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Louis XV
King of France and Navarre
Louis XV bearing the cross of the Order of the Holy Spirit, by Louis-Michel van Loo
Reign 1 September 1715 – 10 May 1774
Coronation 25 October 1722, Reims
Predecessor Louis XIV
Successor Louis XVI
Spouse Maria Leszczyńska
Issue
Louise-Élisabeth, Duchess of Parma
Henriette-Anne de France
Marie-Louise de France
Louis, Dauphin of France
Marie Adélaïde de France
Victoire-Louise de France
Sophie-Philippine de France
Félicité de France
Louise-Marie de France
Father Louis, Dauphin of France
Mother Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy
Born 15 February 1710(1710-02-15)
Palace of Versailles, France
Died 10 May 1774 (aged 64)
Palace of Versailles, France
Burial Saint Denis Basilica, Saint-Denis, France

Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774) ruled as King of France and of Navarre from 1 September 1715 until his death on 10 May 1774. Coming to the throne at the age of five, Louis initially reigned with the aid of the Régent, Philippe, duc d'Orléans (Louis' great-uncle). Cardinal Fleury headed the government until his death in 1743, when Louis took over control of the state.

Unexpectedly surviving the death of most of the royal family between 1711-1715, which saw the deaths of Louis XIV and the three following members of the line of succession, Louis XV enjoyed a favorable reputation at the beginning of his reign and earned the epithet "le Bien-Aimé" ("the Beloved"). In time, the debauchery of his court, the return of the Austrian Netherlands (which was gained following the Battle of Fontenoy) at Aix-la-Chapelle, and the cession of New France at the conclusion of the Seven Years' War led Louis to become one of the most unpopular kings in the history of France. He was succeeded by his grandson Louis XVI.

His ill-advised financial policies damaged the power of France, weakened the treasury, discredited the monarchy, and led to the French Revolution which broke out 15 years after his death.[1]

Contents

Early life

Birth

Louis as a young child.

Louis XV was born in the Palace of Versailles on 15 February 1710, during the reign of his great-grandfather Louis XIV, to the eldest surviving son of Louis, le Grand Dauphin, that is Louis, duc de Bourgogne and his wife, Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy. At birth, he received the customary title of younger sons, the "duc d'Anjou". Moreover, as a great-grandson of the reigning king, he was a "Petit-Fils de France".

Louis, le Grand Dauphin, the only surviving legitimate son of Louis XIV, had, with his wife, Marie-Anne-Victoire de Bavière, three sons, the duc de Bourgogne (Louis XV's father), Philippe, duc d'Anjou (who became King of Spain) and Charles, duc de Berry.

Louis' mother, Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy was the eldest daughter of Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy and Anne-Marie d'Orléans. Through her mother, Marie-Adélaïde was the granddaughter of Philippe I, duc d'Orléans, the younger brother of Louis XIV, and was the second cousin of her husband, Louis, duc de Bourgogne. She was betrothed to him by the Treaty of Turin in 1695, and they married on 7 December 1697. Marie-Adélaïde was a very lively young woman who reminded Louis XIV of his earlier days and of whom he was consequently very fond. Her youth and vivacity had revitalized and rejuvenated the Court of the aging King, and she had become the centre of attraction in Versailles.

Early years

This recent marriage, combined with a royal family that had produced six male heirs in three generations (one son, three grandsons, and two great-grandsons from his oldest grandson), seemed to ensure the prospects of the House of Bourbon and the line of succession. The vitality of the French royal line at the time is shown by Louis XIV's statement that he was the first King of France to have, while still healthy and capable of ruling on his own, a great-grandson born to him.

However, subsequent events caused a number of members of the French royal family to be removed from the picture. In 1700, Philippe, duc d'Anjou, Louis' uncle, became King of Spain as Philip V, inheriting the crown through the claims of his grandmother, Marie-Thérèse d'Autriche, wife of Louis XIV and a Spanish princess. Upon his accession, Louis XIV had perfunctorily confirmed in the Parlement of Paris Philip V's rights to the French throne, which as a matter of France's Ancien Régime constitutional laws of succession could not be altered or removed. As a result, European fears of a Franco-Spanish union had increased and the War of the Spanish Succession had occurred. The war had not been proceeding smoothly for France and the chances of peace on terms allowing Philip V to govern Spain while at the same time retaining his right to the French throne were slight. These chances would appear even worse as a result of the events of 1711–12.

In April 1711, the Grand Dauphin suddenly died, making the duc de Bourgogne the new Dauphin. This, in itself, while unfortunate, was not great cause for concern since the duc de Bourgogne still had two sons, Louis, duc de Bretagne and the future Louis XV. This changed less than a year later when Marie-Adélaïde contracted smallpox (or measles) and died on 12 February 1712. Her husband, who had reputedly remained by her side all through her sickness, was heartbroken by the death of his wife and died before the end of the week of the same disease. Within a week of his death, it was clear that the couple's two children had been infected. The elder son, the duc de Bretagne, was repeatedly treated by bloodletting in an effort to save him. This effort was unsuccessful and he died on 8 March 1712. His younger brother, the duc d'Anjou, was personally treated by his governess, Madame de Ventadour, who forbade any bloodletting. Finally, the duc de Berry, youngest son of le Grand Dauphin and, after the death of his elder brother, the likely regent of the latest Dauphin, died in a 1714 hunting accident.

As a result of these deaths, the fate of the dynasty now lay in the survival of a four-year-old child. The death of this child would leave Louis XIV with two possible successors: Philip V or Philippe II, duc d'Orléans, the nephew of Louis XIV and the first cousin of the late Grand Dauphin. However, Philip V had, as a result of the Treaty of Utrecht, renounced all rights to the French succession. Nevertheless. Phillip V claimed that, according to the French Law of Succession, any legitimate descendant of Hugh Capet could not be deprived of his rights to the throne. Because most European powers at the time saw the direct union of Frace and Spain under one ruler as a significant threat, the prospect of such a union threatened to unleash another European war in addition to a civil war in France.

As a young child Louis XV was made aware of the heavy responsibility that rested on his shoulders. He was now an orphan, with no surviving siblings, no legitimate uncles or aunts except for Philip V, and no legitimate first cousins (except those in Madrid). His only close relation was the duc d'Orléans, Louis XIV's nephew.

Louis XIV

La Régence

On 1 September 1715, Louis XIV died of gangrene after having reigned for 72 years. In August 1714, he made a will which granted a prominent role in the anticipated regency to his sons by his mistress, Madame de Montespan: Louis-Auguste de Bourbon, duc du Maine and Louis-Alexandre de Bourbon, comte de Toulouse, who had been legitimated at the insistence of Louis's second wife, Françoise d'Aubigné, marquise de Maintenon.

Louis XIV's will

Anointing of Louis XV.

