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Golden City of East/City of Nawabs
Parivartan Chowk (Change Square) at Lucknow
Location of Lucknow
in Uttar Pradesh and India
Coordinates 26°51′N 80°55′E / 26.85°N 80.92°E / 26.85; 80.92
Country  India
State Uttar Pradesh
District(s) Lucknow
Mayor Dr. Dinesh Sharma
2685 528[1] (12) (2009)
1,456 /km2 (3,771 /sq mi)[2]
2342 116[3] (12)
Sex ratio 871 /
Official languages Hindi, Urdu
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
2,528 km2 (976 sq mi)[2]
128 m (420 ft)

Lucknow (pronounced /ˈlʌknaʊ/; Hindi: लखनऊ, Urdu: لکھنؤ, Lakhnaū, IPA: [ˈləkʰna.uː]  ( listen)) is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh in India.[8] Lucknow is the administrative headquarters of Lucknow District and Lucknow Division. According to Government of India, the Lucknow district is one of the ninety Minority Concentrated Districts in India, shown by 2001 census data on population, socio-economic indicators and basic amenities indicators.[9]

Located in what was historically known as the Awadh region, Lucknow has always been a multicultural city. Courtly manners, beautiful gardens, poetry, music, and fine cuisine patronized by the Persian-loving Shia Nawabs of the city are well known amongst Indians and students of South Asian culture and history.[10] Lucknow is popularly known as the The City of Nawabs. It is also known as the Golden City of the East, Shiraz-i-Hind and The Constantinople of India.[11]

The All India Kisan Sabha (AIKS) was formed at the Lucknow session of the Indian National Congress in 11 April 1936 with the legendary nationalist Swami Sahajanand Saraswati elected as its first President,[12] in order to mobilise peasant grievances against the zamindari attacks on their occupancy rights, and thus sparking the Farmers' movement in India [13][14].

Lucknow has Asia's first human DNA bank. This is world's second bank having DNA identification system (DIS) and has been established in the Biotech park under the public private partnership with IQRA Biotech Services.[15]

Today, Lucknow is a vibrant city that is witnessing an economic boom and is among the top ten fastest growing metro cities of India and is the second largest city of Uttar Pradesh after Kanpur.Straddling across the river Gomti, modern Lucknow is a bustling metropolis. Historically, it was a centre of Urdu literature.



Wajid Ali Shah (1847 - 1856)[16]

After 1350 AD the Lucknow and parts of Awadh region have been under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate, the Mughal Empire, the Nawabs of Awadh, the East India Company and the British Raj. Lucknow has been one of the major centers of First War of Independence, participated actively in India's Independence movement, and after Independence has emerged as an important city of North India.

Until 1719, subah of Awadh was a province of the Mughal Empire administered by a Governor appointed by the Emperor. Saadat Khan also called Burhan-ul-Mulk a Persian adventurer was appointed the Nazim of Awadh in 1722 and he established his court in Faizabad [17] near Lucknow.

Awadh was known as the granary of India and was important strategically for the control of the Doab, the fertile plain between the Ganga and the Yamuna rivers. It was a wealthy kingdom, able to maintain its independence against threats from the Marathas, the British and the Afghans. The third Nawab, Shuja-ud-Daula fell out with the British after aiding Mir Qasim, the fugitive Nawab of Bengal. He was comprehensively defeated in the Battle of Buxar by the East India Company, after which he was forced to pay heavy penalties and cede parts of his territory. The British appointed a resident in 1773, and over time gained control of more territory and authority in the state. They were disinclined to capture Awadh outright, because that would bring them face to face with the Marathas and the remnants of the Mughal Empire.

Lucknow's rise to growth and fame begins with its elevation as capital of Awadh by Nawab Asaf-Ud-Dowlah. He was a great philanthropist and gave Lucknow a unique and enduring legacy. The architectural contributions of these Awadh rulers include several imposing monuments. Of the monuments standing today, the Bara Imambara, the Chhota Imambara, and the Roomi Darwaza are notable examples. One of the more lasting contributions by the Nawabs is the syncretic composite culture that has come to be known as the Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb.

In 1798, the fifth Nawab Wazir Ali Khan alienated both his people and the British, and was forced to abdicate. The British then helped Saadat Ali Khan to the throne. Saadat Ali Khan was a puppet king, who in the treaty of 1801 ceded half of Awadh to the British East India Company and also agreed to disband his troops in favor of a hugely expensive, British-run army. This treaty effectively made the state of Awadh a vassal to the British East India Company, though it notionally continued to be part of the Mughal Empire in name until 1819.

The treaty of 1801 formed an arrangement that was very beneficial to the Company. They were able to use Awadh's vast treasuries, repeatedly digging into them for loans at reduced rates. In addition, the revenues from running Awadh's armed forces brought them useful revenues while it acted as a buffer state. The Nawabs were ceremonial kings, busy with pomp and show but with little influence over matters of state. By the mid-nineteenth century, however, the British had grown impatient with the arrangement and wanted direct control of Awadh.

In 1856 the East India Company first moved its troops to the border, then annexed the state, which was placed under a chief commissioner - Sir Henry Lawrence. Wajid Ali Shah, the then Nawab, was imprisoned, and then exiled by the Company to Calcutta. In the subsequent Revolt of 1857 his 14-year old son Birjis Qadra son of Begum Hazrat Mahal was crowned ruler, and Sir Henry Lawrence killed in the hostilities. Following the rebellion's defeat, Begum Hazrat Mahal and other rebel leaders obtained asylum in Nepal.

Interior of the Secundra Bagh after the Slaughter of 2,000 Rebels by the 93rd Highlanders and 4th Punjab Regiment. First Attack of Sir Colin Campbell in November 1857, Lucknow. Albumen silver print, by Felice Beato, 1858.

Those company troops who were recruited from the state, along with some of the nobility of the state, were major players in the events of 1857. The rebels took control of Awadh, and it took the British 18 months to reconquer the region, months which included the famous Siege of Lucknow. Oudh was placed back under a chief commissioner, and was governed as a British province. In 1877 the offices of lieutenant-governor of the North-Western Provinces and chief commissioner of Oudh were combined in the same person; and in 1902, when the new name of United Provinces of Agra and Oudh was introduced, the title of chief commissioner was dropped, though Oudh still retained some marks of its former independence.

The province of Awadh (anglicized to Oudh) was annexed by the East India Company in 1856 and placed under the control of a chief commissioner. In the Indian Rebellion of 1857 (also known as the First War of Indian Independence and the Indian Mutiny), the garrison based at the Residency in Lucknow was besieged by rebel forces. The famous Siege of Lucknow was relieved first by forces under the command of Sir Henry Havelock and Sir James Outram, followed by a stronger force under Sir Colin Campbell. Today, the ruins of the Residency, and the picturesque Shaheed Smarak offer reminiscences of Lucknow's role in the stirring events of 1857.

