The Full Wiki

Lucy Stone: Wikis


Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Lucy Stone
Framed monochrome photograph portrait of a woman sitting, shown from the waist up, left elbow resting on furniture, hands together in lap, the woman wearing a black silk jacket which narrows to conform to the waist, bearing curved lapels, over a plain white blouse with a collar closed at the throat. The woman has dark, straight hair parted in the middle and cut short at the top of the collar. Her head is tilted slightly to her left, face forward, and she is looking directly the observer.
Daguerreotype of Lucy Stone, circa 1840–1860
Born August 13, 1818(1818-08-13)
West Brookfield, Massachusetts
Died October 19, 1893 (aged 75)
Boston, Massachusetts
Education Bachelor of Arts
Alma mater Oberlin College
Known for Abolitionist
Women's rights activist
Religion Congregationalist
Spouse(s) Henry Browne Blackwell (1825-1909)
Children Alice Stone Blackwell (1857-1950)

Lucy Stone (August 13, 1818 – October 19, 1893) was a prominent American abolitionist and suffragist, and a vocal advocate and organizer promoting rights for women.[1] In 1839, Stone was the first woman from Massachusetts to earn a college degree. She spoke out for women's rights and against slavery at a time when women were discouraged and prevented from public speaking. Stone was the first recorded American woman to retain her own last name after marriage.

Stone's organizational activities for the cause of women's rights yielded tangible gains in the difficult political environment of the 19th century. Stone helped initiate the first National Women's Rights Convention and she supported and sustained it annually along with a number of other local, state and regional activist conventions. Stone spoke in front of a number of legislative bodies to promote laws giving more rights to women. She assisted in establishing the Woman's National Loyal League to help pass the Thirteenth Amendment and thereby abolish slavery, after which she helped form the largest group of like-minded women's rights reformers, the politically-moderate American Woman Suffrage Association, which worked for decades at the state level in favor of women's right to vote.

Stone wrote extensively about a wide range of women's rights, publishing and distributing speeches by herself and others, and convention proceedings. In the long-running and influential[2] Woman's Journal, a weekly periodical that she established and promoted, Stone aired both her own and differing views about women's rights. Called "the orator"[3] and "the morning star of the woman's rights movement",[4] Stone delivered a speech which sparked Susan B. Anthony to take up the cause of women's suffrage.[5] Elizabeth Cady Stanton wrote that "Lucy Stone was the first person by whom the heart of the American public was deeply stirred on the woman question."[6] Together, Anthony, Stanton, and Stone have been called the 19th century "triumvirate" of women's suffrage and feminism.[7][8]

Early life and influences

Lucy Stone was born on August 13, 1818 on her family's farm at Coy's Hill in West Brookfield, Massachusetts. She was the eighth of nine children. Francis Stone, her father, drank too much hard cider, had a raging temper, and ruled the household as master.[9] The family lived close to the earth; to augment the food supply, the boys fished and they hunted squirrels, woodchucks, and birds. To supplement the family income, the girls wove fabric, canned fruits, and sewed piecework for the local shoe factory. All the children tended the family's cows. Despite a steady but modest flow of cash coming in from selling cheeses and shoes, Hannah Stone had to beg her husband Francis Stone for money to buy clothing and other necessities for the family. Hannah sometimes stole coins from his coin purse, and she sold an occasional cheese out of his sight. Lucy was unhappy seeing the subterfuge required of her mother to maintain a simple household.[9]

When the Bible was quoted to her, defending the subordinate position of women to men, Stone declared that when she grew up, she'd learn Greek and Hebrew so she could correct the mistranslation that she was confident lay behind such verses.[10]


Teaching and classes

At sixteen, Stone began teaching in nearby New Braintree to augment her family's income. In 1837, she replaced a male teacher in Paxton but was paid less than half his wage. Stone asked for equity, and her salary subsequently increased to 16 dollars per month—higher than average pay for a woman but less than that of a man doing the same work.[11]

In early 1838 at age 19, instead of taking another teaching position, Stone enrolled in Mary Lyon's Mount Holyoke Female Seminary in South Hadley, Massachusetts. Not only did she pay the required school tuition plus room and board, she was directed by her father to sign a promissory note to repay him the income she would otherwise have brought the Stone household from teaching. At Mount Holyoke, Stone studied algebra, logic, geography, literature, manners, and more; the school didn't offer Greek or Latin. On the seminary's sitting room table, Stone placed copies of The Liberator, an abolitionist journal her older brothers had introduced her to. Mary Lyon rebuked Stone for this, saying "...the slavery question is a very great question, and a question on which the best people are divided."[12]

Women speaking out

In March 1838, Stone was called home to attend the funeral of Eliza, her 29-year-old sister. Instead of returning to school, Stone moved into Eliza's house to care for two infant nieces. In the summer, she took a teaching position and repaid her father's promissory note, and she took Latin, grammar, and mathematics instruction from Alfred Bartlett, a divinity student and an admirer of the abolitionist Grimké sisters. Stone read of the public speeches made by the Grimkés in which they compared the situation of woman with the plight of the slave; Stone resolved, as a woman, "to call no man master."[13]

Also inspired by the Grimkés, Abby Kelley began making public speeches against slavery. In response, Congregationalist church officials issued a pastoral letter prohibiting the use of the pulpit for abolitionist speeches, especially speeches made by women. It had the opposite effect on Stone who determined "that if ever [I] had anything to say in public, [I] would say it, and all the more because of that pastoral letter."[14]

In 1838, Stone was a member of a Congregational church in West Brookfield. A young deacon of the church, in contravention of the pastoral letter, invited Abby Kelley to speak to the congregation against slavery. For Kelley's appearance, the church was filled with residents of the area, including the whole Stone family. A church meeting was subsequently called to discuss the deacon's rebellion and to determine if he should be punished, and Stone raised her hand to vote against any penalty. The minister discounted her vote, saying that, though she was a member of the church, she was not a voting member. This event angered Stone and spurred her interest in women's voting rights.[15]

Further studies

From November 1838 to August 1843, Stone continued to teach and, when possible, to study at private academies such as Quaboag Seminary and Wilbraham Academy. Stone lost her sister Rhoda in July, 1839 and stayed close to home to keep her grief-stricken mother company. Through reading The Liberator, Stone paid attention to the growing division within the American Anti-Slavery Society between those who encouraged women's participation in abolition activism and those who clamped down against it. Stone wrote to her brother in 1840, saying that a new faction apparently wished to "crush [William Lloyd] Garrison and the women. While it pretends to endeavor to remove the yoke of bondage on account of color, it is actually summoning all its energies to rivet more and more firmly the chains that have always been fastened upon the neck of woman..."[16]

Stone read Virgil and Sophocles at Quaboag in 1842, and studied Latin and Greek grammar. She saved money, prepared for entrance examinations at Oberlin, and readied herself for the trip west. Stone had never before been farther than 20 miles (32 km) from her home.[17]


In early August 1843, just before she turned 25, Stone traveled by train, steamship and stagecoach to Oberlin College in Ohio, the country's first college to admit both women and African Americans. She entered the college believing that women should vote and assume political office, that women should study the classic professions and that women should be able to speak their minds in a public forum. Oberlin College did not share all of these sentiments.[18]

Student headaches

In her first year at Oberlin, Stone experienced severe headaches, though she was in otherwise excellent health. She took to removing her bonnet during Sunday sermons to ease the pain, but was required to sit in the back row so that others would not see her bareheaded in church.[19]

In her third year at Oberlin, Stone befriended Antoinette Brown, an abolitionist and suffragist who came to Oberlin in 1845 to study to become a minister.[20] Stone and Brown would eventually marry abolitionist brothers and thus become sisters-in-law.

Public speaking

Stone and Brown both took part in Oberlin's rhetoric class, but women were not allowed to speak in public, supposedly because of specific passages in the Bible which forbade it. Women studying rhetoric were required to do so by listening to the men debate. Stone learned enough Hebrew and Greek to read passages of the Bible in an earlier form, and determined that the Bible was 'friendly to women'.[21] Stone and Brown both intended to speak in public after graduation, and they convinced Professor James A. Thome, the head of the department and a liberal Southerner who had freed his slaves, to let them debate each other.[22] The session was heavily attended, and the debate "exceptionally brilliant",[23] but, through complaints from the Ladies' Board (an organization of faculty wives), the college clamped down on any further such experiments. Stone and Brown formed a women's debating society and held clandestine meetings in the nearby woods, posting sentries to maintain privacy. Fellow student Hannah Tracy Cutler took part, and developed a lasting friendship with Stone.

