elite, even to Romanov Russia .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33] .Perhaps, he may have just been motivated by his coronation oath to eradicate heresy.^ Perhaps, he may have just been motivated by his coronation oath to eradicate heresy.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34]
.In any case, the Edict of Fontainebleau exiled pastors, demolished churches, instituted forced baptisms and banned Protestant groups.^ In any case, the Edict of Fontainebleau exiled pastors, demolished churches, instituted forced baptisms and banned Protestant groups.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Protestant schools and institutions were banned.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On 15 October 1685, citing the extensive conversion of Protestants which rendered privileges for the remainder redundant, Louis revoked the Edict of Nantes with that of Fontainebleau .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Defying royal decree, about 200 000 Huguenots (roughly 27% of the Protestant population, or 1% of the French population) fled France, taking with them their skills.^ Defying royal decree, about 200 000 Huguenots (roughly 27% of the Protestant population, or 1% of the French population) fled France, taking with them their skills.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ French king's decree against Protestants, prohibiting them the exercise of their religion, &c.

^ The early farmers in France used stone tools but about 2,000 BC bronze was introduced into France.

.Thus, some have found the Edict very injurious to France.^ It was found some time after his death that the Cardinal had been long married, but very obscurely!
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[35] .However, others believe this an exaggeration; while many left, most of France's preeminent Protestant businessmen and industrialists converted and remained.^ However, others believe this an exaggeration; while many left, most of France's preeminent Protestant businessmen and industrialists converted and remained.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I will, however, mention that this abbey is five leagues from La Ferme-au-Vidame, or Arnold, which is the real distinctive name of this Ferme among so many other Fetes in France, which have preserved the generic name of what they have been, that is to say, forts or fortresses ('freitas').
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But what piqued her most was, to find details exaggerating the authority of D'Aubigny, and a statement to the effect that it was generally believed she had married him.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[36] .The reaction to the Revocation was mixed.^ The reaction to the Revocation was mixed.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.French Catholic leaders applauded, but Protestants across Europe were horrified, and even Pope Innocent XI, still arguing with Louis over Gallicanism, criticised the violence.^ Innocent XI, Pope, 1611-1689.

^ Neither Innocent XI, who died in August, 1689, nor Alexander VIII, nor, again, Innocent XII, who became Pope in July, 1691, would give any real support to James II, so long as it was apparent that he was being used by Louis XIV in the attempt to make France all-powerful in Europe.

^ Nantes in 1685 roused all the Protestant countries in Europe, while Pope Innocent XI had been alienated by the French King's declaration of the independence of the Gallican Church.

The League of Augsburg

Causes and conduct of the war

Louis in 1690.
.The War of the League of Augsburg (1688–1697) had two immediate causes with French influence in the Rhineland at stake.^ The War of the League of Augsburg (1688–1697) had two immediate causes with French influence in the Rhineland at stake.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were the War of Devolution 1667-1668, the War Dutch War 1672-1678, the War of the League of Augsburg (1689-1697) and the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1713).

^ During his reign, he increased the power and influence of France in Europe, engaging in three major wars-the Franco-Dutch War , the War of the League of Augsburg , and the War of the Spanish Succession -and two minor conflicts-the War of Devolution , and the War of the Reunions .
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.First, the death of Charles II, Elector Palatine in 1685 caused a succession crisis, in which Louis's sister-in-law Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate had interests.^ In 1685, Charles II, Elector of Palatine, the brother of Louis XIV's sister-in-law, Charlotte-Elizabeth, duchesse d'Orlans, had died.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ First, the death of Charles II, Elector Palatine in 1685 caused a succession crisis, in which Louis’s sister-in-law Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate had interests.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Compensated financially, he renounced interests in the Electorate of Cologne and the Palatinate, and returned Lorraine to its duke, albeit under restrictive terms allowing unhindered French passage.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37] The death of Max Henry, Archbishop of Cologne produced another succession crisis in 1688.[38]
.Moreover, growing concern about France led to the formation of the 1686 League of Augsburg by the Emperor, Spain, Sweden, Saxony and Bavaria; it intended to return France at least to its Treaty of Nijmegen borders.^ Moreover, growing concern about France led to the formation of the 1686 League of Augsburg by the Emperor, Spain, Sweden, Saxony and Bavaria; it intended to return France at least to its Treaty of Nijmegen borders.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But it was these extraordinary successes of Louis which brought about the formation of the coalition between England, the United Provinces, and Sweden, almost distinctively known as the Triple Alliance.

^ He had satisfied the Emperor that his expedition was not directed against the cause either of legitimacy or of Catholicism, but was simply intended to destroy the alliance between England and France.

[39] .Conversely, the Emperor's refusal to change Ratisbon into a permanent treaty amplified Louis's fear that the Emperor's Balkan victories entailed an imminent attack on the Reunions.^ Conversely, the Emperor’s refusal to change Ratisbon into a permanent treaty amplified Louis’s fear that the Emperor’s Balkan victories entailed an imminent attack on the Reunions.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After repelling the Ottoman attack on Vienna, the Emperor was no longer in imminent danger from the Turks; nevertheless he did not attempt to regain the territories annexed by Louis XIV. Rather, he acquiesced to the fait accompli of the Truce.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By his recent secret partition treaty with the Emperor Leopold, Louis was eventually to receive as his share the Low Countries and Franche Comt.

[40]
.Lastly, the birth of James II's son and Catholic heir, James Stuart, precipitated the "Glorious Revolution". Protestant William III of Orange sailed for England with troops despite Louis's warning that France would regard it as a casus belli.^ William of Orange sails for England .

^ Louis had expected that England, under the Catholic James II, would remain neutral.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lastly, the birth of James II 's son and Catholic heir, James Stuart , precipitated the " Glorious Revolution ".
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.James II was deposed, and his throne appropriated by his daughter and son-in-law, Mary II and William III (now also of England).^ James II was deposed, and his throne appropriated by his daughter and son-in-law, Mary II and William III (now also of England).
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I. The dream of the French King Lewis XIV, called the Great and the Immortal, as he lately told it to the lords of his court, II. The dream of Mary d'Esté, Princess of Modena, and wife to James II, late King of England [microform] : wit .

^ Letters of William III. and Louis XIV. and their ministers; illustrative of the domestic and foreign politics of England, from the peace of Ryswick to the accession of Philip V. of Spain.

.Vehemently anti-French, William III pushed his new kingdoms into war, thus transforming the League of Augsburg into the Grand Alliance.^ Vehemently anti-French, William III pushed his new kingdoms into war, thus transforming the League of Augsburg into the Grand Alliance .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were the War of Devolution 1667-1668, the War Dutch War 1672-1678, the War of the League of Augsburg (1689-1697) and the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1713).

^ In 1670, Charles II, lured by French bribes and pensions, signed the secret Treaty of Dover , entering into an alliance with France; the two kingdoms, along with certain Rhineland German princes, declared war on the United Provinces in 1672, sparking off the Franco-Dutch War .
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1688, however, this was yet unsettled.^ In 1688, however, this was yet unsettled.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Expecting the expedition to absorb William III and his allies, Louis dispatched troops to the Rhineland to compel confirmation of Ratisbon and acceptance of his demands about the succession crises, as his ultimatum to the German princes indicated.^ The overthrow of William III was therefore essential for the success of Louis.

^ Letters of William III. and Louis XIV. and their ministers; illustrative of the domestic and foreign politics of England, from the peace of Ryswick to the accession of Philip V. of Spain.

^ However, the expiry of this ultimatum and another to the German princes to ratify the Truce of Ratisbon and confirm Louis' possession of annexed territories, along with disputes over the succession to the Electorate of Cologne, lead to his sending troops into the Palatinate in 1688.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.He also sought to protect his eastern provinces from Imperial invasion by depriving the enemy army of sustenance, thus explaining the pre-emptive devastation of much of southwestern Germany (the "Devastation of the Palatinate").^ He also sought to protect his eastern provinces from Imperial invasion by depriving the enemy army of sustenance, thus explaining the pre-emptive devastation of much of southwestern Germany (the “Devastation of the Palatinate”).
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This action much astonished our army, and encouraged that of the enemy, who did almost as they wished during the rest of the campaign.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[41]
Louis XIV at the Siege of Namur (1692).
.French armies were generally victorious throughout the War because of Imperial Balkan commitments, French logistical superiority which enabled a much earlier campaign start, and the quality of French generals like Condé's famous pupil, François Henri de Montmorency-Bouteville, duc de Luxembourg.^ A French general was wanted to command this army.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ French armies were generally victorious throughout the War because of Imperial Balkan commitments, French logistical superiority which enabled a much earlier campaign start, and the quality of French generals like Condé’s famous pupil, François Henri de Montmorency-Bouteville, duc de Luxembourg .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was much liked throughout the army; had taken a friendship for me, and I for him.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.His triumphs at Fleurus, Steenkerque and Neerwinden preserved northern France from invasion and dubbed him "le tapissier de Notre-Dame" for the numerous captured enemy standards he sent to decorate the Cathedral.^ His triumphs at Fleurus , Steenkerque and Neerwinden preserved northern France from invasion and dubbed him " le tapissier de Notre-Dame " for the numerous captured enemy standards he sent to decorate the Cathedral.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nonetheless, despite the size of the opposing coalition, which encompassed most of Europe, French forces in Flanders under the famous pupil of Cond, Franois Henri de Montmorency-Bouteville, duc de Luxembourg , nicknamed "le tapissier de Notre-Dame" for the number of captured enemy standards which he sent to decorate the Cathedral, crushed the allied armies at the Battle of Fleurus in the same year as the Battle of the Boyne , as well as at the Battle of Steenkerque two years later and the Battle of Landen a year after that.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the first place, then, a simple reprimand was sent to the Princesse des Ursins for the violation of the respect due to the King, by opening a letter addressed to him by one of his ambassadors.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[42]
Marshal de Luxembourg
.Although the attempt to restore James II failed at the Battle of the Boyne, which led to the fall of Jacobite Ireland, France accumulated a string of victories from Flanders in the north, Germany in the east, Italy and Spain in the south, to the high seas and the colonies.^ The battle of the Boyne and the fall of Limerick .

^ Marshal de Luxembourg Although the attempt to restore James II failed at the Battle of the Boyne , which led to the fall of Jacobite Ireland, France accumulated a string of victories from Flanders in the north, Germany in the east, Italy and Spain in the south, to the high seas and the colonies.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, France could accumulate a string of victories from Flanders in the north, to the Rhine valley in the east, to Italy and Spain in the south, as well as on the high seas and in the colonies.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.Louis personally supervised the capture of Mons and the reputedly impregnable fortress of Namur; and Luxembourg's capture of Charleroi gave France the defensive line of the Sambre.^ Louis personally supervised the capture of Mons and the reputedly impregnable fortress of Namur ; and Luxembourg’s capture of Charleroi gave France the defensive line of the Sambre .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under the personal supervision of Louis XIV, the French army captured Mons in 1691 and the hitherto impregnable Fortress of Namur in 1692 ; and with the capture of Charleroi by Luxembourg in 1693 after his victory at Landen , France gained the forward defensive line of the Sambre.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Within France, upon the death of Cardinal Mazarin, his first minister, in 1661, Louis XIV assumed personal control of the reins of government.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.France also overran most of the Duchy of Savoy after Marsaglia and Staffarde.^ France also overran most of the Duchy of Savoy after Marsaglia and Staffarde .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the Battles of Marsaglia and of Staffarde , France was victorious over the allied forces under Victor Amadeus, Duke of Savoy, overrunning his dominion and reducing the territory under his effective command to merely the area around Turin.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

.While naval stalemate ensued after the French victory at Beachy Head and the Allied victory at Barfleur-La Hougue, the Battle of Torroella exposed Catalonia to French invasion culminating in the capture of Barcelona.^ While naval stalemate ensued after the French victory at Beachy Head and the Allied victory at Barfleur-La Hougue , the Battle of Torroella exposed Catalonia to French invasion culminating in the capture of Barcelona.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At 21 000 casualties, the Allies suffered double that of the French [ 57 ] , who eventually fully recovered their military pride at the decisive victory of Denain .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later, Ramillies and Oudenarde precipitated the capture of the Low Countries and an invasion of France, and the Battle of Turin forced Louis to evacuate Italy, leaving it open to Allied armies.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although the Dutch captured Pondicherry, a French raid on the Spanish treasure port of Cartagena (in present-day Colombia) yielded a fortune of 10 000 000 livres.^ Dutch to allow the Spanish Netherlands to fall into the hands of the French.

^ As it was, on July 10, the day before that battle, Admiral de Tourville, in command of seventy-five French men-of-war, defeated a combined English and Dutch fleet in the battle .

^ In April, 1691, Louis himself was present at the capture of Mons, and in June Hal also fell into the hands of the French.