The city played an important role in both the First War of Independence and the modern Indian freedom struggle. Whether it was the Lucknow Pact of 1916 or the Khilafat Movement, it brought the citizens on a united platform against the British rule. In the Khilafat Movement Maulana Abdul Bari of Firangi Mahal, Lucknow actively participated and cooperated with Mahatama Gandhi and Maulana Mohammad Ali.

In 1901, after remaining the capital of Oudh since 1775, Lucknow, with a population of 264,049, was merged in the newly formed United Provinces of Agra and Oudh.[18] However, it became the provincial capital in 1920 when the seat of government was moved from Allahabad. Upon Indian independence in 1947, Lucknow became the capital of Uttar Pradesh, the erstwhile United Provinces.


Climate chart (explanation)
average max. and min. temperatures in °C
precipitation totals in mm
source: World Weather Information Service

Situated in the heart of the great Gangetic plain, Lucknow city is surrounded by its rural towns and villages like the orchard town of Malihabad, historic Kakori, Mohanlal ganj, Gosainganj, Chinhat, Itaunja. On its eastern side lies Barabanki District, on the western side is Unnao District, on the southern side Raebareli District, and on the northern side the Sitapur and Hardoi districts. The Gomti River, the chief geographical feature, meanders through the city, dividing it into the Trans-Gomti and Cis-Gomti regions. Lucknow city is located in the seismic zone III.[19]



Lucknow has a warm humid subtropical climate with cool, dry winters from December to February and dry, hot summers from April to June. The rainy season is from mid-June to mid-September, when Lucknow gets an average rainfall of 1010 mm (40 in) mostly from the south-west monsoon winds. In winter the maximum temperature is around 21 degrees Celsius and the minimum is in the 3 to 4 degrees Celsius range. Fog is quite common from late December to late January. Summers can be quite hot with temperatures rising to the 40 to 45 degree Celsius range, the average highs being in the high 30's.


Lucknow Population
Census Pop.  %±
1981 1,007,604
1991 1,669,204 65.7%
2001 2,245,509 34.5%
Est. 2011 3,226,000 [2] 43.7%
Source: Census of India[20]

Currently the population of Lucknow is more than 3 million.The majority of Lucknow's population includes people from Eastern Uttar Pradesh. However, Bengalis, South Indians and Anglo-Indians have also settled in Lucknow. Hindus comprise about 77% and Muslims about 20%. There are also small groups of Sikhs, Jains, Christians and Buddhists. As per 2001 census literacy rate of Lucknow is 69.39% (61.22% for females and 76.63% for males).[21]

Civic administration

Lucknow is the political and administrative capital of Uttar Pradesh. The city elects members to the Lok Sabha as well as the Uttar Pradesh Vidhan Sabha (State Assembly). Lucknow has two loksabha Constituencies named Lucknow & Mohanlalganj.

The city is under the jurisdiction of a District Collector, who is an IAS officer. The Collectors are in charge of property records and revenue collection for the Central Government, and oversee the national elections held in the city. The Collector is also responsible for maintaining law and order in the city. The city is administered by the Lucknow Municipal Corporation with executive power vested in the Municipal Commissioner of Lucknow also called the City Mayor. An Assistant Municipal Commissioner oversees each ward for administrative purposes.

The Lucknow Police is headed by a Inspector General, who is an IPS officer. The Lucknow Police comes under the state Home Ministry. The city is divided into several police zones and traffic police zones, each headed by a Deputy Inspector General of Police. The Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the Lucknow Police. The Lucknow Fire Brigade department is headed by the Chief Fire Officer, who is assisted by Deputy Chief Fire Officers and Divisional Officers. Former Prime Minister A.B.Vajpayee had been member of Parliament for the Lucknow Parliamentary constituency until recently where he has been replaced by Lalji Tandon in elections of 2009.


Lucknow is not only a major market & trading city in Northern India, but is also an emerging hub for producers of goods and services. Being the capital of Uttar Pradesh state, the Government departments and the public sector undertakings are the principal employers of the salaried middle class. Liberalization has created many more opportunities in the business and service sector and self-employed professionals are burgeoning in the city.

Lucknow also provides a good catchment area for the recruitment of quality personnel by information technology companies for the BPO. The city is the headquarters of both the Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) and the Pradeshiya Industrial and Investment Corporation of Uttar Pradesh (PICUP). The Regional office of the Uttar Pradesh State Industries Development Corporation (UPSIDC) is also located here. The other business-promoting institutions that have a presence in Lucknow are the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) and Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India (EDII).

Manufacturing and Processing

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited has major operation facilities in Lucknow

Among the bigger manufacturing units, Lucknow has Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, Tata Motors, Eveready Industries and Scooters India Limited. Processing industries include milk production, steel-rolling units and LPG bottling.

Lucknow is also famous for Indian Hukha Tobacco Paste or Khamira in local lauguage,manufacturer's exporter of Hukha Tobacco.The city's small-scale and medium-scale industrial units are located in the industrial enclaves of Chinhat, Aishbagh, Talkatora and Amousi.

Real estate

Real estate is one of the many booming sectors of the economy. There are several malls, residential complexes and business complexes throughout the city. Real estate giants like Parshvanath, DLF, Omaxe, Sahara, Unitech, Ansal API, Emaar MGF are here.

Lucknow is one of the few Indian cities that follows vertical outgrowth plan like Delhi, Mumbai, Surat, Gazhiabad. Prominent under-construction buildings include Sahara Hospital, which will have 30 floors, followed by Metro City, Parshvanath Planet and Omaxe Heights, all 25 floors. The city boasts a high property expansion rate. It is expected that city will have a $2.5 billion organised real estate by 2010, highest in North India except the National Capital Region (NCR).


Organic India[22] has its head office in Lucknow.

Traditional Trade

Traditionally, Lucknow has been a mandi town for mangoes, melons, and grains grown in the surrounding areas. Sugarcane-growing plantations and sugar industries are also in close proximity. This attracted Mohan Meakins Brewery to set up a unit based on molasses in the city. Meakins was incorporated in 1855 and is Asia's first commercial brewery.[23]

Lucknow is famous for its small scale industries that are based on unique styles of embroidery, namely, Chikan and Lakhnawi Zardozi, both of which are significant foreign exchange earners. Chikan has caught the fancy of fashion designers in Bollywood and abroad.

During the period of the Nawabs, kite-making reached a high level of artistry,[24] and is still a small-scale industry. Lucknow has also been an industrial producer of tobacco products like 'Kivam', edible fragrances like 'attars' and handicrafts such as pottery, earthen toys, silver and gold foil work, and bone carving products.

Emerging Businesses

Lucknow, with its excellent educational, commercial, banking and legal infrastructure, is witnessing rapid growth in information technology, banking, retailing, construction and other service sectors. Private coaching institutions for preparing aspirants of competitive exams and services is another business that is flourishing in Lucknow.