Stone's first solo speech was given at the invitation of the local anti-slavery society in celebration of the anniversary of West Indian emancipation.[24] For three weeks Stone prepared her anti-slavery speech, suffering severe migraines. On August 1, 1846 she took her place among the men on the speaker's platform and delivered her speech with vigor. A reporter from the Cleveland Leader wrote of Stone's "clear full tone" as she spoke.[25] Stone was called before the Ladies' Board to answer for the transgression of speaking to a mixed audience. She defended her actions forthrightly, saying that women should not act timid and ladylike if doing so lent credence to the idea that women did not want to speak in public rather than the truth which was that they were being prevented by men from doing so.[26]

Over the autumn and winter of 1846–1847, Stone corresponded with her parents and siblings about her intention to take up a life of public lecturing. All were against the idea, advising Stone to teach children instead, and if she insisted, to go someplace far from Massachusetts.[27] Stone wrote to her mother in March 1847 to say "I surely would not be a public speaker if I sought a life of ease... I expect to plead not for the slave only, but for suffering humanity everywhere. Especially do I mean to labor for the elevation of my sex."[28]

In June 1847, after four years of study at Oberlin College, all the while teaching, mending clothes, and cleaning houses to pay for the costs, Lucy Stone graduated with honors. She was selected by a vote of her classmates to write a commencement speech for them. She petitioned the college for the opportunity to read such an address herself—a college professor was to read it instead. The petition was refused by the Ladies' Board on the grounds that it was improper for a woman to speak in front of both men and women. Stone decided not to write the essay; she determined that she would do nothing to publicly acknowledge "the rectitude of the principle which takes away from women their equal rights, and denies to them the privilege of being co-laborers with men in any sphere to which their ability makes them adequate; and that no word or deed of mine should ever look towards the support of such a principle, or even to its toleration."[29] Two men and all but one of the women who had been asked to submit essays for graduation declined out of respect for Stone; all of the students appointed to replace them refused as well.[30]

Abolitionist and suffragist

Lucy Stone as a young woman

After Stone returned to Massachusetts as the first woman in that state to receive a college degree, she returned to teaching so that she could pay back several school loans. In October 1847, she gave her first public speech on the subject of women's rights, entitled The Province of Women, at the invitation of her brother Bowman Stone, to speak at his church in Gardner, Massachusetts.[31]

Stone's forthright ability to speak out about abolition was noticed in early 1847 by William Lloyd Garrison, and in mid-1847 he approached her about becoming an agent for his abolition society. In 1848, she accepted, and was hired for six dollars a week by Garrison and Wendell Phillips as a lecturer and organizer for the American Anti-Slavery Society in Boston, to speak about the evils of slavery.[32] She spoke extemporaneously, never writing down her speeches before or afterward.[33] In 1848, while walking through Boston Common, Stone stopped to admire a statue known as The Greek Slave, and broke into tears, seeing in the slave girl's chains the symbol of man's oppression. From that day forward, Stone included women's rights issues in her speeches.[34] Garrison and the society were not fond of her mixing women’s rights with abolitionism. Samuel Joseph May asked Stone to discontinue mentioning women's rights, but Stone considered carefully and concluded that she must leave the Society, saying "I was a woman before I was an abolitionist. I must speak for the women."[35] May, loath to lose her powerful voice, offered four dollars to speak solely of abolition on weekends, a schedule which would allow her to speak freely of women’s rights during the week. She accepted the compromise.

Stone's public speeches drew controversy for many reasons, not least of which was that she was a woman speaking to audiences filled with both men and women. Those opposed to Stone's public appearances were known to tear down posters announcing her engagements and burn cayenne pepper or throw finely ground pepper (as an irritant) around the lecture hall to try and drive out the gathered listeners. Standing before her audience, Stone was the target of various things thrown at her including icy water in winter,[36] rotten fruit,[37] an egg,[38] and a prayer book[39] or hymnal.[37]

National Women's Rights Convention

In April 1850, Stone wrote to women in Ohio who were planning a Woman's Rights Convention in Salem, asking them to put pressure on the Ohio legislature to write a constitutional amendment giving women the right to vote.

In May, Stone traveled to Boston for an annual meeting with the Anti-Slavery Society. There, she met with eight other women including Harriot Kezia Hunt, Paulina Kellogg Wright Davis,[40] and her close friend Abby Kelley Foster, as well as her compatriots and employers Wendell Phillips and William Lloyd Garrison, to plan a national convention focusing on women's rights. Stone was named secretary,[41] and signed her name to start a list of 89 supporters of the National Women's Rights Convention to be held October 23–24 in Worcester, Massachusetts.[42] The call for action containing the names of 89 supporters was sent to major newspapers, with Stone's name at the top.[41]

Illnesses and deaths

Stone intended to spend the summer in Providence, Rhode Island working with Davis on the details of the gathering. Instead, she barely made it to the convention at all. Shortly after the call was published, Stone received a letter from Hutsonville, Illinois asking her to come nurse her sick brother Luther back to health. His wife Phebe was pregnant and unable to fully tend him, for fear of infecting both mother and the unborn baby. Stone asked Davis to pick up the convention planning reins alone, and set out for Illinois. Stone arrived to see her brother in the late stages of cholera; he died in July. After the funeral, Stone spent some weeks settling his family's finances, then set out for Coy's Hill in Massachusetts in late August with the widowed sister-in-law, traveling slowly with many rest stops. The two women had been on the road for three days when Phebe went into labor prematurely and delivered a stillborn son. Stone arranged another funeral and began to care for Phebe in a small hotel in eastern Illinois. There, she contracted typhoid fever. Stone became delirious with the disease and nearly died, losing and regaining consciousness for 18 days, "alone and in darkness, and there was no one to give me a drop of water."[43] It was early October before she could travel again. She arrived in Massachusetts in time to gain enough strength to attend the opening session.[43]

Influential speech

A framed portrait of Lucy Stone

At the National Women's Rights Convention, October 23–24, 1850, some 900 showed up, men forming the majority, with several newspapers reporting over a thousand attendees by the afternoon of the first day.[44] Delegates came from eleven states, including one delegate from California—a state only a few weeks old.[45] Stone stayed in the background until the final meeting, when she was persuaded to take the stage. She spoke briefly in favor of women's property rights, and closed by saying

...We want to be something more than the appendages of Society; we want that Woman should be the coequal and help-meet of Man in all the interest and perils and enjoyments of human life. We want that she should attain to the development of her nature and womanhood; we want that when she dies, it may not be written on her gravestone that she was the "relict" of somebody.[46]

Attendee Horace Greeley was so moved by her oratory that he published a favorable account of the proceedings in his New York Tribune. Later, Susan B. Anthony identified Greeley's especially admiring description of Stone's speech as the catalyst for her own involvement in the women's cause.[5] In England a copy of the Tribune article inspired Harriet Taylor to write The Enfranchisement of Women.[47]

A total of ten National Women's Rights Conventions were held, the last in 1860. Stone participated directly in the first eight, and presided over the seventh, held in New York City. In 1859, she was prevented by pregnancy from attending, and in 1860 she chose not to attend for unknown reasons.[48] Further conventions were stopped by the onset of the Civil War, and then were replaced by meetings hosted by the new Woman's National Loyal League starting in 1863.[49]

Church and religion

Stone was expelled in 1851 from the West Brookfield congregation she had long attended for being "engaged in a course of life evidently inconsistent with her covenant engagements to this church."[50] Her lectures were seen as anti-clerical since nearly all of the Congregationalist churches in the North continued to refuse to take a stand on the question of slavery. Some were calling Stone an atheist but it was her absolute faith that the Bible held better things for women that drove her to learn Greek and Hebrew.[51] As a schoolgirl, she had been moved by hearing Unitarian clergyman Robert Collyer lecture.[52] Cast out now by the Congregationalists, Stone joined a Unitarian church.[53]

Clothing reform

An engraving of Lucy Stone wearing bloomers was published in 1853.

In the summer of 1852, Stone went to Seneca Falls, New York to meet at the home of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and help draw up the charter for a proposed "People's College". Horace Greeley was there, and Stone met Stanton, Susan B. Anthony and Amelia Bloomer for the first time. Stone admired Bloomer's trousered dress that she had been advocating since 1850 as offering greater freedom of movement and being more hygienic. The costume allowed women to work more freely, especially to carry things up stairways rather than using both hands to lift their dresses. Back home, Stone bought black silk for simple pantaloons and arranged for the tailoring of her own Bloomer dress, scorning any feminine adornment such as lace.

