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City of Lowell
—  City  —
Lowell on the Merrimack river with Cox Bridge

Nickname(s): Mill City, Spindle City
Motto: Art is the Handmaid of Human Good
Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts
Coordinates: 42°38′22″N 71°18′53″W / 42.63944°N 71.31472°W / 42.63944; -71.31472Coordinates: 42°38′22″N 71°18′53″W / 42.63944°N 71.31472°W / 42.63944; -71.31472
Country United States
State Massachusetts
County Middlesex
Settled 1653
Incorporated 1826
A city 1836
 - Type Manager-City council
 - Mayor James L. Milinazzo
 - City Manager Bernard F. Lynch
 - Total 14.5 sq mi (37.7 km2)
 - Land 13.8 sq mi (35.7 km2)
 - Water 0.8 sq mi (2.0 km2)
Elevation 102 ft (31 m)
Population (2007)
 - Total 103,512
 Density 7,500.9/sq mi (2,899.5/km2)
Time zone Eastern (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP code 01850, 01851, 01852, 01853, 01854
Area code(s) 978 / 351
FIPS code 25-37000
GNIS feature ID 0611832

Lowell is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 105,167. It is the fifth largest city in the state. Lowell and Cambridge are the county seats of Middlesex County.[1]



The Massachusetts Mill at the confluence of the Merrimack and Concord Rivers

Founded in the 1820s as a planned manufacturing center for textiles, Lowell is located along the rapids of the Merrimack River, 30 miles northwest of Boston in what was once the farming community of East Chelmsford, Massachusetts. The so-called Boston Associates, including Nathan Appleton and Patrick Tracy Jackson of the Boston Manufacturing Company, named the new mill town after their visionary leader, Francis Cabot Lowell, who had died five years before its 1823 incorporation. As Lowell's population grew, it acquired more land from neighboring towns, and diversified into a full-fledged urban center, with many of canal & factory construction labor force immigrating from Ireland, escaping the Potato Famines of the 1830s & 1840s, as well as, the mill workers or Mill Girls coming from the farms of New England. By the 1850s it was the largest industrial complex in the United States. The city continued to thrive as a major industrial center during the 19th century, attracting more migrant workers and immigrants to its mills. Next were the Catholic Germans, then a large influx of French Canadians during the 1870s & 1880s, then other waves of immigrants, such as, Portuguese, Polish, Lithuanians Swedes, and Jews came to work in Lowell and settled their own neighborhoods, with the cities' population reaching almost 50% foreign-born by 1900.[2] By the time World War I broke out in Europe, the city had reached its economic and population peek of over 110,000 people.

With the decline of the Mill Cities' manufacturing base, with many companies moving to the South in the 1920s,[2] the city fell into deep hard times, and was called a "depressed industrial desert" by Harper's Magazine in 1931, and over a third of its population was "on relief" as only three of its major textile corporations remained active.[2] A few short years later, the mills were reactivated, making parachutes and other military necessities for the War effort. However, this economic boost was short-lived and the post-war years saw the last textile plants close. Over the next few decades the city was just a shadow of itself, until the 1970s, when Lowell became part of the Massachusetts Miracle, being the headquarters of Wang Laboratories. At the same time, Lowell became home to thousands of new immigrants, many from Cambodia, following the genocide at the hands of the Khmer Rouge. The city continued to rebound, but this time, focusing more on culture. The former mill district along the river was partially restored and became part of the Lowell National Historical Park, founded in the late 1970s. Even though Wang went bankrupt in 1992, the city continued its cultural focus by hosting the nations largest free folk festival, Lowell Folk Festival, as well as many other cultural events. This effort began to attract other companies and families back to the urban center with other historic manufacturing and commercial buildings being repurposed as residential units and office space. By the 1990s, Lowell built a new ballpark and arena, which became home to two minor league sports teams, the Lowell Devils and Lowell Spinners. The city also began to include a larger student presence as well, through expansions of the University of Massachusetts Lowell and Middlesex Community College.


Lowell is located at 42°38′22″N 71°18′53″W / 42.63944°N 71.31472°W / 42.63944; -71.31472 (42.639444, -71.314722).[3] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 14.5 square miles (37.7 km²).13.8 square miles (35.7 km²) of it is land and 0.8 square miles (2.0 km²) of it (5.23%) is water.


