Loznica: Wikis

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Loznica
Лозница
—  Town  —

Coat of arms
Location of Loznica within Serbia
Coordinates: 44°32′N 19°13′E / 44.533°N 19.217°E / 44.533; 19.217
Country Serbia
District Mačva
Settlements 54
Government
 - Mayor Vidoje Petrović (G17+)
Area [1]
 - Municipality 612 km2 (236.3 sq mi)
Population (2002 census)[2]
 - Total 83,863
 - Municipality 96,413
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 15300
Area code +381 15
Car plates LO
Website www.loznica.rs
Panoramic view of Loznica

Loznica (Serbian Cyrillic: Лозница) is a city and municipality located in the Mačva District of Serbia, although it is not geographically located in Mačva, but in Podrinje. It lies on the Drina river, at 44.53° North, 19.22° East. Tronoša (Cyrillic: Tроноша), a monastery from 14th century and one of Serbia's most significant monasteries, is located near Loznica. The nearby town of Tršić is the birthplace of Vuk Karadžić, the reformer of modern Serbian language. Jovan Cvijić was also born here.

In 2002 the city had total population of 83,863, while the municipality had a population of 96,413. During Roman period, the place was called Ad Drinum. In January 2008, according to Serbian law, Loznica received the status of a city.

Contents

Name

Its name stems from the word "loza" (the Serbian word for vine). Originally, its name was Lozica (Serbian for small vine), but it later became Loznica.[3]

History

The oldest traces of prehistoric settlements on the territory of Jadar and Loznica, can undoubtedly be linked for the period of late Neolith (i.e. Starcevacka culture 4500 - 3000. B.C.). Archaeological data can be used as indication in determination as to which peoples lived on this territory. The most prominent are the Ilirs who left extensive remains of their culture in the Jadar region, the very name Jadar is of Iliric origin.

Roman conquest of the Balkan peninsula brought huge changes: the territory became a Roman province. According to recent classification, Jadar formed a part of Dalmatia. The first settlement located on the place of present Loznica was named in Antique times, while the most important settlement in Jadar was the name Genzis, located approximately on the territory of today's Lešnica. Legend states that Loznica was named after the vinegrape that was grown in this region, starting from the 3rd century B.C. in the time of Roman Czar Probus. The first reference to Loznica dates back to Chapter of King Milutin, when Katharine, the wife of Milutin's brother Dragutin, set up nearby monastery Tronosa. (1317. година). Loznica was not mentioned at all for a long period of time in the Middle Ages. According to report from 1533, Loznica was populated mainly by Muslim people. Out of 37 houses, as found in Loznica at this census, 26 houses were Muslim and only 11 Christian.

In 1600, Loznica became a Muslim settlement with 55 houses. In this period Loznica and Jadar were part of the Zvornik region, seated in Zvornik, while the Zvronik region itself was part of the Bosnian pashadom Striving toward liberation from the Turkish rule the population of Loznica was actively involved in the common fight of the Serbian people, immediately after the 1804 Uprising. The uprising was very important since the Turks did not easily give up on the border part of their territory from which they could harvest taxes and supply their army as well as break through towards the central part of the rebellious Serbia. During the whole period of uprising from 1804 - 1813, numerous and heavy battles against Turks were fought in Loznica and its vicinity. Except in 1813 the Serbs always managed not only to combat but also to expel the Turks across the river Drina. The return of Turks in Loznica in 1813 and annexation of Loznica and Jadar into Zvornik region resulted in extremely difficult situation that was hard to put up with. Loznica and Jadar became part of the Principality of Serbia during the rule of Milos Obrenovic, when Sultan's Mahmud II in November 1833 brought decree on accession of six seized regions to Serbia. Acquisition of Loznica and Jadar to the territory of Serbia Principality, after 1834, resulted in abolition of Turkish ownership over the land and it was declared free peasant estate- which meant that feudal system was revoked.