An estimated 100 women took to the controversial fashion, including Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony.[54] Leading abolitionists, upon seeing Stone in her bloomers, viewed her style of dress as a detriment and distraction to the anti-slavery cause. They were divided about whether to permit her to wear it. Wendell Phillips came to her defense and Stone was given freedom of dress. Stone and then Anthony cut their hair short in a straight bob at this time.[55] Even so, Brown invited her friend to come speak at her church in South Butler, Wayne County, New York with the assurance to Stone that the congregation was well aware "that you wear bloomers and are an 'infidel.' "[56]

Wearing bloomers was for Stone a trying experience. Men and boys followed her in the street and settled next to her when she sat, insulting her and making rude jests. Stone said she had never known more physical comfort or mental discomfort than when she put on bloomers.[57]

After Stanton and most women's rights organizers began abandoning their bloomers and returning to long skirts in 1853, Stone and a few others held out. Stone was reported speaking in New York City wearing bloomers in January 1854.[58] Speaking at a convention in Albany in February 1854, Stone relented and brought both bloomers and long skirts, choosing to wear long skirts in public. Susan Anthony chided her but one month later gave them up as well.[59] Stone was reported again in bloomers at the October 1854 National Women's Rights Convention held in Philadelphia, but didn't wear them to subsequent speaking engagements.[60] The unusual style had been too much of a distraction for audiences to concentrate on the important words being spoken.[61]

Temperance movement

Stone affiliated with the temperance movement because it attracted a wide range of men and women who were willing to push for change in society. For Stone, temperance was a stepping-stone—it offered a compelling reason to give women further rights.[62] Stone argued that a woman should be able to file for divorce if her husband was a drunkard. In this, Stone was more radical than Susan Anthony who proposed only a legal separation between an alcoholic man and his wife and children, to allow for the possibility of the husband's redemption and recovery.[63] Stone also argued for property rights for women so that a man could not misuse the fruits of his wife's toil. Many years later, she recalled "If a woman earned a dollar by scrubbing, her husband had a right to take the dollar and go and get drunk with it and beat her afterwards. It was his dollar."[64]

Women's rights activists in the temperance movement counted Stone firmly in their camp, though many felt more strongly about enacting anti-alcohol laws. Stone was asked to speak at and promote Temperance meetings because Stanton and Anthony were very interested in alcohol reform, and her best friend "Nettie" Brown, newly appointed pastor in the spring of 1853, was preaching against alcohol abuse. However, many male temperance activists were unwilling to allow women's rights activists to speak at their meetings—it was said they were "there expressly to disturb."[65] The conflict soon came to a head.

World's Temperance Convention

In April, 1853 a call went out, printed in Greeley's Tribune, from a committee of temperance-minded men including Neal S. Dow inviting "the friends of Temperance in each State, and in Canada"[66] to come to a meeting in New York City to plan for a "World's Temperance Convention" which was to take place during the New York World's Fair later that year. Brown wrote to Stone enjoining her participation, and the two traveled to the meeting which convened on May 12, 1853. A sizable crowd swelled the lecture hall of the Brick Church, including ten or twelve women.[67] Susan Anthony and Abby Kelley Foster were among those sent by women's temperance societies. Amos Chafee Barstow, mayor of Providence, was named chairman of the meeting. A motion was made for "all the gentlemen present" to submit their credentials as delegates. Doctor Russell Thacher Trall of New York noted that there were delegates present from the Women's State Temperance Society and moved that the word "ladies" be inserted in the motion, which then carried. All the male and female delegates handed forward their credentials, and a number of men, including Reverend Thomas Wentworth Higginson, were appointed to the Business Committee. Higginson rose to speak, saying that, since women were now properly serving as delegates, they should be represented on the Committee. He moved that Susan B. Anthony be so admitted. From that point onward, "a scene ensued which beggars description", as Stone later wrote for The Liberator.[68] Various prominent women and men rose to speak in favor of having women on the Business Committee, but many were shouted down by men in the audience who did not want to hear them. Others spoke against including the women, and when a Mr. Thompson of Massachusetts proposed that Lucy Stone be named to the same committee, Chairman Barstow threatened to leave his post. Higginson countered by asking to be struck from the roll, and invited all present who were sympathetic to withdraw and meet instead at Dr. Trall's Water Cure Institute at 2 p.m. The supporters of women's participation in temperance planning then left the lecture hall, and Barstow made a remark about "women in breeches" being a disgrace to their sex.[66]

Whole World's Temperance Convention

At Trall's, some 50 delegates from over 12 states listened to speeches for three hours, including one made by Stone. They decided to hold the "Whole World's Temperance Convention" in September, 1853,[69] the same month that the other meeting was planned, determining that the other event hosted by the male-only delegates would be referred to as the "Half World's" convention.[70]

Shouted down

Certain leaders of the anti-woman party of temperance activists declared that the Whole World's Temperance Convention was not necessary—it need not take place—women were to be allowed to take part in their event. Stone disbelieved the completeness of their offer but her close friend Reverend Antoinette Brown went to the men's convention to test its mettle; she held delegate credentials from two temperance groups, and intended to ask that her credentials be accepted at which point she wanted to take the floor, briefly thank the body for now accepting women, and withdraw back to her pro-woman friends. Her credentials passed muster and she came to the platform to speak her thanks. Men in the audience shouted non-stop interruptions such that her simple speech that would have taken some three minutes was not completed in three days of trying. In his New York Tribune, Horace Greeley wrote scathingly of the outrage.[71]

More such fireworks were expected at the regional Woman's Rights Convention which followed in mid-September, 1853. Lucy Stone organized and promoted it, and was to speak at the Broadway Tabernacle along with a number of other activist leaders. Three thousand people paid twelve and a half cents to enter; a standing room crowd. Troublemakers in rowdy groups shouted and bellowed, and police attempted to identify and remove the ringleaders. No speech was being heard, and Chair Lucretia Mott was asked by other leaders to adjourn the meeting. She refused, saying it would end at the planned time and no earlier. Stone then stepped to the platform and the crowd grew silent while she spoke. To disarm her critics, Stone began by praising the domestic qualities of women. She continued with a description of the similar qualities of women who had entered professions previously held only by men.[72] After her speech the crowd resumed its howling interruptions, and no further presentation was heard.[73]

Courtship and headache

Henry Browne "Harry" Blackwell's first sight of Stone was in 1851 from the gallery of the Massachusetts legislature as Stone addressed that body in support of an amendment to the state constitution which proposed full civil rights to women. Harry Blackwell, an abolitionist from a reform-minded family in Cincinnati, Ohio,[74] saw Stone speak on further occasions and wrote of her, saying "I decidedly prefer her to any lady I have met, always excepting the Bloomer costume which I don't like practically, tho theoretically I believe in it with my whole soul—It is quite doubtful whether I shall be able to succeed in again meeting her, as she is travelling around—having been born locomotive, I believe."[75] Blackwell gained an introduction to Stone through his late father's friend William Lloyd Garrison, proposing marriage to her within an hour of their first meeting. Blackwell was soundly refused, but he began an irresistible two-year courtship with Stone.

