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Satan, who in Milton's Paradise Lost is also called Lucifer,[1] on his way to bring about the downfall of Adam. Gustave Doré's illustration for Paradise Lost, Book III, lines 739-742 by John Milton.

Lucifer is a Latin word (from the words lucem ferre), literally meaning "light-bearer", which in that language is used as a name for the dawn appearance of the planet Venus, heralding daylight. Use of the word in this sense is uncommon in English, in which "Day Star" or "Morning Star" are more common expressions.

In English, "Lucifer" generally refers to Satan, although the name is not applied to him in the New Testament. The use of the name "Lucifer" in reference to a fallen angel stems from an interpretation of Isaiah 14:3–20, a passage that speaks of a particular Babylonian King, to whom it gives the title of "Day Star", "Morning Star" (in Latin, lucifer),[2] as fallen or destined to fall from the heavens or sky.[3] In 2 Peter 1:19 and elsewhere, the same Latin word lucifer is used to refer to the Morning Star, with no relation to the devil. However, in post-New Testament times the Latin word Lucifer has often been used as a name for the devil, primarily in fictional works.

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Satan as Lucifer

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The Lucifer story

Gustave Doré's illustration for Milton's Paradise Lost, Book IV, lines 1013–1015: Satan (alias Lucifer) yielding before Raphael

A pagan myth of the fall of angels, associated with the Morning Star, was transferred to Satan, as seen in the Life of Adam and Eve and the Second Book of Enoch,[4] which the Jewish Encyclopedia attributes to the first pre-Christian century:[5] in these Satan-Sataniel (sometimes identified with Samael) is described as having been one of the archangels. Because he contrived "to make his throne higher than the clouds over the earth and resemble 'My power' on high", Satan-Sataniel was hurled down, with his hosts of angels, and since then he has been flying in the air continually above the abyss.[6]

Early Christian writers continued this identification of "Lucifer" with Satan. Tertullian ("Contra Marcionem," v. 11, 17), Origen ("Ezekiel Opera," iii. 356), and others, identify Lucifer with Satan, who also is represented as being "cast down from heaven" (Revelation 12:7–10; cf. Luke 10:18).[6]

However, some contemporary exorcists and theologians such as Father Jose Antonio Fortea and Father Amorth in their experience and based on Biblical interpretations assert that Lucifer and Satan are different beings.[7]

In the New Testament the Adversary has many names, but "Lucifer" is not among them. He is called "Satan" (Matt. 4:10; Mark 1:13, 4:15; Luke 10:18), "devil" (Matt. 4:1), "adversary" (1. Peter 5:8, ἀντίδικος; 1. Tim. 5:14, ἀντικείμενος), "enemy" (Matt. 13:39), "accuser" (Rev. 12:10), "old serpent" (Rev. 20:2), "great dragon" (Rev. 12:9), Beelzebub (Matt. 10:25, 12:24), and Belial (comp. Samael). In Luke 10:18, John 12:31, 2. Cor. 6:16, and Rev. 12:9 the fall of Satan is mentioned. The devil is regarded as the author of all evil (Luke 10:19; Acts 5:3; 2. Cor. 11:3; Ephes. 2:2), who beguiled Eve (2. Cor. 11:3; Rev. 12:9). Because of Satan death came into this world, being ever the tempter (1. Cor. 7:5; 1. Thess. 3:5; 1. Peter 5:8), even as he tempted Jesus (Matt. 4). The Christian demonology and belief in the devil dominated subsequent periods.[8] However, though the New Testament includes the conception that Satan fell from heaven "as lightning" (Luke 10:18; Rev. 12:7-10),[9] it nowhere applies the name Lucifer to him.

The Jewish Encyclopedia states that in the apocalyptic literature, the conception of fallen angels is widespread. Throughout antiquity stars were commonly regarded as living celestial beings (Job 38:7).[9] Indications of this belief in fallen angels, behind which probably lies the symbolizing of an astronomical phenomenon, the shooting stars, are found in Isaiah 14:12.

The Morning Star in Isaiah 14:12

The Book of Isaiah has the following passage:

When the Lord has given you rest from your pain and turmoil and the hard service with which you were made to serve, you will take up this taunt against the king of Babylon: How the oppressor has ceased! How his insolence has ceased! … How you are fallen from heaven, O Day Star, son of Dawn! How you are cut down to the ground, you who laid the nations low! You said in your heart, "I will ascend to heaven; I will raise my throne above the stars of God; I will sit on the mount of assembly on the heights of Zaphon; I will ascend to the tops of the clouds, I will make myself like the Most High." But you are brought down to Sheol, to the depths of the Pit. Those who see you will stare at you, and ponder over you: "Is this the man who made the earth tremble, who shook kingdoms, who made the world like a desert and overthrew its cities, who would not let his prisoners go home?[10]

The passage refers to the king of Babylon, a man who seemed all-powerful, but who has been brought down to the abode of the dead ("Sheol"). Isaiah promises that the Israelites will be freed and will then be able to use in a taunting song against their oppressor the image of the Morning Star, which rises at dawn as the brightest of the stars, outshining Jupiter and Saturn, but lasting only until the sun appears. This image was used in an old popular Canaanite story that the Morning Star tried to rise high above the clouds and establish himself on the mountain where the gods assembled, in the far north, but was cast down into the underworld.[6][11]

The phrase "O Day Star, son of Dawn" in the New Revised Standard Version translation given above corresponds to the Hebrew phrase "הילל בן־שׁחר" (Helel Ben-Shachar) in verse 12, meaning "morning star, son of dawn". As the Latin poets personified the Morning Star and the Dawn (Aurora), as well as the Sun and the Moon and other heavenly bodies, so in Canaanite mythology Morning Star and Dawn were pictured as two deities, the former being the son of the latter.[12]

In the Latin Vulgate, Jerome translated "הילל בן־שׁחר" (morning star, son of dawn) as "lucifer qui mane oriebaris" (morning star that used to rise early).[13] Already, as early as the Christian writers Tertullian and Origen,[11] the whole passage had come to be applied to Satan. Satan began to be referred to as "Lucifer" (Morning Star), and finally the word "Lucifer" was treated as a proper name. The use of the word "Lucifer" in the 1611 King James Version instead of a word such as "Daystar" ensured its continued popularity among English speakers.