The will enhanced the positions of Toulouse and the elder son, Maine, at the expense of the man who was expected to become regent and rule France until Louis XV reached adulthood, Philippe d'Orléans, son of Louis XIV's younger brother. The will stipulated that until the new king reached the age of majority, the nation was to be governed by a Regency Council made up of fourteen members. Philippe d'Orléans was named president of the council, but all decisions were to be taken by majority vote. The composition of the council, including Maine, Toulouse, and various members of Louis XIV's administration, meant that Orléans was often outvoted.

The content of the will had become known before Louis XIV died, and the various factions had already begun the process of gaining supporters. Orléans enjoyed the support of many amongst the old sword nobility (noblesse d'épée), descending from medieval knights, as opposed to the noblesse de robe, the new aristocracy of recently ennobled lawyers and civil servants. Louis XIV had often excluded the noblesse d'épée from government in favour of commoners from the bourgeoisie who often entered the noblesse de robe and whom he could control better. Thus the noblesse d'épée yearned for a change of policy more favourable to them, and were greatly displeased with the legitimisation of Maine and Toulouse, which they regarded as an affront to the traditional rules of inheritance.

The Parlement of Paris, another political entity which Louis XIV had shut out of power, also supported the Orléans regency and hoped that a change of course in the government would increase its influence. Religion was also a factor. Madame de Maintenon was a supporter of the Jesuits, the Pope, and the Pope's controversial Bull Unigenitus, which was a 1713 papal bull directed against the Jansenists, a Catholic group popular in France who were deemed to have Protestant tendencies. Orléans, by contrast, was supported by the Jansenists and the Gallicans (French Catholics who wanted their church to be more independent from Rome) who hoped he would dislodge the Jesuit-Papist group from power after his accession to the regency.

Philippe d'Orléans

The regent, Philippe d'Orléans.

In the final weeks before his death, Louis XIV arrived at a reconciliation with his nephew Philippe d'Orléans. Bidding adieu to the closest courtiers and ministers on 26 August, Louis told them:

Always obey the orders my nephew Philippe d'Orléans will give you; he will govern the kingdom"².

During the days prior to the king's death, Philippe d'Orléans met with and made promises to various aristocrats, clergymen, and members of the Parlement of Paris to secure their support. He promised the aristocrats places on the new government councils he intended to form, which would be known as the polysynody; he assured Jansenists and Gallicans he would be lenient regarding Unigenitus; and he promised the Parlement he would restore the right of remonstrance (the right to criticize and delay royal edicts), which had been taken away from the Parlement by Louis XIV in 1673.

On 2 September, the day after Louis XIV died, there was a special session of the Parlement of Paris. It was attended not only by the magistrates who were usually there, but also by the peers and princes of the blood. The king's will was read, and the future of the government decided. Philippe d'Orléans addressed the assembly. He stated his claim to the regency, and asked that he be given full power. He mentioned the recent conversation he had with Louis in which the king had stated that he would govern. He reminded those present of the arrangements he had negotiated with them over the preceding days.

The Parlement responded positively to these arguments. As a result, he was granted the right to choose his own Regency Council. Thus the king's written will was to a large extent nullified, and Philippe d'Orléans became regent. In exchange, the Parlement recovered its right of remonstrance. This court coup was recorded in detail by Saint-Simon. Orléans also made the important symbolic decision to relocate the government to Paris, and disbanded the court in Versailles.

The regent conducted affairs of state from his Parisian palace, the Palais Royal. The young Louis XV was moved to the modern lodgings attached to the medieval fortress of Vincennes, located 7 km/4.5 miles east of Paris in the Forest of Vincennes, where the air was deemed more wholesome and healthy than in Paris. But, a few weeks later, as the severity of winter fell upon Vincennes, the young king was moved to the Tuileries Palace, in the center of Paris, near the Palais Royal.

Louis XV as a child in coronation robes, portrait by Hyacinthe Rigaud

Youth

In keeping with French royal tradition, that princes should be put in the care of men when they reached their seventh birthdays, Louis was separated from his governess, Madame de Ventadour, in February 1717, and placed in the care of the duc de Villeroi, who had been designated as his governor in Louis XIV's will of August 1714.³ The duc de Villeroi served under the formal authority of the duc du Maine, who was charged with overseeing the king's education. He was aided by André-Hercule de Fleury (later to become Cardinal de Fleury), who served as the king's tutor.[citation needed]

As his tutor Fleury gave him an excellent education. Louis was taught by renowned professors such as the geographer Guillaume Delisle.[citation needed] Louis XV had a curious and open-minded personality. He was an avid reader, and he developed eclectic tastes. Later in life Louis XV advocated the creation of departments in physics (1769) and mechanics (1773) at the Collège de France.[citation needed]

During the Régence, Philippe d'Orléans, in keeping with his promises, favoured the nobility (aristocrats) who had been deprived of power during the reign of Louis XIV.[citation needed] He established the so-called polysynody (15 September 1715), a short-lived structure of councils that gave the aristocracy more input in decisionmaking.[citation needed] He concluded an alliance with Great Britain and the Netherlands in 1717 (Triple Alliance) in an effort to prevent Philip V of Spain from claiming the crown of France should the young Louis XV die.[citation needed]

Confronted with a total lack of expertise amongst the aristocracy in government affairs, the regent reverted to the monarchical organisation of government that existed under Louis XIV and, by 1718, reinstated secretaries of state. Cardinal Dubois, close confidant of the regent, was made prime minister in 1722.[citation needed] In an attempt to replenish the French treasury, the regency tried a number of original financial experiments, notable amongst which was the famous inflationary scheme of John Law.[citation needed] The bursting of the speculative bubble fueled by Law's system brought about the ruin of many aristocrats.[citation needed]

Betrothal and Marriage controversy

Infanta Mariana Victoria of Spain, to whom Louis was engaged.

In 1721, Louis XV was betrothed to his first cousin, Infanta Mariana Victoria of Spain. The eleven-year-old king was not interested in the arrival of his future wife, the three-year-old Spanish Infanta. In June 1722, the young king and the court returned to Versailles, where they would stay until the end of the reign. In October of the same year, Louis XV was officially crowned in Reims Cathedral.

Louis XV as an adolescent, portrait by Alexis Simon Belle (ca. 1723).

On 15 February 1723, the king's majority was declared by the Parlement of Paris. This ended the Regency. Initially, Louis XV left the duc d'Orléans in charge of state affairs. The duc d'Orléans was made first minister on the death of Cardinal Dubois in August 1723, and he himself died in December of the same year. Following the advice of Fleury, Louis XV appointed his cousin, Louis Henri, duc de Bourbon, to replace the late duc d'Orléans.

The duc de Bourbon was worried by the health of the young king. His primary motivation was a desire to prevent the family of the late regent, the House of Orléans, from ascending the throne should the king die. The duc de Bourbon saw the House of Orléans as his enemy. The king was quite frail, and several alerts led to concern for his life. The Spanish infanta was too young to produce an heir. Thus, the duc de Bourbon set about choosing a European princess old enough to produce an heir.