Southern success

In October 1853, following the National Women's Rights Convention held in Cleveland, Ohio, Blackwell arranged for Stone a series of speaking engagements in the South during which she was invited to stay in Walnut Hills, Cincinnati with the Blackwell family. Harry Blackwell's parents accepted Stone warmly into their home, treating her as a daughter. The Blackwell family thought highly of her spirited oratory against slavery.[76] Her tour through the South was a financial success, with audiences of 2,000–3,000 packing the halls to see the "Yankee abolitionist in bloomers".[77] From Louisville, Kentucky, Stone wrote to Blackwell "I am holding meetings here which are wonderfully successful. It would not be strange if this slave state should give political and legal equality to its white women sooner even than Massachusetts."[78] Stone earned between $500 and $1,000 a week, some $13,000 to $26,000 in current value; she used a portion of the money to print speeches and circulate them widely. Stone sent much of the remaining money to Blackwell for him to invest as he saw fit. Blackwell, already deep in debt from poor real estate investments, bought for her over 7,400 acres (3,000 ha) of land in Wisconsin and Illinois, convinced that a major railroad line would pass through it. Rails were laid elsewhere, and the land would prove "a heavy load to carry."[79]

Differences with Douglass

In his newspaper, Frederick Douglass printed a rebuke of Stone's free combination of women's rights and abolitionism, saying that she was diminishing the focus and power of the anti-slavery movement.[80] Douglass later found Stone at fault for speaking at a whites-only Philadelphia lecture hall, but Stone insisted that she had replaced her planned speech that day with an appeal to the audience to boycott the facility. It took years before the two were reconciled.[81]

Financial dealings

Stone continued to refuse Blackwell's proposals of marriage, but she kept giving him large sums gained from subsequent speaking engagements; sometimes more money in a week than he had made in the previous four years. Stone considered him the more skilled in financial dealings, though little proof was in evidence. In February 1854, she began to suffer from debilitating headaches of the same type she had experienced at Oberlin.[82] Her resolve never to marry was giving way under Blackwell's assurances that their union would be one of equals. Stone wrote of marriage as death, as a "suffocating sense of the want of that absolute freedom which I now possess."[83] Her headaches grew in strength such that she ceased touring and lecturing, retreating instead to the old family home at Coy's Hill where she continued to correspond with Blackwell by letter. She spoke at a convention in October 1854, but no relief came from headache.[84]

Marriage protest

In late 1854, Stone agreed to marry Blackwell. The two set the date for May 1, 1855, and Stone began again to book lectures,[85] including an appearance in Toronto before the Parliament of Canada in support of a proposed married woman's property law.[86] In the months leading up to their wedding, Blackwell wrote a letter to Stone saying "I want to make a protest, distinct and emphatic, against the laws of marriage. I wish, as a husband, to renounce all the privileges which the law confers on me, which are not strictly mutual, and I intend to do so."[87] Inspired by prior wedding statements made by John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor Mill in 1851, and by Theodore Dwight Weld and Angelina Grimké in 1838,[88] the two wrote up a tract they called "Marriage Protest" and printed a number of copies to hand out at their wedding. To begin the ceremony, they stood up together and read the Protest, after which the usual marriage service (less the word "obey")[89] was officiated by Reverend Thomas Wentworth Higginson, who approved with "hearty concurrence".[90] In part, the Protest read:[91]

...We protest especially against the laws which give to the husband:

1. The custody of the wife's person.
2. The exclusive control and guardianship of their children...

Higginson wrote a description of the ceremony and forwarded a copy of the Marriage Protest to the Worcester Spy which ran the piece. William Lloyd Garrison's paper The Liberator reprinted the item, adding "We are very sorry (as will be a host of others) to lose Lucy Stone, and certainly no less glad to gain Lucy Blackwell."[92] Newspapers across the country picked up the story and published the full text of the Marriage Protest.[88] Many poked fun at the union; the New Orleans Daily Delta toyed with the likely failure of the new couple to find a willing third party to act as arbitrator when the two equals quarreled.[93]

Claiming her name

After 14 months of marriage, Lucy Stone insisted that others address her by her maiden name.

Stone did not immediately insist on keeping her maiden name. In the wedding card and subsequent announcements, Stone represented herself as "Lucy Stone Blackwell".[94] Blackwell wrote to his new wife in the summer of 1855, saying "Lucy Stone Blackwell is more independent in her pecuniary position than was Lucy Stone."[95] In August 1855, she was referred to as "Mrs. Blackwell" in the minutes of the annual Woman's Rights Convention at Saratoga, New York, with the report that Antoinette Brown introduced her to the assemblage as Lucy Stone Blackwell.

At the National Women's Right's Convention in Cincinnati, October 1855, Stone spoke for the right of each person to establish for themselves which sphere, domestic or public, they should be active in.[96] Other women spoke, and a heckler interrupted the proceedings, calling female speakers "a few disappointed women."[96] Stone responded by mounting the speaker's platform and retorting that yes, she was indeed a "disappointed woman."

...In education, in marriage, in religion, in everything, disappointment is the lot of woman. It shall be the business of my life to deepen this disappointment in every woman's heart until she bows down to it no longer.[96]

Antoinette Brown married Samuel Charles Blackwell on January 24, 1856, becoming Stone's sister-in-law in the process, and taking the name Antoinette Brown Blackwell.[97] Stone wrote her friend offering the new couple the use of her home while she was away, signing the letter "Lucy Stone", rather than just "Lucy" as she had in prior letters.[98]

In January 1856, Stone was accused in court, and spoke in defense of a rumor put forward by the prosecution that Stone gave a knife to former slave Margaret Garner, on trial for the killing of her own child to prevent it from being enslaved. Stone was said to have slipped the prisoner the knife so that Garner could kill herself if she was forced to return to slavery. Stone was referred to by the court as "Mrs. Lucy Stone Blackwell" and was asked if she wanted to defend herself; she preferred to address the assembly off the record after adjournment,[99] saying "...With my own teeth I would tear open my veins and let the earth drink my blood, rather than wear the chains of slavery. How then could I blame her for wishing her child to find freedom with God and the angels, where no chains are?"[100]

In May 1856, Stone was recorded as "Mrs. Lucy Stone Blackwell" in the minutes of the 23rd anniversary meeting in New York of the American Anti-Slavery Society.[101]

Stone was married more than a year when, in July 1856, she firmly requested of Susan Anthony that for the annual convention her name be given simply as "Lucy Stone".[102] Anthony intended to do as asked, approving of Stone's decision, but Stone's surname still appeared on the published convention call as Blackwell.[102] Stone wrote an angry and emotional letter to Anthony and determined to be known solely as Lucy Stone henceforward. Later, that autumn, she wrote that

A wife should no more take her husband's name than he should hers.[102]

Others were not as receptive to the decision. Social propriety required certain rules of the day to be followed, and Stone was often referred to in print as "Mrs. Henry Blackwell" or Lucy Stone Blackwell. News articles frequently used the name Lucy Stone Blackwell, even one as late as 1909 which quoted her husband.[103]

Regarding divorce

Before her own marriage, Stone felt that women should be allowed to divorce drunken husbands, to formally end a "loveless marriage" so that "a true love may grow up in the soul of the injured one from the full enjoyment of which no legal bond had a right to keep her[104] ...Whatever is pure and holy, not only has a right to be, but it has a right also to be recognized, and further, I think it has no right not to be recognized."[105] Stone's friends often felt differently about the issue; "Nettee" Brown wrote to Stone in 1853 that she was not ready to accept the idea, even if both parties wanted divorce.[105] Stanton was less inclined to clerical orthodoxy; she was very much in favor of giving women the right to divorce,[106] eventually coming to the view that the reform of marriage laws was more important than women's voting rights.[104]

In the process of planning for women's rights conventions, Stone worked against Stanton to remove from any proposed platform the formal advocacy of divorce. Stone wished to keep the subject separate, to prevent the appearance of moral laxity.[72] She pushed "for the right of woman to the control of her own person as a moral, intelligent, accountable being."[72] Other rights were certain to fall into place after women were given control of their own bodies. Years later, Stone's position on divorce would change.

Motherhood and taxes

A studio portrait of Stone and baby Alice taken in Boston, 1858

Stone and Blackwell set up house in Orange, New Jersey, and Stone bore her first child in September 1857: Alice Stone Blackwell. Blackwell attended the birth, but both before and afterward was often away on business, leaving Stone alone to raise the child. When the infant was only a few months old, Stone protested a tax assessed on her property, arguing since she was not able to vote, that this was "taxation without representation". The state of New Jersey sent a constable to her home on January 18, 1858 and some of her furniture was taken outside and auctioned off, starting with a marble table and two steel-plate portraits, one of William Lloyd Garrison and the other of Governor Salmon P. Chase. A sympathetic neighbor bought these three items for $10.50 and returned them to Stone. Enough was realized from the brief sale to meet the tax requirement.[107][108] Publicity from the refusal to pay taxes served to highlight the cause for women's rights; Stone made no further trouble with tax officials. Later stories about Stone's feminine tax resistance involved tales of a much grander auction that included sentimental items such as a baby cradle and carriage,[103] and even the whole house.[109]

For the next six years, Stone passed the suffragist baton to Susan Anthony in order to stay at home to raise her daughter. She wrote letters to friends and political figures in support of the causes she had been actively promoting. She complained to friends of gaining weight and becoming matronly.[110] In June 1859, after seven months of pregnancy, Stone bore a son prematurely, but the child died.[111]