Lucknow houses hundreds of established real estate brands and dozens of niche and specialised developers like High-end premium residential projects, Malls, IT parks, Commercial property, SEZs, Plots, Business centres, Multiplexes, Clubs, Banks, Food courts, Entertainment centres and Finance institutions.

All the major public and private sector banks of India, Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and foreign banks like Citibank, Standard Chartered Bank, ABN-AMRO and HSBC have their presence in the city. The big oil marketing companies like Indian Oil Corporation, Hindustan Petroleum, Bharat Petroleum, and Reliance have their offices in Lucknow.

Tata Consultancy Services campus, Lucknow

Leading IT companies like TCS and IBM operate in Lucknow. The Ministry of Communications & Information Technology has set up Software Technology Parks of India [25] in 2001 which is playing an important role to promote IT/ITes Units in the region. Passive Telecom network provider TNG Infratel has its corporate office in lucknow.Insurance companies, both public and private, as well as leading cellular phone companies are present in the city as well.

Currently, biotechnology and information technology are the two focus areas to promote economic development in and around the city. The Ministry of Science and Technology is setting up a biotech park[26] in the city. Lucknow is also one of the selected cities for the Smart City project of STPI, under which IT is being used to promote economic development.


Places to see

Gateway to Bara Imambara
Husainabad Clock Tower
Ambedkar Memorial

The Asafi Imambara (popularly known as Bara Imambara), the Chhota Imambara, Residency, and Shah Najaf are monuments of architectural importance at Lucknow. The famous 'Bhul Bhulaiyan' (Labyrinth) is part of Asafi Imambara complex. Some other places of interest are the Picture Gallery, Chattar Manzil, State Museum / Lucknow Zoo, Shaheed Smarak, Dilkusha, Ambedkar Memorial, Planetarium, Baradari and Ram Krishna Math.

The British-built architectural sights in Lucknow include the Vidhan Sabha (State Legislative Assembly), the Clock Tower and the Charbagh Railway Station, with its distinctive domes, arches and pillars. St Joseph's Cathedral in Lucknow is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Lucknow. Some of the oldest and best schools in India are also situated in Lucknow such as La Martiniere Lucknow, St. Francis College (1885), Loreto Convent Lucknow, Colvin Taluqdar's College, MBIC, Study Hall, RLB, CMS, LPS, St Fidelis College, Lucknow and Christ Church College.

Lucknow has several well-kept parks that attract the citizenry in large numbers on evenings, holidays and weekends. The bigger parks are Ambedkar Memorial and Lohia park in Gomti Nagar, Swarn Jayanti park and Aurobindo Park in Indiranagar, Dilkusha Park, Begum Hazrat Mahal Park, Globe Park, Mukherjee Phuhaar, Haathi Park, Buddha park, and Neebu Park. The sprawling National Botanical Garden at Sikandarbagh on the banks of Gomti river is also worth visiting.

The city also has a Reserve Forest, Kukrail Crocodile Park (a picnic spot and Gharial rehabilitation centre)[27]. Moosa Bagh and Utretia are other popular picnic spots. Natural attractions accessible from Lucknow are Katarnia Ghat, Dudhwa National Park, Nawabganj Bird Sanctuary and Samaspur Bird Sanctuary.


Aminabad, a quaint bazaar like Delhi's Chandni Chowk, is situated in the heart of the city. It is a large shopping centre that caters to a wide variety of consumers. Chowk and Nakhhas are markets in the old Lucknow area where you can get a feel of traditional Lucknow. Some other important shopping centres are Alambagh, Kapoorthala, Indiranagar, Mahanagar and Nishatganj. The Hazratganj area is an upscale shopping market with colonial- style buildings. Interestingly, a popular pastime among the locals is window-shopping in the Hazratganj market. It is popularly referred to in Hinglish as Ganjing. The Janpath market, Rovers, Lovers Lane, Mayfair building, Kwality, and Universal book store are some popular landmarks of the area.

Lucknowites are also experiencing the new waves of shopping malls and multiplex culture in India. The first shopping mall-cum-multiplex to open in Lucknow was the East End Mall in Gomti Nagar. Now Lucknow has many Mall-cum-multiplex like Saharaganj (PVR Cinemas), Zee Mall (Fun Republic), Riverside Mall (Inox Theatre) and East End Mall (Wave Cinemas).

Recently, the district administration has decided to give a facelift to Hazratganj, the main commercial area of Lucknow. It will be renovated on the lines of Connaught Place in Delhi, and done as per the recommendations of the famous architect Naseer Munji .[3]


The urban area is spread equally on both sides of the Gomti River. The commercial and residential areas on Cis-Gomti side are Hazratganj, L.D.A. Colony, Alambagh, RDSO Colony (Research Design and Standard Organisation), Charbagh, Aishbagh, Qaiserbagh, Aminabad, Husainganj, Model Houses, Lal Bagh, Golaganj, Wazirganj, Rajendra Nagar, Malviya Nagar, Sarojini Nagar, Aishbagh, Rajajipuram, Haiderganj, Thakurganj, Chowk and Saadatganj.

The residential settlements in the Trans-Gomti area are Nirala Nagar, Aliganj, Daliganj, Mahanagar, Old & New Hyderabad, Nishatganj, Indira Nagar, Manas Enclave (near Kukrail picnic spot), Gomti Nagar and Gomti Nagar Extn., Nilmatha Cantt., Vikas Nagar, Khurram Nagar, Janakipuram and South City (on Raibareli road). Aminabad is the heart of the city and the oldest traditional marketplace after Chowk. It is one of the most crowded places of Lucknow.


Lucknow is bravely struggling to retain its old world charm while at the same time acquiring a modern lifestyle. Regarded as one of the finest cities of India, Lucknow represents a culture that combines emotional warmth, a high degree of sophistication, courtesy, and a love for gracious living. The Pehle-Aap (after you) culture, popularised as a tagline for the society of Lucknow, is waning. But a small part of Lucknow's society still possesses such etiquette. This sublime cultural richness famous as Lakhnawi tehzeeb blends the cultures of two communities living side by side for centuries, sharing similar interests and speaking a common language.

Many of the cultural traits and customs peculiar to Lucknow have become living legends today. The credit for this goes to the secular and syncretic traditions of the Nawabs of Awadh, who took a keen interest in every walk of life, and encouraged the traditions to attain a rare degree of sophistication. The Raja Sahib of Mahmudabad, popularly known as Suleiman Mian, is a living example of all the great traditions of this region and has been written about by authors like V.S. Naipul, William Dalrymple and many others. He resides in Mahmudabad House which is in one of the wings of Kaiserbagh, a palace built by Wajid Ali Shah.

Language and poetry

Lucknow is one of the world's great cities for Shiite culture. Two poets, Mir Anis and Mirza Dabeer, became legendary exponents of a unique genre of Shia elegiacal poetry called Marsia centred on Imam Husain's supreme sacrifice in the Battle of Karbala which is commemorated during the annual observance of Muharram.