[42]
.In 1690, Sweden first offered to mediate.^ In 1690, Sweden first offered to mediate.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By 1692, both sides evidently wanted peace, and secret bilateral talks had already begun.^ By 1692, both sides evidently wanted peace, and secret bilateral talks had already begun.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43] .By the Treaty of Turin in 1696, which finally hastened the end of the War, Victor Amadeus, Duke of Savoy separately concluded peace and switched sides.^ By the Treaty of Turin in 1696, which finally hastened the end of the War, Victor Amadeus, Duke of Savoy separately concluded peace and switched sides.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Duke Victor Amadeus of Savoy, to deal the French sea-power in the Mediterranean an overwhelming blow.

^ Victor Amadeus, duke of Savoy, father of the duchess of Burgundy, retained an astrologer near his person, even after his abdication.
  • Online Library of Liberty - CHAPTER XXIII.: PRIVATE ANECDOTES OF THE REIGN OF LOUIS XIV. - The Works of Voltaire, Vol. XII (Age of Louis XIV) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Thereafter, negotiations for a general peace began in earnest, culminating in the Treaty of Ryswick.^ Though the Treaty of Nymegen had in a general way reaffirmed the terms of the Peace of .

^ Chapter XVI.: Treaty With Savoy—marriage of the Duke of Burgundy—peace of Ryswick—state of France and Europe—death and Last Will of Charles II., King of Spain.
  • Online Library of Liberty - CHAPTER XXIII.: PRIVATE ANECDOTES OF THE REIGN OF LOUIS XIV. - The Works of Voltaire, Vol. XII (Age of Louis XIV) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[44]

Treaty of Ryswick

.The Treaty of Ryswick in 1697 ended the War of the League of Augsburg, and the Grand Alliance.^ In 1692 the War with the Grand Alliance was straining the resources of France, and the Government had recourse to expedients of every kind.

^ One result of the War with the Grand Alliance was the utter destruction of the municipal liberties of France.

^ The war between Poland and Turkey was brought to an end by the Treaty of Zurawna, concluded under French mediation on October 27, 1676.

.By manipulating their rivalries and suspicions, Louis divided his enemies and broke their power.^ By manipulating their rivalries and suspicions, Louis divided his enemies and broke their power.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although Louis returned Catalonia and most of the Reunions, he secured permanent French sovereignty over all of Alsace, including Strasbourg, thus guaranteeing the Rhine as the Franco-German border to this day.^ Although Louis returned Catalonia and most of the Reunions, he secured permanent French sovereignty over all of Alsace, including Strasbourg, thus guaranteeing the Rhine as the Franco-German border to this day.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Guez.—John Louis Guez, lord of Balzac, was patronized as a man of genius by Richelieu, esteemed the most eloquent man in France, and the great restorer of the French language.
  • Online Library of Liberty - CHAPTER XXIII.: PRIVATE ANECDOTES OF THE REIGN OF LOUIS XIV. - The Works of Voltaire, Vol. XII (Age of Louis XIV) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I stopped six days at Strasbourg and then went by the Rhine to Philipsburg.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Louis's generosity to Spain despite French military superiority, which could have resulted in more advantageous terms, has been read as a concession to foster pro-French sentiment; it may ultimately have induced Charles II to name Louis's grandson, Philippe, duc d'Anjou, as heir.^ Philippe Charles de France, duc d'Anjou .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Louis’s generosity to Spain despite French military superiority, which could have resulted in more advantageous terms, has been read as a concession to foster pro-French sentiment; it may ultimately have induced Charles II to name Louis's grandson, Philippe, duc d'Anjou , as heir.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The process was continued by his grandson Louis IX (1226-1270) and by the late 13th century the French kings had control of most of France.

[45]
.Besides the return of Pondicherry and Acadia, Louis's de facto possession of Saint-Domingue was recognised.^ The Comte de Toulouse had been to supper at the house of M. de Nevers, near Saint-Denis, and did not return until late into the night.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Besides my own grief, I had to sustain that of Madame de Saint-Simon, whom many times I thought I should lose.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I immediately returned to Meudon, and chatted there some time with Madame de Saint-Simon on arriving.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Compensated financially, he renounced interests in the Electorate of Cologne and the Palatinate, and returned Lorraine to its duke, albeit under restrictive terms allowing unhindered French passage.^ A peace conference which met in June, 1673, at Cologne having proved a failure, the Emperor formed a second Coalition, which was joined in the autumn of 1673 by Spain and the Duke of Lorraine, and in 1674 by Denmark, the Elector Palatine, the Brunswick-Lneburg Dukes, and on July 1 by the Great Elector.

^ By means of these two fortresses the French King would have the three Spiritual Electors of Mainz, Cologne, and Trier as well as the Elector Palatine in his power, so that by means of them he would be able to carry through without much trouble his election to the Roman Kingship.

^ Louis, moreover, abandoned his candidate for the electorate of Cologne, and renounced the claims of the Duchess of Orleans to the Palatinate for a sum of money.

.The Treaty allowed the Dutch to garrison forts in the Spanish Netherlands as a protective "Barrier" against possible French aggression, and recognised William III and Mary II as joint sovereigns of the British Isles.^ Dutch to allow the Spanish Netherlands to fall into the hands of the French.

^ The Treaty allowed the Dutch to garrison forts in the Spanish Netherlands as a protective " Barrier " against possible French aggression, and recognised William III and Mary II as joint sovereigns of the British Isles.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ French claims on the Spanish Netherlands .

Consequently, Louis withdrew support for James II.
.The Treaty may not be as great a diplomatic defeat as it appears.^ The Treaty may not be as great a diplomatic defeat as it appears.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Louis fulfilled many of his 1688 ultimatum aims.^ Till 1688, Louis succeeded in many of his aims, and during these twenty-seven years he secured for France territorial acquisitions of enormous value.

[46] In any case, to him peace in 1697 was victory.[47]

War of the Spanish Succession

Europe on the eve of the War of the Spanish Succession (1700)

Causes and build-up to the war

.The Spanish succession finally came to the fore after the Treaty of Ryswick.^ In January, 1699, the Treaty of Carlowitz closed a war in satisfactory fashion for Austria, and enabled the Emperor Leopold to concentrate his attention upon the Spanish Succession question.

.Charles II ruled a vast, much-prized empire, comprising Spain, Naples, Sicily, Milan, the Spanish Netherlands and numerous colonies.^ Charles III, king of Spain, and of Naples and Sicily — Infoplease.com .
  • rulers.html 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.fidnet.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Charles III, king of Spain, and of Naples and Sicily.
  • rulers.html 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.fidnet.com [Source type: Reference]

^ During the reign of Charles II Spain sank to the lowest point ever touched in her history.

.But he was severely inbred and had no direct heirs.^ But he was severely inbred and had no direct heirs.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The main claimants were French and Austrian, and closely linked to Charles II. The French claim was derived from Anne of Austria (Philip III of Spain's eldest daughter) and Marie-Thérèse (Philip IV's eldest daughter).^ It is comprised of examples of the most famous names of three centuries of French history, including Louis XII, Francis I, Henri II, Catherine de Medicis, Francis II, Charles IX, Henri III, Duc de Guise, Henri IV and his wives, Clement VIII, Louis XIII, Anne of Austria, Cardinal Richelieu, Louis XIV and his wife Marie Thérèse, Marquise de Maintenon, Jean Baptiste Rousseau, Marquise de Sévigné, Cardinal Mazarin, Duc d'Orleans, Louis XV, his wife and daughters, Marquise de Pompadour, Comtesse du Barry, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Voltaire, Cardinal Fleury, Chevalier D'Éon, Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, Princesse de Lamballe, Charles X, Louis XVI, Jacques Necker, Mirabeau, and Lafayette.
  • John Hinsdale Scheide Collection of Three Centuries of French History, 1510-1816: Finding Aid 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • John Hinsdale Scheide Collection of Three Centuries of French History, 1510-1816: Finding Aid 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Letters of William III. and Louis XIV. and their ministers; illustrative of the domestic and foreign politics of England, from the peace of Ryswick to the accession of Philip V. of Spain.

^ However in 1204 the French king Philip II went to war with the English king John.

.Based on the laws of primogeniture, France had the better claim as it originated from eldest daughters in each generation.^ Based on the laws of primogeniture , France had the better claim as it originated from eldest daughters in each generation.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Madame de Navailles was the eldest daughter of this Madame de Neuillant, and it was her husband, M. de Navailles, who, serving under M. le Prince in Flanders, received from that General a strong reprimand for his ignorance.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, the princesses’ renunciations to the throne complicated matters; nevertheless, Marie-Thérèse's renunciation was considered null and void owing to Spain's breach of the marriage agreement.^ However, the princesses’ renunciations to the throne complicated matters; nevertheless, Marie-Thérèse’s renunciation was considered null and void owing to Spain’s breach of the marriage agreement.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a previous page I have alluded to the Princesse des Ursins, when she was appointed 'Camerera Mayor' to the Queen of Spain on her marriage.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By Marie-Thérèse d'Autriche, Infanta of Spain, Queen of France and of Navarre (20 September 1638 – 30 July 1683) .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Philip V, King of Spain
.In contrast, no renunciation tainted Charles, Archduke of Austria's claims.^ Philip V, King of Spain In contrast, no renunciation tainted Charles, Archduke of Austria ’s claims.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Charles claimed to rule by divine right and had no intention of compromising with the liberals.

^ Charles II, Archduke of Austria, Archduke of Inner Austria .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He descended from Maria Anna (Philip III's youngest daughter).^ He descended from Maria Anna (Philip III’s youngest daughter).
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The English and Dutch feared that a French or Austrian-born Spanish king would threaten the balance of power and thus preferred the Bavarian Joseph Ferdinand, Leopold I's grandson, through his first wife Margaret Theresa of Spain (Philip IV's younger daughter).^ The English and Dutch feared that a French or Austrian-born Spanish king would threaten the balance of power and thus preferred the Bavarian Joseph Ferdinand , Leopold I’s grandson, through his first wife Margaret Theresa of Spain (Philip IV’s younger daughter).
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, Louis also sent troops to the Spanish Netherlands, evicting the Dutch garrisons from the " Barrier " and securing Dutch recognition of Philip V. In 1701, he transferred the asiento to France, alienating English traders.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ John Gadbury, student in astrology, his past and present opinion of the Ottoman or Turkish power [microform] : together with what he hath wrote concerning the great and puissant French-king, a prince, if there be truth in the stars, not born to be miserab .

.But, to appease the parties and avoid war, the First Partition Treaty divided the Italian territories between le Grand Dauphin and the Archduke, awarding the rest of the empire to Joseph Ferdinand.^ Succeeded by Louis "le Grand Dauphin" .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But, to appease the parties and avoid war, the First Partition Treaty divided the Italian territories between le Grand Dauphin and the Archduke, awarding the rest of the empire to Joseph Ferdinand.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But in March, 1665, war had broken out between England and Holland; and Louis was, by the treaty of April, 1662, bound to aid the Dutch.

.Presumably, the Dauphin's new territories would become part of France when he succeeded Louis.^ Had Louis XIV contented himself with following the policy of Richelieu, France would have been spared many disasters.

^ Meanwhile in conservative parts of France the revolution was becoming increasingly unpopular and conscription was the last straw.

^ At the commencement of my widowhood I was left unpaid, and there was an arrear of 300,000 francs due to me, which were not paid until after the death of Louis XIV. What, then, would have become of me if I had chosen to retire to Montargis?
  • The Memoirs of Louis XIV. and the Regency, v1 by Elizabeth-Charlotte, Duchesse d'Orleans - Full Text Free Book 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

[48] .Passionately against his empire's dismemberment, Charles II reiterated his 1693 will, naming Joseph Ferdinand his sole successor.^ Passionately against his empire’s dismemberment, Charles II reiterated his 1693 will, naming Joseph Ferdinand his sole successor.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Acknowledging that his empire could only remain undivided by bequeathing it entirely to a Frenchman or an Austrian, and pressured by his German wife, Maria Anna of Neuburg , Charles II named the Archduke Charles as sole heir.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In January, 1666, Louis, fearing that de Witt might conclude peace with Charles II, reluctantly declared war against England.

[49]
Sixth months later, the Bavarian died. .Louis and William III again concluded a Partition Treaty, allocating Spain, the Low Countries and colonies to the Archduke, and Spanish lands in Italy to the Dauphin.^ Louis and William III again concluded a Partition Treaty , allocating Spain, the Low Countries and colonies to the Archduke, and Spanish lands in Italy to the Dauphin.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Letters of William III. and Louis XIV. and their ministers; illustrative of the domestic and foreign politics of England, from the peace of Ryswick to the accession of Philip V. of Spain.