National organizations

During the Civil War, Stone joined with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Martha Coffin Wright, Amy Post, Antoinette Brown Blackwell, Ernestine Rose, and Angelina Grimké Weld to form the Woman's National Loyal League in 1863. The group held a convention in New York City, and resolved to fight for full emancipation and enfranchisement of African Americans. In 1864, the organization gathered 400,000 signatures to petition the United States Congress, significantly assisting in the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment abolishing slavery.[49] Once Reconstruction began, Stone helped form the American Equal Rights Association (AERA). AERA's main goal was to achieve equal voting rights for people of either gender and any race.[112]

During the May, 1869 AERA conference, a division arose between the great majority[113] of participants such as Stone who wanted to voice support for the proposed fifteenth amendment which would grant suffrage to African-American men, and a vocal minority who opposed any amendment to voting rights which would not provide universal suffrage. The conflict led to the adoption of a muted resolution in favor of the fifteenth amendment, one which expressed disappointment that Congress had not offered the same privilege to women. The AERA could not hold together from the internal strife between these two positions. Heading the minority, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony formed the female-only National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) to focus on women gaining voting rights. In Cleveland on November 24, Stone, along with her husband and Julia Ward Howe, founded the more moderate American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA), that admitted both men and women. The goals of AWSA were to get the fifteenth amendment passed after which the effort would be redoubled to win women the vote. Beyond membership and the timing of women's suffrage, the groups differed only on minor points of policy.[114]

Divorce and "free love"

In 1870, at the twentieth anniversary celebration of the first National Women's Rights Convention in Worcester, Stanton spoke for three hours rallying the crowd for women's right to divorce. By then, Stone's position on the matter had shifted significantly. Personal differences between Stone and Stanton came to the fore on the issue, with Stone writing "We believe in marriage for life, and deprecate all this loose, pestiferous talk in favor of easy divorce."[104] Stone made it clear that those wishing for "free divorce" were not associated with Stone's organization AWSA, headed at that time by Reverend Henry Ward Beecher.[104] Stone wrote against 'free love:' "Be not deceived—free love means free lust."[104]

This editorial position would come back to haunt Stone. Also in 1870, Elizabeth Roberts Tilton told her husband Theodore Tilton that she had been carrying on an adulterous relation with his good friend Henry Ward Beecher. Theodore Tilton published an editorial saying that Beecher "has at a most unseemly time of life been detected in improper intimacies with certain ladies of his congregation."[115] Tilton also informed Stanton about the alleged affair, and Stanton passed the information to Victoria Woodhull. Woodhull, a free love advocate, printed innuendo about Beecher, and began to woo Tilton, convincing him to write a book of her life story from imaginative material that she supplied.[116] In 1871, Stone wrote to a friend "my one wish in regard to Mrs. Woodhull is, that [neither] she nor her ideas, may be so much as heard of at our meeting."[117] Woodhull's self-serving activities were attracting disapproval from both centrist AWSA and radical NWSA. To divert criticism from herself, Woodhull published a denunciation of Beecher in 1872 saying that he practiced free love in private while speaking out against it from the pulpit. This caused a sensation in the press, and resulted in an inconclusive legal suit and a subsequent formal inquiry lasting well into 1875. The furor over adultery and the friction between various camps of women's rights activists took focus away from legitimate political aims. Harry Blackwell wrote to Stone from Michigan where he was working toward putting woman suffrage into the state constitution, saying "This Beecher-Tilton affair is playing the deuce with [woman suffrage] in Michigan. No chance of success this year I fancy."[118]

Voting rights

Stone and Blackwell moved to Pope's Hill in Dorchester, Massachusetts in 1870, relocating from New Jersey to organize the New England Woman Suffrage Association. Many of the town's women had been active in the Dorchester Female Anti-Slavery Society and, by 1870, a number of local women were suffragettes. At the same time, Stone founded the Woman's Journal, a Boston publication voicing the concerns of the AWSA. Stone continued to edit the journal for the rest of her life, assisted by her husband and their daughter.

"The Colorado Lesson"

Lucy Stone's portrait as it appeared in History of Woman Suffrage, Volume II, in 1881

In 1877, Stone was asked by Rachel Foster Avery to come assist Colorado activists in the organization of a popular referendum campaign with the aim of gaining suffrage for Colorado women. Together, Stone and Blackwell worked the northern half of the state in late summer, while Susan Anthony traveled the less-promising rough-and-tumble southern half. Patchwork and scattered support was reported by activists, with some areas more receptive. Latino voters proved largely uninterested in voting reform; some of that resistance was blamed on the extreme opposition to the measure voiced by the Roman Catholic bishop of Colorado. All but a handful of politicians in Colorado ignored the measure, or actively fought it. Stone concentrated on convincing Denver voters during the October ballot, but the measure lost heavily, with 68% voting against it. Married, working men showed the greatest support, and young, single men the least. Blackwell called it "The Colorado Lesson", writing that "Woman suffrage can never be carried by a popular vote, without a political party behind it."[119]

School board vote

In 1879, after Stone organized a petition by suffragists across the state, Massachusetts women were given strictly delimited voting rights: a woman who could prove the same qualifications as a male voter was allowed to cast her vote for members of the school board. Stone applied to the voting board in Boston but was required to sign her husband's surname as her own. She refused, and never participated in that vote.[53]


In 1887, eighteen years after the rift formed in the American women's rights movement, Stone proposed a merger of the two groups. Plans were drawn up, and, at their annual meetings, propositions were heard and voted on, then passed to the other group for evaluation. By 1890, the organizations resolved their differences and merged to form the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA). Stone was too weak with heart problems and respiratory illness[120] to attend its first convention, but was elected to chair the executive committee.[121]

Lucy Stone in old age

Starting early in January, 1891, Carrie Chapman Catt visited Stone repeatedly at Pope's Hill, for the purpose of learning from Stone about the ways of political organizing.[122] Stone had previously met Catt at an Iowa state woman's suffrage convention in October, 1889, and had been impressed at her ambition and sense of presence, saying "Mrs. Chapman will be heard from yet in this movement."[123] Stone mentored Catt the rest of that winter, giving her a wealth of information about lobbying techniques and fund-raising. Catt later used the teaching to good effect in leading the final drive to gain women the vote in 1920.[122]

Catt, Stone and Blackwell went together to the January, 1892 NAWSA convention in Washington, DC. Along with Isabella Beecher Hooker, Stone, Stanton and Anthony, the "triumvirate" of women's suffrage,[7] were called away from the convention's opening hours by an unexpected woman suffrage hearing before the United States House Committee on the Judiciary. Stone told the assembled congressmen "I come before this committee with the sense which I always feel, that we are handicapped as women in what we try to do for ourselves by the single fact that we have no vote. This cheapens us. You do not care so much for us as if we had votes..."[124] Stone argued that men should work to pass laws for equality in property rights between the sexes. Stone demanded an eradication of coverture, the folding of a wife's property into that of her husband.[125] Stone's impromptu speech paled in comparison to Stanton's brilliant outpouring which preceded hers. Stone later published Stanton's speech in its entirety in the Woman's Journal as "Solitude of Self".[122][126] Back at the NAWSA convention, Anthony was elected president, with Stanton and Stone becoming honorary presidents.[122]

Final appearance

In 1892, Stone was convinced to sit for a portrait in sculpture, rendered by Anne Whitney, sculptor and poet. Stone had previously protested the proposed portrait for more than a year, saying that the funds to engage an artist would be better spent on suffrage work. Stone finally yielded to pressure from Frances Willard, the New England Women's Club and some of her friends and neighbors in the Boston area, and sat while Whitney produced a bust.[127] In February 1893, Stone invited her brother Frank and his wife Sarah to come see the bust, before it was shipped to Chicago for display at the upcoming World's Columbian Exposition.[122]

Stone went with her daughter to Chicago in May, 1893 and gave her last public speeches at the World's Congress of Representative Women where she saw a strong international involvement in women's congresses, with almost 500 women from 27 countries speaking at 81 meetings, and attendance topping 150,000 at the week-long event.[128] Stone's immediate focus was on state referenda under consideration in New York and Nebraska.[129] Stone presented a speech she had prepared entitled "The Progress of Fifty Years" wherein she described the milestones of change, and said "I think, with never-ending gratitude, that the young women of today do not and can never know at what price their right to free speech and to speak at all in public has been earned."[64] Stone met with Carrie Chapman Catt and Abigail Scott Duniway to form a plan for organizing in Colorado, and Stone attended two days of meetings about getting a woman suffrage drive re-started in Kansas. Stone and her daughter returned home to Pope's Hill on May 28.[130]

A statue of Stone is part of the Boston Women's Memorial on Commonwealth Ave in Boston

Those who knew Stone well thought her voice was lacking strength. In August when she and her husband Harry wanted to take part in more meetings at the Exposition, she was too weak to go. Stone was diagnosed as suffering from advanced stomach cancer in September. She wrote final letters to friends and relatives. Having "prepared for death with serenity and an unwavering concern for the women's cause," Lucy Stone died on October 18, 1893 at the age of 75. At her funeral three days later, 1,100 people crowded the church, and hundreds more stood silently outside.[131] Six women and six men served as pallbearers, including sculptor Anne Whitney, and Stone's old abolitionist friends Thomas Wentworth Higginson and Samuel Joseph May.[132] Mourners lined the streets for a sight of the funeral procession, and front-page banner headlines ran in news accounts. Stone's death was the most widely reported of any American woman's up to that time.[113]

According to her wishes, her body was cremated, making her the first person cremated in Massachusetts, though a wait of over two months was undertaken while the crematorium at Forest Hills Cemetery could be completed. Stone's remains are inurned at Forest Hills; a chapel there is named after her.