Most modern English versions (including the NIV, NRSV, NASB, NJB and ESV) render the Hebrew word as "day star", "morning star" or something similar, and never as "Lucifer", a word that in English is now very rarely used in the sense of the original word in Hebrew (Morning Star), though in Latin "Lucifer" was a literal translation.

A passage quite similar to that in Isaiah is found in Ezekiel 28:1–19, which is expressly directed against the king of Tyre, a city on an island that had grown rich by trade, factors alluded to in the text.[14] In Christian tradition, it too has been applied to Lucifer, because of some of the expressions contained in it.[15] But, since it does not contain the image of the Morning Star, discussion of it belongs rather to the article on Satan than to that on Lucifer.

Lucifer (Le génie du mal) by Guillaume Geefs (Cathedral of St. Paul, Liège, Belgium)

The same holds for the Christian depiction of Satan in other books of the Old Testament as, for instance, in the Book of Job, where Satan, who has been wandering the earth, has a discussion with God and makes a deal with him to test Job.

The Tyndale Bible Dictionary states that there are many who believe the expression "Lucifer" and the surrounding context in Isaiah 14 refer to Satan: they believe the similarities among Isaiah 14:12, Luke 10:18, and Revelation 12:7–10 warrant this conclusion. But it points out that the context of the Isaiah passage is about the accomplished defeat of the king of Babylon, while the New Testament passages speak of Satan.[11]

Islamic point of view

According to the Qur'an, Iblis (the Arabic name used) disobeyed an order from Allah to bow to Adam and as a result was forced out of heaven and given respite until the day of judgment from further punishment.

When Allah commanded all of the angels to bow down before Adam (the first Human), Iblis, full of hubris and jealousy, refused to obey God's command (he could do so because, as a jinn, he had free will), seeing Adam as being inferior in creation due to his being created from clay as compared to him (created of fire).[16]

"It is We Who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels prostrate to Adam, and they prostrate; not so Iblis (Lucifer); He refused to be of those who prostrate."
(Allah) said: "What prevented thee from prostrating when I commanded thee?" He said: "I am better than he: Thou didst create me from fire, and him from clay."
Qur'an 7:11–12

It was after this that the title of "Shaitan" was given, which can be roughly translated as "Enemy," "Rebel," "Evil" or "Devil". Shaitan then claims that if the punishment for his act of disobedience is to be delayed until the Day of Judgment, that he will divert many of Adam's own descendants from the straight path during his period of respite.[17] God accepts the claims of Iblis and guarantees recompense to Iblis and his followers in the form of Hellfire. In order to test mankind and jinn alike, Allah allowed Iblis to roam the earth to attempt to convert others away from his path.[18] He was sent to earth along with Adam and Eve, after eventually luring them into eating the fruit from the forbidden tree.[19]

Other readings

Joseph Campbell (1972: pp. 148–149) illustrates an unorthodox Islamic reading of Lucifer's fall from Heaven, which champions Lucifer's eclipsing love for God:

One of the most amazing images of love that I know is in Persian – a mystical Persian representation as Satan as the most loyal lover of God. You will have heard the old legend of how, when God created the angels, he commanded them to pay worship to no one but himself; but then, creating man, he commanded them to bow in reverence to this most noble of his works, and Lucifer refused – because, we are told, of his pride. However, according to this Muslim reading of his case, it was rather because he loved and adored God so deeply and intensely that he could not bring himself to bow before anything else, and because he refused to bow down to something inferior to him (since he was made of fire, and man from clay). And it was for that that he was flung into Hell, condemned to exist there forever, apart from his love.

This interpretation of the satanic rebellion described in the Quran is seen by some Sufi teachers such as Mansur Al-Hallaj (in his 'Tawasin') as a predestined scenario in which Iblis-Shaitan plays the role of tragic and jealous lover who, unable to perceive the Divine Image in Adam and capable only of seeing the exterior, disobeyed the divine mandate to bow down. His refusal (according to the Tawasin) was due to a misconceived idea of God's uniqueness and because of his refusal to abandon himself to God in love. Hallaj criticized the staleness of Iblis' adoration. Excerpts from Sufi texts expounding this interpretation have been included along with many other viewpoints on Shaitan (by no means all of them apologetic) in an important anthology of Sufi texts edited by Dr. Javad Nurbakhsh, head of the Nimatullahi Sufi Order.[20]

The Sufi teacher Pir Vilayat Inayat Khan taught that 'Luciferian Light' is Light which has become dislocated from the Divine Source and is thus associated with the seductive false light of the lower ego which lures humankind into self-centered delusion.[21] Here Lucifer represents what the Sufis term the 'Nafs', the ego.

Mentions of the Morning Star in the Bible

The Vulgate (Latin) version of the Christian Bible used the word "lucifer" (with lower-case initial) twice to refer to the Morning Star: once in 2 Peter 1:19 to translate the Greek word Φωσφόρος, a word, from φῶς (light), that has exactly the same meaning of Light-Bringer that the Latin word has, and once in Isaiah 14:12 to translate the Hebrew word הילל (Hêlēl).[22] In the latter passage the title of "Morning Star" is given to the tyrannous Babylonian king, who the prophet says is destined to fall. This passage was later applied to the prince of the demons, and so the name "Lucifer" came to be used outside the Bible for the devil, and was popularized in works such as Dante Alighieri's Inferno and John Milton's Paradise Lost, but for English speakers the greatest influence has been its use in the King James Version of Isa 14:12 to translate the Hebrew word הילל, which more modern English versions render as "Morning Star" or "Day Star". A similar passage in Ezekiel 28:11–19 regarding the "king of Tyre" was also applied to the devil, contributing to the traditional picture of the fallen angel.