In recent years the use of Urdu has reduced significantly. Day-to-day transactions in the city are typically performed in Hindi or English. Nevertheless, Lucknowites are still known for their polite and polished way of speaking which is noticed by visitors to this city. The revolutionary Ram Prasad Bismil, who was hanged by the British at Kakori near Lucknow, was largely influenced by poetry and wrote verses under the pen name of "Bismil". The surrounding towns like Kakori, Daryabad, Barabanki, Rudauli and Malihabad produced many eminent poets and littérateurs of Urdu like Mohsin Kakorvi, Majaz, Khumar Barabankvi and Josh Malihabadi. Recently in 2008 which is the 150th year of 'mutiny' of 1857 a novel has been released which uses 1857 as a backdrop. 'Recalcitrance' is the first English novel by a Lucknowite on the 'mutiny' of 1857.


The Awadh region has its own distinct Nawabi style cuisine, with various kinds of biryanis, kebabs and breads. Kebabs are also of different types - Kakori Kebabs, Galawati Kebabs, Shami Kebabs, Boti Kababs, Patili-ke-Kababs, Ghutwa Kababs and Seekh Kababs are among the known varieties.[28]

The city has a range of fine restaurants catering to all tastes and budgets.

Makkhan Malai, 'Malai Ki Gilori' of Ram Asrey (an oldest shop of pure ghee sweets, established in 1805) Chowk , the famous Tundey Kebabs, named after the one-armed chef Haji Murad Ali,[29] and 'Kakori kebabs' are very popular with food lovers.

The Chaat in Lucknow is one of the best in the country. There are quite a few places serving outstanding chaat, like Shukla Chaat and Moti Mahal in Hazratganj, Radhey Lal in Aliganj, Chhappan Bhog in Sadar and Neel Kanth in Gomti Nagar, and famous Jagdish Chaat House in old lucknow Chowk. And among sweets lucknow's rewadi is famous in all INDIA

After a delicious dinner, one can have Paan at any of the innumerable Paan vendors.

Dance, drama and music

Kathak, the classical Indian dance form took shape here. Wajid Ali Shah, the last Nawab of Awadh, was a great patron and a passionate champion of Kathak. Lachhu Maharaj, Acchchan Maharaj, Shambhu Maharaj and Birju Maharaj have kept this tradition alive.

Lucknow is also the city of eminent Ghazal singer Begum Akhtar. She was a pioneer in Ghazal singing and took this aspect of music to amazing heights. "Ae Mohabbat Tere anjaam pe rona aaya" is one of her best musical renditions of all times.

The Bhatkande music university at Lucknow is named after the great musician Pandit Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande. People from Sri Lanka, Nepal and other countries come to Bhatkhande to study music or dance.

Bhartendu Academy of Dramatic Arts (BNA), also known as Bhartendu Natya Academy, a Theatre Training institute situated at Gomti Nagar in vikas khand-1, is deemed university and an autonomous organization under Ministry of Culture , Government of Uttar Pradesh, set up in 1975 by the Sangeet Natak Akademy (Government of Uttar Pradesh), and became an independent Drama school in 1977.

Lucknow has given music stars like Naushad Ali, Talat Mehmood, Anup Jalota and Baba Sehgal to the entertainment industry. It is also incidentally the birthplace of British pop star Sir Cliff Richard.

Lokrang Sanskritik Samiti B 4/140 Vishalkhand, Gomatinagar, Lucknow 226010 is a well known organization working in the field of research, promote and regulate the all types of Folk culture like Folk songs, folk dances and Folk music's. Samiti organized every year a programs called-"Lokrang", in which more than 150 Folk singers, dancer and theatrics perform in village Jogia Janubi Patti, Fazilanagar, Kushinagar (UP) Samiti also published an important books-"Lokrang-1". Past performance of organization was, Hudka Vadan, Pakhawaj dance, Janghia Dance, Fari Dance, Kavir gayaki, Nirgun gayaki, Panwaria Nritya, Chayeeta, Kanharawa, Jogira, Kazari, Sohar, Devi geet, Sarangi vadan, Ektara vadan, Khajari vadan and Bhojpuri gayan. Now samiti working in the field of Bundelkhand Achari, Isuri Fog and Aalha gayan also. For the details, log on


A kite shop in the city

Lucknow has traditionally been a sports-loving city. In the past pehlwani, kabbadi, chess, kite flying, pigeon flying, and cock fighting were popular pastimes. For decades Lucknow hosted the prestigious Sheesh Mahal Cricket Tournament. Today cricket, football, badminton, golf and hockey are among the most popular sports in the city. Gulli Danda has become a benchmark for the youth to achieve.

The city has a good record in modern sports and has produced several national and world-class sporting personalities. Lucknow sports hostel has produced international-level cricketers such as Mohammed Kaif, Piyush Chawla, Suresh Raina, Gyanendra Pandey and R. P. Singh. Other famous sports personalities include hockey Olympians K. D. Singh, Mohammed Shahid and Ghaus Mohammad Khan, the tennis player who became the first Indian to reach the quarter finals at Wimbledon.


The main sports hub is the K. D. Singh Babu Stadium which also has a world-class swimming and indoor games complex. The other stadiums are at Babu Banarsi Das engineering college,Charbagh, Mahanagar, Chowk and Sports College and at Integral University.

The Lucknow Golf Club, on the sprawling greens of La Martinière College, is one of the most famous golf courses in India.

An inspiration for films

Lucknow has been a major influence on the Hindi film industry of India and it would be true to say that without the Lakhnavi touch, Bollywood would not have been what it is today. Many script writers and lyricists hailing from Awadh like Majrooh Sultanpuri, Kaifi Azmi, Javed Akhtar Ali Raza, Bhagwati Charan Verma, Dr. Kumud Nagar, Dr. Achala Nagar Wajahat Mirza (writer of Mother India and Ganga Jamuna), Amritlal Nagar, Ali Sardar Jafri, K. P. Saxena and music famous music director Naushad Ali (Urdu: نوشاد علی, Hindi: नौशाद अली) (25 December 1919 – 5 May 2006) have enriched Indian Cinema.

Moreover, several famous movies have used Lucknow as their backdrop, such as Shashi Kapoor's Junoon, Muzaffar Ali's Umrao Jaan and Gaman, Satyajit Ray's Shatranj Ke Khiladi. Ismail Merchant's Shakespeare Wallah was also partly shot in Lucknow.

Bahu Begum, Mehboob ki Mehndi, Mere Hazoor, Mere Mehboob, Chaudhvin Ka Chand, Pakeezah, Main Meri Patni Aur Woh, Saher, Anwar and many more films have either been shot in Lucknow or have Lakhnavi backdrops. In the movie Gadar: Ek Prem Katha Lucknow has been used to depict Pakistan. The Lal Pul has been used.