Marriage

Queen Marie Leszczyńska with the dauphin Louis, by Alexis Simon Belle (1730)

Eventually, the twenty-one year old Maria Leszczyńska, daughter of Stanisław Leszczyński, the deposed King of Poland was chosen. An impoverished and plain-looking princess who had followed her father's misfortunes, she was nonetheless said to be virtuous. In addition, she was from a royal family which had never intermarried with the French royal family. The relatively low status of her father would also ensure that the marriage would not cause diplomatic embarrassment to France by having to choose one royal court over another. The marriage was celebrated in September 1725.

Louis's marriage to Marie Leszczyńska produced many children, but the king was persistently (and notoriously) unfaithful. Some of his mistresses, such as Madame de Pompadour and Madame du Barry, are as well-known as the king himself, and his affairs with three Mailly-Nesle sisters are documented by the formal agreements into which he entered. In his later years, Louis developed a penchant for young girls, keeping several at a time in a personal seraglio known as the Parc aux Cerfs ("Deer Park"), one of whose inhabitants, Marie-Louise O'Murphy, was immortalised in a painting by Boucher. Scandalous rumours spread across France, in which it was alleged that the king bathed in the blood of virgins and had ninety illegitimate children.

Legitimate children of Louis XV and Marie Leszczyńska

Name Birth Death Notes
Louise-Elisabeth de France 14 August 1727 6 December 1759 Duchess of Parma, had issue
Henriette-Anne de France 14 August 1727 10 February 1752 died unmarried, no issue.
Marie-Louise de France 28 July 1728 19 February 1733 died in childhood
Louis, Dauphin of France 4 September 1729 20 December 1765 married, had issue
Philippe de France 30 August 1730 17 April 1733 died in childhood
Adélaïde de France 23 March 1732 27 February 1800 died unmarried, no issue
Victoire-Louise de France 11 May 1733 7 June 1799 died unmarried, no issue
Sophie-Philippine de France 17 July 1734 3 March 1782 died unmarried, no issue
Stillborn Child 28 March 1735 28 March 1735 born dead
Marie-Thérèse-Félicité de France 16 May 1736 28 September 1744 died in childhood
Louise-Marie de France 5 July 1737 23 December 1787 was a nun, died unmarried, no issue


Louis XV had several illegitimate children:

A daughter with Marie-Louise O'Murphy:

  • Agathe Louise de Saint-Antoine (1754–1774).[2]

He also served as stepfather to Madame de Pompadour's only child:

Palace politics

His first ministry was headed by Louis Henri, Duke of Bourbon, who was displaced by the king's tutor, Cardinal André de Fleury, in 1725, and on the latter's death in 1743, Louis assumed personal control of the government.

In practice the king's several mistresses exercised the dominant influence in selecting or removing his ministers of state. The most famous of Louis' mistresses were Marie Anne de Maillynesle, Duchess of Châteauroux; the Irish woman Louisa O'Murphy (1736-1815, mistress 1752-55)[3]; Jeanne Antoinette Poisson, Marquise de Pompadour (called Madame de Pompadour, the mistress from 1745 to her death in 1756); and Marie Jeanne Bécu, Comtesse du Barry.

The Triumvirate arose in 1771, when Louis XV banished the Duc de Choiseul (1719-85), Minister for Foreign Affairs from 1758, and reshuffled the cabinet. René Nicolas de Maupeou (1714-92) was appointed Chancellor of France and Minister of Justice, Joseph Marie Terray (1715-78) became Minister of Finance, and the Duc d' Aiguillon (1720-88), Minister for Foreign Affairs. They fought against the Parlements and had the judiciary run by the Council of State. Louis XVI restored the Parlements and removed the triumvirs from their posts.

Behind the splendor and glitter of 18th-century Versailles existed a contentious and dangerous hotbed of royal family politics. Throughout the second half of his reign, Louis XV experienced opposition and intrigue from his children, particularly his son Louis (the dauphin) and his eldest surviving daughter Adélaïde. Fortunately for the king, this intrigue of family politics took place within the environs of Versailles, an environment that was his to control. Louis XV was able to use this palatial space to oversee and counter his children's politics and intrigues. Louis XV communicated his satisfaction and displeasure within the transformations he made at Versailles.[4]

Dismissal of de Bourbon and Appointment of Fleury

The ministry of the duc de Bourbon was marked by many incidents which resulted in serious economic and social problems. These included; persecution of Protestants (1726), monetary manipulations, the creation of new taxes, such as the fiftieth (cinquantième) in 1725, and the high price of grain. As a result of de Bourbon's rising unpopularity in 1726 the king dismissed him. As his replacement, to serve as first minister, the king selected his old tutor, Cardinal de Fleury.

Ministry of Cardinal de Fleury

Cardinal Fleury, by Hyacinthe Rigaud

From 1726 until his death in 1743, Cardinal de Fleury ruled France with the king's assent. It was the most peaceful and prosperous part of the reign of Louis XV, despite some Parlement and Jansenist unrest. After the financial and human losses suffered at the end of the reign of Louis XIV, the rule of Fleury, is seen by historians as a period of "recovery" (French historians talk of a gouvernement "réparateur"). It is hard to determine exactly what part the king took in the decisions of the Fleury government, but the king certainly supported Fleury against the intrigues of the court and the conspiracies of the courtiers.

With the help of controllers-general of finances Michel Robert Le Peletier des Forts (1726-1730) and Philibert Orry (1730-1745), Fleury stabilized the French currency (1726) and balanced the budget in 1738. Economic expansion was also a central goal of the government: communications were improved, with the completion of the Saint-Quentin canal (linking the Oise and Somme rivers) in 1738, later extended to the Escaut River and the Low Countries, and with the systematic building of a national road network. By the middle of the 18th century, France had the most modern and extensive road network in the world.

The ponts et chaussées engineers, built modern highways, many of which are still in use today, stretching from Paris to the most distant borders of France.Trade was also stimulated by the Bureau and the Council of Commerce, and French foreign maritime trade increased from 80 to 308 million livres between 1716 and 1748. However, rigid Colbertist laws (prefiguring dirigisme) hindered industrial development.

The power of the absolute monarchy was demonstrated by quelling Jansenist and Gallican opposition. The troubles caused by the convulsionaries of the Saint-Médard graveyard in Paris (a group of Jansenists claiming that miracles took place in this graveyard) were put to an end in 1732. As for the Gallican opposition, after the "exile" of 139 parlementaires in the provinces the Parlement of Paris had to register the Unigenitus papal bull and was forbidden to hear religious cases in the future.

In foreign relations, Fleury sought peace by attempting to maintain the alliance with England and pursuing reconciliation with Spain. In September 1729, at the end of her third pregnancy, the queen finally gave birth to a male child, heir to the throne, the dauphin Louis (1729-1765). The birth of a long awaited heir, which ensured the survival of the dynasty for the first time since 1712, was welcomed with tremendous joy and celebration in all spheres of French society. The young king was extremely popular at the time.} The birth of a male heir also dispelled the risks of a succession crisis and the likely war with Spain that would have resulted.