The Vulgate translation uses "lucifer" (Morning Star) twice to translate words in the Book of Job that meant something different: once to represent the word "בקר"[23] (which instead means "morning") in Job 11:17, and once for the word "מזרות" (usually taken to mean "the constellations") in Job 38:32. The same Latin word appears also in the Vulgate version of Psalms 110:3, where the original has "שׁחר" (dawn, the same word as in Isaiah 14:12).

The Vulgate did not use the Latin word lucifer to represent the two references to the Morning Star in the Book of Revelation . In both cases the original Greek text uses a circumlocution instead of the single word "φωσφόρος", and a corresponding circumlocution is used in the Latin. Thus "stella matutina" is used for "ὁ ἀστὴρ ὁ πρωϊνός" in Revelation 2:28, which promises the Morning Star to those who persevere, and for "ὁ ἀστὴρ ὁ πρωϊνός" (or, according to some manuscripts, "ὁ ἀστὴρ ὁ ὀρθρινός") in Revelation 22:16, where Jesus calls himself "the bright morning star".

The English word "Lucifer" is used in none of these places (other than Isaiah 14:12), where the Latin translation uses the Latin word "lucifer" (i.e., morning star).

Outside the Bible, the Roman Rite liturgy's Exultet chant in praise of the paschal candle refers to Christ as the Morning Star (in Latin, lucifer, with lower-case initial):

May the Morning Star which never sets
find this flame still burning:
Christ, that Morning Star,
who came back from the dead,
and shed his peaceful light on all mankind,
your Son, who lives and reigns for ever and ever.

Flammas eius lucifer matutinus inveniat:
ille, inquam, lucifer, qui nescit occasum,
Christus Filius tuus qui,
regressus ab inferis,
humano generi serenus illuxit,
et vivit et regnat in saecula saeculorum.

Astronomical significance

Because the planet Venus is an inferior planet, meaning that its orbit lies between the orbit of the Earth and the Sun, it can never rise high in the sky at night as seen from Earth. It can be seen in the eastern morning sky for an hour or so before the Sun rises, and in the western evening sky for an hour or so after the Sun sets, but never during the dark of midnight.

It is the brightest object in the sky after the Sun and the Moon. As bright and as brilliant as it is, ancient people did not understand why they could not see it at midnight like the outer planets, or during midday, like the Sun and Moon. It outshines the planets Saturn and Jupiter, which do last all night, but it soon disappears. Canaanite mythology has a story of an unsuccessful attempt by Athtar, the Morning Star pictured as a god, to take over the throne of Baal.[24][25]

A 2nd-century sculpture of the moon goddess Selene accompanied by Hesperus and Phosphorus: the corresponding Latin names are Luna, Vesper and Lucifer.

Latin name for the Morning Star

In Latin, the word "Lucifer", meaning "Light-Bringer" (from lux, lucis, "light", and ferre, "to bear, bring"), is a name used for the Morning Star (the planet Venus in its dawn appearances).[26] The word is used in its astronomical sense both in prose[27] and poetry,[28] but most poets personify the star in a mythological context.[29]

Non-Biblical use of "Morning Star" as a title

"Morning Star" appears to have been used as a poetic description of Byzantine Emperor Nikephoros II in 968. Liutprand, bishop of Cremona, reported the greeting sung to the emperor arriving at Hagia Sophia: "Behold the morning star approaches Eos rises; he reflects in his glances the rays of the sun – he the pale death of the Saracens, Nicephorus the ruler."[30]

The Taxil Hoax: Lucifer's alleged connection with Freemasonry

Léo Taxil (1854–1907) claimed that Freemasonry is associated with worshipping Lucifer. In what is known as the Taxil hoax, he claimed that supposedly leading Freemason Albert Pike had addressed "The 23 Supreme Confederated Councils of the world" (an invention of Taxil), instructing them that Lucifer was God, and was in opposition to the evil god Adonai. Apologists of Freemasonry contend that, when Albert Pike and other Masonic scholars spoke about the "Luciferian path," or the "energies of Lucifer," they were referring to the Morning Star, the light bearer,[31] the search for light; the very antithesis of dark, satanic evil. Taxil promoted a book by Diana Vaughan (actually written by himself, as he later confessed publicly)[32] that purported to reveal a highly secret ruling body called the Palladium which controlled the organization and had a Satanic agenda. As described by Freemasonry Disclosed in 1897:

With frightening cynicism, the miserable person we shall not name here [Taxil] declared before an assembly especially convened for him that for twelve years he had prepared and carried out to the end the most sacrilegious of hoaxes. We have always been careful to publish special articles concerning Palladism and Diana Vaughan. We are now giving in this issue a complete list of these articles, which can now be considered as not having existed.[33]

Taxil's work and Pike's address continue to be quoted by anti-masonic groups.[34]

In Devil-Worship in France, Arthur Edward Waite compared Taxil's work to what today we would call a tabloid story, replete with logical and factual inconsistencies.

See also "Lucifer and Satan" at the Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon website.

Occult beliefs

The Sigil of Lucifer ("Seal of Satan") a magical sigil[35] used occasionally as an emblem by Satanists

In the modern occultism of Madeline Montalban (died 1982)[36] Lucifer's identification as the Morning Star (Venus) equates him with Lumiel, whom she regarded as the Archangel of Light, and among Satanists he is seen as the "Torch of Baphomet" and Azazel.

In the Satanic Bible of 1969, Lucifer is acknowledged as one of the Four Crown Princes of Hell, particularly that of the East. Lord of the Air, Lucifer has been named "Bringer of Light, the Morning Star, Intellectualism, Enlightenment."