Education and Research

Lucknow is a hub of education and research with many premier institutions. Schools and higher educational institutions in Lucknow are administered either by the Directorate of Education, the UP government, or private organizations.

Higher education institutions in the city include eight universities:University of Lucknow, UPTU, Lucknow,RMLNLU,Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Amity University, and Integral University; medical institutes like Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences (SGPGIMS), Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University (CSMMU), Sahara Hospital, Apollo Hospital and ERA's Lucknow Medical College; management institutes like IIM Lucknow, Institute of Management Science at the University of Lucknow; and government engineering college IET Lucknow.;and private college BBD Lucknow,Saroj engineering college,Sri Ramswarup engineering college,GICET Lucknow,NIEC Lucknow, Sherwood engineering college.

Lucknow boasts of national importance as a prominent place for Scientific Research, especially in the emerging field of Modern Biosciences. Four institutions affiliated to the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research are located here : the National Botanic Research Institute, the Central Drug Research Institute, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research and Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants.


Auto Rickshaws

The available multiple modes of public transport in the city are taxis, city buses, cycle rickshaws, auto rickshaws and CNG Buses. CNG has been introduced recently as an auto fuel to keep the air pollution in control. The city bus service is run by Lucknow Mahanagar Parivahan Sewa.[30] a division of Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (UPSRTC)

From Hazratganj intersection in Lucknow city, four Indian National Highways originate, viz, NH-24 to Delhi, NH-25 to Shivpuri, Jhansi (M.P. Border), NH-56 to Varanasi and NH-28 to Mokama (Bihar). The major bus terminus is Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar bus station at Alambagh. It has all modern facilities and is the main inter and intrastate terminal. Another important bus station is at Qaiserbagh. Earlier, another bus terminus operated at Charbagh, directly in front of the main railway station, but has now been reestablished as a city bus depot. The move was taken to remove congestion in front of the railway station.

The city is served by several Railway stations at different parts of the city. The main railway station is Lucknow Railway Station at Charbagh. It has an imposing structure built in 1923. The main terminal belongs to Northern Railway (NR) (station code: LKO) division of Indian Railways and the second terminal is run by the North Eastern Railway (NER) (Station Code: LJN). Lucknow is a major junction with links to all major cities of the state and country such as New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderabad, Bengaluru. Ahmedabad, Pune, Indore, Bhopal, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Jaipur and many more. Lucknow has a further thirteen railway stations viz. Alamnagar, Malhaur, Utretia, Transport Nagar, Dilkhusha, Gomti Nagar, Badshahnagar, Manak Nagar, Amausi, Aishbagh junction, Lucknow City, Daliganj and Mohibullapur. Now meter gauge services originate from Aishbagh and connect to Lucknow city, Daliganj and Mohibullapur. Except Mohibullapur all the stations are also connected to Broad gauge. All the stations are within city limits and are well connected with each other via road networks and public road transport. Other suburban stations include Bakshi Ka Talab and Kakori.

Muniyappa, minister of state for railways, has carried out an inspection of Charbagh station accompanied with senior officials of railways. The minister has promised to take up the matter of platform extension at Charbagh with railway minister and to also get funds allocated to Lucknow for the same. The Amausi International Airport serves as the city's main airport and is located about 20 km from the city center. Lucknow is directly connected by air with New Delhi, Patna, Kolkata, Mumbai and other major Indian cities. Oman Air,Cosmo Air,FlyDubai,Saudi Airlines and Indigo Air and many more international airlines that are successfully operating direct international flights from Lucknow to international destinations & vice versa. International destinations include London, Dubai, Jeddah, Riyadh, Muscat, Sharjah, Bangkok, Singapore and Hong Kong. During Haj special flights are also operated from Lucknow. Plans for high capacity mass transit system, The Lucknow Metro rail Services have been finalised. Delhi Metro rail (DMRC) is preparing plans for its constructions.



Lucknow has historically been a major center of journalism. The National Herald, the newspaper started by India's first prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru before World War II was published from Lucknow and edited by Manikonda Chalapathi Rau.

The prominent English dailies of the city are The Times of India, The Hindustan Times,The Pioneerand Indian Express. Several daily newspapers in Hindi, Urdu, and English are published in the city. Among the Hindi papers are State Panther,Swatantra Bharat,Dainik Jagran,Amar Ujala,Dainik Hindustan,Rashtriya Sahara,Jansatta and I Next. The main Urdu papers are Jayeza Daily, Rashtriya Sahara, Sahafat, Qaumi Khabrein and Aag.

The Press Trust of India and United News of India have their offices in the city and all major newspapers of the country have their correspondents and stringers in Lucknow.


One of the earliest stations of All India Radio has been operational in Lucknow for quite some time.

FM radio transmission started in Lucknow in 2000, and the city today has following FM radio stations.[31]


The city has broadband internet connectivity and video conferencing facilities. Major players like BSNL, Bharti Airtel, Reliance Communications, Tata Communications & STPI, have a wide infrastructure to provide broadband Internet Bandwidth to home users, corporates etc.

Sister cities

See also


  1. ^ World Gazetteer online
  2. ^ a b [1]
  3. ^ Population data, 2001 census Population data, 2001 census
  5. ^
  7. ^ Lucknow City Development Plan 2006
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^ Lucknow : Lucknow History
  11. ^
  12. ^ Bandyopādhyāya, Śekhara (2004). From Plassey to Partition: A History of Modern India. Orient Longman. pp. 523 (at p 407). ISBN 978-8125025962. 
  13. ^ Bandyopādhyāya, Śekhara (2004). From Plassey to Partition: A History of Modern India. Orient Longman. pp. 523 (at p 406). ISBN 978-8125025962. 
  14. ^ Peasant Struggles in India, by Akshayakumar Ramanlal Desai. Published by Oxford University Press, 1979. Page 349.
  15. ^
  16. ^ a b
  17. ^ Faizabad, town, India. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-07
  18. ^ Lucknow, 1911 This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  19. ^ "UNDP report". Retrieved 2006-09-29. 
  20. ^ "Decadal Growth of Urban Agglomeration" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-06-23. 
  21. ^ CENSUS-2001 : Final Figures: Uttar Pradesh: Literacy Rates by Sex for State and Districts
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^ "Lucknow crafts". Retrieved 2006-10-23. 
  25. ^ STPI
  26. ^ "Biotech city Lucknow". Retrieved 2006-10-23. 
  27. ^ Conservation status of Gharial in UP
  28. ^ Cuisine of Lucknow
  29. ^ "Lucknow Kebabs continue to be gourmets' delight beyond time". Retrieved 2007-04-21. 
  30. ^ "Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation". Retrieved 2006-09-20. 
  31. ^ "FM Radio Stations". Retrieved 2006-10-27. 

External links

This article contains Indic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks or boxes, misplaced vowels or missing conjuncts instead of Indic text.

