Lozenge: Wikis

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A lozenge (), often referred to as a diamond, is a form of rhombus. The definition of lozenge is not strictly fixed, and it is sometimes used simply as a synonym (from the French losange) for rhombus. Most often, though, lozenge refers to a thin rhombus—a rhombus with acute angles of 45°.[1] The lozenge shape is often used in parquetry and as decoration on ceramics, silverware, and textiles.

Glyph

The lozenge glyph is found in DOS code page 437 (at character code 4)[2] and Mac-Roman. It is found in the Unicode Geometrical Shapes range[3] at U+25CA LOZENGE. In HTML it can be typed with &loz; (or &#9674; or &#x25CA;), which will produce ◊. The LaTeX command for the lozenge is `\lozenge`.

Applications

Modal logic

In modal logic, the lozenge expresses the possibility of the following expression. For example, the expression $\Diamond P$ expresses that it is possible that P is true.

Mathematics

In axiomatic set theory, the lozenge refers to the principles known collectively as diamondsuit.

Camouflage

During the First World War, the Germans developed Lozenge-Tarnung (lozenge camouflage).[4] This camouflage was made up of colored polygons of four or five colors. The repeating patterns often used irregular four-, five- and six-sided polygons, but some contained regular rhombi or hexagons. Because painting such a pattern was very time consuming, and the paint added considerably to the weight of the aircraft, the pattern was printed on fabric. This pre-printed fabric was used from 1916 until the end of the war, in various forms and colours.

Heraldry

The lozenge in heraldry is a diamond-shaped charge, usually somewhat narrower than it is tall. A mascle is a voided lozenge—that is, a lozenge with a lozenge-shaped hole in the middle—and the rarer rustre is a lozenge containing a circular hole. A field covered in a pattern of lozenges is described as lozengy; a similar field of mascles is masculy.

Cough tablets

Cough tablets have taken the name lozenge, based on their original shape. According to the Oxford English Dictionary the first use of this sense was in 1530.

U.S. Military

The lozenge is used in the U.S. Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force on the insignia of their respective First Sergeants.

They are also used in the Junior ROTC and the Cadet Program in the Civil Air Patrol, for Officers from the military pay grades of Cadet O-4 to Cadet O-6 (c/Major, c/Lieutenant Colonel to c/Colonel).

Finnish Defence Forces

In Finnish military ranks, the lozenge is found in the insignia of conscript officer students (one lozenge) and conscript officer cadets (two lozenges).

Transportation

The lozenge can be used on public roadways in the United States and Canada to mark a specific lane for a particular use. The lane will usually be painted with a lozenge at a regular interval, and signage will be installed to indicate the restrictions on using the lane. This marking is most often used to denote high-occupancy vehicle lanes, with accompanying signage reading "◊ HOV LANE" and giving the requirements for a vehicle to be accepted as "high-occupancy". Prior to 17 January 2006, lozenges could also be used to mark bicycle-only lanes, often in conjunction with a bicycle icon.[5]

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

LOZENGE (from the Fr. losenge, or losange; the word also appears in Span. losanje, and Ital. losanga; perhaps derived from a word meaning a stone slab laid on a grave, which appears in forms such as Provençal lousa, Span. losa, the ultimate origin of which is unknown, the Lat. lapis, stone, or laws, praise, in the sense of epitaph, have been suggested), properly a four equalsided figure, having two acute and two obtuse angles, a rhomb or "diamond." The figure is frequently used as a bearing in heraldry and especially as a shield so shaped on which the arms of a widow or spinster are emblazoned. It is used also to denote the diamond-shaped facets of a precious stone when cut, also the diamond panes of a casement window. In the 14th century the "lozenge pattern" was a favourite design for decoration. The word is also applied to a small tablet of sugar, originally diamond shaped, containing either medical drugs or some simple flavouring, or to a tablet of any concentrated substance, such as a meat-lozenge. In the reign of James I. of Scotland (1406-1437) a Scotch gold coin having a lozenge-shaped shield with the arms of Scotland on the obverse side was called a "lozenge-lion." Lozere, a department of south-eastern France belonging to the central plateau, composed of almost the whole of Gevaudan and of some portions of the old dioceses of Uzes and Alais, districts all formerly included in the province of Languedoc. Pop. (1906) 128,016. Area, 1999 sq. m. It is bounded N. by Cantal and Haute-Loire, E. by Ardeche and Gard, S. by Gard and Aveyron and W. by Aveyron and Cantal. Lozere is mountainous throughout and in average elevation is the highest of all the French departments. It has three distinct regions - the Cevennes proper to the south-east, the causses to the south-west and the mountain tracts which occupy the rest of its area. The Cevennes begin (within Lozere) with Mont Aigoual, which rises to a height of more than 5100 ft.; parallel to this are the mountains of Bouges, bold and bare on their southern face, but falling gently with wooded slopes towards the Tarn which roughly limits the Cevennes on the north. To the north of the Tarn is the range of Lozere, including the peak of Finiels, the highest point of the department (5584 ft.). Farther on occurs the broad marshy plateau of Montbel, which drains southward to the Lot, northwards to the Allier, eastward by the Chassezac to the Ardeche. From this plateau extend the mountains of La Margeride, undulating granitic tablelands partly clothed with woods of oak, beech and fir, and partly covered with pastures, to which flocks are brought from lower Languedoc in summer. The highest point (Truc de Randon) reaches 5098 ft. Adjoining the Margeride hills on the west is the volcanic range of Aubrac, a pastoral district where horned cattle take the place of sheep; the highest point is 4826 ft. The causses of Lozere, having an area of about 564 sq. m., are calcareous, fissured and arid, but separated from each other by deep and well-watered gorges, contrasting with the desolate aspect of the plateaus. The causse of Sauveterre, between the Lot and the Tarn, ranges from 3000 to 3300 ft. in height; that of Mejan has nearly the same average altitude, but has peaks some 1000 ft. higher. Between these two causses the Tarn valley is among the most picturesque in France. Lozere is watered entirely by rivers rising within its own boundaries, being in this respect unique. The climate of Lozere varies greatly with the locality. The mean temperature of Mende (50° F.) is below that of Paris; that of the mountains is always low, but on the causses the summer is scorching and the winter severe; in the Cevennes the climate becomes mild enough at their base (656 ft.) to permit the growth of the olive. Rain falls in violent storms, causing disastrous floods. On the Mediterranean versant there are 76 in., in the Garonne basin 46 and in that of the Loire only 28. Sheep and cattle-rearing and cheesemaking are the chief occupations. Bees are kept, and, among the Cevennes, silkworms. Large quantities of chestnuts are exported from the Cevennes, where they form an important article of diet. In the valley of the Lot wheat and fruit are the chief products; elsewhere rye is the chief cereal, and oats, barley, meslin and potatoes are also grown. Fruit trees and leguminous plants are irrigated by small canals (bdals) on terraces made and maintained with much labour. Lead, zinc and antimony are found. Saw-milling, the manufacture of wooden shoes and woolspinning are carried on; otherwise industries are few and unimportant. Of mineral springs, those of Bagnols-les-Bains are most frequented. The line of the Paris-Lyon company from Paris to Nimes traverses the eastern border of the department, which is also served by the Midi railway with the line from Neussargues to Beziers via Marvejols. The arrondissements are Mende, Florac and Marvejols; the cantons number 24, the communes 198. Lozere forms the diocese of Mende and part of the ecclesiastical province of Albi. It falls within the region of the XVI. army corps, the circumscriptions of the academie (educational division) of Montpellier and the appeal court of Nimes. Mende (q.v.) is its most important town.