In 1733, on the advice of his secretary of state for foreign affairs Germain Louis Chauvelin (1727-1737), the king abandoned Fleury's peace policy to intervene in the War of the Polish Succession. In addition to attempting to restore his father-in-law Stanisław Leszczyński to the Polish throne, the king also hoped to wrest the long-coveted duchy of Lorraine from its duke, Francis III. The duke's expected marriage to Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI's daughter, Maria Theresa, would bring Austrian power dangerously close to the French border. In the end, the half-hearted French intervention did not allow Stanisław to recover his throne.

Treaty of Vienna

Ottoman ambassador Yirmisekiz Mehmed Çelebi Efendi in Paris in 1721 (engraving)

In the west, however, French troops rapidly overran Lorraine, and peace was restored as early as 1735. By the Treaty of Vienna (November 1738), Stanisław was compensated for the loss of his Polish throne with the duchy of Lorraine, which would eventually pass to King Louis as his son-in-law, while Duke Francis III of Lorraine was made heir to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany as compensation for the loss of Lorraine. The war cost France very little, compared to the financial and human drains of Louis XIV's wars, and was a clear success for French diplomacy. The acquisition of Lorraine (effective in 1766 at Stanislaus' death) was to be the last territorial expansion of France on the continent before the French Revolution.

Shortly after this favourable result, France's mediation in the war between the Holy Roman Empire and the Ottoman Empire led to the Treaty of Belgrade (September 1739) which favoured the Ottoman Empire, beneficiary of a Franco-Ottoman alliance against the Habsburgs since the early 16th century. As a result, in 1740 the Ottoman Empire renewed the French capitulations, which marked the supremacy of French trade in the Middle East. With these successes, Louis XV's prestige reached its highest point.

In 1740, the death of Emperor Charles VI and his succession by his daughter Maria Theresa started the European War of the Austrian Succession. The elderly Cardinal de Fleury had too little energy left to oppose this war, which was strongly supported by the anti-Austrian party at court. Renewing the cycle of conflicts so typical of Louis XIV's reign, the king entered the war in 1741 on the side of Prussia. The war would last seven years. Fleury did not live to see the end of the war. After Fleury's death, in January 1743, the king followed his predecessor's example, ruling from then on without a first minister.

First signs of unpopularity

At the death of his old tutor Fleury in 1743, the king was 33 years old. He had experienced a few years of happiness with his devoted Polish queen. A child was born almost every year. However, the queen eventually got tired of continual pregnancies, while the king got tired of the queen's unconditional love. Moreover, most of the queen's pregnancies produced girls, which the king eventually resented.

Out of ten children born of the queen, there were only two sons, only one of whom survived to adulthood, Louis. This did not help dispel the concerns about the future of the dynasty brought about by the repeated deaths of the early 1710s. In 1734, for the first time, the queen complained to her father about the king's infidelities. The king found love with Madame de Mailly, then with her younger sister Madame de Vintimille, then at her death with yet another sister Marie-Anne de Mailly, while the queen took refuge in religion and charities.

In June 1744, the king left Versailles for the front in order to take personal command of his armies fighting in the War of the Austrian Succession. This otherwise popular move was marred by the king's indiscreet decision to bring along Madame de Châteauroux. In August, the king fell gravely ill in Metz. Death appeared imminent, and public prayers were held all across France to ask God to save the king from a certain death.

Pressed by the dévot party, Msgr. de Fitz-James, First Chaplain (premier aumônier) of the king, refused to give the king the absolution unless the king renounced his mistress. The king's confession was then publicly announced, embarrassing him and tarnishing the prestige of the monarchy. Madame de Châteauroux was forced to leave to the boos of the public. Although Louis' recovery earned him the 'well-beloved' epithet from a public relieved by his survival, the events at Metz (August 1744) appear to have left profound scars on his psyche as well as on French political life. Nevertheless, the king soon returned to his adulterous ways.

War with Austria

In 1743, France entered the War of the Austrian Succession. Late in Louis’s reign Corsica and Lorraine were won, but this came only a few years after the devastating loss of nearly all of France's colonial empire to France's arch-enemy Great Britain, in the Seven Years' War. The Treaty of Paris of 1763 proved one of the most humiliating episodes of the French monarchy. France ceded India, Canada, and all lands east of the Mississippi River to Great Britain, while Spain received France's lands west of the Mississippi. France's empire in the New World was thus almost completely lost; the kingdom retained control only of some territories in the West Indies, French Guiana, and the tiny islands of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon off the coast of Canada. France's policies in the Americas and India had ended in a dismal failure. Its prestige sank dramatically.

Madame de Pompadour

Madame de Pompadour, by François Boucher, ca. 1750

Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson, later the marquise de Pompadour, who met Louis XV in February 1745 at a masked ball given in honour of the Dauphin's marriage, was the most famous mistress of the reign, and the most honourable one. She was the daughter of a chief agent of the powerful Pâris family of financiers who became embroiled in the intrigue that ousted the duc de Bourbon as head of the Regency council in favour of Cardinal de Fleury. A beautiful woman, educated, cultured, intelligent, and sincerely attached to the king, she nonetheless possessed one major shortcoming in the everyone's eyes: she was a commoner, from the bourgeoisie, and even worse, a commoner who meddled in royal politics.

The public had generally accepted the mistresses of Louis XIV, who, apart from Madame de Maintenon, were all chosen in the highest spheres of the aristocracy and had very little influence on the government. But that the king would thus compromise himself with a commoner was felt to be a profound disgrace. Soon there were hundreds of libels called poissonnades (a word akin to "fish stew", a pun based on the marquise de Pompadour's family name, Poisson, which means "fish" in French), violently attacking the Marquise, as in this example: "Daughter of leech, and leech herself, Poisson ["Fish"], with an extreme arrogance, flaunts in this château, without fear or dread, the substance of the people and the shame of the King."

Despite the critics, the marquise de Pompadour had an undeniable influence on the flourishing of French arts during the reign of Louis XV, a reign that is often considered the peak of French architecture and interior design (see: Louis XV style). A patron of the arts, the Marquise amassed a considerable amount of furniture and objets d'art in her various estates. She was responsible for the tremendous development of the porcelain manufactory of Sèvres, which became one of the most famous porcelain manufacturers in Europe, and her commands ensured the living of artists and families of craftsmen for many years. She was also a prominent patron of architecture, being responsible for the building of the Place Louis XV (now called Place de la Concorde) and the École Militaire in Paris, both built by her protégé Ange-Jacques Gabriel.

The École Militaire, for the creation of which she successfully lobbied the king, showed her commitment to the training of officers from poor families of the aristocracy. The Marquise was a liberal at heart and she steadily defended the Encyclopédie against the attacks of the Church. She was a supporter of the Philosophy of the Enlightenment, and tried to win the king to its new ideas, albeit not quite as successfully as she hoped. She was criticised for the lavish display of luxury in her various estates, although her rich family of financiers in many instances gave money to the government and saved the monarchy from bankruptcy. All her estates, which she had bequeathed to the state, reverted to the crown at her death.