Further reading

  • Rosie Llewellyn-Jones. City of Illusion. Prestel Verlag, 2006, 295pp. ISBN 3791331302. ISBN 978-3791331300.
  • Rosie Llewellyn-Jones. Lucknow Then and Now. Marg Publications, India, 2003. ISBN 8185026610. ISBN 978-8185026619.
  • Anurag Kumar. Recalcitrance- a historical novel on events of Great Uprising of 1857 AIP Books, India, 2008.

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Lucknow is the capital of Uttar Pradesh, India.


Lucknow, the capital of Uttar Pradesh, thrives along the banks of Gomti river. The city, Awadh and Uttar Pradesh fell to the British during imperialistic era . Today, Lucknow is dotted with remnants of its rich cultural past.

Lucknow is also known for its elaborate cuisine and Chikankaari or exquisite shadow-work embroidery on fine muslin cloth.

Lucknow is a historically important city and for many centuries was at the heart of North Indian culture. In particular, the city was famous for its Adab and Tehzeeb (manners and hospitality), intricate embroidery, beautiful gardens and dance forms such as Kathak. It was also one of the sites of the 1857 Indian Mutiny (or First War of Indian Independence). The Hindi spoken in Lucknow is considered the most beautiful and gentle in the country. Currently the city has a population of around 2.5 million.

Lucknow is the heart of the art, cuisine, dance, culture and music of Northern India. It was the cradle of the Hindu-Muslim-Sikh symbioses that made India great. it brought in the best of various cultures and accepted Western institutions like La Martiniere in her womb. It was made famous by the soft-spoken, and sweet tongued, Awadh-Lucknowai culture that was based on civilized behaviour toward fellow human beings. Lucknow is the home of Urdu, Hindustani and Hindi languages. The city became known as a centre for Urdu poetry and courtly presence and diction, being the birthplace and city of residence for many poets. The Mushaira, an event of poetry recitation forms the heart of Lucknow's nightlife where Mushairas go on into the wee hours of the night. Lucknow's only rival in Northern India was Delhi, though Lucknowies were always embroiled in a healthy rivalry with Delhi, home of the famous poet Ghalib and others. Lucknow is also famous for its sweetmeat, the sweet shops in the old city dates to 1850s. Awadhi and mughlai food is the delight of the visitors to Lucknow.

Get in

By plane

There are daily flights from Delhi, Bombay, Kolkata and Patna. Amausi Airport, Lucknow is directly connected with Delhi, Patna, Kolkata, Bombay and Varanasi by direct flights.

  • Indian Airlines, (0522)220927, (0522)435401, 436188 (pre recorded, 142).  edit
  • Air India-Janata Travels, (0522)226171. (General Sale Agent) Hotel Clarks Awadh, 8, M.g. Road  edit
  • Sahara India Airlines, Sahara India Tower, 7, Kapoorthala Complex, (0522)377675, 372742.  edit

By train

Lucknow is on the Delhi-Varanasi railway route. Connections can be made from Agra and Allahabad. A major railway junction, Lucknow is conveniently connected to many cities. Some of the important trains are : 5307/5308 Shatabadi Ex. : 5063/5064; Nainital Ex; : 9165/9166; Sabarmati Exp : 2553/2554; Vaishali Exp : 5609/5610; Awadh-Assam Exp : 8475/8476; Neelanchal Exp : 4283/4284; Ganga-Yamuna Exp : 4229/4230 Lucknow Mail : 2419/2420; Gomti Exp : 4057/4058; Kashi-Vishwanath Exp : 4011/4012; Nauchandi Exp : 1015/1016; Bombay-Gorakhpur Exp : 5011/5012; Cochin-Gorakhpur Exp.

The important contact for Lucknow Railways are: Railways Manual Enquiry 131, 135, 2636132; Pre Recorded 1331, 1332; resservation 1330, 1350, 0522-2635841; Badshahnagar 0522-2385182. 0522 is Lucknow's STD code.

By road

Lucknow is connected by road with all the major cities of the country. Some of the major road distances are: Agra 363 km, Allahabad 210 km, Ayodhya 135 km, Kolkata 985 km, Corbett National Park 400 km, Delhi 497 km, Dudhwa National Park 238 km, Kanpur 79 km, Khajuraho 320 km, Varanasi 300 km.

By bus

The Bus Stations are situated at Charbagh, Alambagh, and Kaisar Bagh.

The telephone number for Roadways Inter State Bus Terminal Alambagh is: 0522-2458096

Buses from Sunauli-Bhairawa on the India/Nepal border stop on their way to Varanasi.

From Lucknow to New Delhi: There is a luxury air-conditioned bus from Quaiser Bagh Bus station. Route for this bus is Lucknow - Sitapur - Bareilly - Muradabad - Gaziabad - Delhi [Anand Vihar ISBT]

Get around

Taxi and riksha drivers in Lucknow are of the more insistent type, although few of them will speak enough English to go to locations that are out of the way.

By car

You can easily visit Lucknow with a car, as there are many car rental companies available. One should hire cars with local drivers as traffic is dangerous for anybody not used to local traffic conditions.

  • Enterprises Car Rental
  • Savaari Car Rental
  • Hertz Car Rental
  • Gaurav Travels (Call +91-9889651237; 9760776787)


Places of interest are spread out over a large distance, therefore will require the use of taxis or rickshaws. Cycle rickshaws contribute less polution to this historic city than their motorised cousins, and provide work to some who need it most.