Author Michael W. Ford[37] has written on Lucifer as a "mask" of the Adversary, a motivator and illuminating force of the mind and subconscious.[38]

Gallery of images of Lucifer

See also

References

  1. ^ Milton's poem uses the name "Lucifer" only three times, as against 72 mentions of "Satan". The name used in this context is "Satan".
  2. ^ The word in the original text in Hebrew is הֵילֵל (transliteration: helel; definition: a shining oneStrong's Hebrew Numbers, 1966).
  3. ^ The word in the original text is Hebrew שָׁמַ֫יִם (transliteration: shamayim; definition: heaven, sky – Strong's Hebrew Numbers, 8064).
  4. ^ Verses 29:4, 31:4 of the longer recension manuscript R
  5. ^ "The Lucifer myth was transferred to Satan in the pre-Christian century, as may be learned from Vita Adæ et Evæ (12) and Slavonic Enoch (xxix. 4, xxxi. 4)" – article Lucifer
  6. ^ a b c Jewish Encyclopedia: article Lucifer
  7. ^ Jose [Fortea] Cucurull, Summa Daemoniaca 2004. (ISBN 84-933788-2-8)
  8. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: article Satan
  9. ^ a b Jewish Encyclopedia: article Fall Of Angels
  10. ^ Isaiah 14:3–4, 14:12–17
  11. ^ a b c Tyndale Bible Dictionary (Carol Stream, Illinois 2001 ISBN 978-1-4143-1945-2), article Lucifer (p. 829)
  12. ^ "Verses 12–15 seem to be based on a Phoenician model. At all events, they display several points of contact with the Ras-Shamra poems: Daystar and Dawn were two divinities; the "mount of Assembly" was where the gods used to meet, like Mount Olympus in Greek mythology. The Fathers identified the fall of the Morning Star (Vulgate, Lucifer) with that of the prince of the demons" (note in the New Jerusalem Bible).
  13. ^ The Septuagint Greek translation of the phrase uses the same interpretation of "son of dawn": ὁ ἑωσφόρος ὁ πρωὶ ἀνατέλλων.
  14. ^ Your heart is proud and you have said, "I am a god; I sit in the seat of the gods, in the heart of the seas" … By your great wisdom in trade you have increased your wealth, and your heart has become proud in your wealth (verses 2 and 5)
  15. ^ With an anointed cherub as guardian I placed you; you were on the holy mountain of God; you walked among the stones of fire. You were blameless in your ways from the day that you were created, until iniquity was found in you. In the abundance of your trade you were filled with violence, and you sinned; so I cast you as a profane thing from the mountain of God, and the guardian cherub drove you out from among the stones of fire (verses 14–16).
  16. ^ [Qur'an 17:61]; [Qur'an 2:34]
  17. ^ [Qur'an 17:62]
  18. ^ [Qur'an 17:63–64]
  19. ^ [Qur'an 7:20–22]
  20. ^ Nurbakhsh, Javad. The Great Satan 'Eblis'. KNP, 1999. ISBN 0933546238.
  21. ^ Universel.net
  22. ^ In the Greek translation of this passage the word used is Ἑωσφόρος – from ἔως, meaning dawn – which literally means Dawn-Bringer.
  23. ^ Hebrew text
  24. ^ John Day, Yahweh and the gods and goddesses of Canaan (Continuum International Publishing Group, 2002 ISBN 0826468306, 9780826468307), pp. 172–173
  25. ^ Gregory A. Boyd, God at War: The Bible & Spiritual Conflict (InterVarsity Press, 1997 ISBN 0830818855, 9780830818853), pp. 159–160
  26. ^ Lewis and Short
  27. ^ Cicero wrote: Stella Veneris, quae Φωσφόρος Graece, Latine dicitur Lucifer, cum antegreditur solem, cum subsequitur autem Hesperos (The star of Venus, called Φωσφόρος in Greek and Lucifer in Latin when it precedes, Hesperos when it follows the sun – De Natura Deorum 2, 20, 53.
    Pliny the Elder: Sidus appellatum Veneris … ante matutinum exoriens Luciferi nomen accipit … contra ab occasu refulgens nuncupatur Vesper (The star called Venus … when it rises in the morning is given the name Lucifer … but when it shines at sunset it is called Vesper) Natural History 2, 36
  28. ^ Virgil wrote:
    Luciferi primo cum sidere frigida rura
    carpamus, dum mane novum, dum gramina canent
    (Let us hasten, when first the Morning Star appears, to the cool pastures, while the day is new, while the grass is dewy) Georgics 3:324–325.
  29. ^ Ovid wrote:
    … vigil nitido patefecit ab ortu
    purpureas Aurora fores et plena rosarum
    atria: diffugiunt stellae, quarum agmina cogit
    Lucifer et caeli statione novissimus exit
    (Aurora, awake in the glowing east, opens wide her bright doors, and her rose-filled courts. The stars, whose ranks are shepherded by Lucifer the morning star, vanish, and he, last of all, leaves his station in the sky – Metamorphoses 2.114–115; A. S. Kline's Version
    And Lucan:
    Lucifer a Casia prospexit rupe diemque
    misit in Aegypton primo quoque sole calentem
    (The morning-star looked forth from Mount Casius and sent the daylight over Egypt, where even sunrise is hot) Lucan, Pharsalia, 10:434–435; English translation by J.D.Duff (Loeb Classical Library) And Statius:
    Et iam Mygdoniis elata cubilibus alto
    impulerat caelo gelidas Aurora tenebras,
    rorantes excussa comas multumque sequenti
    sole rubens; illi roseus per nubila seras
    aduertit flammas alienumque aethera tardo
    Lucifer exit equo, donec pater igneus orbem
    impleat atque ipsi radios uetet esse sorori
    (And now Aurora rising from her Mygdonian couch had driven the cold darkness on from high in the heavens, shaking out her dewy hair, her face blushing red at the pursuing sun – from him roseate Lucifer averts his fires lingering in the clouds and with reluctant horse leaves the heavens no longer his, until the blazing father make full his orb and forbid even his sister her beams) Statius, Thebaid 2, 134–150; Translated by A. L. Ritchie and J. B. Hall in collaboration with M. J. Edwards
  30. ^ "Liutprand of Cremona: Report of his Mission to Constantinople". http://medieval.ucdavis.edu/20A/Luitprand.html. Retrieved 2007-06-27. 
  31. ^ "Lucifer, the Son of the Morning! Is it he who bears the Light, and with its splendors intolerable blinds feeble, sensual, or selfish Souls? Doubt it not!" (Albert Pike, Morals and Dogma, p. 321). Much has been made of this quote (Masonic information: Lucifer).
  32. ^ Leo Taxil's confession
  33. ^ Freemasonry Disclosed April 1897
  34. ^ "Leo Taxil: The tale of the Pope and the Pornographer". http://www.masonicinfo.com/taxil.htm. Retrieved 14 September 2006. 
  35. ^ Alternative Religions
  36. ^ Madeline Montalban and the Order of the Morning Star
  37. ^ http://www.luciferianwitchcraft.com/mfordbooks.htm
  38. ^ The Bible of the Adversary "Adversarial Doctrine" page 8 – Bible of the Adversary, Succubus Productions 2007).