The Jadar region became part of the Podrinje region , and at the same time Loznica became the seat of the region, remaining in this role until the end of 19th century, when this precedence was given over to Sabac. During the thirties of the 19th century Loznica had 295 houses with 1203 people. It became centre of the administrative and political power of Podrinje. The education system started to develop and a hospital was set up (1882), construction of industrial buildings started , craftsmen, trade and banking started to develop. Construction of the railway road Sabac-Loznica-Banja Koviljaca started by the beginning of the 20th century. Small town of Loznica was no longer Turkish settlement but modern town. Wars 1912 - 1913, and especially the First World War 1914 - 1918 halted for certain period the economic development and significantly reduced the number of people in Loznica and vicinity. Upon completion of the First World War, Loznica remained regional centre with about 5000 people. Several years in the aftermath of the war were marked by the short period of reconstruction and relative economic development, which were characteristics of the majority of towns of former Kingdom. . The World economic crisis 1929 - 1930 was felt in the Jadar region and in Loznica, primarily by the decline of prices of agricultural products. The economic growth started by mid thirties, by start up of some trade and craft shops in Loznica. The taking over of the antimony mines by German industrials during thirties brought about strengthening of the economy. However this growth in economy development of Loznica and Jadar was stopped after the break out of the II World war. (1941 - 1945).

Economics

Viskoza factory

The largest factory of Loznica was "HI Viskoza Loznica", founded in 1957 with over 10,000 employees (1981), at the time when the city had 18,000 inhabitants. Production of trailers was primarily in the factory "FAK Loznica", and textile production in "Moda" Loznica.

Italian manufacturer of stockings and women's underwear "Golden Lady" has a factory in Loznica, exporting to countries of the European Community. For now the factory employs 550 workers.

Culture

Witnesses of the past are the church of the Virgin in Loznica, Tronoša convent, monastery Čokešina, monuments on Mount Gučevo, in Tekeriš, Draginac and Tršić the ethnic village. There is a national epic "Battle in Loznica. And the central figure of the First Serbian Uprising is Duke of Loznica Anta Bogicevic. His grave is located near church of Virgin. Loznica is the birthplace of Jovan Cvijević.

Vuk Stefanovic Karadzic was born in Tršić near Loznica, , educated in monastery Tronoša.

Most important cultural event for the community of Loznica is "Vukov Sabor" (Council of Vuk) in Tršić. Event is held every year in September, in memory of Vuk Stefanovic Karadzic. "Vukov Sabor" is the oldest and largest cultural event in Serbia, for its importance and the increasing volume (20.000-30.000 visitors).

Sister city is Plock in Poland. Another sister city is Ivanic-Grad in Croatia. Every year, politicians and diplomats to visit Loznica Plock.

Loznica has its own football club called FC "Loznica.

Municipality

Municipality of Loznica includes the following settlements:

  • Donji Dobrić
  • Draginac
  • Zajača
  • Jadranska Lešnica
  • Jarebice
  • Jelav
  • Joševa
  • Jugovići
  • Kamenica
  • Klupci
  • Kozjak
  • Korenita
  • Krajišnici
  • Lešnica
  • Lipnica
  • Lipnički Šor
  • Lozničko Polje
  • Milina
  • Meraja
  • Novo Selo
  • Paskovac
  • Ploča
  • Pomijača
  • Ribarice
  • Runjani
  • Simino Brdo
  • Slatina
  • Straža
  • Stupnica
  • Tekeriš
  • Trbosilje
  • Trbušnica
  • Tršić
  • Filipovići
  • Cikote
  • Čokešina
  • Šurice

Demographics (2002 census)

Ethnic groups in the Loznica municipality:

Twin cities

See also

References

  1. ^ "Municipalities of Serbia, 2006". Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. http://webrzs.statserb.sr.gov.yu/axd/Zip/OG2006webE.zip.  
  2. ^ (in Serbian) Popis stanovništva, domaćinstava i Stanova 2002. Knjiga 1: Nacionalna ili etnička pripadnost po naseljima. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. 2003. ISBN 86-84443-00-09.  
  3. ^ http://www.locafe.com

External links

Coordinates: 44°32′00″N 19°13′33″E / 44.5333333°N 19.22583°E / 44.5333333; 19.22583

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