  • Bara Imambara and Bhool Bhulaiya. A large and impressive tomb complex built in 1783. There is an interesting labyrinth too. You could easily spend half a day wandering around these beautiful but crumbling examples of Mughal architechture. A 300 rupees ticket (for foreigners) gets you in here, to the Chhota Imambara and to the clock tower and picture gallery too, so do not lose your ticket. Please note that lone couples are not allowed to enter with out a guide. Such prohibition is not brought to notice while buying the entry ticket.  edit
  • Rumi Darwaza.  edit
  • Chhota Imambara. An imposing mausoleum built by the third Nawab of Avadh in 1837.  edit
  • La Martiniere College, [1]. Boys college. Building also known as Constantia, La Martiniere College is one of the oldest schools in the country. It was built in 1840 and started as a school in 1845. The school building is still well mantained. The best time to visit is either in the morning at around 8AM, when one can see the assembly, or after the school finishes at 1:30PM. This landmark building has also featured in several Bollywood movies.  edit
  • Husainabad Clock Tower. A British landmark, set in a park with the somewhat poorly curated Pîcture gallery, and a lake. A great place for sunset.  edit
  • Ruins of the Lucknow Residency''' and Museum. The bloody history of the demise of this Raj era compound is immortalised in the Museum in the Basement (105 rupees for foreigners to enter the Residency and Museum). This was the scene of the 1857 First Battle for Indepencence, referred to by the British as `The Indian Mutiny.´ Although you can still clearly see numerous canon ball marks in the ruined buildings, thankfully it is a peaceful place today. So much so in fact, that you are likely to stumble across couples taking a little private time in the leafy shady groves. The Residency is clealy recognised by the locals and tourists alike as a breezy haven to escape from the bustle and dust of a busy Indian city.   edit
  • Dilkusha ruins.  edit
  • Qaiserbagh complex.  edit
  • Crocodile sanctuary at Kukrail.  edit
  • The Ram Krishna Math, Nirala Nagar.  edit
  • The Zoo/Museum.  edit
  • Botanical Gardens. 6AM-8:30AM.  edit
  • Indira Gandi Planetarium, 2629176. Tu-Su Shows 1PM-6PM (45 min shows 1PM-1:40PM English, 2:30PM-4:00PM, 5:00PM Hindi). 25.00.  edit
  • Buddha Park.  edit
  • Shahid Smarak.  edit
  • Cathedral School, Hazaratganj.  edit
  • Farangi Mahal. The Oxford and Cambride of India author/poet Shibli Naumani. For more details see book by Dr. Francis Robinson on the Ulema of Farangi Mahal.  edit
  • Colvin Taluqdars College. A must see place it has great architecture built in 1869 named after Sir Auckland Colvin.  edit
  • Deva Shariff, around 30 km from the city, A place of worship and faith where people from all the religions gather, a symbol of unity and love.
  • Amrapali water park.  edit
  • Ambedkar Park.  edit
  • Ram manohar Lohiya park.  edit
  • Sahara Ganj Shopping Mall & PVR Cinemas, Shahnajaf Road.  edit
  • East End Mall & Wave Cinemas, Vibhuti Khand, Gomti Nagar.  edit
  • Fun Republic Mall & Fun Cinemas, (Adjacent Eldeco Greens, Gomti Nagar).  edit
  • Hazaratganj, (the center of the city).  edit
  • Nadiya Ke Paar, Near Laxman Mela Maidan.  edit
  • NBRI (National Botanical Research Institute).   edit


Chikan dress — a cotton dress with hand-made embroidery, is a must-buy in Lucknow. These garments are both for men and women. The cost is any where between Rs 250-2500 depending on the chikan work (hand embroidery work on cloth is of various types, "Murri" is the traditional handwork and is therefore a little more expensive). In old Chowk and Aminabad it is a small scale industry so it is cheaper to buy from there. Bhartiya Chikan Centre and Manoj Chikan, on Nadan Mahal Road are reasonably priced. In Hajratganj ("Ganj") the same piece will cost some 200 rupees more. Beware of the touts who will take you to shops near the Civil Hospital and Hussain Ganj where the prices are 500% higher!

  • Nishatganj.  edit
  • Aminabad Market.  edit
  • Hazratganj Market.  edit
  • Chowk, (in the old city, just south of the Imambara complex and the clock tower). Lively market. This is the place to find bargains, and check out the locals.  edit
  • Kapoorthala.  edit
  • Sahara Ganj.  edit
  • FUN Republic.  edit


Everyone in Lucknow knows about the famous tikkas and kebabs. They are Mughal delicacies. Lalbagh, many roadside hotels near Aminabad and old Chowk offer cheap and unique type of dishes. Also, try out the street next to Tulsi thatre in Hazratganj for some exotic non-vegetarian delicacies

The Food Court at Sahara Ganj, near Hazrat Ganj is the recent hot favourite with a number of fast food joints. If coffee and tea is something you like you will find a huge variety at Capuccino Blast at Mall Avenue. At Akbari Gate, during winters one can also enjoy Kashmiri Tea (a red coloured hot tea), with cream and Makhan Malai (a local variant of ice cream, saffron flavoured, made by hanging unsalted butter overnight in dew and then aerating it by beating it).

  • Alzaiqa, (Near Novelty Theatre).  edit
  • Dainik Jagaran Chauk. Cheap and delicious non-veg food  edit
  • Dastharkwan, (Near Tulsi Theatre).  edit
  • Haji Sahib's Shop, Akbari Gate. 7AM-10AM. This is in the heart of Old Lucknow. Serves the juiciest Nihari (lamb shanks in gravy) and Kulchha (a traditional bread). This is the best in the city  edit
  • Tundey's Kebabs, (Food Court, Sharaganj Mall). Has been serving kebabs for more than 50 years.  edit
  • Basket Chat.  edit
  • Dastarkhwan, (The street next to Tulsi thatre in Hazratganj). Exotic non-vegetarian delicacies, specially the special chicken masala, shaami kebabs and mughlai parathaas.  edit
  • Kewal's, (Outside Maqbara Compound, Hazratganj). Famous for their tea and mouth watering samosas (potato stuffed pancake).  edit
  • KFC, (Saharaganj Mall).  edit
  • Lalbagh. Famous for their tea and mouth watering samosas (potato stuffed pancake).  edit
  • McDonalds, (Saharganj Shopping Mall, Fun Republic and East End Mall).  edit
  • Mint, (Arif Castle). Offers non-alcoholic beverages and great food. Food festivals are common.  edit
  • Paani Batashe.  edit
  • Pizza Hut, (East End Mall and opposite Raj Bhawan).  edit
  • Sakhawat, (In a narrow lane next to Gymkhana Club, near Gemini Hotel, Hazratgunj). 5PM-10PM. A lesser-known but good joint for connoisseurs. Operating since 1911, it has a limited stock and little seating space, with a select clientele.  edit
  • Sharma Tea House. Famous for their tea and mouth watering samosas (potato stuffed pancake).  edit
  • Ultra Violet, Mall Avenue. Offers non-alcoholic beverages and great food. Food festivals are common.  edit
  • Aryan's, (Hazratganj).  edit
  • Royal Cafe.  edit


Finding alcohol is not a problem, but most bars are seedy and are to be avoided, except for those in five-star restaurants.