^ The Treaty allowed the Dutch to garrison forts in the Spanish Netherlands as a protective " Barrier " against possible French aggression, and recognised William III and Mary II as joint sovereigns of the British Isles.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50] .Acknowledging that his empire could only remain undivided by bequeathing it entirely to a Frenchman or an Austrian, and pressured by his German wife, Maria Anna of Neuburg, Charles II named the Archduke Charles as sole heir.^ Acknowledging that his empire could only remain undivided by bequeathing it entirely to a Frenchman or an Austrian, and pressured by his German wife, Maria Anna of Neuburg , Charles II named the Archduke Charles as sole heir.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Louis’s generosity to Spain despite French military superiority, which could have resulted in more advantageous terms, has been read as a concession to foster pro-French sentiment; it may ultimately have induced Charles II to name Louis's grandson, Philippe, duc d'Anjou , as heir.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was a member of the Austrian party, and on the death of Marie-Louise of Orleans assisted the Queen-Mother in bringing about the marriage of Charles to Maria Anna of Neuburg.

Acceptance of the will and consequences

Louis in 1701.
.On his deathbed in 1700, Charles II unexpectedly changed his will.^ On his deathbed in 1700, Charles II unexpectedly changed his will.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ James II, owing to his change of religion, showed himself to be more closely attached to France than had been Charles II. His self-confidence .

.Past French military superiority, the pro-French faction and even Pope Innocent XII convinced him that France was more likely to preserve his empire intact.^ Past French military superiority, the pro-French faction and even Pope Innocent XII convinced him that France was more likely to preserve his empire intact.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He liked nobody to be in any way superior to him.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis’s generosity to Spain despite French military superiority, which could have resulted in more advantageous terms, has been read as a concession to foster pro-French sentiment; it may ultimately have induced Charles II to name Louis's grandson, Philippe, duc d'Anjou , as heir.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He thus offered the Dauphin's second son, Philippe de France, the entire empire, provided it remained undivided.^ He thus offered the Dauphin’s second son, Philippe de France , the entire empire, provided it remained undivided.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Acknowledging that his empire could only remain undivided by bequeathing it entirely to a Frenchman or an Austrian, and pressured by his German wife, Maria Anna of Neuburg , Charles II named the Archduke Charles as sole heir.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Philippe Charles de France, duc d'Anjou .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Anjou was not in the direct line of French succession; thus his accession would not cause a Franco-Spanish union.^ Chamillart, with gravity replied, that the King would not give up a single mill of all the Spanish succession.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Jacobite party remained there; the vexation caused by this forced union had increased it, by the desire felt to break that union with the aid of a King that they would have reestablished.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Had James II remained King of England, and the unswerving ally of the French King, Louis' chances of success in his next European war would have been decidedly good.

[50] .If Anjou refused, the throne would be offered to his younger brother, Charles de France, after which, to the Archduke Charles, and lastly, to the distantly-related House of Savoy.^ Philippe Charles de France, duc d'Anjou .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If Anjou refused, the throne would be offered to his younger brother, Charles de France , after which, to the Archduke Charles, and lastly, to the distantly-related House of Savoy .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Charles de Gaulle, defender of France .
  • The Splendors of Versailles--Teachers' Guide Supplement 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC splendors-versailles.org [Source type: News]

[51]
.Louis was confronted with a difficult choice.^ Louis was confronted with a difficult choice.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He could agree to the partition and hopefully avoid a general war, or accept Charles II's will and alienate others.^ He could agree to the partition and hopefully avoid a general war, or accept Charles II’s will and alienate others.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1668, Louis had, as has been seen, concluded with the Emperor a secret partition treaty, which was to come into force in the event of the death of Charles II of Spain.

^ Even with James II on the throne, it was by no means certain that a wave of popular feeling might not force him, as it had forced Charles II, into war with France.

.Initially, Louis may have inclined towards abiding by the partition treaties.^ Initially, Louis may have inclined towards abiding by the partition treaties.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Louis and William III again concluded a Partition Treaty , allocating Spain, the Low Countries and colonies to the Archduke, and Spanish lands in Italy to the Dauphin.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1668, Louis had, as has been seen, concluded with the Emperor a secret partition treaty, which was to come into force in the event of the death of Charles II of Spain.

.However, the Dauphin's insistence persuaded Louis otherwise.^ However, the Dauphin’s insistence persuaded Louis otherwise.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52] .Moreover, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, marquis de Torcy pointed out that war with the Emperor would almost certainly ensue even if Louis only accepted part of the Spanish inheritance.^ Colbert (Jean Baptist, marquis de Torcy, 1665-1746) .
  • John Hinsdale Scheide Collection of Three Centuries of French History, 1510-1816: Finding Aid 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • John Hinsdale Scheide Collection of Three Centuries of French History, 1510-1816: Finding Aid 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Moreover, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, marquis de Torcy pointed out that war with the Emperor would almost certainly ensue even if Louis only accepted part of the Spanish inheritance.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Son of Charles Colbert, Marquis de Croissy.
  • John Hinsdale Scheide Collection of Three Centuries of French History, 1510-1816: Finding Aid 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • John Hinsdale Scheide Collection of Three Centuries of French History, 1510-1816: Finding Aid 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Reference]

.He emphasised William III's unlikelihood to assist France in war because he "made a treaty to avoid war and did not intend to go to war to implement the treaty".[49] Eventually, Louis decided to accept Charles II's will.^ He emphasised William III’s unlikelihood to assist France in war because he “made a treaty to avoid war and did not intend to go to war to implement the treaty”.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eventually the war went well for France.

^ Eventually, Louis decided to accept Charles II’s will.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Philippe, duc d'Anjou became Philip V, King of Spain.^ Philippe Charles de France, duc d'Anjou .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The King, immediately after getting up, called the ambassador into his cabinet, where M. le Duc d'Anjou had already arrived.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Spanish ambassador had received intelligence which proved the eagerness of Spain to welcome the Duc d'Anjou as its King.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Most European rulers accepted Philip V as King of Spain, though some only reluctantly.^ Most European rulers accepted Philip V as King of Spain, though some only reluctantly.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It did not seem reasonable, therefore, that such a Princess would be accepted as a wife for the King of Spain.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The King, though by no means perfect, possessed some great and many fine qualities; and by no means deserved to be defamed and despised by his subjects after his death.
  • The Memoirs of Louis XIV. and the Regency, v1 by Elizabeth-Charlotte, Duchesse d'Orleans - Full Text Free Book 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Depending on one's views of the War as inevitable or not, Louis acted reasonably or arrogantly.^ Depending on one’s views of the War as inevitable or not, Louis acted reasonably or arrogantly.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In view of the imminence of the Spanish Succession question and of the financial distress in France, Louis acted wisely in coming to terms with his foes.

^ It was also the view of some of Louis' advisers that a civil war in England would best ensure English neutrality during the .

[53] He confirmed that Philip V retained his French rights despite his new Spanish position. Admittedly, he may only have been hypothesising a theoretical eventuality and not attempting a Franco-Spanish union. .However, Louis also sent troops to the Spanish Netherlands, evicting the Dutch garrisons from the "Barrier" and securing Dutch recognition of Philip V. In 1701, he transferred the asiento to France, alienating English traders.^ Louis alienated many people in France.

^ However, Louis also sent troops to the Spanish Netherlands, evicting the Dutch garrisons from the " Barrier " and securing Dutch recognition of Philip V. In 1701, he transferred the asiento to France, alienating English traders.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were the War of Devolution 1667-1668, the War Dutch War 1672-1678, the War of the League of Augsburg (1689-1697) and the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1713).

.He also acknowledged James Stuart, James II's son, as king on the latter's death, infuriating William III. These actions enraged Britain and the United Provinces.^ He also acknowledged James Stuart , James II’s son, as king on the latter’s death, infuriating William III. These actions enraged Britain and the United Provinces.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ King William heard, while in Holland, of the death of James II. and of this recognition.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ William III, king of Great Britain, 1650-1702.

[54] .Consequently, with the Emperor and the petty German states, they formed another Grand Alliance, declaring war on France in 1702. French diplomacy, however, retained Bavaria, Portugal and Savoy as Franco-Spanish allies.^ Portugal and Savoy defected to the Allies after Blenheim.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ French diplomacy, however, retained Bavaria, Portugal and Savoy as Franco-Spanish allies.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Savoy abandons the Grand Alliance .

[55]

Commencement of fighting

.Beginning with Imperial aggression in Italy even before war was officially declared, the War of the Spanish Succession almost lasted till Louis's death, proving costly for him.^ Beginning with Imperial aggression in Italy even before war was officially declared, the War of the Spanish Succession almost lasted till Louis’s death, proving costly for him.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were the War of Devolution 1667-1668, the War Dutch War 1672-1678, the War of the League of Augsburg (1689-1697) and the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1713).

^ Louis even acquired additional territory, such as the Principality of Orange , and the Ubaye Valley , which covered transalpine passes into Italy.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy checked French initial success and broke the myth of French invincibility.^ Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy checked French initial success and broke the myth of French invincibility.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy’s victory at Blenheim caused Bavaria’s occupation by the Palatinate and Austria, compelling Maximilian II Emanuel to flee to the Spanish Netherlands.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy's victory at Blenheim caused Bavaria's occupation by the Palatinate and Austria, compelling Maximilian II Emanuel to flee to the Spanish Netherlands.^ Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy’s victory at Blenheim caused Bavaria’s occupation by the Palatinate and Austria, compelling Maximilian II Emanuel to flee to the Spanish Netherlands.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ M. de Savoie led the attack; but was so firmly met by Prince Eugene, who was in an excellent position for defence, that he could do nothing, and in the end was compelled to retire disgracefully.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles II ruled a vast, much-prized empire, comprising Spain, Naples , Sicily , Milan, the Spanish Netherlands and numerous colonies .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Portugal and Savoy defected to the Allies after Blenheim. .Later, Ramillies and Oudenarde precipitated the capture of the Low Countries and an invasion of France, and the Battle of Turin forced Louis to evacuate Italy, leaving it open to Allied armies.^ Later, Ramillies and Oudenarde precipitated the capture of the Low Countries and an invasion of France, and the Battle of Turin forced Louis to evacuate Italy, leaving it open to Allied armies.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While naval stalemate ensued after the French victory at Beachy Head and the Allied victory at Barfleur-La Hougue , the Battle of Torroella exposed Catalonia to French invasion culminating in the capture of Barcelona.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By his recent secret partition treaty with the Emperor Leopold, Louis was eventually to receive as his share the Low Countries and Franche Comt.

.Defeats, famine and mounting debt greatly weakened France.^ Defeats, famine and mounting debt greatly weakened France.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Two massive famines struck France between 1693 and 1710, killing over two million people.^ Worse France suffered from famine in 1693-1694 and in 1707-1710.

^ Vatteville would not consent, and a dispute soon arose between the two; to be brief, the monk served this traveller as he had served the prior, killed him with a pistol shot.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the 17th July, a truce between France and England was published in Flanders, at the head of the troops of the two crowns.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

In both cases the impact of harvest failure was exacerbated by wartime demands on the food supply.[56] By the winter of 1708-1709, Louis became willing to accept peace at nearly any cost. .He agreed to surrender the entire Spanish empire to the Archduke, and even to return all that he gained over sixty years in his reign and revert to the frontiers of the Peace of Westphalia.^ He had obtained some honour in Spain; he aimed at others even higher, and hoped to return to France with all the honours of a Prince of the Blood.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At peace now with the rest of Europe he had no need of so many troops, even although the war Against the Empire had continued; fortunately, however it did not.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Having gained all the information he sought, Chamillart returned to Versailles on Friday, the 4th of June, at about eight o'clock in the evening, and at once went to the King, who was in the apartments of Madame de Maintenon.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, he stopped short of accepting the Allies’ inflexible requirement that he attack his own grandson to force the humiliating terms on the latter.^ However, he stopped short of accepting the Allies’ inflexible requirement that he attack his own grandson to force the humiliating terms on the latter.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, the war continued.^ Thus, the war continued.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57]

Turning point

.The Allies could not overthrow Philip V in Spain as clearly as France could not retain the entire Spanish inheritance.^ The Allies could not overthrow Philip V in Spain as clearly as France could not retain the entire Spanish inheritance.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He confirmed that Philip V retained his French rights despite his new Spanish position.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the general settlement, Philip V retained Spain and the colonies, Austria received the Low Countries and divided Spanish Italy with Savoy, and Britain kept Gibraltar and Minorca.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Franco-Spanish victories at Almansa, Villaviciosa and Brihuega definitively drove Allied forces from central Spain.^ The Franco-Spanish victories at Almansa , Villaviciosa and Brihuega definitively drove Allied forces from central Spain.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ French diplomacy, however, retained Bavaria, Portugal and Savoy as Franco-Spanish allies.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Allies could not overthrow Philip V in Spain as clearly as France could not retain the entire Spanish inheritance.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Moreover, the Allied pyrrhic victory of Malplaquet revealed the French difficult to defeat.^ Moreover, the Allied pyrrhic victory of Malplaquet revealed the French difficult to defeat.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At 21 000 casualties, the Allies suffered double that of the French [ 57 ] , who eventually fully recovered their military pride at the decisive victory of Denain .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The decorations, intended to demonstrate the king's grandeur, omit the defeats that his French army suffered and cover up the reality of the resulting Pyrrhic victory and the consequent responses of France's adversaries, which left Louis XIV's kingdom isolated.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At 21 000 casualties, the Allies suffered double that of the French[58], who eventually fully recovered their military pride at the decisive victory of Denain.^ At 21 000 casualties, the Allies suffered double that of the French [ 57 ] , who eventually fully recovered their military pride at the decisive victory of Denain .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moreover, the Allied pyrrhic victory of Malplaquet revealed the French difficult to defeat.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On July 1, the French under Luxembourg had won the battle of Fleurus over the Dutch and their allies, who were commanded by Prince George Frederick of Waldeck.