Stone's portrait was used in Boston on a political button between 1900 and 1920.

Lucy Stone's refusal to take her husband's name, as an assertion of her own rights, was controversial then, and is largely what she is remembered for today. Women who continue to use their birth name after marriage are still occasionally known as "Lucy Stoners" in the United States.[3] In 1921, the Lucy Stone League was founded in New York City by Ruth Hale, described in 1924 by Time as the "'Lucy Stone'-spouse" of Heywood Broun.[133] The League was re-instituted in 1997.

50-cent United States Postal Service stamp honoring Stone

Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Matilda Joslyn Gage and Ida Husted Harper began in 1876 to write the History of Woman Suffrage. They planned for one volume but finished four before the death of Anthony in 1906, and two more afterward. The first three volumes chronicled the beginnings of the women's rights movement, including the years that Stone was active. Because of differences between Stone and Stanton that had been highlighted in the schism between NWSA and AWSA,[125] Stone's place in history was marginalized in the work. The text was used as the standard scholarly resource on 19th century American feminism for much of the 20th century, causing Stone's extensive contribution to be overlooked in many histories of women's causes.[113]

On August 13, 1968, the 150th anniversary of her birth, the U.S. Postal Service honored Lucy Stone with a 50-cent postage stamp in the "Prominent Americans" series. The image was adapted from a photograph included in Alice Stone Blackwell's biography of Stone.[134]

Until 1999, the Massachusetts State House displayed only portraits of influential male leaders of the state of Massachusetts. That year, a project called "Hear Us", initiated by the state legislature, came to fruition: the portraits of six female leaders were mounted in the historic building. Lucy Stone was among the women so honored.[135]

In 2000, Amy Ray of the Indigo Girls included a song entitled Lucystoners on her first solo recording, Stag.[136]

An administration and classroom building on Livingston Campus at Rutgers University in New Jersey is named for Lucy Stone. Warren, Massachusetts contains a Lucy Stone Park, along the Quaboag River. Anne Whitney's 1893 bust of Lucy Stone is on display at the Boston Public Library.[122]