Further reading

  • Campbell, Joseph (1972). Myths To Live By. A Condor Book: Souvenir Press (Educational & Academic) Ltd. ISBN 0-285-64731-8

External links

Wikisource-logo.svg "Lucifer" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Lucifer (comic book) article)

From Wikiquote

Lucifer (1999 onwards) is a comic book series which has been collected in 11 trade paperbacks. The entire series was written by Mike Carey with a number of artists working on different issues. Lucifer and several other characters in this series also appeared in Neil Gaiman's comic book series The Sandman.

Contents

The Morningstar Option, Issue 1

[Amenadiel has poured a glass of brandy across the table and set it alight]
Lucifer: That's an eighty year-old Janneau Armagnac. If I'd known you were going to waste it on melodrama, I would have given you the '78.
Amenadiel: The World is on fire, Lucifer Morningstar. I wanted to make that point forcefully. Otherwise we could squander the evening in stale repartee.
Lucifer: I've no desire to trespass on your evening at all, Amenadiel. I'm sure there are many places where your company would be almost welcome.

Amenadiel: I am told that you will name your price.
Lucifer: That I may name my price or that I will name it?
Amenadiel: Will.

Mahu: Far enough, prince of Hell. Far enough and a little more.
Lucifer: Ah, the hospitality of the Lilim! I wonder what it died of. Hello, Mahu. How is your master these days?
Mahu: I acknowledge no master.
Lucifer: Then how is Briadach the blind, lord of the Lilim in exile? Is he healthy? I mean, within the usual parameters?
Mahu: His lungs burn. His every heartbeat tears his side like a flensing knife.
Lucifer: Ah, well within the usual parameters, then.

Mahu: When the Lilim claim their right, you'll last no longer than the angels. You'll just burn with a different colored flame.
Lucifer: Oh, nothing will be burning by then. Even solar fusion only lasts so long.

[Lucifer stands at the gates of Hell, a realm he has abandoned]
Lucifer: Home again, home again. Jiggetty jig.

The Morningstar Option Issue 2

Lucifer: Little pig, little pig, let me in.
Remiel: This is no longer your domain, Lucifer Morningstar. You have no right of entry here. No right even to walk on this ground without our leave!
Lucifer: Hmm. In my day we took anyone who happened by. That's part of the point, isn't it?
Remiel: You will not face me down and you will not sway me. Our work of redemption here is at a delicate stage, and your presence here drags everything back into question.
Lucifer: Remiel, you once begged me to return …
Remiel: I haven't finished yet!
Lucifer: Oh well …
Remiel: You come here with all your old arrogance – like a visiting head of state, when the truth is you've evaded your responsibilities. You resigned. You resigned, Lucifer.
Lucifer: Your grasp of current affairs is as keen as ever.
Remiel: Spare me your sarcasm. I have nothing to say to you.
Lucifer: Remiel … how many demons stand behind us? I reckon at least a third of the infernal host. If you don't let me come inside, I'll humiliate you so badly that your prestige here – which I imagine is at also at a delicate stage – will catch cold and die. … Good lad. Always know your limitations, eh?

Lucifer: A message written in blood. Everyone involved in this drama seems compelled to overact.

Lucifer: I'm the paid agent of the Triune Godhead, The King of Heaven. I will not relent. Unless you want to make me a substantially higher offer.

Issue 6, The House of Windowless Rooms, Part 2

[Kagutsuchi has run off to kill Lucifer]
Yama-no-kami: He has his sword, and his strength. And the advantage of familiar ground.
Susano-o-no-mikoto: That is so. And the lightbringer has nothing save his wit and his will. I find that this fails to console me overmuch.

Issue 8, The House of Windowless Rooms, Part 4

Jill Presto: Well … just speaking for myself … and I'm going out on a limb here … I'd like to say that you're an arrogant, ungrateful son of a bitch on a permanent power trip.
Lucifer: Ha! Excellent. Accurate on all counts.

Issue 9, Children and Monsters, Prelude

Monk in Street: There's a special place in hell for those who hear God's call and turn away.
Erishad: No, there are no special places in hell. Hell is a democracy.

Issue 10, Children and Monsters, Part 1

Merv: Hey, look, Loosh. It's raining doors. Whaddya make of that?
Lucien: Hmm. I'd say that someone is sending out an invitation. Someone who doesn't care about incurring our lord's anger.

Mr. Easterman: They used to call the devil the father of lies. But for someone whose sin is meant to be pride, you'd think that lying would leave something of a sour taste. So my theory is that when the devil wants to get something out of you, he doesn't lie at all. He tells you the exact, literal truth. And he lets you find your own way to hell.

Issue 12, Children and Monsters, Part 2

Musubi: Angels are a little like gods, I think... that sour self-righteousness that sticks in the teeth like fine bones.

Issue 13, Children and Monsters, Part 3

[Amenadiel is poised to slay Musubi]
Musubi: Tell me how many I killed … angel.
Amenadiel: Not enough. [decapitates her]

Issue 14, Children and Monsters, Part 4

Elaine: Does it hurt?
Michael: No. It does not hurt. But it eventually kills, as with so many things in your world.