Map of France after the death of Louis XIV
.In 1705, Leopold I died.^ Map of France after the death of Louis XIV In 1705, Leopold I died.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His elder son and successor, Joseph I, followed him in 1711. The Archduke Charles subsequently inherited his brother's Austrian lands.^ His elder son and successor, Joseph I , followed him in 1711.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Archduke Charles subsequently inherited his brother’s Austrian lands.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If Anjou refused, the throne would be offered to his younger brother, Charles de France , after which, to the Archduke Charles, and lastly, to the distantly-related House of Savoy .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If the Spanish empire then fell to him, it would have resurrected a domain as vast as that of Charles V.^ If the Spanish empire then fell to him, it would have resurrected a domain as vast as that of Charles V .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Charles II ruled a vast, much-prized empire, comprising Spain, Naples , Sicily , Milan, the Spanish Netherlands and numerous colonies .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To the Maritime Powers, this was as undesirable as the feared Franco-Spanish union.^ To the Maritime Powers, this was as undesirable as the feared Franco-Spanish union.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anjou was not in the direct line of French succession; thus his accession would not cause a Franco-Spanish union.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Admittedly, he may only have been hypothesising a theoretical eventuality and not attempting a Franco-Spanish union.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[59]

Road to and conclusion of peace

.Accordingly, Anglo-French talks began, culminating in the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 between France, Spain, Britain, and the Dutch.^ A treaty between France and Spain was signed on September 17.

^ Accordingly, Anglo-French talks began, culminating in the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 between France, Spain, Britain, and the Dutch.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But in March, 1665, war had broken out between England and Holland; and Louis was, by the treaty of April, 1662, bound to aid the Dutch.

.In 1714, after losing Landau and Freiburg, the Emperor and Empire also made peace with France in the Treaty of Rastatt and that of Baden.^ With the Emperor and Empire peace was signed by France on February 26, 1679.

^ In 1714, after losing Landau and Freiburg , the Emperor and Empire also made peace with France in the Treaty of Rastatt and that of Baden .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By it France ceded all places taken since the Treaty of Nymegen, except Strassburg and Landau.

.By the general settlement, Philip V retained Spain and the colonies, Austria received the Low Countries and divided Spanish Italy with Savoy, and Britain kept Gibraltar and Minorca.^ The southern portion of the Spanish Low Countries was speedily overrun ; and Lille, the most important of the Belgian cities, was taken (August 27).

^ The Spanish ambassador had received intelligence which proved the eagerness of Spain to welcome the Duc d'Anjou as its King.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We were driven out of Germany, of Italy, of the Low Countries.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Louis agreed to withdraw his support for James Stuart, and ceded Newfoundland, Rupert's Land and Acadia in the Americas to Britain. .Admittedly, Britain gained the most from the Treaty, but the final terms were very much more favourable to France than those of 1709 and 1710. France retained Île-Saint-Jean and Île Royale, and notwithstanding Allied intransigence, was returned most of the captured Continental lands, preserving its antebellum frontiers.^ Admittedly, Britain gained the most from the Treaty, but the final terms were very much more favourable to France than those of 1709 and 1710.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ France retained Île-Saint-Jean and Île Royale , and notwithstanding Allied intransigence, was returned most of the captured Continental lands, preserving its antebellum frontiers.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The peace treaty of Bretigny was signed in 1360 and France was forced to surrender much of its territory.

.Louis even acquired additional territory, such as the Principality of Orange, and the Ubaye Valley, which covered transalpine passes into Italy.^ Immediately after he threw himself into the Venetian army, and passed into Italy.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But the calumny had such effect, that the bishopric of Poitiers was taken from him, and he retired into Brittany, where he passed the rest of his life in solitude and piety.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Things, in fact, had come to such a pass, that it was evident one or the other must give up an administration which their rivalry threw into confusion.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Moreover, Louis secured the rehabilitation to pre-war status and lands of his allies, the Electors of Bavaria and of Cologne.^ Moreover, Louis secured the rehabilitation to pre-war status and lands of his allies, the Electors of Bavaria and of Cologne.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A certain Guetem, a fiddler of the Elector of Bavaria, had entered the service of Holland, had taken part in her war against France, and had become a colonel.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1686 the predominance of Louis was fully established, his ally James II was on the English throne, the Emperor was busy with the Turkish War.

[60]

Death

.
Drugstore of Louis XIV, with details.
^ Drugstore of Louis XIV, with details.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
.After a reign of 72 years, Louis died of gangrene at Versailles on 1 September 1715, four days before his 77th birthday.^ Louis XIV finally died in 1715.

^ After a reign of 72 years, Louis died of gangrene at Versailles on 1 September, 1715, four days before his 77th birthday.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For ten or twelve years before he died the 'petit coucher' ceased, in consequence of a long attack of gout be had had; so that the Court was finished at the rising from supper.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Reciting the psalm Domine, ad adjuvandum me festina (O Lord, make haste to help me), Louis "yielded up his soul without any effort, like a candle going out".[61] His body lies in Royal Basilica of Saint Denis outside Paris.^ Reciting the psalm Domine, ad adjuvandum me festina ( O Lord, make haste to help me ), Louis "yielded up his soul without any effort, like a candle going out".
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His body lies in Royal Basilica of Saint Denis outside Paris.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Louis-César de Bourbon, comte de Vexin, abbé de Saint-Denis et de Saint-Germain-des-Prés .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Dauphin had predeceased Louis in 1711, leaving three children — Louis, Duke of Burgundy; Philip V; and Charles, Duke of Berry.^ When the Dauphine lay in of the Duke of Burgundy, I said to the King, "I hope your Majesty will not upon this occasion refuse a humble request I have to make to you."
  • The Memoirs of Louis XIV. and the Regency, v1 by Elizabeth-Charlotte, Duchesse d'Orleans - Full Text Free Book 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Duke of Burgundy was happily married to Maria Adelaide of Savoy, and had two children.

^ Louis XIV. at last thought everything that the Dauphine of Burgundy did was quite charming; old Maintenon made him believe that her only aim was to divert him.
  • The Memoirs of Louis XIV. and the Regency, v1 by Elizabeth-Charlotte, Duchesse d'Orleans - Full Text Free Book 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.The eldest, Bourgogne, followed in 1712, and was himself soon followed by his elder son, Louis, Duke of Brittany.^ As soon as the Duchesse de Bourgogne was in bed, the Duc de Bourgogne entered, and placed himself at her side, in the presence of all the Court.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Had Louis XIV contented himself with following the policy of Richelieu, France would have been spared many disasters.

^ But soon after the King himself named Madame de Saint-Simon; and when the Duchesse de Bourgogne suggested a doubt of her acceptance, exclaimed, almost piqued: "Refuse!
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Thus, on Louis XIV's deathbed, his heir was his five-year-old great-grandson, Louis, Duke of Anjou, Burgundy's youngest son, and Dauphin after his grandfather's, father's and elder brother's deaths in short succession.^ Death of Louis XIV .31 .

^ Grandfather of Louis, duc d'Anjou (later Dauphin, and then King of France) .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, on Louis XIV’s deathbed, his heir was his five-year-old great-grandson, Louis, Duke of Anjou , Burgundy's youngest son, and Dauphin after his grandfather’s, father’s and elder brother’s deaths in short succession.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Louis XIV (seated) with his son le Grand Dauphin (to the right), his grandson Louis, Duke of Burgundy (to the left), his great-grandson Louis, Duke of Brittany, and Madame de Ventadour, Brittany's governess, who commissioned this painting; busts of Henri IV and Louis XIII in the background.
.Louis foresaw a minority and sought to restrict the power of his nephew, Philippe d'Orléans, who as closest surviving legitimate relative in France would become the prospective Louis XV's regent.^ Louis foresaw a minority and sought to restrict the power of his nephew, Philippe d'Orléans , who as closest surviving legitimate relative in France would become the prospective Louis XV’s regent.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Neither Innocent XI, who died in August, 1689, nor Alexander VIII, nor, again, Innocent XII, who became Pope in July, 1691, would give any real support to James II, so long as it was apparent that he was being used by Louis XIV in the attempt to make France all-powerful in Europe.

^ He sought to eliminate the remnants of feudalism persisting in parts of France and, by compelling the noble elite to inhabit his lavish Palace of Versailles , succeeded in pacifying the aristocracy, many members of which had participated in the Fronde rebellion during Louis' minority.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Accordingly, he created a regency council as Louis XIII did in anticipation of his own minority with some power vested in his illegitimate son, Louis Auguste de Bourbon.^ Maine (Louis August de Bourbon, duc de, 1670-1736) .
  • John Hinsdale Scheide Collection of Three Centuries of French History, 1510-1816: Finding Aid 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • John Hinsdale Scheide Collection of Three Centuries of French History, 1510-1816: Finding Aid 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The power of the council of the regency and its composition fell.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the 12th August, Madame de Saint-Simon was happily delivered of a second son, who bore the name of Marquis de Ruffec.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[62]
.Orléans, however, would have Louis's will annulled in the Parlement de Paris after his death and make himself sole Regent.^ Orléans, however, would have Louis’s will annulled in the Parlement de Paris after his death and make himself sole Regent.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Louis foresaw a minority and sought to restrict the power of his nephew, Philippe d'Orléans , who as closest surviving legitimate relative in France would become the prospective Louis XV’s regent.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My father wished to make him beg for his life; he would not do this, but confessed himself vanquished.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.He stripped Maine and his brother, Louis Alexandre de Bourbon, of the rank of "prince of the Blood", which Louis had given them, and significantly reduced Maine's power and privileges.^ The rank of these illegitimate sons was placed just below that of the princes, of the blood, and just above that of the peers even of the oldest creation.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Now I am of age, and not only M. du Maine is no longer prince of the blood, but he is reduced to the rank of his peerage.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ M. du Maine wished not only to be made prince of the blood, but to be made guardian of the heir to the throne, so as to dwarf the power of the Regent as much as possible.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[63]

Image and memory

The official image

.Few rulers in world history commemorated themselves so grandly as Louis XIV.[64] Pamphleteers used a standard vocabulary, portraying him (in English alphabetical order) as august, conquering, enlightened, generous, god-given, heroic, illustrious, immortal, invincible, just, magnanimous, pious, triumphant and wise.^ Louis XIV and his world .
  • The Splendors of Versailles--Teachers' Guide Supplement 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC splendors-versailles.org [Source type: News]

^ Few rulers in world history commemorated themselves so grandly as Louis XIV. [ 63 ] Pamphleteers used a standard vocabulary, portraying him (in English alphabetical order) as august, conquering, enlightened, generous, god-given, heroic, illustrious, immortal, invincible, just, magnanimous, pious, triumphant and wise.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Fabrication of Louis XIV (1994) excerpt and text search Cambridge Modern History: Vol.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In a word, he was "great", an adjective officially adopted in 1671. Indeed, LOUIS LE GRAND was generally written in capital letters even in a text in lower case.^ Succeeded by Louis "le Grand Dauphin" .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed, LOUIS LE GRAND was generally written in capital letters even in a text in lower case.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a word, he was "great", an adjective officially adopted in 1671.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Louis XIV used court rituals as a way to mirror and maintain the control he exerted in other areas of his rule, both domestic and international.^ Saint-Simon and the court of Louis XIV .
  • Versailles - Syllabus 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC faculty.cua.edu [Source type: General]

^ Louis XIV. was made for a brilliant Court.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis XIV used court rituals as a way to mirror and maintain the control he exerted in other areas of his rule, both domestic and international.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Theater, sculpture, court ceremonies, dance, and music were all carefully planned and staged to reinforce his power and to represent his view of proper order down to the smallest detail.^ Theater, sculpture, court ceremonies, dance, and music were all carefully planned and staged to reinforce his power and to represent his view of proper order down to the smallest detail.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In court, the music to accompany ballets performed by the king was suitably majestic, and the lyrics conveyed his power and benevolence as patron of the arts.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Emperor had, therefore, a powerful ally at the Court of Madrid to aid him in carrying out his plans; and the King was so much in his favour, that he had made a will bequeathing his succession to the Archduke.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.The master of ceremonies, court composer, and court dance master were key players in this process.^ The master of ceremonies, court composer, and court dance master were key players in this process.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From the start of Louis' reign, Jean Baptiste Colbert set up a centralized and institutionalized system for creating and perpetuating the royal image.^ From the start of Louis' reign, Jean Baptiste Colbert set up a centralized and institutionalized system for creating and perpetuating the royal image.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The year 1672 and the outbreak of the war with the United Netherlands mark the end of the pacific period of Louis XIV's reign, throughout which Colbert's had been the chief influence over the royal mind.