The marquise de Pompadour was officially settled on the third floor (second storey) of the Palace of Versailles, in small but comfortable apartments that can still be visited today. There, she organised fine suppers for the king, with chosen guests, far from the pomp and etiquette of the court. The atmosphere in these private quarters was so relaxed that the king was said to serve coffee during the suppers. She often entertained the king, trying to relieve him from the state of boredom in which the court often plunged him. The king, who liked a more bourgeois lifestyle than his forefather Louis XIV, found in the private apartments of the marquise de Pompadour, located above his own office and bedchamber, the intimacy and reassuring feminine presence of which he had been deprived during his childhood.

The marquise de Pompadour, who was reportedly in frail health, was no more than a friend after 1750. Although their sexual relationship stopped, she remained the close confidante and friend of the king until her death, quite a feat in the history of royal mistresses. She, more than anyone else, was adept at understanding the complex and demanding personality of the king. After 1750, the king was mired in a series of short-lived love affairs and sexual relationships, hiding his temporary conquests in a small mansion at the Parc-aux-Cerfs ("Stags' Park"), whose most famous occupant was Marie-Louise O'Murphy. Legend later enormously exaggerated the events occurring at the Parc-aux-Cerfs, contributing to the dark reputation still associated with Louis XV's name today. In fact, the king's womanising behavior was not very different from that of many of his illustrious ancestors, such as kings Francis I, Henry IV, Louis XIV, to say nothing of other European monarchs such as Charles II of England.

First attempt at reform

Portrait of Louis XV, ca. 1740.

All these love affairs did not take the king away from the duties of his office, but he lacked the administrative energy of his great-grandfather, Louis XIV. He preferred to make decisions based solely on the advice of Cardinal Fleury, and frequently relied on the cardinal to carry out those decisions. During the seventeen long years of Fleury's government, the king learned the generalities of government policy without the specifics of implementation.

Starting in 1743 with the death of Fleury, the king ruled alone without a first minister. He had read many times the instructions of Louis XIV: "Listen to the people, seek advice from your Council, but decide alone." Although he was without a doubt more intelligent and cultured than his great-grandfather, Louis XV lacked self-confidence. His political correspondence reveals his deep knowledge of public affairs as well as the soundness of his judgment. However, the king was often afraid of making firm decisions, fearing that he might be wrong and other people might be right. It was only when pushed to the limit, often when it was too late, that he suddenly resolved to bold action, with a brutality that stunned people.

Always supportive and friendly towards his ministers in appearance, his displeasure was felt suddenly and without warning. This led to a reputation for deviousness. It was very difficult for ministers to decipher the king, or to know if their behavior was in agreement with his desires. Usually, they were given great independence of action in their own ministries with the king never really directing them. Very often, they never received any warning or sign of disagreement from the king before a sudden fall from grace. Moreover, the king often kept them in the dark concerning his true line of reasoning, frequently communicating without their knowledge with foreign courts through a network of diplomats and spies called the Dérobée du Roi ("the secret of the king").

Most government work was conducted in committees of ministers which met without the king. The king reviewed policy only in the Conseil d'en haut, the High Council, which was composed of the king, the dauphin, the chancellor, the contrôleur général des finances, and the secretary of state in charge of foreign affairs. Created by Louis XIV, the council was in charge of state policy regarding religion, diplomacy, and war. There, he let various political factions oppose each other and vie for influence and power: the dévot party, led by the Comte d'Argenson, secretary of state for war, opposed the parti philosophique, which supported the Enlightenment philosophy and was led by Machault d'Arnouville, controller-general of finances.

The parti philosophique was supported by the marquise de Pompadour, who acted as a sort of minister without portfolio from the time she became royal mistress in 1745 until her death in 1764. The Marquise was in favour of reforms. Supported by her clan of financiers (Pâris-Duverney, Montmartel, etc.), she obtained from the king the appointment of ministers (Bernis, secretary of state for foreign affairs, in 1757), as well as their dismissal (Orry, controller-general of finances, in 1745; Maurepas, secretary of state for the Navy, in 1749). On her advice, the king supported the policy of fiscal justice designed by Machault d'Arnouville. In order to finance the budget deficit, which amounted to 100 million livres in 1745, Machault d'Arnouville created a tax on the twentieth of all revenues which affected also the privileged classes (Edict of Marly, 1749).

This breach in the privileged status of the aristocracy and the clergy, normally exempt from taxes, was a first in French history, although it had already been advocated by visionary minds such as Vauban under Louis XIV. However, the new tax was received with violent protest from the privileged classes sitting in the provincial estates (états provinciaux) of the few provinces which still kept the right to decide over taxation (most provinces had long lost their provincial estates (états provinciaux) and the right to decide over taxation that came with it). The new tax was also violently opposed by the clergy and by the parlements. Pressed and eventually won over by his entourage at court, the king gave in and exempted the clergy from the twentieth in 1751. Eventually, the twentieth became a mere increase in the already existing taille, the most important direct tax of the monarchy from which privileged classes were exempted. It was the first defeat in the "taxation war" waged against the privileged classes.

As a result of these attempts at reform, the Parlement of Paris, using the quarrel between the clergy and the Jansenists as a pretext, addressed remonstrances to the king (April 1753). In these remonstrances, the Parlement, which was made up of privileged aristocrats and ennobled commoners, proclaimed itself the "natural defender of the fundamental laws of the kingdom" against the arbitrariness of the monarchy.

War and foreign policy, 1740-1763

After the death of Fleury, France initially experienced success abroad despite the King's loss of his trusted advisor. The War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748), which pitted the French and Prussians against the Austrians, British, and Dutch, culminated in a series of major French victories: the Battle of Fontenoy (1745), the Battle of Rocourt (1746), and the Battle of Lauffeld (1747). The Battle of Fontenoy, won by the Maréchal de Saxe, is still remembered as one of the most decisive French victories against the British. In 1746 French forces besieged and occupied Brussels which Louis then entered in triumph. By 1748, France occupied the entire Austrian Netherlands (modern-day Belgium), then the wealthiest area of Europe, and appeared on its way to fulfilling its traditional dream of extending its north-eastern border to the Rhine. The embarrassment at Metz (1744) now largely forgotten, the king was at the peak of his popularity.

Louis XV at the Battle of Fontenoy.

Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle

However, at the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, Louis shocked his people and the rest of Europe by agreeing to restore all his conquests to Austria. Louis XV, who at heart was not a bellicose king, unlike his great-grandfather Louis XIV, felt content to rule a nearly hexagon-shaped kingdom, which he called his pré carré (i.e. "square field"), a term still used in French politics today. He thought it better to cultivate the pré carré rather than trying to expand it. The king declared he had made peace "as a king and not as a merchant". The attitude of the king was hailed in Europe, and he became overnight the "arbiter of Europe".