Michael: I'll take you home, if you wish.
Elaine: No, thanks. I'll wait for Lucifer.
Michael: Be wary of him, Elaine. You have a long way to go, and he is not the safest of travelling companions.
Elaine: He saved my life twice. He's the only grown-up I know who keeps his promises.
Michael: Yes. It is a point of pride with him. But please – don't mistake it for a virtue.

Issue 19, A Dalliance With The Damned, Part 3

[Lucifer and Mazikeen have arrived in Effrul early. Lucifer is dressed in 18th Century attire, Mazikeen wears jeans and a T-Shirt with the phrase "Normal Consciousness Will Resume"]
Mazikeen: Why do you stay here? It isn't like you!
Lucifer: Isn't it? Call it a whim, then. We've come a long way. It would be tedious to turn around at once. [pause] And what of you, for that matter? You came to Hell to speak to the Lilim here, not to be my escort at public functions.
Mazikeen: Gathering the Lilim will be a long task. It will help if they know I'm here.
Lucifer: So you're doing this for the exposure. I see. Do you intend to dress, by the way? I gather this is to be a formal occasion.
Mazikeen: It's just play acting. I prefer to go as myself.
Lucifer: Well, then. Let's see if the rumors about us are true.

Issue 20, The Thunder Sermon

Michael: Was it not Buddha who heard a sermon in the thunder?
Lucifer: Actually, it is in the Upanishads, but I applaud your ecumenical impulse.
Michael: And the words the thunder said were Datta, Dayadvam, Damyata. Give, sympathize and control. I've always thought of that as one commandment rather than three.
Lucifer: Why do I feel that this particular sermon is being preached at me? I can do control. Nobody is good at everything.
[Later]
Lucifer: A sermon in the thunder, Michael? Thunder only has one thing to say: it tells us how close the storm is.

issue 21, Paradiso, Part 1

Gaudium: You ever seen roadkill? Because that's what you're gonna look like! They're gonna have to identify you by your Kirlian Aura!

Issue 22, Paradiso, Part 2

Gaudium: The thing is, it's the Basanos you're up against. It can see the future. So obviously, there's a future where you get to be important. On the down side, there's a whole lot more where you get to be a greasy stain. Can we talk as we flee?

Issue 26, Purgatorio, Part 2

Lucifer: I intend to survive this. Anything you say ought to take that into account.
Death: You know, I told my brother once, that if you kill the messenger, in the long run, you just get less mail.

Issue 28, Breaking & Entering

Spera: Ooh! Ooh! You hear that? A bird singing out amidst our desolation. It's a miracle. The miracle called supper.

Gaudium: Fairy gossamer, ewwwww! How can you trust a species that would milk a spider's ass?
Spera: You've done worse things to a spider's ass.

Issue 30, Inferno Part 2

Scoria: If you were to ask for forgiveness, it would not remove the need to lash you. But it would make the lashing an act of reconciliation between us, not punishment.
Mazikeen: Don't waste your breath. Every word could be a stroke.

Issue 31, Inferno Part 3

Demon spectator 1: Look at that heaven-spewn bastard. Standing there like his shit don't stink.
Demon spectator 2: It doesn't. It sings hosiannas.

Issue 34, Come to judgement, Part 1

Lucifer: There is a cavern at the heart of the world …
Mazikeen: There is?
Lucifer: Sometimes. It depends on the mood the world is in.

Issue 35, Come to judgement, Part 2

Gaudium: Get out the yellow pages, Spera. I'm gonna sue this guy's ass into a geostationary orbit.

Bergelmir: It was joke, morningstar. A joke only. I've something of my brother's humor, after all.
Lucifer: Take me to the ship. Or I'll show you what makes me laugh.

Issue 36, Naglfar, Part 1

Bergelmir: The Morningstar has a sour disposition and a keen eye for other people's imperfections.

Lucifer: You'll have to rise above your individual hatreds and mistrusts. Otherwise you will die. Or else you'll live, but come back unsuccessful. In which case I'll kill most of you myself. Good luck.

Issue 37, Naglfar, Part 2

Gaudium: When I signed up, I thought this was Lucifer's show. With him along it's epic. With us it's more of a situation comedy.

Mr Easterman: Couldn't someone else–?
Mazikeen: No. No one else. The rest of the crew have other functions. You are totally expendable except for this. Do I have to threaten you?
Mr Easterman: No. I get the picture. Thanks for your brutal honesty.

Mazikeen (points sword at Bergelmirs throat): Sit up slowly, helmsman. Slowly as a shadow crossing a sundial. And explain to me why I should not kill you.

Issue 38, Naglfar, Part 3

Mr. Easterman: I – have this terrible sense of –
Gaudium: I know. Like you're tied to the nosecone of a rocket and you look down and the rocket's got "Prototype" all down the side of it.
Mr. Easterman: Exactly.

Michael: There's nothing here to fear.
Lucifer: Well, there's always the truth.

Issue 39, Naglfar, Part 4

Lucifer: But if you want some advice, Zim'et, I'd say to choose a direction that leads away from the silver city. Set off now, and keep moving until the stars start to dim.

Issue 41, Sisters of mercy

Bergelmir: You've done a terrible thing, Morningstar. I still believe that you'll be brought to pay for it. One way or another.
Lucifer: Well, belief is meant to be a great consolation. Take it with you when you go.

Issue 44, Brothers in arms

Beatrice Wechsler: The buildings are singing to each other. Elegies, laments, funeral hymns. I can almost make out the words. I almost know who they're for.

Beatrice Wechsler: I know what she's going to do to me. But if I ran – I'd just end up in some place that doesn't have her in it.

Issue 46, Stitchglass slide

Gaudium: You think she's talking about us?
Spera: Must be. Her face is screwed up in disgust.