Lowell is located at the confluence of the Merrimack and Concord Rivers. The Pawtucket Falls, a mile-long set of rapids with a total loss in elevation of 32 feet, ends where the two rivers meet. At the top of the falls is the Pawtucket Dam - designed to turn the upper Merrimack into a millpond, diverted through Lowell's extensive canal system.

The Merrimack, which flows southerly from Franklin, New Hampshire to Lowell, makes a northeasterly turn there before emptying into the Atlantic Ocean at Newburyport, Massachusetts, approximately 40 miles downriver from Lowell. It is believed that in prior ages, the Merrimack continued south from Lowell to empty into the ocean somewhere near Boston. The glacial deposits that redirected the flow of the river are also responsible for the drumlins that dot the city, most notably, Fort Hill in the Belvidere neighborhood. Other large hills in Lowell include Lynde Hill, also in Belvidere, and Christian Hill, in the easternmost part of Centralville.

The Concord, or Musketaquid (its original name), forms from the confluence of the Assabet and Sudbury Rivers at Concord, Massachusetts. This river flows north into the city, and the area around the confluence with the Merrimack was known as Wamesit. Like the Merrimack, the Concord, although a much smaller river, has many waterfalls and rapids that served as power sources for early industrial purposes, some well before the founding of Lowell. Immediately after the Concord joins the Merrimack, the Merrimack descends another ten feet in Hunt's Falls.

There is a ninety-degree bend in the Merrimack partway down the Pawtucket Falls. At this point, the river briefly widens and shallows. Here, Beaver Brook enters from the north, separating the City's two northern neighborhoods - Pawtucktville and Centralville. Entering the Concord River from the southwest is River Meadow, or Hale's Brook. This brook flows largely in a man-made channel, as the Lowell Connector was built along it. Both of these minor streams have limited industrial histories as well.

The bordering towns (clockwise from north) are Dracut, Tewksbury, Billerica, Chelmsford, and Tyngsboro. The border with Billerica is a point in the middle of the Concord River where Lowell and Billerica meet Tewksbury and Chelmsford.

The ten communities designated part of the Lowell Metropolitan area by the 2000 US Census are Billerica, Chelmsford, Dracut, Dunstable, Groton, Lowell, Pepperell, Tewksbury, Tyngsboro, and Westford, and Pelham, NH. See Greater Lowell.

Lowell received an "All-America City" award in 1999, and was a finalist in 1997 and 1998.[1]


Lowell currently has eight distinct neighborhoods; the Acre, Back Central, Belvidere, Centralville, Downtown, Highlands, Pawtucketville, and South Lowell.[4] The City also has 5 zip codes, 4 are geographically distinct general zip codes and 1 is for PO-boxes only (01853).

The Centralville neighborhood, zip code 01850, is the northeastern section of the city, north of the Merrimack River and east of Beaver Brook. Christian Hill is the section of Centralville, located east of Bridge Street.

Lowell's canal system (1975)

The Highlands is the most populated neighborhood with almost a quarter of the city residing here, zip code 01851, and is the southwestern section of the city, bordered to the east by the Lowell Connector and to the north by the railroad. Lowellians further distinguish the sections of the Highlands as the Upper Highlands and the Lower Highlands referring to the area closer to downtown. Middlesex Village, Tyler Park and Drum Hill are in this zip code.

Belvidere, Back Central and South Lowell make up the 01852 zip code, and are the southeastern sections of the city (south of the Merrimack River and south east of the Lowell Connector). Belvidere is the mostly residential area south of the Merrimack River, east of the Concord River and north of the Lowell and Lawrence railroad. Belvidere Hill is an Historic District along Fairmount St. Lower Belvidere refers to the section west of Nesmith Street. Back Central is an urban area south of downtown towards the mouth of River Meadow Brook. South Lowell is the area south of the railroad and east of the Concord River. Other neighborhoods in this zip code are Ayers City, Bleachery, Chapel Hill, the Grove, Oaklands, Riverside Park, Swede Village and Wigginsville, but their use is mostly antiquated

The zip code 01854 is the northwestern portion of the city and includes Pawtucketville, the University of Massachusetts, Lowell and the Acre. Pawtucketville is where famous writer Jack Kerouac resided around the area of University Ave (previously known as Moody st.). North campus of UMASS Lowell is located in Pawtucketville. The older parts of the neighborhood are located around University Ave. and Mammoth Road whereas the newer parts are located around Varnum Ave. Middle and elementary schools for this area include Wang Middle School, Pawtucketville Memorial, Mccavinue elementary school and private school St. Jeanne D'arc. Pawtucketville is the official entrance to the Lowell-Dracut-Tynsborough State Forrest. Pawtucketville's Lowell-Dracut-Tynsborough State Forrest is the probable site of a notable Native American tribe, and in age of the Industrial Revolution was a prominent source where granite for canals and factory foundations were obtained [5].


Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1830 6,474
1840 20,796 221.2%
1850 33,383 60.5%
1860 36,827 10.3%
1870 40,928 11.1%
1880 59,475 45.3%
1890 77,696 30.6%
1900 94,969 22.2%
1910 106,294 11.9%
1920 112,759 6.1%
1930 100,234 −11.1%
1940 101,389 1.2%
1950 97,249 −4.1%
1960 92,107 −5.3%
1970 94,239 2.3%
1980 92,418 −1.9%
1990 103,439 11.9%
2000 105,167 1.7%

According to the 2000 Census[6], there were 105,167 people residing in the city. The population density was 7,635.6 people per square mile (2,948.8/km²). There were 39,468 housing units at an average density of 2,865.5/sq mi (1,106.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was;

  • 68.60% White (U.S. Average: 75.1%)
  • 3.92% from two or more races. (U.S. Average: 2.4%)

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.01% of the population. (U.S. Average: 12.5%)

Lowell had the highest percentage of Cambodians of any place in the United States, with 10.37% of its population being Cambodian,[7] and is only second in population to Long Beach, California. There are an estimated 11,000 Cambodians living in the city of Lowell, but local community leaders estimate the number to be around 35,000 [2]. The Government of Cambodia had opened up its third U.S. Consular Office in Lowell, on April 27, 2009, with Sovann Ou as current advisor to the Cambodian Embassy.[8] The other two are in Seattle and Long Beach.

In 2000, there were 37,887 households, and 23,982 families living in Lowell; with the average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.35.

  • 34.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them.(U.S. Average: 32.8%)
  • 40.1% were married couples living together. (U.S. Average: 51.7%)
  • 17.4% had a female householder with no husband present. (U.S. Average: 12.2%)
  • 36.7% were non-families. (U.S. Average: 31.9%)
  • 29.0% of all households were made up of individuals.(U.S. Average: 25.8%)
  • 9.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. (U.S. Average: 9.2%)

In 2000, the city's population had a median age of 31 (U.S. Average: 35.3).

  • 26.9% under the age of 18
  • 11.9% from 18 to 24.
  • 32.5% from 25 to 44
  • 17.9% from 45 to 64
  • 10.8% who were 65 years of age or older.

For every 100 females there were 97.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.1 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $39,192 (U.S. Average: $41,994). The median income for a family was $45,901. (U.S. Average: $50,046) Males had a median income of $33,554 versus $27,399 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,557. About 13.6% of families (U.S. Average: 9.2%) and 16.8% of individuals (U.S. Average: 12.4%) were below the poverty line, including 23.2% of those under age 18 and 14.0% of those age 65 or over.


Lowell City Council 2010-2011[9]
  • James L. Milinazzo, Mayor
  • Kevin P. Broderick, Vice Mayor
  • Edward C. Caulfield
  • Franky D. Descoteaux
  • Rodney M. Elliott
  • Joseph M. Mendonça
  • Michael J. Lenzi
  • William F. Martin
  • Rita M. Mercier
  • Patrick O. Murphy
Lowell City Hall

Lowell has a "Plan E form" Council-manager government. There are nine city councilors and six school committee members, all elected at large in a non-partisan election. The City Council chooses one of its members as mayor, and another as vice-mayor; the mayor serves as chair of the council, serves as the seventh member of the school committee, and performs certain ceremonial duties. The administrative head of the city government is the City Manager, who is responsible for all day-to-day operations, functioning within the guidelines of City Council policy, and is hired by and serves at the pleasure of the City Council as whole. As of January 2010, the City Manager is Bernard F. Lynch and James L. Milinazzo is the Mayor.

The city of Lowell is primarily policed and protected by the Lowell Police Department and secondarily by the Massachusetts State Police.

As of August 2005, Lowell became part of one Massachusetts Senate district.