At home, however, his popularity sharply declined. The people had forgiven Louis XV for his high taxes, his mistresses, and his lavish expenditures, as long as he was successful in wars. But the news that the king had restored the Southern Netherlands to Austria was met with disbelief and bitterness. Parisians coined the phrase: "As stupid as the peace" ("Bête comme la paix"). Historians usually consider that the year 1748 saw the first true manifestation of public opinion in France, a nationalist public opinion that the king did not understand. The year proved a turning point in the king's popularity: after 1748, pamphlets against the king's mistresses became increasingly widely published and read, and his popularity steadily declined.

Seven Years War

By 1755, a new European conflict was brewing, the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle being but a sort of truce. Already, French and British were fighting each other in North America without a declaration of war. In 1755, the British seized 300 French merchant ships, in violation of international law. A few months later, on 16 January 1756, Great Britain and Prussia signed a treaty of "neutrality". In Paris and Versailles, the parti philosophique could not hide their disappointment at this betrayal by King Frederick II of Prussia, who was until then seen as an enlightened sovereign friend of the Philosophers.

Frederick II had even welcomed Voltaire in Potsdam when the famous writer had run into trouble with the dévot party in France. But the truth was that Frederick II was motivated first and foremost by personal interests and the desire to expand the territory of Prussia by any means available. He had already abandoned his French ally during the War of Austrian Succession, signing a separate peace treaty with Austria in December 1745. The Marquise de Pompadour particularly disliked Frederick II, who had always showed contempt for her, and even named one of his poodles "Pompadour". At the same time, French officials realized that the Habsburg empire of Austria was no more the danger it had been in the heyday of the Habsburgs, back in the 16th and 17th centuries, when they controlled Spain and most of Europe and presented a formidable challenge to France. The new dangerous power looming now on the horizon was Prussia. In a "reversal of alliances", the king signed the Treaty of Versailles with Austria on 1 April 1756, overruling his ministers and putting an end to more than 200 years of conflict with the Habsburgs. The new Franco-Austrian Alliance would last intermittently for the next thirty five years.

Louis apparently expected that joining with Austria would prevent another war on the continent by confronting Prussia with a counter-coalition. He was mistaken. Austria was bent on regaining Silesia, which Prussia had grabbed in 1740 and had not returned. At the end of August 1756, having learned that Austria was negotiating to enlist Russia against him, Frederick II invaded Saxony without a declaration of war. He soon defeated the unprepared Saxon and Austrian armies and occupied the whole of Saxony. The Saxon ruler's younger daughter was the Dauphin's wife and his elder daughter was married to Charles VII of Naples, a Bourbon cousin. Frederick's treatment of the Polish–Saxon royal family was particularly brutal; Queen Maria Josepha, the dauphine's mother, died from maltreatment. These actions by Frederick II profoundly shocked Europe, and particularly France. The wife of the Dauphin had a miscarriage as a result of the news coming from Saxony. Louis XV was left with no choice but to enter the war.

Meanwhile, Britain had already declared war on France on 18 May 1756. The ensuing Seven Years' War (1756–1763) was to have profound consequences for France and Britain.

In 1757 French troops invaded Hanover, but were driven out by a counter-attack led by Ferdinand of Brunswick the following year.

Assassination attempt

Louis XV, by Maurice Quentin de La Tour, (1748)
Robert-François Damiens, by Ange-Jacques Gabriel (1757)

At home, discontent grew, fuelled by the perceived political incompetence of the king and the spending spree of the court. As previously highlighted, modern historians have shown that the king was in fact not incompetent, albeit not resolute enough. The spending at court was also not particularly high under Louis XV, at any rate not any higher than under previous French kings, and certainly much lower than in some other European courts, such as in Russia, where Peter the Great and Empress Elizabeth spent enormous amounts of money to build palaces in and around Saint Petersburg. Court spending also helped to carry French arts to their zenith under Louis XV, and supported thousands of families of artists and craftsmen. French arts were admired and copied all over Europe. Even today, 250 years later, "Louis XV" style is still a favourite among the rich and famous around the world. Yet at the time, the French public, influenced as it was by a violent campaign of libels against the king and the Marquise de Pompadour starting in the mid-1740s, could only see royal incompetence and spending sprees.

This was what may have inspired the assassination attempt on the king by Robert Damiens. On 5 January 1757, would-be assassin Damiens entered the Palace of Versailles, as did thousands of people every day to petition the king. At 6pm, as night had fallen on a cold Versailles covered in snow, the king, who was visiting his daughter, left her apartments to return to the Trianon where he was staying. As he was walking in the Marble Courtyard between two lines of guards lighting the way with torches, headed toward his carriage which was waiting at the edge of the Marble Courtyard, Damiens suddenly emerged from the dark, passed through the guards, and stabbed the king in the side with a penknife.

The 8.1 cm (3.2 inch) blade entered the king's body between the fourth and fifth ribs. The king, who was bleeding, remained calm and called for a confessor as he thought he would die. Thoughts of poison came to his mind. At the sight of the queen, who had come in a hurry, he asked for forgiveness for his misbehaviour. However, the king survived. He was probably saved by the thick layers of clothes he wore on that cold day, which cushioned the blade, protecting the internal organs. Allegedly, the blade penetrated only 1 cm (0.4 inch) into the king's body, leading Voltaire to mock what he called a "pinprick".

Damiens, who was mentally unstable, had been a servant of members of the Parlement of Paris where he had heard much criticism of the king. This, combined with the violent pamphlets and general discontent with the king, convinced him that he had to commit regicide in order to save France. Other sources say that he did not want to kill the king, but merely to give him a warning and thus force him to change his behaviour. In any case, it was the first attempt at regicide in France since the murder of King Henry IV by Ravaillac in 1610.

The king, bent on forgiving Damiens, could not avoid a trial for regicide. Tried by the Parlement of Paris, Damiens was executed on the Place de Grève on 28 March 1757, following the horrible procedure applied to regicides: after numerous tortures, Damiens was carried to the Place de Grève in the cold afternoon of that day. There, he was first tortured with red-hot pincers; his hand, holding the knife used in the attempted murder, was burnt using sulphur; molten wax, lead, and boiling oil were poured into his wounds. Horses were then harnessed to his arms and legs for his dismemberment. Damiens's joints would not break; after some hours, representatives of the Parlement ordered the executioner and his aides to cut Damiens's joints. Damiens was then dismembered, to the applause of the crowd. His trunk, apparently still living, was then burnt at the stake. There was an immense crowd to watch this gruesome spectacle, which nobody had witnessed in 147 years. Balconies in buildings above the Place de Grève were rented to women of the aristocracy for the exorbitant price of 100 livres per balcony (approx. $700 in 2005 US dollars). This tale of Damiens' brutal execution, recounted in the opening pages of Michel Foucault's Discipline and Punish has been disputed by numerous historians.

This gruesome execution was harshly criticized by the “philosophes”, who saw it as a remnant of a more brutal age. In truth, the king himself had nothing to do with the method of execution, and the people rejoiced at the king's having escaped Damiens's knife unharmed. It was the members of the Parlement of Paris who selected such a horrific execution, as they thought it would please the king, willing as they were to reconcile themselves with the king after their opposition to the tax on the twentieth and their support of the Jansenists against the king's will.