^ In fact, those plays that most overtly promoted Louis XIV's royal image were not performed at all outside the court.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The two main approaches were the ancient paradigm and the rivalry with ruling powers, notably Spain.^ The two main approaches were the ancient paradigm and the rivalry with ruling powers, notably Spain.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The traditional images of the king in majesty and the king at war persisted in official paintings and busts and in the almanacs that concertedly spread royal propaganda among the people at large.^ The traditional images of the king in majesty and the king at war persisted in official paintings and busts and in the almanacs that concertedly spread royal propaganda among the people at large.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These varying images of the king abounded in self-contradictions that reflected the people's amalgamation of their everyday experiences with the ideal of the monarchy.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was held in the palace, but not in the royal apartments, was not usually presided over by the King, and consisted of a large number of lawyers (matres de requtes).

.The traditional representation of the king as a Roman emperor can be seen in Le Brun's plans for major monuments and in sculptures.^ The traditional representation of the king as a Roman emperor can be seen in Le Brun's plans for major monuments and in sculptures.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ten drops of Le Brun's mixture in Alicante wine were therefore given to the King about eleven o'clock in the morning.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Emperor had, therefore, a powerful ally at the Court of Madrid to aid him in carrying out his plans; and the King was so much in his favour, that he had made a will bequeathing his succession to the Archduke.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Apollonian themes created a mythological environment, with painted decor and sculptures, rather than true likenesses.^ Nevertheless many people continued to speak languages like Breton and Occitanian rather than French.

^ As soon as he could dress himself, surrounded as he was by such a crowd, he went to the salon, carried by it rather than environed.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Portrayal of the reign in metal (medal stamping) was only in its infancy.^ Portrayal of the reign in metal (medal stamping) was only in its infancy.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The major works of the decade were tapestries, and these were either allegorical, depicting the elements and the seasons, or realist, portraying royal residences and, in particular, the history of the king.^ The major works of the decade were tapestries, and these were either allegorical, depicting the elements and the seasons, or realist, portraying royal residences and, in particular, the history of the king.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then Grimaldo displayed his papers, drew from his pocket an inkstand, and worked with the King; the Queen not being hindered by her tapestry from giving her opinion.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At his death, Valincourt was chosen to work in his place with Despreaux upon the history of the King.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.This was the most significant means by which the monarchy was mythicized before the Hall of Mirrors was created at Versailles.^ This was the most significant means by which the monarchy was mythicized before the Hall of Mirrors was created at Versailles.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most cruel means by which the King was informed of what was passing— for many years before anybody knew it—was that of opening letters.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Galerie des Glaces (Hall of Mirrors) at Versailles became the most prestigious section of the royal residence.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[65]

Glorified portraits

.Louis commissioned over 300 formal portraits of himself; he also commissioned "war artists" to follow him on campaign and record his military triumphs on the spot.^ Louis commissioned over 300 formal portraits of himself; he also commissioned "war artists" to follow him on campaign and record his military triumphs on the spot.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I added, that if the King did not himself invite each peer, the master of the ceremonies ought to do so for him, according to the custom always followed.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I wished to secure a portrait of him, but such was his modesty and humility that I feared to ask him to allow himself to be painted.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.About 700 different engravings of Louis have survived.^ About 700 different engravings of Louis have survived.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the 1680s, a series of twenty statues of the king were commissioned for public squares in Paris and in provincial towns.^ In the 1680s, a series of twenty statues of the king were commissioned for public squares in Paris and in provincial towns.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Freestanding permanent triumphal arches were also erected in Paris and the provinces for the first time since the decline of the Roman Empire.^ Freestanding permanent triumphal arches were also erected in Paris and the provinces for the first time since the decline of the Roman Empire.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However from the mid-3rd century the Roman Empire was in decline.

^ M. de Lauzun replied, that he was only too happy, since it was the first time since his return that he had seen the King smile at him.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Sixteenth-century rulers often issued twenty or thirty medals to commemorate the major events of their reigns, but Louis struck more than 300, celebrating the story of the king in a bronze that was enshrined in thousands of houses.^ Sixteenth-century rulers often issued twenty or thirty medals to commemorate the major events of their reigns, but Louis struck more than 300, celebrating the story of the king in a bronze that was enshrined in thousands of houses.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Upon the unfortunate king and the still more unfortunate minister fell the difficult task of composing the quarrels of their servants, three thousand miles away.
  • Count Frontenac and New France under Louis XIV by Francis Parkman - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/7) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The King was the object of it more frequently than anybody; he was still amorous; but her ill-humour pained him.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.His court lionized the painter Hyacinthe Rigaud, who helped to formulate what a state portrait should be.^ His court lionized the painter Hyacinthe Rigaud , who helped to formulate what a state portrait should be.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While Rigaud made a credible likeness of the king, his purpose was not to express Louis's character but to glorify the monarchy.^ While Rigaud made a credible likeness of the king, his purpose was not to express Louis's character but to glorify the monarchy.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Louis is a major character in the 1959 historical novel "Angélique et le Roy" ("Angélique and the King"), part of the Angelique Series .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unless the English fleet made a demonstration in the Mediterranean, it seemed more than likely that Louis would force Spain and Savoy to retire from the war.

.His original "Portrait of Louis XIV of 1701", now in the Louvre, (see above for copy) was so popular that Rigaud had many copies made, both in full and half-length formats, often with the help of assistants.^ Louis XIV, an informal portrait.

^ His original "Portrait of Louis XIV of 1701," now in the Louvre, (see above for copy) was so popular that Rigaud had many copies made, both in full and half-length formats, often with the help of assistants.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Louis XIV. was made for a brilliant Court.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.In this portrait from Rigaud's workshop, Louis XIV's ceremonial robes, elegant stance, and haughty expression proclaim his exalted status.^ Louis XIV, an informal portrait.

^ The King (Louis XIV.), was infinitely alarmed; and Madame de Maintenon, who had twice tried to be proclaimed Queen and twice failed, was distracted with jealousy.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Despite the vast expanses of canvas he covered, Rigaud remained concerned with the particular, describing the king's costume in great detail, even down to his shoe buckles.^ I was touched by the grand honour rendered to the Great Captain's memory; his sword becoming the sword of the State, carried even by the King with great respect.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Fear, lest it should be something in which they, unknowingly, were concerned, troubled them; so that they became even worse company to the King than Madame de Maintenon.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During a journey the King and Court made to Nancy, Boisseuil one evening sat down to play in the house of one of the courtiers.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[66]
.The earliest portraits of Louis as a child used the pictorial conventions of the day to present the future and then child king as already possessing the majesty becoming royalty, idealizing his person as the incarnation of the state.^ Then he recommended to him the state and the person of the future King.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The earliest portraits of Louis as a child used the pictorial conventions of the day to present the future and then child king as already possessing the majesty becoming royalty, idealizing his person as the incarnation of the state.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This idealization continued in later portraits, which not only avoided depicting any trace of the smallpox that the king suffered in 1647 but, by the 1660s, presented him as an Apollo or Alexander, vying with those seeking to reproduce his Habsburg traits.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This idealization continued in later portraits, which not only avoided depicting any trace of the smallpox that the king suffered in 1647 but, by the 1660s, presented him as an Apollo or Alexander, vying with those seeking to reproduce his Habsburg traits.^ I represented to him that the Pope's nuncio would be present, and that to him the ambassadors of France gave place everywhere, and even the ambassadors of the Emperor also, who, without opposition, preceded those of the King.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Tuileries and the Palais Royal were soon filled with people who came to present themselves before the King to compliment him and the Regent on the conclusion of this grand marriage, and the crowd continued the following days.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I should particularly avoid soiling this page with an account of the operation for fistula which Courcillon, only son of Dangeau, had performed upon him, but for the extreme ridicule with which it was accompanied.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

While the portraits at the end of his reign allowed the king's face to betray his advanced age, the conflict between the representation of Louis as a man and as king continued, as exemplified by the unnaturally young legs on which he stands in Riguad's painting of 1701.[67]

Versailles as power showcase

Palace at Versailles, 1722
.His great château at Versailles integrated gardens, interior design, and the iconography of the paintings to express a royal plan to visually represent the power of the absolute monarchy personified by Louis.^ Palace at Versailles, 1722 His great château at Versailles integrated gardens, interior design, and the iconography of the paintings to express a royal plan to visually represent the power of the absolute monarchy personified by Louis.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 17th century the power of the French king grew and grew and by the end of the 17th century France had an absolute monarchy.

^ Indeed, as Montesquieu wrote, “[Louis] established the greatness of France by building Versailles and Marly”.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Galerie des Glaces (Hall of Mirrors) at Versailles became the most prestigious section of the royal residence.^ The Galerie des Glaces (Hall of Mirrors) at Versailles became the most prestigious section of the royal residence.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In spite of all, the Duchesse de Berry could not be sobered, so that it became necessary to carry her, drunk as she was; to Versailles.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This was the most significant means by which the monarchy was mythicized before the Hall of Mirrors was created at Versailles.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Under the king's close supervision, Charles Le Brun (1619–90) finalized a political thematic decoration program for the hall in 1679 that retraces the important accomplishments of Louis's reign, ranging from his ascension to the throne to the War of Devolution (1667–68).^ The Wars of Louis XIV (1667-1714) .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under the king's close supervision, Charles Le Brun (1619-90) finalized a political thematic decoration program for the hall in 1679 that retraces the important accomplishments of Louis's reign, ranging from his ascension to the throne to the War of Devolution (1667-68).
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One need only look to Lettres Persanes by the socio-political thinker-commentator Montesquieu to observe the wealth and opulence in France at the end of Louis’s reign.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Decorative arches place emphasis on the significant events of the war in Holland.^ Decorative arches place emphasis on the significant events of the war in Holland.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The decorations, intended to demonstrate the king's grandeur, omit the defeats that his French army suffered and cover up the reality of the resulting Pyrrhic victory and the consequent responses of France's adversaries, which left Louis XIV's kingdom isolated.^ Louis XVI, king of France.
  • rulers.html 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.fidnet.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Louis XIV, king of France.
  • rulers.html 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.fidnet.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Greatness of Louis XIV: myth or reality?

Ballet

.The king loved ballet, and in the early years he danced regularly in court ballets.^ The king loved ballet, and in the early years he danced regularly in court ballets.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In court, the music to accompany ballets performed by the king was suitably majestic, and the lyrics conveyed his power and benevolence as patron of the arts.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He thought of no obstacle either on the part of the King or elsewhere, and declared that his Majesty would dance in a ballet.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.He performed four dancing roles in three of Molière's comédies-ballets (plays which were characterized by the inclusion of music and dance and written to be premiered before Louis XIV and his court): an Egyptian in "Le Mariage forcé" (1664), a Moorish Gentleman in "Le Sicilien" (1667) and Neptune and Apollo in "Les Amants magnifiques" (1670).^ Saint-Simon and the court of Louis XIV .
  • Versailles - Syllabus 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC faculty.cua.edu [Source type: General]

^ Louis XIV. was made for a brilliant Court.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis XIV prend le pouvoir : naissance d'un mythe?

.However, the court performances differed from subsequent stagings in public theaters in Paris.^ Silent precautions were not forgotten in Paris in order to check the public fury, the boiling over of which was feared at different moments.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But it made no difference in his respect, except with the public, with whom, however, he occupied himself but little.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All the Court, however, showed interest in this return, and Beringhen was consoled by the public welcome he received for his fatigue.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.In court, the music to accompany ballets performed by the king was suitably majestic, and the lyrics conveyed his power and benevolence as patron of the arts.^ A great patron of the arts, he was known as the Sun King for the splendour of his court.
  • Canada in the Making - Glossary 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.canadiana.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In court, the music to accompany ballets performed by the king was suitably majestic, and the lyrics conveyed his power and benevolence as patron of the arts.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The king loved ballet, and in the early years he danced regularly in court ballets.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Paris performances, these parts no longer stood out from those of other ballet performers.^ The King held out no longer.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I don't count those who were always near him, and who came to him when he could no longer leave his room.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some doubts were expressed about the authenticity of the correspondence when the mutilated edition of 1788 appeared; but these have long since subsided, and its genuineness is no longer questioned.
  • The Memoirs of Louis XIV. and the Regency, v1 by Elizabeth-Charlotte, Duchesse d'Orleans - Full Text Free Book 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.In fact, those plays that most overtly promoted Louis XIV's royal image were not performed at all outside the court.^ Saint-Simon and the court of Louis XIV .
  • Versailles - Syllabus 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC faculty.cua.edu [Source type: General]

^ Louis XIV. was made for a brilliant Court.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These valets during Louis XIV.'s reign were not less courted.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.These examples testify to Molière's readiness to adapt his plays according to the venue and the audience.^ These examples testify to Molière's readiness to adapt his plays according to the venue and the audience.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[68]

Piety

.Brought up to respect Catholicism, Louis was a pious and devout king.^ England to Roman Catholicism was possible, and could be brought about by his own efforts, backed up by the aid of the French King.