State Representatives

United States Congress

The City of Lowell is part of the Massachusetts Fifth Congressional District, represented by Niki Tsongas (D), as well as the Third Governor's Council District represented by Marilyn Petitto Devaney.

The two U.S. Senators from Massachusetts, representing at large, are John Kerry (D) and Scott Brown (R).

Massachusetts General Court

In the Massachusetts General Court Lowell's State Senator to the Massachusetts Senate is currently:

Lowell's State Representatives are currently

  • Sixteenth Middlesex, represented by Thomas A. Golden,Jr.(D)
  • Seventeenth Middlesex, represented by David M. Nangle (D)
  • Eighteenth Middlesex, represented by Kevin J. Murphy (D))


Lowell can be reached by automobile from Interstate 495, US Route 3, the Lowell Connector, and Massachusetts Routes 3A, 38, 110, 113, and 133.[10]

For public transit, Lowell is served by the Lowell Regional Transit Authority, which provides fixed route bus services and paratransit services to the city and surrounding area. These connect at the Gallagher Transit Terminal to the Lowell Line of the MBTA commuter rail system, which connects Lowell to Boston. The terminal is also served by several intercity bus lines.[10]

The Lowell National Historical Park provides a free streetcar shuttle between its various sites in the city center, using track formerly used to provide freight access to the city's mills.




  • WCAP AM 980, talk radio
  • WUML FM 91.5, UMass Lowell-owned station

Points of interest

The Boott Mill complex now converted to a museum.


Birthplace of painter James McNeill Whistler.


On April 1, 2006, Lowell held the 2006 World Curling Championships for the men's teams at the Tsongas Center at UMass Lowell.


LeLacheur Park

Annual events

Businesses started and/or products invented in Lowell



Lowell Schools

High Schools

Grades 5-8


  • Benjamin F. Butler Middle School, est. 1992 (500 Students) Teacher/Student Ratio N/A
  • Dr. An Wang Middle School, est. 1993 (620 Students) Teacher/Student Ratio 1:29
  • H.J. Robinson Middle School, est. 1969 (660 Students) Teacher/Student Ratio 1:25
  • James S. Daley Middle School, est. 1956 (600 Students) Teacher/Student Ratio 1:24
  • Kathryn P. Stoklosa Middle School, est. 2005 (485 Students) Teacher/Student Ratio 1:25
  • James F. Sullivan Middle School of Communications, est. 1992 (586 Students) Teacher/Student Ratio 1:30
  • E.N. Rogers Middle School (Closed in 2009)

Grades K-8

  • J. G. Pyne Arts Magnet (500 Students) [17]
  • Bartlett Community Partnership School (460 Students) est. 2005[18]
  • Lowell Community Charter Public School est. 1999[19]

Grades K-4


  • Abraham Lincoln Elementary School, est. 1993 (505 Students) Teacher/Student Ratio 1:24
  • Charlotte M. Murkland Elementary School, est. 1993 (460 Students) Teacher/Student Ratio 1:23
  • Greenhalge Elementary School, re-est. 1994 (450 Students) Teacher/Student Ratio 1:20
  • Pawtucketville Memorial Elementary School, est. 1990 (493 Students) Teacher/Student Ratio N/A
  • S. Christa McAuliffe Elementary School, est. 1993 (500 Students) Teacher/Student Ratio N/A
  • John J. Shaughnessy Elementary School, est. 1991 (500 Students) Teacher/Student Ratio 1:22
  • Washington Elementary School, (220 Students) Teacher/Student Ratio 1:19
  • C.W. Morey Elementary School, (420 Students) Teacher/Student Ratio 1:21
  • Dr. Gertrude M. Bailey Elementary School, est. 1992 (460 Students) Teacher/Student Ratio 1:21
  • Joseph A. McAvinnue Elementary School, est. 1994 (489 Students) Teacher/Student Ratio 1:24
  • Moody Elementary School, est. 1841 (187 Students) Teacher/Student Ratio 1:28
  • Peter W. Reilly Elementary School, est. 1959 (530 Students) Teacher/Student Ratio 1:21