But above all, the people were outraged that the king did not dismiss Madame de Pompadour, despite the clear signal sent by Damiens. Posters appeared on the walls of Paris with the following ironic pun: "Ruling from the Mint Court: A louis not properly struck shall be struck a second time." The Austrian ambassador wrote to Vienna: "The public discontent is general. All the conversations are about death and poison. There appeared in the Hall of Mirrors of Versailles some dreadful posters threatening the life of the king."

Later life

Silver Ecu of Louis XV, struck 1764
Obverse: (Latin) LUDOVICUS XV DEI GRATIA FRANCORUM ET NAVARRAE REX or in English, "Louis XV, By the Grace of God, King of France and Navarre" Reverse: (Latin) SIT NOMEN DOMINI BENEDICTVM 1764, or in English, "Blessed Be the Name of the Lord, 1764"

The king, who had displayed calm, and royal dignity on the day of the assassination attempt, sank into profound depression in the following weeks. He became convinced that he was on the wrong track. All attempts at reforms were abandoned. At the marquise de Pompadour's instigation, the king dismissed his two most hated ministers, the comte d'Argenson, secretary of state for war, and Machault d'Arnouville, keeper of the seals (justice minister) and before that controller-general of finances; and he called Choiseul to the government. Reforms would resume only with Maupeou in 1771.

Louis and his minister were deeply unhappy about Great Britain's victory in the Seven Years War and in the years following the Treaty of Paris they began drawing up a long-term plan that would involve construction of a larger navy, building an anti-British coalition of states that would lead to an eventual war of revenge and see France regain its former colonies from Britain. Choiseul was the leading advocate of this scheme, and was prepared to go to war with Britain over the Falklands Crisis in 1770. Louis, however, did not believe France was ready and instead dismissed Choiseul.

Death

Louis XV died of smallpox at the Palace of Versailles.[5] Louis XV was the first Bourbon whose heart was not, as tradition demanded, cut out and placed in a special coffer.[citation needed] Instead, alcohol was poured into his coffin and his remains were soaked in quicklime.[6] In a surreptitious late-night ceremony attended by only one courtier, the body was taken to the Saint Denis Basilica.[citation needed]

Louis' death saw the French monarchy at its nadir, in political, financial and moral terms.[citation needed] It might have recovered, but this would have required an individual of unique abilities.[citation needed] Since Louis XV's son, Louis, the dauphin, had died nine years earlier, the throne passed to his grandson, the conventional and unimaginative Louis XVI. Two of Louis XV's other grandchildren, Louis XVIII and Charles X, would occupy the throne of France after the fall of Napoleon I.

Image and public opinion

Edme Bouchardon's equestrian statue of Louis XV was originally conceived to commemorate the monarch's victorious role in the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-48) and artistically executed to display a benign representation of the king as peacemaker. However it was, ironically, unveiled in 1763 following France's defeat in the Seven Years War. Bouchardon's work designed to be a powerful symbol of loyalty to the king became the centerpiece of a public relations event staged to restore public confidence in a monarchy in decline using art as propaganda on a grand scale.[7]

Louis was unequal to the high expectations of his subjects. Contemporary songs, poems, and public declarations looked for a king who was absolute "master," unblemished "Christian," and benevolent provider ("baker"). Young Louis's failings were attributed to inexperience and manipulation by unscrupulous handlers. As his troubled reign progressed, his debauched private life was revealed and famine repeatedly battered France; the people withdrew their respect, reviled the sycophant king, and ultimately celebrated his demise. The institution of monarchy was intact, but Louis XV saddled his successor with a damaging legacy of popular discontent.[8]

The many sermons on his death in 1774 praised the monarch and went out of its way to excuse his faults. But those ecclesiastics who not only raised their eyebrows over the sins of the Beloved but also expressed doubts about his policies reflected the corporate attitude of the First Estate more accurately. They hoped his successor would restore morals and serve the will of God, which they claimed the role of interpreting.[9]

The financial strain imposed by these wars and by the excesses of the royal court, and the consequent dissatisfaction with the monarchy, contributed to the national unrest which culminated in the French Revolution of 1789. Louis died at Versailles on May 10, 1774.

Louis XIV had left France with serious financial difficulties. Ultimately, Louis XV failed to overcome these fiscal problems, mainly because he was incapable of putting together conflicting parties and interests in his entourage. Worse, Louis seemed to be aware of the forces of anti-monarchism threatening his family's rule and yet failed to do anything to stop them.[10]

At first, he was known popularly as Le Bien-aimé (the well-beloved) and after a near-death illness in Metz in 1744 many of his subjects prayed for his recovery.[11] His weak and ineffective rule accelerated the general decline that culminated in the French Revolution in 1789. The king was a notorious womaniser, although this was expected in a king; the monarch's virility was supposed to be another way in which his power was manifested. Nevertheless, popular faith in the monarchy was shaken by the scandals of Louis’s private life and by the end of his life he had become the well-loved.[12]

Ancestors

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Scholarly bibliography by Colin Jones (2002)
  2. ^ Algrant, Christine Pevitt, Madame de Pompadour: Mistress of France, Grove Press, 2002, p. 163.
  3. ^ She was the daughter of an exiled Irish soldier, who after success as an artist's model became a mistress of King Louis XV from 1752 to 1755. The mother of at least two children fathered by the king, O'Murphy subsequently was married three times (twice to royal officials), became wealthy, and was imprisoned for two years during the French Revolution for her association with the monarchy.
  4. ^ Kevin L. Justus, "Gilded Palace, Gilded Playpen: Louis XV's Use of Palatial Space to Control His Rebellious Children and Their Politics." Journal of Family History 1996 21(4): 470-495. Issn: 0363-1990
  5. ^ Bauer, Susan Wise, The Story of the World: Early modern times, from Elizabeth the First to the Forty-Niners, (Peace Hill Press Inc., 2004), 206.
  6. ^ Bauer, 206
  7. ^ Stephen Rombouts, "Art as Propaganda in Eighteenth-century France: the Paradox of Edme Bouchardon's Louis XV". Eighteenth-century Studies 1993-1994 27(2): 255-282. in JSTOR
  8. ^ Kenneth N. Jassie, "We Don't Have a King: Popular Protest and the Image of the Illegitimate King in the Reign of Louis XV". Consortium on Revolutionary Europe 1750-1850: Proceedings 1994 23: 211-219. Issn: 0093-2574
  9. ^ Jeffrey Merrick, "Politics in the Pulpit: Ecclesiastical Discourse on the Death of Louis XV." History of European Ideas 1986 7(2): 149-160. Issn: 0191-6599
  10. ^ Jones (2002) p, 124, 132-33, 147
  11. ^ Olivier Bernier, Louis the Beloved: The Life of Louis XV (1984)
  12. ^ Jeffrey Merrick, "Politics in the Pulpit: Ecclesiastical Discourse on the Death of Louis XV," History of European Ideas 1986 7(2): 149-160

References

  1. Duke of Saint-Simon, Mémoires, Book 12, Chapter 15. [1]
  2. Marquis Philippe de Dangeau, Journal; 1856-60, Paris; XVI, 136; in Olivier Bernier, Louis the Beloved, The Life of Louis XV: 1984, Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company. p. 3.
  3. The scene is described in Olivier Bernier, Louis the Beloved, The Life of Louis XV: 1984, Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company. p. 17.