^ Besides this, the King had given me annually one thousand louis up to the year before the marriage of my son.
  • The Memoirs of Louis XIV. and the Regency, v1 by Elizabeth-Charlotte, Duchesse d'Orleans - Full Text Free Book 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is not astonishing that the King and Monsieur were brought up in ignorance.
  • The Memoirs of Louis XIV. and the Regency, v1 by Elizabeth-Charlotte, Duchesse d'Orleans - Full Text Free Book 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Seeing himself as the protector of the French Church, he made his devotions every day, wherever he was, following regularly the liturgical calendar.^ Seeing himself as the protector of the French Church, he made his devotions every day, wherever he was, following regularly the liturgical calendar.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The rapacity of the Queen and of her German followers made her very unpopular and prepared the way for the triumph of French influences in 1701.

^ From that moment the King always passed some hours with her every day of his life; wherever she might be she was always lodged near him, and on the same floor if possible.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.The royal religion, related and spread through the press, took place in the Chapelle Royale.^ The burial took place at Saint-Denis, the funeral procession passing through Paris, with the greatest pomp.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The news of this interview, and of what had taken place, soon spread through the chamber.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His Royal Highness alleged the pressing reasons which had induced him to secure the person of this ambassador, to examine his papers, and to place them under guard.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Ostentation was a distinguishing feature of the daily Masses, annual celebrations, like those of the Holy Week, and special ceremonies.[69] .Nevertheless, his informal alliance with the Ottoman Empire against the Habsburg Monarchy drew criticism on the grounds of aiding an Islamic empire against the forces of Christendom.^ In 1669, a Venetian embassy came to France to beg for aid against the Turks, who for more than two years had attacked Candia in overwhelming force.
  • Count Frontenac and New France under Louis XIV by Francis Parkman - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/7) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

[70]

Public opinion

.Alongside official images and the discourse emanating from the court, Frenchmen followed a nonofficial discourse comprised mainly of clandestine publications, popular songs, and rumors, which provided an alternative interpretation of the king and his government.^ Alongside official images and the discourse emanating from the court, Frenchmen followed a nonofficial discourse comprised mainly of clandestine publications, popular songs, and rumors, which provided an alternative interpretation of the king and his government.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the morrow, instead of flying the Court or holding his tongue, he excused himself by saying that the presence of the King had disconcerted him; and promised marvels for the ball which was to follow.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The traditional images of the king in majesty and the king at war persisted in official paintings and busts and in the almanacs that concertedly spread royal propaganda among the people at large.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They focused the miseries caused by bad government, but also carried the hope for a better future in the event that the king escaped the influence of his ministers and mistresses and took the government into his own hands.^ Though she was in name the servant of the King's mistress, she gained great influence with the King himself.

^ The king and his family took refuge and escaped harm.

^ In this manner are written all the letters that the King ought or wishes to write with his own hand, but which, nevertheless, he will not take the trouble to write.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.On the other hand, petitions addressed either directly to the king or to his ministers exploited the traditional imagery and language of the monarchy and king, while the numerous denouncers of fake conspiracies against the king sought to manipulate the weaknesses of the monarchical system for their own ends.^ Such was the weakness of the King for his ministers.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet the King was constantly on his guard, not only against Madame de Maintenon, but against his ministers also.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Then the King asked his opinion, and the minister, after touching upon other names, fixed upon the one he had selected.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.These varying images of the king abounded in self-contradictions that reflected the people's amalgamation of their everyday experiences with the ideal of the monarchy.^ These varying images of the king abounded in self-contradictions that reflected the people's amalgamation of their everyday experiences with the ideal of the monarchy.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At all these balls the King made people dance who had long since passed the age for doing so.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Marechal, piqued with these reiterated orders, which he considered as reflections upon his courage, determined to risk anything in order to satisfy the desire of the King.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[71]

Legacy

According to Philippe de Dangeau's Journal, on his deathbed, Louis allegedly said to the future Louis XV:
."Do not follow the bad example which I have set you; I have often undertaken war too lightly and have sustained it for vanity.^ "Do not follow the bad example which I have set you; I have often undertaken war too lightly and have sustained it for vanity.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you believe that the Site contains elements that infringe your copyrights in your work, please follow the procedures set forth in our Copyright Compliance Policy .
  • Louis XIV - Air Traffic Control | SPIKE 10 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

Do not imitate me, but be a peaceful prince, and may you apply yourself principally to the alleviation of the burdens of your subjects".[72]
.However, following the fashion of Baroque piety, Louis may have judged himself too harshly.^ However, following the fashion of Baroque piety, Louis may have judged himself too harshly.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orléans, however, would have Louis’s will annulled in the Parlement de Paris after his death and make himself sole Regent.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Louis commissioned over 300 formal portraits of himself; he also commissioned "war artists" to follow him on campaign and record his military triumphs on the spot.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[72] .He successfully placed a French prince on the Spanish throne, effectively ending the old Habsburg threat from across the Pyrenees; despite political instability, the Bourbons have survived and reign in Spain to this day.^ He successfully placed a French prince on the Spanish throne, effectively ending the old Habsburg threat from across the Pyrenees; despite political instability, the Bourbons have survived and reign in Spain to this day.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the Dutch captured Pondicherry , a French raid on the Spanish treasure port of Cartagena (in present-day Colombia) yielded a fortune of 10 000 000 livres.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then on 26 June 1794 the French army defeated the Austrians at Fleurus ending the military threat to France.

.His foreign, military and domestic expenditure bankrupted the State and may have contributed to the Revolution, though this is questionable given that his successors had over seventy years between his death and the Revolution to initiate preventative reforms.^ His foreign, military and domestic expenditure bankrupted the State and may have contributed to the Revolution , though this is questionable given that his successors had over seventy years between his death and the Revolution to initiate preventative reforms.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His reign, from 1643 to his death in 1715, lasted seventy-two years, three months, and eighteen days, and is the longest documented reign of any European monarch.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Upon his death just days before his seventy-seventh birthday, Louis was succeeded by his five-year-old great-grandson who became Louis XV .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[73] Moreover, it was the State, not the country, which was impoverished in Louis's time. .One need only look to Lettres Persanes by the socio-political thinker-commentator Montesquieu to observe the wealth and opulence in France at the end of Louis's reign.^ One need only look to Lettres Persanes by the socio-political thinker-commentator Montesquieu to observe the wealth and opulence in France at the end of Louis’s reign.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Louis XIV of France once commented that the only time he got hot > > > food was when he was in camp and with his army.
  • points to ponder - rec.food.cooking | Google Groups 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Louis XIV of France once commented that the only time he got hot food > > was when he was in camp and with his army.
  • points to ponder - rec.food.cooking | Google Groups 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[74]
Growth of France under Louis XIV (1643–1715)
.Whatever the case, however, Louis strengthened the Crown's authority over the traditional feudal elites, marking the beginning of the modern State.^ Growth of France under Louis XIV (1643–1715) Whatever the case, however, Louis strengthened the Crown’s authority over the traditional feudal elites, marking the beginning of the modern State.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Louis initially supported traditional Gallicanism , which limited papal authority in France, and convened an Assemblée du Clergé in November 1681.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Louis XIII was also an absolutist who, with the help of Cardinal Richelieu , worked to strengthen the powers of the French Crown at the expense of the aristocracy.
  • Canada in the Making - Glossary 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.canadiana.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He fought against several great European alliances, and often triumphed, presenting France ten new provinces, an overseas empire and the pre-eminent position in Europe.^ He fought against several great European alliances, and often triumphed, presenting France ten new provinces, an overseas empire and the pre-eminent position in Europe.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although crushed with pain, he had the satisfaction of thinking that he had consummated a great alliance, which would last after his death, and that it would strike the great blow against France, which he had projected.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As a believer in mercantilism , this included advancing French interests overseas by promoting the growth of colonies such as New France.
  • Canada in the Making - Glossary 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.canadiana.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These political and military victories along with numerous cultural achievements earned France the admiration of Europe for its power, success, sophistication, products, values, and way of life.^ These political and military victories along with numerous cultural achievements earned France the admiration of Europe for its power, success, sophistication, products, values, and way of life.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He succeeded then in inducing the Regent to sign a treaty with England, in every way, it may safely be said, advantageous to that power, and in no way advantageous to France.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While France had triumphed over Europe, in France itself the monarchy had triumphed over all rival powers, classes and organisations.

.Louis's reign eventually served as an example to Enlightenment Europe, and French became the lingua franca for the entire European elite, even to Romanov Russia.^ Louis’s reign eventually served as an example to Enlightenment Europe, and French became the lingua franca for the entire European elite, even to Romanov Russia .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ French Catholic leaders applauded, but Protestants across Europe were horrified, and even Pope Innocent XI , still arguing with Louis over Gallicanism, criticised the violence.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He agreed to surrender the entire Spanish empire to the Archduke, and even to return all that he gained over sixty years in his reign and revert to the frontiers of the Peace of Westphalia.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Indeed, as Montesquieu wrote, "[Louis] established the greatness of France by building Versailles and Marly".[75]
Saint-Simon, who claimed Louis slighted him, criticised him thus:
"There was nothing he liked so much as flattery, or, to put it more plainly, adulation; the coarser and clumsier it was, the more he relished it".
However, the anti-Bourbon Napoleon honoured Louis as "the only King of France worthy of the name" and "a great king".[76] Even the German Protestant philosopher Leibniz commended him as "one of the greatest kings that ever was"[77], and Lord Acton went so far as to describe Louis as "by far the ablest man who was born in modern times on the steps of a throne."[78] Finally, comparing Louis to Augustus, Voltaire, the apostle of the Enlightenment, dubbed his reign "an eternally memorable age" and "le Grand Siècle" (the "Great Century").

Quotes

.The phrase "L'État, c'est moi" ("I am the State") is frequently attributed to him, though considered an inaccuracy by historians.^ I suggested to him that Madame d'Orleans would be in a great state of uneasiness, and suggested that he should write to her; but he could not be persuaded to do it, though he promised.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The phrase " L'État, c'est moi " ("I am the State") is frequently attributed to him, though considered an inaccuracy by historians.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Absolutism was summed up by Louis XIV when he said 'L'etat c'est moi' (I am the state).

[79]
.Quite contrary to that apocryphal quote, Louis XIV is actually reported to have said on his death bed: "Je m'en vais, mais l'État demeurera toujours." ("I depart, but the State shall always remain").^ Death of Louis XIV .31 .

^ Ordonnance de Louys XIV roy de France et de Navarre donnée à S. Germain en Laye au mois d'avril [microform].

^ All power came from the King, and it was the fixed determination of Louis XIV that this fact should be recognised by all the officials of the State.

[80]

Style and arms

.Louis's formal style was "Louis XIV, par la grâce de Dieu, roi de France et de Navarre", or "Louis XIV, by the Grace of God, King of France and of Navarre". His arms were Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or (for France) impaling Gules on a chain in cross saltire and orle Or an emerald Proper (for Navarre).^ Louis XIV (France) (1638-1715) King of France from 1643 to 1715.
  • Canada in the Making - Glossary 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.canadiana.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His coat of arms were Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or (for France) impaling Gules on a chain in cross saltire and orle Or an emerald Proper (for Navarre) .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Louis XIV, King of France, 1638-1715.