Private Grade Schools


  • Hellenic American Academy, est. 1908 as the first Greek Orthodox day school in the United States (135 Students) (Grades K-6) Teacher/Student Ratio 1:12[21]
  • Franco-American School, est. 1963 (Grades K-8) Teacher/Student Ratio 1:13[22]
  • St. Louis School, (457 Students) (Grades K-8) Teacher/Student Ratio 1:19
  • Ste. Jeanne D'Arc School, (472 Students) (Grades K-8) Teacher/Student Ratio 1:17
  • St. Margaret School, (357 Students) (Grade K-8) Teacher/Student Ratio 1:20
  • St. Patrick School, (181 Students) (Grade K-8) Teacher/Student Ratio 1:15
  • St. Michael Elementary School, (407 Students) (Grade K-8) Teacher/Student Ratio 1:16
  • Immaculate Conception School, (324 Students) (Grade K-8) Teacher/Student Ratio 1:17
  • St. Stanislaus School, est. 1906 (124 Students) (Grade K-8) Teacher/Student Ratio 1:12[23]
  • Community Christian Academy, (185 Students) (Grade K-12) Teacher/Student Ratio 1:9
  • Riverside School, Nonsectarian, Special Education School (25 Students) (Grades 4-11) Teacher/Student Ratio 1:5

Higher education

References to Lowell


The city is the subject of Death Cab for Cutie's song, "Lowell, MA," from their album We Have the Facts and We're Voting Yes

The city was also featured in the song "Lowell Man" by Tom Doyle. Doyle, of WROR-FM 105.7 in Boston, does many songs like this spoofing classic rock by rewording them to make fun of various things about New England (Lowell Man is a spoof of Soul Man by Sam & Dave).

The Dropkick Murphys' Warrior's Code tells story of Lowell Boxer Micky Ward, mentioning Lowell and several city facts in the song.


Lowell has also been the subject of a number of novels. Some of the better known ones are:

Memorial stone of Jack Kerouac in Lowell, Mass. (USA)
  • Jack Kerouac, who was born in Lowell, set several biographical novels there, including Visions of Gerard and Doctor Sax.
  • Katherine Paterson's novel Lyddie tells the fictional story of a Lowell Mill Girl in the nineteenth century who fights for better working conditions in the hot, crowded and dangerous mills.
  • In Avi's Beyond the Western Sea: Lord Kirkle's Money, Lowell is the destination of immigrants hoping to reach America and begin new lives.
  • Nancy Zaroulis' Call The Darkness Light, a novel about a young woman left alone in the world following the death of her father, tells the story of the mid-19th century Lowell Mill Girls and the realities of the textile industry.
  • Lloyd L. Corricelli's Two Redheads & A Dead Blonde, a mystery novel which follows Iraqi war veteran and private investigator Ronan Marino's quest to find his girlfriend's murderer.


Notable residents


Inventors & Business Founders

Astronauts & Astronomers

Authors & Entertainers


Designers & Artists



Many professional baseball players came out of Lowell in the late 1800s, including; Charlie Snow (1874), Denny Driscoll (1880–1884),Frank McLaughlin (1882–1884), John Grady (1884), Jack Corcoran (1884), John Firth (1884), Art Sladen (1884), brothers Bill Conway (1884–1886) & Dick Conway (1886–1888), Marty Sullivan (1887–1891), Ed "Sleepy" Flanagan (1887–1889), Frank Bonner (1894–1903), Bill Merritt (1891–1899) and Bob Ganley (1905–1909)[30]

Modern Era:

Olympic Athletes
  • Shelagh Donohoe 1992 Barcelona took Silver metal in rowing (Women's Coxless Fours),[32] current URI head coach
  • Ernest N. Harmon, 1924 Paris finished 31st in Modern Pentathlon (5th in shooting) also U.S. Army Major General WWII & President of Norwich University 1950-1956.
  • Alfons Mello Travers 1924 Paris finished 5th in the Men's Welterweight, turned pro and finished 37/10 with 18KOs retired as a restaurant owner in Lowell[33]
  • Albert J. Mangan, 1936 Berlin finished 21st in 50k Walk[34] coached and taught at Lowell High School for almost 50yrs.
  • Michael Mastrullo 1984 Sarajevo played for the Italian Men's Ice Hockey team, which finished 9th overall.[35]
  • Ethan Thomas Brown, 2007 & 2008 U23 National Champion[36] 2012 USA Olympic development team roster[37]
  • Nathaniel Jenkins, 12th IAAF World Championships in Athletics Berlin 2009, 7th in 2008 USA Olympic Team trials[38]