  • A safer drink alternative is the famous local lassi yogurt drink.
  • shikanji.
  • not all retail shops of wine/liquor are authorised to serve so it's always suggested to drink in a bar or at your home or hotel.
  • 'Lucknow Homestay [2]110D Mall Avenue. A high ceilinged haven with WiFi. Just off The Mall, to the south of the city centre lies this extremely spacious family home favoured by research students, language students and backpackers alike. The fabulous homecooked meals will make you want to stay, and as the price is right why not! 550rupees for a double room (most rooms have en suite bathrooms) including meals, tea making facilities, and filtered UV treated water. Discounts should you decide to stay longer. There are numerous communal spaces on every floor, and the roof at sundown is a great place to enjoy the view of one of UPs more controversial new statues, while listening to the peaceful wailing of the call to prayer. The hosts are super friendly and a mine of information. Call to arrange a pickup 2235460 or email
  • Hotel APSARA
  • New Sharma Hotel Opposite charbagh railway station. There are two Sharma Hotels there, One is 30 years old. ph 0522-2635901,2630544,4045586
  • Hotel D D International
  • Hotel Ganpati
  • Hotel Asha
  • Hotel Basant Vihar
  • Hotel Park Avadh
  • Hotel Raj
  • Hotel Mera Mann
  • Hotel Ganga Maiya
  • Hotel Sunrise
  • Deep Hotel
  • Hotel Diamond
  • Hotel Naznin Palace
  • Hotel Dileep
  • Hotel Ankit Yadav from NIEC
  • Hotel Ashirwad
  • Hotel Mansi Ganga near charbagh railway station ph 0522-2630513,2637841
  • Hotel Manglam, +915224047797, [3]. Hotel Manglam is a three star hotel in Lucknow City. It is close to some of the tourist spots in India namely Aminabad, Husainabad Clock Tower, and Nawabganj Bird Sanctuary. All of their rooms are air-conditioned and is equipped with 100-channel cable TV, broadband Internet connection, and direct-dial phone. 92, Gautam Budh Marg, Opp Old R.T.O. Office, Latouche Road, Lucknow, 226001 India. Rates start at India Rupees 1,290.00.  edit
  • Hotel Simla Palace, 5 Gautam Budh Marg, Latouche Road, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh, India, +915224003887, [4]. Hotel Simla Palace is strategically located 1 km from the railway station and 13 km from Lucknow Airport. It is near to some of the famous tourist spots in India namely Bara Imambara, Husainabad Clock Tower, and Prince of Wales Zoological Gardens. Its accommodations come in Suite, Executive Class, and Superior types. All lodgings boast a television with 100 cable channels, private bath with hot & cold water, direct-dial phone, broadband Internet connection, and individual temperature control.  edit
  • Hotel Gomati near Hazratgunj and Sharagunj mall is run by Uttar Pradesh Tourism and offers decent rooms at moderate cost.
  • Hotel Gemini Continental' Hazaratganj, Lucknow 0522-4011111
  • Hotel Sagar International Opposite Butler Palace
  • Comfort Inn Vibhuti Khand, Gomti Nagar
  • Park Inn Laplace
  • Arif Castles Rana Pratap Marg
  • Carlton Rana Pratap Marg
  • Hotel Taj Residency Gomti Nagar. +91 522 239 3939( fax:+91 522 239 2282 ''+91 522 239 2465), [5]. One of the landmark hotels of Lucknow
  • Clarks Avadh Parivartan Chowk, Mahatma Gandhi Marg is one of the more centrally located hotels in Lucknow. The restaurant named "Falaknuma" at the ninth floor has the right ambience to enjoy a Mughlai dinner with awesome views of the city. The Murg Malai Tikka is recommended.
  • Piccadily Hotel Airport Road. It is new addition to the luxury hoetls of Lucknow. Just 3 Kms from Lucknow Airport.
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

LUCKNOW, a city, district and division of British India. The city was the capital of Oudh from 1775 until it was merged in the United Provinces in 1901. Pop. (1901) 264,049. It lies mainly on the right bank of the winding river Gumti, which is crossed by two railway and three road bridges. It contains the Canning college (1864), with an Oriental department, and La Martiniere college, where about too boys are educated, the institution being in part supported by an endowment left by General Claude Martin in 1800. There are native manufactures of gold and silver brocade, muslins, embroidery, brass and copper wares, pottery and moulding in clay. There are also important European industrial establishments, such as ironworks and paper-mills. Lucknow is the centre of the Oudh and Rohilkhand railway system, with large workshops. Lines radiate to Cawnpore, Bareilly, Gonda, Fyzabad and Rae Bareli. Lucknow is the headquarters of the 8th division of the northern army. The cantonments are situated 3 m. E. of the city.

Lucknow is chiefly notable in the history of British India as the capital of the nawabs who had dealings with Warren Hastings, and their successors the kings of Oudh, whose deposition by Lord Dalhousie was one of the chief causes of the Mutiny. Amongst the events of the Mutiny the defence of the residency of Lucknow comes only second in historic interest to the massacre at Cawnpore itself. For the two sieges, see Indian Mutiny. The name of the residency is now applied not only to the residency itself, but to the whole of the outbuildings and entrenchments in which Sir Henry Lawrence concentrated his small force. These entrenchments covered almost 60 acres of ground, and consisted of a number of detached houses, public edifices, outhouses and casual buildings, netted together, and welded by ditches, parapets, stockades and batteries into one connected whole. On the summit of the plateau stands the residency proper, the official residence of the chief commissioner, a lofty building three storeys high, with a fine portico. Near the residency comes the banqueting hall, and beyond the Baillie Guardgate lie the ruins of the surgeon's house, where Sir Henry Lawrence died of a shell-wound, and where the ladies of the garrison were sheltered in underground rooms. Round the line of the entrenchments are pillars marked with the name of the various "posts" into which the garrison was distributed. The most dangerous of these was the Cawnpore battery post, where the stockade was directly exposed to the enemy's fire. The mutineers had rifles fixed in rests in the house opposite, and swept the road that led through the residency enclosure at this point. Close to the residency is the Lawrence Memorial, an artificial mound 30 ft. high crowned by a marble cross.

Among the other buildings of interest in Lucknow is the Imambara, which is one of the largest rooms in the world(16 2 ft. by 54), having an arched roof without supports. This room was built by the Nawab Asaf-ud-dowlah in 1784, to afford relief to the famine-stricken people. The many monuments of his reign include his country palace of Bibiapur, outside the city. Among later buildings are the two palaces of Chhattar Manzil, erected for the wives of Ghazi-ud-din Haidar (1814), the remains of the Farhat Baksh, dating from the previous reign, and adjoining the greater Chhattar Manzil, the observatory (now a bank) of Nasir-ud-din Haidar (1827), the imambara or mausoleum and the unfinished great mosque (Jama Masjid) of Mahommed Ali Shah (1837), and the huge debased Kaisar Bagh, the palace of Wajid Ali Shah (1847-1856).

The District Of Lucknow lies on both sides of the river Gumti, and has an area of 967 sq. m. Its general aspect is that of an open champaign, well studded with villages, finely wooded and in parts most fertile and highly cultivated. I n the vicinity of rivers, however, stretch extensive barren sandy tracts (bhur), and there are many wastes of saline efflorescence (usdr). The country is an almost dead level, the average slope, which is from N.W. to S.E., being less than a foot per mile. The principal rivers are the Gumti and the Sai with their tributaries. The population in 1901 was 793,241, showing an increase of 2 5% in the preceding decade.

The Division Of Lucknow contains the western half of the old province of Oudh. It comprises the six districts of Lucknow, Unao, Sitapur, Rae Bareli, Hardoi and Kheri. Its area is 12,051 sq. m. and its population in 1901 was 5,977,086, showing an increase of 2.06% in the decade.

See Lucknow District Gazetteer (Allahabad, 1904). For a fuller description of the city see G. W. Forrest, Cities of India (1903).

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