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Lotharingia divided, around 1000: the pink is Lower Lorraine, while the purple is Upper Lorraine.
History of the Low Countries
Austrasia Frisian kingdom
Carolingian Empire
ca 800843
  Blason Nord-Pas-De-Calais.svg
Cty of Flanders
9th century – 1384
Lotharingia, then Lower Lorraine 855–954–977
Bishopric of Liège.png
Bishopric
of Liège

+
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Imperial Abbey of Stavelot- Malmedy
+
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Duchy of Bouillon

10th century
– 1795
Other feudal states Luxembourg New Arms.svg
County of Luxembourg
963–1384
10th–14th centuries
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Burgundian Netherlands
Duchy of Luxembourg
1384–1443
1384–1482
 

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Habsburg Netherlands
1482–1795
(Seventeen Provinces, Burgundian Circle)

Spanish (Southern) Netherlands
1549–1713
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Dutch Republic
1581–1795
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Austrian Netherlands
1713–95
Liège Revolution

1789-1792

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United States
of Belgium
1790
   

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French Republic
1795–1804
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Batavian Republic
1795–1806
French Empire
1804–15
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Kingdom of Holland
1806–10
 
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United Kingdom of the Netherlands
since 1815
   
Flag of Belgium.svg
Kingdom of Belgium
since 1830
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Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
since 1839
Netherlands

The Duchy of Lower Lorraine or Lower Lotharingia encompassed part of modern-day Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany west of the Rhine, and a part of northern France (east of the Schelde). It was created out of the former Carolingian kingdom of Lotharingia. The kingdom was divided for much of the later ninth century, reunited under the French king Charles the Simple in 910. From there it formed a duchy which eventually declared homage to the German king Henry the Fowler (c.923), an act which the French monarchs were helpless to revert, and Lotharingia (or Lorraine) became a German stem duchy. In 959, the Duke Bruno divided the duchy into two duchies: Lower and Upper Lorraine (or Lower and Upper Lotharingia). Lower Lorraine was to the north (lower down the river system) and Upper Lorraine was to the south (further up the river system).

The duchies took very separate paths thereafter and were only briefly reunited under Gothelo I from 1033 to 1044. After that, the Lower duchy was quickly marginalised. Upper Lorraine came to be known as simply Lorraine.

The ducal title was granted to the Lord of Bouillon in 1087 and, in 1106, to the Count of Leuven. The Duke of Brabant inherited the duchy in 1190, but the Duchy of Lower Lorraine lost its territorial authority at the Diet of Schwäbisch Hall. The remnant imperial fief was later called the Duchy of Lothier (or Lothryk).

Successor states

After the territorial power of the duchy was shattered, many fiefdoms came to independence in its area. The most important ones of these were:

The following successor states remained under the authority of the titular dukes of Lower Lorraine (Lothier):

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