Other Notables


  1. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  2. ^ a b c Marion, Paul, "Timeline of Lowell History From 1600s to 2009", Yankee magazine, November 2009.
  3. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2000 and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2005-05-03. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  7. ^ Cambodian ancestry by city - ePodunk
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^ a b "City of Lowell - Location". Retrieved 2007-10-02. 
  11. ^ Tuttle, Nancye, "Cambodian art, a New England tradition", The Lowell Sun, May 15, 2008.
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^ a b
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^ Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607-1896. Marquis Who's Who. 1967. 
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i
  30. ^
  31. ^
  32. ^
  33. ^
  34. ^
  35. ^
  36. ^
  37. ^
  38. ^
  39. ^ A Woman of the Century: Fourteen Hundred-Seventy Biographical Sketches Accompanied by Portraits of Leading American Women in all Walks of Life. Edited by Frances E. Willard and Mary A. Livermore, assisted by a corps of able contributors: Buffalo, C. W. Moulton, 1893. pp 557.
  40. ^
  41. ^
  42. ^

Further reading

  • "Waterpower in Lowell: Engineering and Industry in Nineteenth-Century America (Johns Hopkins Introductory Studies in the History of Technology)" by Patrick M. Malone (2009)
  • "The Lowell Experiment: Public History in a Postindustrial City" by Cathy Stanton (2006)
  • "Lowell: The Mill City (MA) (Postcard History Series)" by The Lowell Historical Society (2005)
  • "So Far From Home: The Diary of Mary Driscoll, An Irish Mill Girl, Lowell, Massachusetts 1847 (Dear America Series)" by Barry Denenberg (2003)
  • "The Lowell Mill Girls: Life in the Factory (Perspectives on History Series)" by Joanne Weisman Deitch (1998)
  • "The Lowell Offering: Writings by New England Mill Women (1840-1945)" by Benita Eisler (1997)
  • "Living on the Boott: Historical Archaeology at the Boott Mills Boardinghouses, Lowell, Massachusetts" by Stephen A. Mrozowski, Grace H. Ziesing, and Mary C. Beaudry (1996)
  • "Women at Work: The Transformation of Work and Community in Lowell, Massachusetts, 1826-1860" by Thomas Dublin (1981)

External links

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

LOWELL, a city and one of the county-seats (Cambridge being the other) of Middlesex county, Massachusetts, U.S.A., situated in the N.E. part of the county at the confluence of the Concord and Merrimack rivers, about 25 m. N.W. of Boston. Pop. (1890) 77,696; (1900) 94,969, of whom 40,974 were foreignborn (14,674 being French Canadian, 12,147 Irish, 4485 English Canadian, 4446 English, 1203 Greek, 1099 Scotch); (1910 census), 106,294. Lowell is served by the Boston & Maine and the New York, New Haven & Hartford railways, and by interurban electric lines. The area of Lowell is 14.1 sq. m., much the larger part of which is S. of the Merrimack. The city is irregularly laid out. Its centre is Monument Square, in Merrimack Street, where are a granite monument to the first Northerners killed in the Civil War, Luther C. Ladd and A. O. Whitney (both of Lowell), whose regiment was mobbed in Baltimore on the 19th of April 1861 while marching to Washington; and a bronze figure of Victory (after one by Rauch in the Valhalla at Ratisbon), commemorating the Northern triumph in the Civil War. The Lowell textile school, opened in 1897, offers courses in cotton manufacturing, wool manufacturing, designing, chemistry and dyeing, and textile engineering; evening drawing schools and manual training in the public schools have contributed to the high degree of technical perfection in the factories. The power gained from the Pawtucket Falls in the Merrimack river has long been found insufficient for these. A network of canals supplies from 14,000 to 24,000 h.p.; and a small amount is also furnished by the Concord river, but about 26,000 h.p. is supplied by steam. In factory output ($46,879,212 in 1905; $41,202,984 in 1900) Lowell ranked fifth in value in 1905 and fourth in 1900 among the cities of Massachusetts; more than three-tenths of the total population are factory wage-earners, and nearly 19% of the population are in the cotton mills. Formerly Lowell was called the " Spindle City " and the " Manchester of America," but it was long ago surpassed in the manufacture of textiles by Fall River and New Bedford: in 1905 the value of the cotton product of Lowell, $19,340,925, was less than 60% of the value of cotton goods made at Fall River. Woollen goods made in Lowell in 1905 were valued at $2,579,363; hosiery and knitted goods, at $3,816,964; worsted goods, at $1,978,552. Carpets and textile machinery are allied manufactures of importance. There are other factories for machinery, patent medicines, boots and shoes, perfumery and cosmetics, hosiery and rubber heels. Lowell was the home of the inventor of rubber heels, Humphrey O'Sullivan. The founders of Lowell were Patrick Tracy Jackson (1780-1847), Nathan Appleton (1779-1861), Paul Moody (1779-1831) and the business manager chosen by them, Kirk Boott (1790-1837). The opportunity for developing water-power by the purchase of the canal around Pawtucket Falls (chartered for navigation in 1792) led them to choose the adjacent village of East Chelmsford as the site of their projected cotton mills; they bought the Pawtucket canal, and incorporated in 1822 the Merrimack Manufacturing Company; in 1823 the first cloth was actually made, and in 1826 a separate township was formed from part of Chelmsford and was named in honour of Francis Cabot Lowell, who with Jackson had improved Cartwright's power loom, and had planned the mills at Waltham. In 1836 Lowell was chartered as a city. Lowell annexed parts of Tewksbury in 1834, 1874, 1888 and 1906, and parts of Dracut in 1851, 1874 and 1879. Up to 1840 the mill hands, with the exception of English dyers and calico printers, were New England girls. The " corporation," as the employers were called, provided from the first for the welfare of their employees, and Lowell has always been notably free from labour disturbances.