See also



  1. ^ Electronic Oberlin Group. Oberlin: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow... Lucy Stone (1818-1893). Retrieved on May 9, 2009.
  2. ^ Dorchester Atheneum. Lucy Stone, 1818-1893 . "Perhaps Lucy Stone's greatest contribution was in founding and largely financing the weekly newspaper of the American Woman Suffrage Association, the Woman's Journal." Retrieved on May 9, 2009.
  3. ^ a b Spender, 1982, p. 348.
  4. ^ Hays, 1961, p. 81.
  5. ^ a b Hays, 1961, p. 88.
  6. ^ Blackwell, 1930, p. 94.
  7. ^ a b Library of Congress. American Memory. American Women, Manuscript Division. Women's Suffrage: The Early Leaders. Retrieved on May 13, 2009.
  8. ^ Riegel, Robert Edgar. American Women., Associated University Presses, 1970, p. 220. ISBN 0-8386-7615-4
  9. ^ a b Kerr, 1992, pp. 12–16.
  10. ^ Kerr, 1992, p. 20.
  11. ^ Kerr, 1992, p. 23.
  12. ^ Kerr, 1992, pp. 25–26.
  13. ^ Kerr, 1992, p. 26.
  14. ^ Kerr, 1992, p. 24.
  15. ^ Kerr, 1992, p. 25.
  16. ^ Kerr, 1992, p. 27.
  17. ^ Kerr, 1992, p. 28.
  18. ^ Schenken, 1999, p. 644.
  19. ^ Hays, 1961, p. 46.
  20. ^ Oberlin College. Electronic Oberlin Group. Oberlin: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow... Chapter 10. Oberlin Women. Retrieved March 16, 2009.
  21. ^ Blackwell, 1930, p. 59.
  22. ^ Blackwell, 1930, p. 60.
  23. ^ Spender, 1982, p. 350.
  24. ^ Spender, 1982, pp. 350–351.
  25. ^ Kerr, 1992, pp. 37–38.
  26. ^ Spender, 1982, p. 351.
  27. ^ Kerr, 1992, p. 42.
  28. ^ Kerr, 1992, p. 43.
  29. ^ Spender, 1982, pp. 351–352.
  30. ^ Hays, 1961, p. 56.
  31. ^ Emerson, Dorothy May; Edwards, June; Knox, Helene. Standing Before Us, Skinner House Books, 2000, p. 32.
  32. ^ Hays, 1961, p. 69.
  33. ^ Hays, 1961, pp. 69–70.
  34. ^ McMillen, 2008, p. 81.
  35. ^ Hays, 1961, pp. 74–75.
  36. ^ Hays, 1961, p. 72.
  37. ^ a b McMillen, 2008, p. 81.
  38. ^ Hays, 1961, p. 83.
  39. ^ Schenken, 1999, pp. 644–645.
  40. ^ McMillen, 2008, p. 106.
  41. ^ a b Kerr, 1992, p. 58.
  42. ^ Hays, 1961, p. 84.
  43. ^ a b Kerr, 1992, p. 59.
  44. ^ McMillen, 2008. p. 108.
  45. ^ American National Biography. Stone, Lucy. Retrieved March 10, 2009.
  46. ^ Kerr, 1992, p. 60.
  47. ^ A Soul as Free as the Air: About Lucy Stone. Retrieved on March 18, 2009; Sunshine for Women. Book Summaries. The Enfranchisement of Women (1851), Harriet Taylor Mill. Retrieved on March 18, 2009.
  48. ^ Lasser, 1987, p. 156.
  49. ^ a b National Park Service. Women's Rights. More Women's Rights Conventions. Retrieved on April 1, 2009.
  50. ^ Hays, 1961, pp. 73–74.
  51. ^ Hays, 1961, p. 53.
  52. ^ Hays, 1961, p. 245.
  53. ^ a b Ohio History Central. Lucy Stone. Retrieved March 10, 2009.
  54. ^ Sherr, 1995, p. 189.
  55. ^ Hays, 1961, p. 94.
  56. ^ Kerr, 1992, p. 63.
  57. ^ Hays, 1961, p. 95.
  58. ^ New York Times. January 25, 1854. Lecture of Miss Lucy Stone. Retrieved on March 18, 2009.
  59. ^ Sherr, 1995, p. 194.
  60. ^ Stanton et al, 1881, p. 375.
  61. ^ Fischer, 2001, pp. 103–105.
  62. ^ Buhle, 1978, p. 139.
  63. ^ Fletcher, Holly Berkley (2008). Gender and the American temperance movement of the nineteenth century. Routledge. p. 43. ISBN 0415963125. Retrieved April 4, 2009. 
  64. ^ a b Stone, Lucy (1893). "The Progress of Fifty Years". Congress of Women. Retrieved 2009-03-22. 
  65. ^ Buhle, 1978, p. 143.
  66. ^ a b "Preface to the Whole World's Temperance Convention". The E Pluribus Unum Project. Assumption College. 1853. Retrieved 2009-03-22. 
  67. ^ "World's Temperance Convention". New York Times. May 13, 1853. Retrieved 2009-03-22. 
  68. ^ Blackwell, 1930, p. 115.
  69. ^ "World's Temperance Convention: Afternoon Session of Secession Delegates". New York Times. May 13, 1853. Retrieved 2009-03-22. 
  70. ^ Blackwell, 1930, p. 116.
  71. ^ Blackwell, 1930, pp. 118–120.
  72. ^ a b c Kerr, 1992, p. 72.
  73. ^ Blackwell, 1930, p. 121.
  74. ^ Mass Moments. On This Day... Woman's Rights Pioneer Lucy Stone Born August 13, 1818. Retrieved March 10, 2009.
  75. ^ Kerr, 1992, p. 65.
  76. ^ Blackwell, 1930, pp. 143–145.
  77. ^ Kerr, 1992, p. 73.
  78. ^ Hays, 1961, p. 109.
  79. ^ Kerr, 1992, pp. 74–75.
  80. ^ Kerr, 1992, pp. 73–74.
  81. ^ Kerr, 1992, pp. 75–76.
  82. ^ Kerr, 1992, p. 76.
  83. ^ Kerr, 1992, p. 77.
  84. ^ Hays, 1961, p. 138.
  85. ^ Kerr, 1992, p. 82.
  86. ^ Kerr, 1992, p. 83.
  87. ^ Blackwell, 1930, p 161.
  88. ^ a b Blackwell, 1930, p xii.
  89. ^ McMillen, 2008, p. 27.
  90. ^ Blackwell, 1930, p 166.
  91. ^ Blackwell, 1930, pp. 166–168.
  92. ^ Project Gutenberg. E-text. Anthony, Susan B. History of Woman Suffrage, Volume I. Retrieved on March 18, 2009.
  93. ^ New Orleans Daily Delta. May 11, 1855. Amazonian Marriage. Retrieved on March 18, 2009.
  94. ^ Hays, 1961, p. 130.
  95. ^ Hays, 1961, pp. 137–138.
  96. ^ a b c McMillen, 2008, p. 111.
  97. ^ Lasser, 1987, p. 147.
  98. ^ Lasser, 1987, p. 147.
  99. ^ Project Gutenberg. E-text. American Anti-Slavery Society. The Fugitive Slave Law and Its Victims, Anti-Slavery Tracts No. 18, Retrieved on April 27, 2009.
  100. ^ Gordon, Avery F.; Radway, Janice. Ghostly Matters, University of Minnesota Press, 1997, pp. 157–158. ISBN 978-0-8166-5446-8
  101. ^ Internet Archive. Annual report, American Anti-Slavery Society, 1855–1861, Retrieved on April 27, 2009.
  102. ^ a b c Hays, 1961, p. 131.
  103. ^ a b "Jersey Women Voted in 1776. Used Ballot Till 1807, When Democrats Abolished It, H. B. Blackwell Says.". New York Times. March 7, 1909. Retrieved 2007-06-21. 
  104. ^ a b c d e Kerr, 1992, p. 156.
  105. ^ a b Hays, 1961, p. 169.
  106. ^ Hays, 1961, p. 168.
  107. ^ "Lucy Stone and the Collector--Sale of Gorrit Smith[sic] and Gov. Chase for Taxes.". New York Times. January 25, 1858. Retrieved 2009-03-17. 
  108. ^ Hays, 1961, pp. 154–155.
  109. ^ "Lucy Stone Day Observed by 1,000; Suffragists Erect Tablet to the Memory of Pioneer Fighter for Votes for Women. Gather in East Orange In 150 Automobiles, Visit House Sold in 1858 Because She Would Pay No Taxes.". New York Times. August 14, 1915. Retrieved 2009-03-17. 
  110. ^ Hays, 1961, p. 157.
  111. ^ Hays, 1961, p. 159.
  112. ^ Schenken, 1999, p. 645.
  113. ^ a b c Kerr, Andrea Moore, Ph.D. (2002) Lucy Stone and Coy's Hill. The Trustees of Reservations. Archived on September 27, 2007. Retrieved on January 22, 2010.
  114. ^ A Celebration of Women Writers. Laura E. Richards and Maud Howe Elliott. Julia Ward Howe, Volume I, Chapter I Retrieved on March 18, 2009.
  115. ^ Hays, 1961, p. 232.
  116. ^ Hays, 1961, p. 233.
  117. ^ Kerr, 1992, p. 168.
  118. ^ Hays, 1961, p. 235.
  119. ^ Mead, 2004, pp. 56–59.
  120. ^ Mani, 2007, p. 113.
  121. ^ Schenken, 1999, p. 646.
  122. ^ a b c d e f Kerr, 1992, pp. 236–237.
  123. ^ Van Voris, Jacqueline. Carrie Chapman Catt: A Public Life, The Feminist Press at the The City University of New York, 1987, p. 18. ISBN 0-935312-63-3
  124. ^ Lucy Stone. January 18, 1892. Hearing of the Woman Suffrage Association, Before the U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary. Retrieved on April 30, 2009.
  125. ^ a b Mani, 2007, p. 115.
  126. ^ Library of Congress. American Memory. Votes for Women: Selections from the National American Woman Suffrage Association Collection, 1848–1921. "Solitude of self": address delivered by Mrs. Stanton before the Committee of the Judiciary of the United States Congress, Monday, January 18, 1892. Retrieved on April 30, 2009.
  127. ^ Blackwell, 1930, pp. 273–274.
  128. ^ Kerr, 1992, p. 238.
  129. ^ Mead, 2004, pp. 63–64.
  130. ^ Kerr, 1992, p. 240.
  131. ^ Hays, 1961, p. 306.
  132. ^ Kerr, 1992, p. 5.
  133. ^ "New Magazine". TIME. June 1924.,9171,718627,00.html. Retrieved 2009-05-13. 
  134. ^ Arago: People, Postage & The Post. 50-cent Stone. Retrieved March 12, 2009.
  135. ^ Mass Humanities. The State House Women's Leadership Project. Retrieved on January 22, 2010.
  136. ^ Daemon Records. Amy Ray: Stag, Lucystoners. Retrieved March 10, 2009.


External links


Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Too much has already been said and written about "women's sphere". Leave women, then, to find their sphere.

Lucy Stone (1818-08-131893-10-18) was an American social activist and suffragette. She was married to abolitionist Henry Brown Blackwell and the mother of Alice Stone Blackwell.