Further reading

  • Bernier, Olivier. Louis the Beloved: The Life of Louis XV (1984) 261 pp.
  • Engels, Jens Ivo. "Denigrer, Esperer, Assumer La Realite. Le Roi de France perçu par ses Sujets, 1680-1750" ["Disparaging, Hoping, Taking on Reality: the French King as Perceived by His Subjects, 1680-1750"]. Revue D'histoire Moderne et Contemporaine 2003 50(3): 96-126.
  • Jones, Colin. The Great Nation: France from Louis XV to Napoleon, 1715-99 (2002). excerpt and text search
  • Justus, Kevin Lane. "A Fractured Mirror: The Royal Portraiture of Louis XV and the Search for a Successful Image through Architecture, or, Versailles Is the Thing in Which We Will Catch the Character of the King." PhD dissertation U. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 2002. 417 pp. DAI 2003 63(11): 3766-A. DA3070864 Fulltext: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses
  • Le Roy Ladurie, Emmanuel. The Ancien Regime: A History of France 1610 - 1774 (1999), survey by leader of the Annales School excerpt and text search
  • Perkins, James Breck. France under Louis XV (2 vol 1897) online vol 1; online vol 2
  • Woodbridge, John D. Revolt in Prerevolutionary France: The Prince de Conti's Conspiracy against Louis XV (1995). 242 pp.
  • Scholarly bibliography by Colin Jones (2002)

Mistresses

  • Haslip, Joan. Madame du Barry: The Wages of Beauty. (1992). 224 pp.
  • Jones, Colin. Madame de Pompadour: Images of a Mistress. London: National Gallery Publ., 2002. 176 pp.
  • Lever, Evelyne. Madame de Pompadour. (2002). 320 pp.
  • Mitford, Nancy. Madame de Pompadour (1954) 312pp, witty and popular (not scholarly)

Primary sources

  • Du Barry, Jeanne Vaubernier, Jeanne Baecu. Memoirs of the Comtesse Du Barry: With Minute Details of Her Entire Career as Favorite of Louis XV (1903) online edition; also excerpt and text search

Titles

Louis XV of France
Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty
Born: 15 February 1710 Died: 10 May 1774
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Louis XIV
King of France and Navarre
1 September 1715 – 10 May 1774
Succeeded by
Louis XVI
French royalty
Preceded by
Louis
Dauphin of France
8 March 1712 – 1 September 1715
Succeeded by
Louis
Preceded by
Louis, Dauphin of France
Heir to the Throne
as Heir apparent
8 March 1712 — 1 September 1715
Succeeded by
Philippe II, Duke of Orléans



Simple English

Louis XV
File:Louis XV France by Louis-Michel van Loo
Louis the Beloved
King of France
Tenure 1 September 1715 – 10 May 1774
Predecessor Louis XIV
Successor Louis XVI
Issue
Louise Élisabeth, Duchess of Parma
Princess Henriette
Princess Louise
Louis, Dauphin of France
Philippe, Duke of Anjou
Princess Marie Adélaïde
Princess Victoire
Princess Sophie
Princess Thérèse
Louise Marie, Abbess of Saint Denis
Father Louis, Dauphin of France
Born 15 February 1710
Palace of Versailles, France
Died 10 April 1774 (aged 64)
Palace of Versailles, France


Louis XV (February 15, 1710May 10, 1774) was a French king, who ruled from 1715 until his death in 1774. He is the great-grandson of Louis XIV whom he succeeded at age of five. He was called "The Beloved" (French: le Bien-Aimé). His failure to provide strong leadership and badly needed reforms contributed to the crisis that brought on the French Revolution.

Early Life and Reign

Louis was born at Versailles on February 15, 1710, the son of Louis, Dauphin of France and his mother Marie Adélaïde of Savoy. Philippe, Duke of Orléans, Regent of France, governed as regent until Louis reached his legal majority in 1723. In 1725 the king married Maria Leszczyńska, daughter of Stanisław I of Poland. The following year his former tutor, André Hercule de Fleury, became the chief minister. Fleury gave France a stable administration until his death 17 years later. Thereafter Louis himself was in nominal control, but he took only a sporadic interest in government and never followed any consistent policy at home or abroad. He was frequently influenced by his mistresses, the most powerful of whom was the marquise de Pompadour

Wars and Death

France was involved in three wars during Louis's reign. As a result of the first, the War of the Polish Succession (1733-35), France gained the province of Lorraine. The second, the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-48), which marked the beginning of a colonial struggle with Britain, was indecisive. In the last, the Seven Years' War (1756-63), France, crippled by corruption and mismanagement, lost most of its overseas possessions to the British. French foreign policy in this period was made chaotic by Louis's “secret diplomacy,” as his agents in other countries sometimes pursued aims that were in conflict with those of his own ministers. The situation improved somewhat in the 1760s, when a new minister, the duc de Choiseul, restored some order to the government and tried to repair the damage done by the Seven Years' War. In the last years of his reign, Louis cooperated with his chancellor, René de Maupeou, in an effort to reform the country's inequitable and inefficient system of taxation. In 1771 the parlements, or sovereign courts, which had opposed reform, were reorganized and stripped of their power to obstruct royal decrees. Measures were then implemented to tax the previously exempt nobility and clergy, but these were reversed after the king's death at Versailles on May 10, 1774. Louis XV died of smallpox as a defeated and unpopular king. He was succeeded by his grandson, Louis XVI, who was later guilotined during the French Revolution.

Children

  • Louise Élisabeth of France (14 August 1727 – 6 December 1759) married Philip, Duke of Parma and had issue.
  • Henriette of France (14 August 1727 – 10 February 1752) died unmarried.
  • Louise of France (28 July 1728 – 19 February 1733) died in childhood.
  • Louis, Dauphin of France (4 September 1729 – 20 December 1765) married Infanta Maria Teresa Rafaela of Spain; had issue then married Marie Josèphe of Saxony and had issue.
  • Philippe of France, Duke of Anjou (30 August 1730 – 17 April 1733) died in childhood.
  • Marie Adélaïde of France (23 March 1732 – 27 February 1800) died unmarried.
  • Victoire of France (11 May 1733 – 7 June 1799) died unmarried.
  • Sophie of France (17 July 1734 – 3 March 1782) died unmarried.
  • Stillborn Child (28 March 1735 – 28 March 1735).
  • Thérèse of France (16 May 1736 – 28 September 1744) died in childhood.
  • Louise Marie of France (5 July 1737 – 23 December 1787) was a nun.








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