The character of the early employees of the mills, later largely displaced by French Canadians and Irish, and by immigrants from various parts of Europe, is clearly seen in the periodical, The Lowell Offering, written and published by them in 1840-1845. This monthly magazine,organized by the Rev. Abel Charles Thomas (1807-1880), pastor of the First Universalist Church, was from October 1840 to March 1841 made up of articles prepared for some of the many improvement circles or literary societies; it then became broader in its scope, received more spontaneous contributions, and from October 1842 until December 1845 was edited by Harriot F. Curtis (1813-1889), known by her pen name, " Mina Myrtle," and by Harriet Farley (1817-1907), who became manager and proprietor, and published selections from the Offering under the titles Shells from the Strand of the Sea of Genius (1847) and Mind among the Spindles (1849), with an introduction by Charles Knight. In 1854 she married John Intaglio Donlevy (d. 1872). Famous contributors to the Offering were Harriet Hanson (b. 1825) and Lucy Larcom (1824-1893). Harriet Hanson wrote Early Factory Labor in New England (1883) and Loom and Spindle (1898), an important contribution to the industrial and social history of Lowell. She was prominent in the anti-slavery and woman suffrage agitations in Massachusetts, and wrote Massachusetts in the Woman Suffrage Movement (1881). She married in 1848 William Stevens Robinson (1818-1876), who wrote in1856-1876the political essays signed ' Warrington " for the Springfield Republican. Lucy Larcom,' born in Beverly, came to Lowell in 1835, where her widowed mother kept a " corporation " boarding-house, and where she became a " doffer," changing bobbins in the mills. She wrote much, especially for the Offering; became an ardent abolitionist and (in 1843) the friend of Whittier; left Lowell in 1846, and taught for several years, first in Illinois, and then in Beverly and Norton, Massachusetts. An Idyl of Work (1875) describes the life of the mills and A New England Girlhood (1889) is autobiographical; she wrote many stories and poems, of which Hannah Binding Shoes is best known.

Benjamin F. Butler was from boyhood a resident of Lowell, where he began to practise law in 1841. James McNeill Whistler was born here in 1834, and in 1907 his birthplace in Worthen Street was purchased by the Art Association to be used as its headquarters and as an art museum and gallery; it was dedicated in 1908, and in the same year a replica of Rodin's statue of Whistler was bought for the city.

See S. A. Drake, History of Middlesex County, 2, p. 53 et seq. (Boston, 1880); Illustrated History of Lowell, Massachusetts (Lowell, 1897); the books of Harriet H. Robinson and Lucy Larcom already named as bearing on the industrial conditions of the city between 1835 and 1850; and the famous description in the fourth chapter of Dickens's American Notes.

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Simple English

Lowell is a city in Massachusetts. It has a population of 105,167, which makes it one of the largest cities in the state. It has historically been known for having factories that made textiles (clothes and fabric). It has been a city of immigrants, first of Irish and later of Cambodians.

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