Order of Saint Louis

.On 5 April 1693, Louis also founded the Royal and Military Order of Saint Louis (French: Ordre Royal et Militaire de Saint-Louis), a military Order of Chivalry.^ On 5 April 1693, Louis also founded the Royal and Military Order of Saint Louis ( French : Ordre Royal et Militaire de Saint-Louis ), a military Order of Chivalry .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While French Jesuits were found at the court of the Manchu Kangxi Emperor in China, Louis received the visit of a Chinese Jesuit, Michael Shen Fu-Tsung , by 1684.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Louis-César de Bourbon, comte de Vexin, abbé de Saint-Denis et de Saint-Germain-des-Prés .
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[81][82] .He named it after Louis IX and intended it as a reward for outstanding officers.^ He named it after Louis IX and intended it as a reward for outstanding officers.
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is notable as the first decoration that could be granted to non-nobles and is roughly the forerunner of the Légion d'honneur, with which it shares the red ribbon (though the Légion d'honneur is awarded to military personnel and civilians alike).^ It is notable as the first decoration that could be granted to non-nobles and is roughly the forerunner of the Légion d'honneur , with which it shares the red ribbon (though the Légion d'honneur is awarded to military personnel and civilians alike).
  • Louis XIV (King of France) (Pepys' Diary) 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No magistrate, however unimportant, could come to the Tuileries whom he did not himself go to with the news of the King and caresses; whilst to the first nobles he was inaccessible.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Ancestors

Issue

In fiction

.Alexandre Dumas portrayed Louis in novels, first as a child in Twenty Years After, then as a young man in The Vicomte de Bragelonne, in which he is a central character.^ Madame de Saint Geran was then in the first year of her mourning, so that the King did not think it necessary to include her among the interdicted; but he intimated that he did not approve of her.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The King summoned M. de Leon into his cabinet; but the young man pleaded his cause so well there, that he gained pity rather than condemnation.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At twenty he was made a captain in the cavalry; and the same year he married the beautiful daughter of the Marechal de Larges.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

French academic Jean-Yves Tadié argued that the latter novel really revolves around the beginning of Louis's personal rule.[83] Dumas's novel The Man in the Iron Mask recounts the legend that the mysterious prisoner was actually Louis's twin brother and has spawned numerous film adaptations.
.In 1910, the American historical novelist Charles Major wrote "The Little King: A Story of the Childhood of King Louis XIV".^ It is altogether singular in connection with a prince as serious and as imposing as Louis XIV.; and it is one of those little Court anecdotes which are curious.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A month after this a special courier arrived from the King and Queen of Spain, to thank the King (Louis XIV.) for his conduct towards the Princesse des Ursins.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The King (Louis XIV.) accepted, however, too late, a project he himself ought to have proposed and executed.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Louis is a major character in the 1959 historical novel "Angélique et le Roy" ("Angélique and the King"), part of the Angelique Series.^ In order to vanquish all these obstacles, the King applied to M. le Grand (Louis de Lorraine).
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He was at the part where the scoundrel shows M. le Duc d'Orleans having the design to poison the King, and quite ready to execute his crime.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The conversation was amiable on the part of the King, serious and respectful on the part of Catinat.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.The protagonist, a strong-willed lady at Versailles, rejects the King's advances and refuses to become his mistress.^ Madame de Maintenon actually caused the King to offer her apartments at Versailles, which she refused, for fear of losing the liberty she enjoyed at Meudon.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There was Mademoiselle de Fontange, who pleased the King sufficiently to become his mistress.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Two days after the defeated garrison had marched out, the King went to Dinant, to join the ladies, with whom he returned to Versailles.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

A later book, the 1961 "Angélique se révolte" ("Angélique in Revolt") details the dire consequences of her defying this powerful monarch.
A character based on Louis plays an important role in The Age of Unreason, a series of four alternate history novels written by American science fiction and fantasy author Gregory Keyes.
.While The Taking of Power by Louis XIV, directed by Roberto Rossellini in 1966, shows Louis's rise to power after the death of Cardinal Mazarin, Le Roi Danse (The King Dances), directed by Gérard Corbiau in 2000, reveals Louis through the eyes of Jean-Baptiste Lully, his court musician.^ Louis XIV. was made for a brilliant Court.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is altogether singular in connection with a prince as serious and as imposing as Louis XIV.; and it is one of those little Court anecdotes which are curious.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A month after this a special courier arrived from the King and Queen of Spain, to thank the King (Louis XIV.) for his conduct towards the Princesse des Ursins.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Julian Sands portrayed Louis in Roland Jaffe's Vatel in 2000.
.Louis features significantly in Neal Stephenson's Baroque Cycle, specifically The Confusion, the greater part of which takes place at Versailles.^ The audience lasted half an hour, and was principally occupied, on the part of the King and Queen, with compliments and expressions of joy at the marriages that were to take place.
  • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Notes

  1. ^ See List of Navarrese monarchs and their family tree.
  2. ^ "Louis XIV". MSN Encarta. 2008. Archived from the original on 2009-11-01. http://www.webcitation.org/query?id=1257052204396412. Retrieved 2008-01-20. 
  3. ^ a b c "Louis XIV". Catholic Encyclopedia. 2007. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09371a.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-19. 
  4. ^ (French)Brémond, Henri La Provence mystique au XVIIe siècle. Paris: Plon-Nourrit, 1908. pp. 381, 382.
  5. ^ François Bluche (translated by Mark Greengrass (1990). Louis XIV. New York: Franklin Watts. p. 11. 
  6. ^ (French) Carretier, Christian (1980). Les Cinq Cent Douze Quartiers de Louis XIV. Angers-Paris. )
  7. ^ Dunlop, Ian. "Louis XIV", p. xii, Pimlico London 2001.
  8. ^ Merryman, John Henry. "The Civil Law Tradition: An Introduction to the Legal Systems of Europe and Latin America", 2007 Stanford University Press.
  9. ^ Antoine, Michel, Louis XV, Fayard, Paris, 1989, p. 33
  10. ^ a b Louis de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon. "Historical Memoirs of the Duc de Saint-Simon, volume 1 1691-1709: The Court of Louis XIV". http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/17stsimon.html. Retrieved 2008-01-19. 
  11. ^ Dunlop, Ian. "Louis XIV", p. 242-251, Pimlico London 2001.
  12. ^ Dunlop, Ian. "Louis XIV", p. 247, Pimlico London 2001.
  13. ^ Bluche, François. "Louis XIV", p. 497, Hachette Litteratures, Paris (1986).
  14. ^ a b c d Buckley, Veronica. .Madame de Maintenon: The Secret Wife of Louis XIV.^ At Fontainebleau on the mornings when there was no council, the King usually passed from mass to Madame de Maintenon's, and so at Trianon and Marly.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Madame des Ursins did not like this arrangement, but as Madame de Maintenon insisted upon it, she was obliged to accept it with as good grace as possible.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He said to Madame de Maintenon that if she wished for more she had only to speak, and assured her he would protect Saint-Cyr.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    London: Bloomsbury, 2008
  15. ^ Dunlop, Ian. "Louis XIV", p. 54, Pimlico London 2001.
  16. ^ Lynn, John A. (1999). The Wars of Louis XIV (1667-1714). Longman New York. p.161-171.
  17. ^ Faroqhi, p.73 The Ottoman Empire and the World Around it
  18. ^ Bluche, François. "Louis XIV", p. 439, Hachette Litteratures, Paris (1986).
  19. ^ Keay, John. "The Honourable Company: A History of the English East India Company", p. 201-204, Harper Collins Publishers, London (1993).
  20. ^ Eastern Magnificence and European Ingenuity: Clocks of Late Imperial China - Page 182 by Catherine Pagani (2001) [1]
  21. ^ The Meeting of Eastern and Western Art Page 98 by Michael Sullivan (1989) ISBN 0520212363 [2]
  22. ^ Barnes, Linda L. (2005) Needles, Herbs, Gods, and Ghosts: China, Healing, and the West to 1848 Harvard University Press ISBN 0674018729, p.85
  23. ^ Mungello, David E. (2005) The Great Encounter of China and the West, 1500-1800 Rowman & Littlefield ISBN 074253815X, p.125
  24. ^ Lynn, John A. (1999). The Wars of Louis XIV (1667-1714). Longman New York. p.364. The number of years dropped from a high of around 50 years out of 101 between 1560 and 1660 (50%), to six years out of 55 during Louis' personal reign from 1661 to 1715 (11%), to no civil wars till the Revolution in 1789.
  25. ^ Meriman, John (1996). A History of Modern Europe. W.W. Norton & Company. p. 319. 
  26. ^ The Siege of Vienna by John Stoye, p.53
  27. ^ The Balkans since 1453 by Leften Stavros Stavrianos, p.171
  28. ^ "Morganatic and Secret Marriages in the French Royal Family". http://www.heraldica.org/topics/france/morganat.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-10. : The description of the marriage as morganatic is inaccurate as French law does not define such marriages.
  29. ^ For example, see Buckley, Veronica. .Madame de Maintenon: The Secret Wife of Louis XIV.^ At Fontainebleau on the mornings when there was no council, the King usually passed from mass to Madame de Maintenon's, and so at Trianon and Marly.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Madame des Ursins did not like this arrangement, but as Madame de Maintenon insisted upon it, she was obliged to accept it with as good grace as possible.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He said to Madame de Maintenon that if she wished for more she had only to speak, and assured her he would protect Saint-Cyr.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    London: Bloomsbury, 2008
  30. ^ Sturdy, David J. "Louis XIV", St Martin's Press, New York (1998), p. 89-99.
  31. ^ Sturdy, David J. "Louis XIV", St Martin's Press, New York (1998), p. 92-93.
  32. ^ Sturdy, David J. "Louis XIV", St Martin's Press, New York (1998), p. 96, citing Pillorget, "France Baroque, France Classique", i, 935.
  33. ^ Sturdy, David J. "Louis XIV", St Martin's Press, New York (1998), p. 96-97.
  34. ^ Bluche, François. "Louis XIV", p. 20-21, Hachette Litteratures, Paris (1986).
  35. ^ Columbia Encyclopedia (2007). "Louis XIV, king of France". http://www.bartleby.com/65/lo/Louis14Fr.html. Retrieved 2008-01-19. 
  36. ^ Sturdy, David J. "Louis XIV", St Martin's Press, New York (1998), p. 98, citing Scoville, W.C., "The Persection of Huguenots and French Economic Development, 1680-1720", Berkeley, 1960.
  37. ^ Durant, Will and Ariel. "The Story of Civilisation (Volume 8): The Age of Louis XIV", Simon & Schuster, New York (1963), p. 691.
  38. ^ Lynn, John A. (1999). The Wars of Louis XIV (1667-1714). Longman New York, p.192.
  39. ^ Dunlop, Ian. "Louis XIV", p. 313, Pimlico London 2001.
  40. ^ Lynn, John A. (1999). The Wars of Louis XIV (1667-1714). Longman New York, p.189-191.
  41. ^ Lynn, John A. (1999). The Wars of Louis XIV (1667-1714). Longman New York, p.192-193.
  42. ^ a b Lynn, John A. (1999). The Wars of Louis XIV (1667-1714). Longman New York.
  43. ^ Lynn, John A. (1999). The Wars of Louis XIV (1667-1714). Longman New York, p. 232.
  44. ^ Lynn, John A. (1999). The Wars of Louis XIV (1667-1714). Longman New York, p. 253.
  45. ^ Bluche, François. "Louis XIV", p. 653, Hachette Litteratures, Paris (1986).
  46. ^ Lossky, Andrew. "Louis XIV and the French Monarchy", New Brunswick, New Jersey (1994), p. 255
  47. ^ Lynn, John A. (1999). The Wars of Louis XIV (1667-1714). Longman New York, p. 256.
  48. ^ Lynn, John A. (1999). The Wars of Louis XIV (1667-1714). Longman New York. p.267.
  49. ^ a b Dunlop, Ian. "Louis XIV", p. 353, Pimlico London 2001.
  50. ^ a b Lynn, John A. (1999). The Wars of Louis XIV (1667-1714). Longman New York. p.268.
  51. ^ Kamen, Henry. (2001) Philip V of Spain: The King who Reigned Twice, Yale University Press, p. 6. ISBN 0300087187.
  52. ^ Dunlop, Ian. "Louis XIV", p. 358, Pimlico London 2001.
  53. ^ Lynn, John A. (1999). The Wars of Louis XIV (1667-1714). Longman New York. p.269, see footnote 1.
  54. ^ Lynn, John A. (1999). The Wars of Louis XIV (1667-1714). Longman New York. p.269-270.
  55. ^ Merriman, John (1996). A History of Modern Europe. W.W. Norton & Company. p. 321. 
  56. ^ Ó Gráda, Cormac; Chevet, Jean-Michel (2002). "Famine And Market In Ancient Régime France". The Journal of Economic History 62: 706–733. doi:10.1017/S0022050702001055.  [3]
  57. ^ Lynn, John A. (1999). The Wars of Louis XIV (1667-1714). Longman New York, p. 326.
  58. ^ Lynn, John A. (1999). The Wars of Louis XIV (1667-1714). Longman New York, p. 334.
  59. ^ Lynn, John A. (1999). The Wars of Louis XIV (1667-1714). Longman New York, p. 342.
  60. ^ Lynn, John A. (1999). The Wars of Louis XIV (1667-1714). Longman New York, p. 356-360.
  61. ^ Dunlop, Ian. "Louis XIV", p. 468, Pimlico London 2001.
  62. ^ Dunlop, Ian. "Louis XIV", p. 454-455, Pimlico London 2001.
  63. ^ Antoine, Michel. "Louis XV", p. 33-37, Hachette Litteratures, Paris (1997).
  64. ^ Burke, Peter (1992), "The fabrication of Louis XIV", History Today 42 (2) 
  65. ^ Sabatier, Gérard (2000), "La Gloire du Roi: Iconographie de Louis XIV de 1661 a 1672", Histoire, Economie et Société 19 (4): 527–560 .
  66. ^ See also Schmitter, Amy M. (2002), "Representation and the Body of Power in French Academic Painting", Journal of the History of Ideas 63 (3): 399–424, ISSN 0022-5037, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3654315 
  67. ^ Perez, Stanis (2003), "Les Rides D'apollon: L'evolution Des Portraits de Louis XIV", Revue D'histoire Moderne et Contemporaine 50 (3): 62–95, ISSN 0048-8003 
  68. ^ Prest, Julia (2001), "Dancing King: Louis XIV's Roles in Molière's Comedies-ballets, from Court to Town", Seventeenth Century 16 (2): 283–298, ISSN 0268-117x . Fulltext: Ebsco
  69. ^ Sébastien Gaudelus, "La Mise en Spectacle De La Religion Royale: Recherches sur la Devotion de Louis XIV", Histoire, Economie et Société 2000 19(4): 513-526.
  70. ^ The history of England from the accession of James II p. 303 Thomas Babington Macaulay Macaulay, Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, & Green, 1864.
  71. ^ Jens Ivo Engels, "Denigrer, Esperer, Assumer La Realite. Le Roi de France perçu par ses Sujets, 1680-1750" ["Disparaging, Hoping, Taking on Reality: the French King as Perceived by His Subjects, 1680-1750"]. Revue D'histoire Moderne et Contemporaine 2003 50(3): 96-126.
  72. ^ a b Bluche, François. "Louis XIV", p. 890, Hachette Litteratures, Paris (1986).
  73. ^ Bluche, François. "Louis XIV", p. 506 & 877-878,Hachette Litteratures, Paris (1986).
  74. ^ Bluche, François. "Louis XIV", p. 876, Hachette Litteratures, Paris (1986).
  75. ^ Dunlop, Ian. "Louis XIV", p. 433, Pimlico London 2001.
  76. ^ Napoleon Bonaparte, Napoleon's Notes on English History made on the Eve of the French Revolution, illustrated from Contemporary Historians and referenced from the findings of Later Research by Henry Foljambe Hall. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., 1905, 258.
  77. ^ Bluche, François. "Louis XIV", p. 926, Hachette Litteratures, Paris (1986).
  78. ^ Durant, Will and Ariel. "The Story of Civilisation (Volume 8): The Age of Louis XIV", Simon & Schuster, New York (1963), p. 721.
  79. ^ Charles Bremner, Times Blogs. "Things French kings never said". http://timescorrespondents.typepad.com/charles_bremner/2009/11/things-french-kings-never-said.html. Retrieved 2009-11-29. 
  80. ^ (French) Marquis de Dangeau. "Mémoire sur la mort de Louis XIV (on page 24)". http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k55404p.image.r=M%C3%A9moire+sur+la+mort+de+Louis+XIV.f27.langFR. Retrieved 2009-11-29. 
  81. ^ Hamilton, Walter. "Dated Book-plates (Ex Libris) with a Treatise on Their Origin", P37. Published 1895. A.C. Black
  82. ^ Edmunds, Martha. "Piety and Politics", P274. 2002. University of Delaware Press. ISBN 0874136938
  83. ^ J-Y Tadié's annotations to The Vicomte de Bragelonne, Gallimard, 1997