Issue 49, Wire, Briar, Limber Lock

Uriel: Did you call us here to insult us?
Lucifer: No, Uriel – to warn you. I thought you should have time to prepare.
Uriel: Prepare for what?
Lucifer: For the end of the world: come and see.

Issue 50, Lilith

Gabriel: This is a travesty of justice.
Michael: Justice is my father's prerogative. The rest of us … the rest of us can only do what we think is right.

Issue 55, The Eighth Sin

Christopher Rudd (to Remiel): I was wrong in one respect only. I've told the lady Lys that there was no sin. But there is. Hell itself is sin. You will not be forgiven for it.

Remiel (sentencing Christopher Rudd): Here. Now. By right and ordinance divine, I pass sentence on your teacher. His soul I will divide into as many pieces as he has disciples. And I will cast the pieces from the roof of this tower. That you may hear a new gospel in the shrieking of the wind and a sermon in the thunder.

Issue 56, Crux, Part 1

Lilith: There is not much room for regret in the life I have chose. But for this I am sorry. That all those millenia of pain were waiting for him – and I could have saved him with a single word. Yet I did not speak.

Issue 64, Morningstar, Part 2

Jill Presto (to Lucifer, being surrounded by demons): Uh … do these guys know you?
Elaine Belloc: This is hell. Everybody knows him.
Jill Presto: I think I'll wait in the car.

Issue 65, Morningstar, Part 3

Lucifer: We might lose without fighting. That would be a new experience for me.

Lucifer: If we wait here, death will sift over us like snow and numb us to sleep. On the whole, fire is still my element.
Elaine: Then let's burn.

Issue 66, The Beast Can't Take Your Call Right Now

Gaudium (doing dishes): Kill. Rip. Maim. Rinse. Repeat.
Spera: Stop feeling sorry for yourself. Think of those poor women.
Gaudium: Will thinking about them improve the quality of my self-pity?

Issue 67, Morningstar, Part 4

[Climbing the steps to the tower of the Primum Mobile]
Christopher Rudd: These stairs seem neverending, Morningstar.
Lucifer: Funny. Most of the times when I passed this way I wished they were longer. [pause] What was waiting at the top was always worse.

Issue 69, Morningstar, Part 6

Solomon: This is heaven?
Meleos: In a sense.
Solomon: Then take me back. I haven't earned it yet.

Issue 70, Fireside tales

Martin Thole's son: All stories are lies. But good stories are lies made from light and fire. And they lift our hearts out of the dust, and out of the grave.

Issue 71, Evensong, Part 1

Rachel Begai (in reference to Lucifer's … proposal): I hate it that you're using me again, Lucifer. I hate it that you think you're honest because you never tell outright lies. [hangs her head] Yeah. Okay.
Lucifer: Excellent.

Issue 72, Evensong, Part 2

Lucifer: Trust your instincts, Elaine Belloc. If mercy's your aim, be relentless in your mercy. Be absolute. Be yourself, until you bleed.

Issue 73, The Gaudium Option

Gaudium: Remiel, former Lord of Hell. Which is something any Schmendrick can add to his resume these days.

Issue 75, All we need of Hell

God: You've been unhappy because you've desired things that cannot be.
Lucifer: That's what desire is. The need for what we can't have. The need for what's readily available is called greed.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

LUCIFER (the Latinized form of Gr. cbW046pos, " lightbearer"), the name given to the "morning star," i.e. the planet Venus when it appears above the E. horizon before sunrise, and sometimes also to the "evening star," i.e. the same planet in the W. sky after sundown, more usually called Hesperus. The term "day star" (so rendered in the Revised Version) was used poetically by Isaiah for the king of Babylon: "How art thou fallen from heaven, 0 Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations" (Is. xiv. 12, Authorized Version). The words ascribed to Christ in Luke x. 18: "I beheld Satan as lightning fall from heaven" (cf. Rev. ix. 1), were interpreted by the Christian Fathers as referring to the passage in Isaiah; whence, in Christian theology, Lucifer came to be regarded as the name of Satan before his fill. This idea finds its most magnificent literary expression in Milton's Paradise Lost. In this sense the name is most commonly associated with the familiar phrase "as proud as Lucifer."


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also lucifer

Contents

English

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Etymology

From Latin Lūcifer, from lūx (light) + ferō (bear, carry).

Proper noun

Lucifer

  1. A name of the Christian devil, referring to him before his fall into sin.
  2. The planet Venus as the daystar.

Translations


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

Meaning: brilliant star (Hebrew helel; Septuagint heosphoros, Vulgate lucifer)

A title given to the king of Babylon (Isa 14:12) to denote his glory.

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)


The name Lucifer originally denotes the planet Venus, emphasizing its brilliance. The Vulgate employs the word also for "the light of the morning" (Job 11:17), "the signs of the zodiac" (Job 38:32), and "the aurora" (high priest Simon son of Onias (Sir 50:6), for his surpassing virtue, to the glory of heaven (Rev 2:28), by reason of its excellency; finally to Jesus Christ himself (2 Pet 1:19; Rev 22:16; the "Exultet" of Holy Saturday) the true light of our spiritual life.

The Syriac version and the version of Aquila derive the Hebrew noun helel from the verb yalal, "to lament"; St. Jerome agrees with them (In Isaiah 1:14), and makes Lucifer the name of the principal fallen angel who must lament the loss of his original glory bright as the morning star. In Christian tradition this meaning of Lucifer has prevailed; the Fathers maintain that Lucifer is not the proper name of the devil, but denotes only the state from which he has fallen (Petavius, De Angelis, III, iii, 4).

Portions of this entry are taken from The Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907.


