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Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, also called Tarquin the Elder or Tarquin I, was the fifth King of Rome from 616 BC to 579 BC. His wife was Tanaquil.

Contents

Early life

According to Livy, Tarquinius Priscus came from the Etruscan city of Tarquinii. Livy claims that his original Etruscan name was Lucumo, but since Lucumo (Etruscan Lauchme) is the Etruscan word for "King", there is reason to believe that Priscus' name and title have been confused in the official tradition. Disgruntled with his opportunities in Etruria, he migrated to Rome with his wife Tanaquil, at her suggestion. He had been prohibited from obtaining political office in Tarquinii because of the ethnicity of his father, Demaratus the Corinthian, who came from the Greek city of Corinth. Legend has it that on his arrival in Rome in a chariot, an eagle took his cap, flew away and then returned it back upon his head. Tanaquil, who was skilled in prophecy, interpreted this as an omen of his future greatness. In Rome he attained respect through his courtesy. King Ancus Marcius himself noticed Tarquinius and, by his will, appointed Tarquinius guardian of his own sons [1].

King of Rome

Upon the death of Ancus Marcius, Tarquinius Priscus addressed the Comitia Curiata and convinced them that he should be elected king over Marcius' natural sons, who were in still only in their teenage years [2].

According to Livy, Tarquinius increased the number of the Senate by the addition of 100 men from the minor leading families [3]. Among them was the family of the Octavii, the family of the future first emperor Augustus.

Tarquinius' first war was waged against the Latins. He took the Latin town of Apiolae by storm and took great booty from there back to Rome [4].

His military ability was tested by an attack from the Sabines. The attack was defeated after dangerous street fighting in Rome, and he then further subjugated the Etruscans. Thus the cities Corniculum, Firulea, Cameria, Crustumerium, Americola, Medullia and Nomentum became Roman. After each of his wars, which were always extremely successful, he brought rich plunder to Rome. He doubled the size of the Centuriate Assembly to 1800 people.

Tarquinius established the Circus Maximus. Raised seating was erected privately by the senators and equites, and other areas were marked out for private citizens. According to Livy horses and boxers from Etruria were sent for as the first to participate in the thenceforth annual games [5].

After a great flood, the damp lowlands of Rome were drained by the construction of the Cloaca Maxima (great sewer) to create a site for the Forum Romanum. As his last great act he began the construction of a temple in honour of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the Capitoline Hill, partially funded by plunder seized from the Latins and Sabines. Many of the Roman symbols both of war and of civil office date from his reign, and he was the first to celebrate a Roman triumph, after the Etruscan fashion, wearing a robe of purple and gold, and borne on a chariot drawn by four horses.

Death

Meanwhile the now adult sons of his predecessor Ancus Marcius thought that the throne should fall to them. Thus they arranged for Tarquinius Priscus to be assassinated with an axe blow to the head. Thanks to the intelligent foresight of the queen Tanaquil however, the sons of Ancus were not chosen, but rather Tarquinius' son-in-law Servius Tullius, husband of his daughter Tarquinia, was elected as his successor. Tarquinius reigned for 38 years. His other daughter Tarquinia married Marcus Junius Brutus, and his sons were Lucius Tarquinius Superbus and Aruns Tarquinius, who married his niece Tullia, daughter of Servius Tullius, and by her was murdered along with his sister-in-law Tullia so that she could marry her brother-in-law and uncle Lucius Tarquinius Superbus.

Tarquinius Family Tree

References

  1. ^ Livy, Ab urbe condita, 1:34
  2. ^ Livy, Ab urbe condita, 1:35
  3. ^ Livy, Ab urbe condita, 1:35
  4. ^ Livy, Ab urbe condita, 1:35
  5. ^ Livy, Ab urbe condita, 1:35

Sources

Preceded by
Ancus Marcius
King of Rome
616–579
Succeeded by
Servius Tullius
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

'LUCIUS TARQUINIUS PRISCUS, fifth legendary king of Rome (616-578 B.C.). He is represented as the son of a Greek refugee, who removed from Tarquinii in Etruria to Rome, by the advice of his wife, the prophetess Tanaquil. Appointed guardian to the sons of Ancus Marcius, he succeeded in supplanting them on the throne on their father's death. He laid out the Circus Maximus, instituted the "great" games, built the great sewers (cloacae), and began the construction of the temple of Jupiter on the Capitol. He carried on war successfully against the Sabines and subjugated Latium. He is said to have raised the number of the senators to 300, and to have doubled the number of the knights '(see Navius, Attus). The introduction of many of the insignia both of war and of civil office is assigned to his reign, and he was the first to celebrate a Roman triumph, after the Etruscan fashion, in a robe of purple and gold, and borne on a chariot drawn by four horses. He was assassinated at the instigation of the sons of Ancus Marcius.

The legend of Tarquinius Priscus is in the main a reproduction of those of Romulus and Tullus Hostilius. His Corinthian descent, invented by the Greeks to establish a close connexion with Rome, is impossible for chronological reasons; further, according to the genuine Roman tradition, the Tarquinii were of Etruscan, not Greek, origin. There seems to have been originally only one Tarquinius; later, when a connected story of the legendary period was constructed, two (distinguished as the "Elder" and the "Proud") were introduced, separated by the reign of Servius Tullius, and the name of both was connected with the same events. Thus, certain public works were said to have been begun by the earlier and finished by the later king; both instituted games, acquired the Sibylline books, and reorganized the army.

For the constitutional reforms attributed to Tarquinius, see Rome: Ancient History; for a critical examination of the story, Schwegler, Romische Geschichte, bk. xv.; Sir George Cornewall Lewis, Credibility of early Roman History, ch. 11; W. Ihne, History of Rome, i.; E. Pais, Storia di Roma, i. (1898), who identifies Tarquinius with Tarpeius, the eponymus of the Tarpeian rock, subsequently developed into the wicked king Tarquinius Superbus. Ancient authorities: - Livy i. 34-41; Dion. Hal. iii. 46-73; Cic. de Repub., ii. zoo.


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