Further reading

  • Acton, J. E. E., 1st Baron. (1906). .Lectures on Modern History. London: Macmillan and Co.
  • Ashley, Maurice P. Louis XIV And The Greatness Of France (1965) excerpt and text search
  • Beik, William.^ Louis XIV. took great pains to be well informed of all that passed everywhere; in the public places, in the private houses, in society and familiar intercourse.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    Louis XIV and Absolutism: A Brief Study with Documents (2000) excerpt and text search
  • Beik, William. "The Absolutism of Louis XIX as Social Collaboration." .Past & Present 2005 (188): 195-224. Issn: 0031-2746 Fulltext online at OUP
  • Bluche, François, Louis XIV, Paris: Hachette Littératures, 1986. (English translation by Mark Greengrass; published in 1990 by Franklin Watts.^ These disturbances over, and Louis XIV. being married, my father came again to Paris, where he had many friends.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    )
  • Buckley, Veronica. .Madame de Maintenon: The Secret Wife of Louis XIV.^ At Fontainebleau on the mornings when there was no council, the King usually passed from mass to Madame de Maintenon's, and so at Trianon and Marly.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Madame des Ursins did not like this arrangement, but as Madame de Maintenon insisted upon it, she was obliged to accept it with as good grace as possible.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He said to Madame de Maintenon that if she wished for more she had only to speak, and assured her he would protect Saint-Cyr.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    London: Bloomsbury, 2008
  • Burke, Peter. The Fabrication of Louis XIV (1994) excerpt and text search
  • Cambridge Modern History: Vol. .5 The Age Of Louis XIV (1908), old, solid articles by scholars; complete text online
  • Carretier, Christian, "Les cinq cent douze quartiers de Louis XIV", Angers-Paris, 1980
  • Chaline, Olivier, Le règne de Louis XIV (Paris: Flammarion, 2005)
  • Church, William F. (ed.^ The Val de Grace was chosen for the consecration as being a royal monastery, the most magnificent of Paris, and the most singular church.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A month after this a special courier arrived from the King and Queen of Spain, to thank the King (Louis XIV.) for his conduct towards the Princesse des Ursins.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ M. le Prince de Conti died February 22, aged not quite forty-five.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ). .The Greatness of Louis XIV.^ Louis XIV. took great pains to be well informed of all that passed everywhere; in the public places, in the private houses, in society and familiar intercourse.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    London: D.C. Heath and Company, 1972.
  • Cronin, Vincent. Louis XIV. London: HarperCollins, 1996 (ISBN 0002720728)
  • Dunlop, Ian. Louis XIV (2000), 512pp excerpt and text search
  • Erlanger, Philippe, Louis XIV, translated from the French by Stephen Cox, Praeger Publishers, New York, 1970, (English).
  • Fraser, Antonia. .Love and Louis XIV: The Women in the Life of the Sun King.^ A month after this a special courier arrived from the King and Queen of Spain, to thank the King (Louis XIV.) for his conduct towards the Princesse des Ursins.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The King (Louis XIV.) accepted, however, too late, a project he himself ought to have proposed and executed.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The King (Louis XIV.) was satisfied with the success of his plans.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0-297-82997-1); New York: Nan A. Talese, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0385509847)
  • Goubert, Pierre. Louis XIV and Twenty Million Frenchmen (1972), social history from Annales School
  • Goyau, G. (1910). "Louis XIV". The Catholic Encyclopedia. (Volume IX). New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  • Holt, Mack P., "Louis XIV." The New Book of Knowledge. .Scholastic Library Publishing, 2005.
  • Lewis, W. H. The Splendid Century: Life in the France of Louis XIV (1953) excerpt and text search; also online complete edition
  • Le Roy Ladurie, Emmanuel.^ The reign of Louis XIV. was approaching its conclusion, so that there is now nothing more to relate but what passed during the last month of his life, and scarcely so much.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    The Ancien Regime: A History of France 1610 - 1774 (1999), survey by leader of the Annales School excerpt and text search
  • Lynn, John A. The Wars of Louis XIV, 1667-1714 (1999) excerpt and text search
  • Mitford, Nancy. The Sun King(1995), popular excerpt and text search
  • Rowlands, Guy. .The Dynastic State and the Army under Louis XIV: Royal Service and Private Interest, 1661-1701 (2002) online edition
  • Rubin, David Lee, ed.^ There is no doubt that Des Noyers, Secretary of State under Louis XIII., was of this number, or that many others have been so too.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Louis XIV. took great pains to be well informed of all that passed everywhere; in the public places, in the private houses, in society and familiar intercourse.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And no one knew who was to be the real successor of Louis XIV., and how under the next government we were to be still more overwhelmed than under this one.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Sun King: The Ascendancy of French Culture during the Reign of Louis XIV.^ A month after this a special courier arrived from the King and Queen of Spain, to thank the King (Louis XIV.) for his conduct towards the Princesse des Ursins.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The King (Louis XIV.) accepted, however, too late, a project he himself ought to have proposed and executed.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The King (Louis XIV.) was satisfied with the success of his plans.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    Washington: Folger Books and Cranbury: Associated University Presses, 1992.
  • Shennan, J. H. Louis XIV (1993) online edition
  • Thompson, Ian. The Sun King's Garden: Louis XIV, André Le Nôtre And the Creation of the Gardens of Versailles. London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 1582346313).
  • Wilkinson, Rich. Louis XIV (2007)
  • Wolf, John B. Louis XIV (1968), the standard scholarly biography online edition

External links

External links

.
  • Chronology Louis XIV
  • Full text of marriage contract (PDF), France National Archives transcription (French)
  • "Le siècle de Louis XIV" by Voltaire, 1751
  • List of films dedicated to Louis XIV and period ("Louis XIV - the Sun King: Louis XIV - the Sun King".^ Being no longer able to dwell in England he came to France, where he occupied himself always with the same line of business, and was paid for that by the King (Louis XIV.) and by King James, the latter of whom he unceasingly sought to re- establish.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He particularly asked after the King, M. le Duc d'Orleans, and Mademoiselle de Montpensier, to whom he was to be betrothed.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Princesse des Ursins was, as it were, both French and Spanish—French by birth, Spanish by marriage.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Louis-xiv.de.^ A month after this a special courier arrived from the King and Queen of Spain, to thank the King (Louis XIV.) for his conduct towards the Princesse des Ursins.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The King (Louis XIV.), was infinitely alarmed; and Madame de Maintenon, who had twice tried to be proclaimed Queen and twice failed, was distracted with jealousy.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Appointment of the Duke of Berwick.—Deception Practised by Orry.—Anger of Louis XIV.—Dismissal of Madame des Ursins.—Her Intrigues to Return.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    .http://www.louis-xiv.de/index.php?t=films&a=films.^ A month after this a special courier arrived from the King and Queen of Spain, to thank the King (Louis XIV.) for his conduct towards the Princesse des Ursins.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The King (Louis XIV.), was infinitely alarmed; and Madame de Maintenon, who had twice tried to be proclaimed Queen and twice failed, was distracted with jealousy.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Appointment of the Duke of Berwick.—Deception Practised by Orry.—Anger of Louis XIV.—Dismissal of Madame des Ursins.—Her Intrigues to Return.
    • Memoirs of Louis XIV., by The Duke of Saint-Simon 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    Retrieved August 31, 2008
    . ) Of particular interest: Documentary on Versailles—The Visit.

Louis XIV of France
Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty
Born: 5 September 1638 Died: 1 September 1715
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Louis XIII
King of France and Navarre
14 May 1643 – 1 September 1715
Succeeded by
Louis XV
French royalty
Preceded by
Louis XIII
Dauphin of France
5 September 1638 – 14 May 1643
Succeeded by
Louis
"le Grand Dauphin"
Preceded by
Gaston, Duke of Orléans
Heir to the Throne
as Heir apparent
5 September 1638 — 14 May 1643
Succeeded by
Philippe I, Duke of Orléans

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Louis XIV of France
.Louis XIV of France (baptised as Louis-Dieudonné) (5 September 16381 September 1715) ruled as King of France and of the Navarre from 1643. Louis established the French absolute monarchy and made France the main political power in western Europe in his time.^ II.2 Absolutism France saw the culmination of absolute monarchy during Louis XIV's reign.
  • WHKMLA : Paris from Louis XIV to Louis XVI 10 January 2010 23:28 UTC www.zum.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis XVI, king of France.
  • rulers.html 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.fidnet.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Louis XIV (baptized as Louis-Dieudonn, "Louis-God-given") ruled as King of France and of Navarre.
  • Louis XIV of France 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC hoocher.com [Source type: Original source]

Sourced

.
  • Il n'y a plus de Pyrénées.
    • The Pyrenees have ceased to exist.^ On l'appelait "Black Boy" - il existe maints pubs en Angleterre de ce nom.

      ^ "Il n'y a plus de Pyrénées."
      • French History of the Bourbon Dynasty 28 January 2010 0:21 UTC www.bonjourlafrance.com [Source type: Original source]

      .
      • On his grandson becoming King of Spain, quoted in Voltaire, Siecle de Louis XIV (1751), ch.28
  • Je m'en vais, mais l'État demeurera toujours.
    • I am going away, but the State will always remain.^ Louis Philippe becomes king.

      ^ Louis XIII dies, and Louis XIV,