Septuagint translation of "Helel [read "Helal"] ben Shaḥar" (= "the brilliant one," "son of the morning"), name of the day, or morning, star, to whose mythical fate that of the King of Babylon is compared in the prophetic vision (Isa 14:12ff). It is obvious that the prophet in attributing to the Babylonian king boastful pride, followed by a fall, borrowed the idea from a popular legend connected with the morning star; and Gunkel ("Schöpfung und Chaos," pp. 132-134) is undoubtedly correct when he holds that it represents a Babylonian or Hebrew star-myth similar to the Greek legend of Phaethon. The brilliancy of the morning star, which eclipses all other stars, but is not seen during the night, may easily have given rise to a myth such as was told of Ethana and Zu: he was led by his pride to strive for the highest seat among the star-gods on the northern mountain of the gods (comp. Ezek 28:14; Ps 982), but was hurled down by the supreme ruler of the Babylonian Olympus. Stars were regarded throughout antiquity as living celestial beings (Job 38:7).

The familiarity of the people of Palestine with such a myth is shown by the legend, localized on Mount Hermon, the northern mountain of Palestine and possibly the original mountain of the gods in that country, of the fall of the angels under the leadership of Samḥazai (the heaven-seizer) and Azael (Enoch 66ff; see Fall of Angels). Another legend represents Samḥazai, because he repented of his sin, as being suspended between heaven and earth (like a star) instead of being hurled down to Sheol (see Midr. Abḳir in Yalḳ. i. 44; Raymund Martin, "Pugio Fidei," p. 564). The Lucifer myth was transferred to Satan in the pre-Christian century, as may be learned from Vita Adæ et Evæ (12) and Slavonic Enoch (xxix. 4, xxxi. 4), where Satan-Sataniel (Samael?) is described as having been one of the archangels. Because he contrived "to make his throne higher than the clouds over the earth and resemble 'My power' on high," Satan-Sataniel was hurled down, with his hosts of angels, and since then he has been flying in the air continually above the abyss (comp. Test. Patr., Benjamin, 3; Ephes. ii. 2, vi. 12). Accordingly Tertullian ("Contra Marrionem," v. 11, 17), Origen ("Ezekiel Opera," iii. 356), and others, identify Lucifer with Satan, who also is represented as being "cast down from heaven" (Rev 12:7ff; comp. Lk 10:18).

Bibliography

  • Cheyne, Encyc. Bibl.;
  • Duhm, Das Buch Jesaiah, 1892, p. 96.
This entry includes text from the Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906.

Simple English

Lucifer is another name for Satan. This is because people interpret a passage in the Book of Isaiah of the Bible in a certain way. Lucifer is Latin. It is made of two parts, lux-lucis (light) and ferre (to bring). There are two mentions of Lucifer in the Latin Vulgate. It is used to refer to the morning star, the planet Venus that appears at dawn: once in 2 Peter 1:19 to translate the Greek word "Φωσφόρος" (Phosphoros), which has exactly the same literal meaning of "Light-Bringer" that "Lucifer" has in Latin; and once in Isaiah 14:12 to translate "הילל" (Hêlēl), which also means "Morning Star".

Latin name for the Morning Star

accompanied by Hesperus and Phosphorus: the corresponding Latin names are Luna, Vesper and Lucifer.]]

Lucifer is the Latin name[1] for the "Morning Star", both in prose and poetry, as seen in works by Marcus Terentius Varro (116–27 BC), Cicero (106-43 BC) and other early Latin writers[2]

Cicero wrote:

Stella Veneris, quae Φωσφόρος Graece, Latine dicitur Lucifer, cum antegreditur solem, cum subsequitur autem Hesperos[3]
The star of Venus, called Φωσφόρος in Greek and Lucifer in Latin when it precedes, Hesperos when it follows the sun.

And Pliny the Elder:

sidus appellatum Veneris … ante matutinum exoriens Luciferi nomen accipit … contra ab occasu refulgens nuncupatur Vesper[4]
The star called Venus … when it rises in the morning is given the name Lucifer … but when it shines at sunset it is called Vesper

Poets also used the word "Lucifer". Ovid has at least eleven mentions of the Morning Star in his poetry. Virgil wrote:

Luciferi primo cum sidere frigida rura
carpamus, dum mane novum, dum gramina canent[5]
Let us hasten, when first the Morning Star appears,
To the cool pastures, while the day is new, while the grass is dewy

And Statius:

et iam Mygdoniis elata cubilibus alto
impulerat caelo gelidas Aurora tenebras,
rorantes excussa comas multumque sequenti
sole rubens; illi roseus per nubila seras
aduertit flammas alienumque aethera tardo
Lucifer exit equo, donec pater igneus orbem
impleat atque ipsi radios uetet esse sorori[6]
And now Aurora rising from her Mygdonian couch had driven the cold darkness on from high in the heavens, shaking out her dewy hair, her face blushing red at the pursuing sun – from him roseate Lucifer averts his fires lingering in the clouds and with reluctant horse leaves the heavens no longer his, until the blazing father make full his orb and forbid even his sister her beams[7]

Lucifer as evil character of the Bible

Lucifer is very evil in the Christian religion. He is also the symbol for not obeying. Lucifer is believed by some to be Satan's name when he was still an angel, but it is Latin for 'light bringer' and not originally in the Bible. The word Lucifer was also used in Latin to mean the "morningstar", the planet Venus, and this word was used in the Latin version of Isaiah 14, where the Hebrew version was speaking to a king of Babylonia.

The reason people came to think this was a name of Satan has been argued about for many years. Some people think that it is a misnomer, or a wrongly given name. Others believe that he was the best out of all the angels before he rebelled against God.

References

  1. The word has taken the form "Luceafăr" in modern Romanian; and "Luzbel" in Spanish, "Lusbel" in Portuguese, may be a folk evolution of Latin lucĭfer (Luz in the Diccionario Crítico Etimológico Castellano e Hispánico, volume III, Joan Corominas, José A. Pascual, 1989, Editorial Gredos, ISBN 84-249-1365-5).
  2. Lewis and Short
  3. De Natura Deorum 2, 20, 53
  4. Natural History 2, 36
  5. Georgics 3:324-325
  6. Thebaid (poem) 2, 134-150
  7. Translated by A. L. Ritchie and J. B. Hall in collaboration with M. J. Edwards

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