  • I know, Mother, you feel badly and that you would prefer to have me take some other course, if I could in conscience. Yet, Mother, I know you too well to suppose that you would wish me to turn away from what I think is my duty. I surely would not be a public speaker if I sought a life of ease, for it will be a most laborious one; nor would I do it for the sake of honor, for I know that I shall be disesteemed, even hated, by some who are now my friends, or who profess to be. Neither would I do it if I sought wealth, because I could secure it with far more ease and worldly honor by being a teacher. If I would be true to myself, true to my Heavenly Father, I must pursue that course of conduct which, to me, appears best calculated to promote the highest good of the world.
  • If, while I hear the shriek of the slave mother robbed of her little ones, I do not open my mouth for the dumb, am I not guilty? Or should I go from house to house to do it, when I could tell so many more in less time, if they should be gathered in one place? You would not object or think it wrong, for a man to plead the cause of the suffering and the outcast; and surely the moral character of the act is not changed because it is done by a woman. I expect to plead not for the slave only, but for suffering humanity everywhere. Especially do I mean to labor for the elevation of my sex. I only ask that you will not withhold your consent from my doing anything that I think is my duty to do.
    • ibid.
  • This letter writing is a miserable way of communicating, after all, though I would not on any account be deprived of it. But when ones soul is full, and only a little sheet, to put it into, it is so aggravating. There are so many things I want to say, and feel with you, that I dont know where to begin.
    • Letter to Antoinette Brown (c. August 1849) as quoted in Friends and Sisters: Letters Between Lucy Stone and Antoinette Brown Blackwell, 1846–93 (1987) edited by Carol Lasser and Marlene Merrill
  • Women are in bondage; their clothes are a great hindrance to their engaging in any business which will make them pecuniarily independent, and since the soul of womanhood never can be queenly and noble so long as it must beg bread for its body, is it not better, even at the expense of a vast deal of annoyance, that they whose lives deserve respect and are greater than their garments should give an example by which woman may more easily work out her own emancipation?
    • Letter to Susan B. Anthony (1854); as quoted in The Life and Work of Susan B. Anthony (1898) by Ida Husted Harper.
  • We want rights. The flour merchant, the house-builder, and the postman charge us no less on account of our sex; but when we endeavor to earn money to pay all these, then, indeed, we find the interest.
    • Remark made at a National Woman's Rights Convention in Cincinnati, Ohio. (1855) as quoted in Feminism: The Essential Historical Writings (1972) by Miriam Schnier
    • Variant: ...when we endeavor to earn money to pay all these, then, indeed, we find the difference.
  • Too much has already been said and written about "women's sphere". Leave women, then, to find their sphere.
    • Remark made at a National Woman's Rights Convention in Cincinnati, Ohio. (1855), quoted in Feminism: The Essential Historical Writings (1972) by Miriam Schnier
  • The last speaker alluded to this movement as being that of a few disappointed women. From the first years to which my memory stretches, I have been a disappointed woman... I was disappointed when I came to seek a profession worthy an immortal being—every employment was closed to me, except those of the teacher, the seamstress, and the housekeeper. In education, in marriage, in religion, in everything, disappointment is the lot of woman. It shall be the business of my life to deepen this disappointment in every woman's heart until she bows down to it no longer.
    • Remark made at a National Woman's Rights Convention in Cincinnati, Ohio. (1855) as quoted in Feminism: The Essential Historical Writings (1972) by Miriam Schnier
  • I know not what you believe of God, but I believe He gave yearnings and longings to be filled, and that He did not mean all our time should be devoted to feeding and clothing the body.
    • "Disappointment Is the Lot of Women" oration (October 171855-10-18) quoted in Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Antony, and Mathilda Gage, History of Woman Suffrage, vol. 1 (1881)
  • All over this land women have no political existence. Laws pass over our heads that we can not unmake. Our property is taken from us without our consent. The babes we bear in anguish and carry in our arms are not ours.
    • Speech as president of a national convention of the Woman's National Loyal League (1863-05-14)
  • I believe that the influence of woman will save the country before every other power.
    • Arguing for woman suffrage at an anniversary celebration of the Equal Rights Association (1869-05-12); as quoted in History of Woman Suffrage, Vol. 2 (1882) by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and Matilda Joslyn Gage
  • You may talk about Free Love, if you please, but we are to have the right to vote. Today we are fined, imprisoned, and hanged, without a jury trial by our peers. You shall not cheat us by getting us off to talk about something else. When we get the suffrage, then you may taunt us with anything you please, and we will then talk about it as long as you please.
    • Speaking at an anniversary celebration of the Equal Rights Association in New York, responding to Rev. Mrs. Hanaford, who had asked that the assembly disavow "Free Loveism," as being upsetting and alienating to "the Christian men and women of New England everywhere." (1869-05-12), quoted in Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and Matilda Joslyn Gage, History of Woman Suffrage, vol. 2 (1882)
  • It is not quite the same when we are seventy-two as when we are twenty-seven; still I am glad of what is left, and wish we might both hold out till the victory we have sought is won, but all the same the victory is coming. In the aftertime the world will be the better for it.
    • Letter to Susan B. Anthony (1891); as quoted in The Life and Work of Susan B. Anthony (1898) by Ida Husted Harper.
  • We have every reason to rejoice when there are so many gains and when favorable conditions abound on every hand. The end is not yet in sight, but it can not be far away. The road before us is shorter than the road behind.
    • A letter read by her husband, suffragist Henry Blackwell, to the twenty-fifth annual convention of the National Woman Suffrage Association (1893); as quoted in History of Woman Suffrage, Vol. 4 (1902) by Susan B. Anthony and Ida Husted Harper
  • Make the world better.
    • Last recorded words; said to her daughter. (October 1893)

Marriage protest (1855-05-01)

A statement signed by Lucy Stone and Henry Blackwell prior to their marriage. The Rev. Thomas Wentworth Higginson read the statement at the ceremony, and also distributed it to other ministers.

  • While acknowledging our mutual affection by publicly assuming the relationship of husband and wife, yet in justice to ourselves and a great principle, we deem it a duty to declare that this act on our part implies no sanction of, nor promise of voluntary obedience to such of the present laws of marriage, as refuse to recognize the wife as an independent, rational being, while they confer upon the husband an injurious and unnatural superiority, investing him with legal powers which no honorable man would exercise, and which no man should possess.
  • We believe that personal independence and equal human rights can never be forfeited, except for crime; that marriage should be an equal and permanent partnership, and so recognized by law; that until it is so recognized, married partners should provide against the radical injustice of present laws, by every means in their power...

The Progress of Fifty Years (1893)

Her last public speech, to the Congress of Women at the Woman's Building of the World's Columbian Exposition (World's Fair), Chicago, Illinois.

  • The commencement of the last fifty years is about the beginning of that great change and improvement in the condition of women which exceeds all the gains of hundreds of years before.
  • In 1833, Oberlin College, in Ohio, was founded. Its charter declared its grand object, - "To give the most useful education at the least expense of health, time, and money, and to extend the benefits of such education to both sexes and to all classes; and the elevation of the female character by bringing within the reach of the misjudged and neglected sex all the instructive privileges which have hitherto unreasonably distinguished the leading sex from theirs." These were the words of Father Shippen, which, if not heard in form, were heard in fact as widely as the world. The opening of Oberlin to women marked an epoch.
  • Get but a truth once uttered, and 'tis like
    A star new born that drops into its place;
    And which, once circling in its placid round,
    Not all the tumult of the earth can shake.

    Henceforth the leaves of the tree of knowledge were for women, and for the healing of the nations.
  • Whatever the reason, the idea was born that women could and should be educated. It lifted a mountain load from woman. It shattered the idea, everywhere pervasive as the atmosphere, that women were incapable of education, and would be less womanly, less desirable in every way, if they had it. However much it may have been resented, women accepted the idea of their intellectual inequality. I asked my brother: "Can girls learn Greek?"
  • The anti-slavery cause had come to break stronger fetters than those that held the slave. The idea of equal rights was in the air. The wail of the slave, his clanking fetters, his utter need, appealed to everybody. Women heard. Angelina and Sara Grimki and Abby Kelly went out to speak for the slaves. Such a thing had never been heard of. An earthquake shock could hardly have startled the community more. Some of the abolitionists forgot the slave in their efforts to silence the women. The Anti-Slavery Society rent itself in twain over the subject. The Church was moved to its very foundation in opposition.
The press, many-tongued, surpassed itself in reproaches upon these women who had so far departed from their sphere as to speak in public.
  • The press, many-tongued, surpassed itself in reproaches upon these women who had so far departed from their sphere as to speak in public. But, with anointed lips and a consecration which put even life itself at stake, these peerless women pursued the even tenor of their way, saying to their opponents only: "Woe is me, if I preach not this gospel of freedom for the slave." Over all came the melody of Whittier's "When woman's heart is breaking Shall woman's voice be hushed? "
  • I think, with never-ending gratitude, that the young women of today do not and can never know at what price their right to free speech and to speak at all in public has been earned.
  • Abby Kelly once entered a church only to find herself the subject of the sermon, which was preached from the text: " This Jezebel is come among us also." They jeered at her as she went along the street. They threw stones at her. They pelted her with bad eggs as she stood on the platform. Some of the advocates of the very cause for which she endured all this were ready to drive her from the field.
  • The right to education and to free speech having been gained for woman, in the long run every other good thing was sure to be obtained.
  • Half a century ago women were at an infinite disadvantage in regard to their occupations. The idea that their sphere was at home, and only at home, was like a band of steel on society. But the spinning-wheel and the loom, which had given employment to women, had been superseded by machinery, and something else had to take their places. The taking care of the house and children, and the family sewing, and teaching the little summer school at a dollar per week, could not supply the needs nor fill the aspirations of women. But every departure from these conceded things was met with the cry, "You want to get out of your sphere," or, "To take women out of their sphere;" and that was to fly in the face of Providence, to unsex yourself in short, to be monstrous women, women who, while they orated in public, wanted men to rock the cradle and wash the dishes. We pleaded that whatever was fit to be done at all might with propriety be done by anybody who did it well; that the tools belonged to those who could use them; that the possession of a power presupposed a right to its use.
  • When Elizabeth Blackwell studied medicine and put up her sign in New York, she was regarded as fair game, and was called a "she doctor." The college that had admitted her closed its doors afterward against other women; and supposed they were shut out forever. But Dr. Blackwell was a woman of fine intellect, of great personal worth and a level head. How good it was that such a woman was the first doctor! She was well equipped by study at home and abroad, and prepared to contend with prejudice and every opposing thing.
  • The first woman minister, Antoinette Brown, had to meet ridicule and opposition that can hardly be conceived to-day. Now there are women ministers, east and west, all over the country.
  • In Massachusetts, where properly qualified "persons" were allowed to practice law, the Supreme Court decided that a woman was not a "person," and a special act of the legislature had to be passed before Miss Lelia Robinson could be admitted to the bar. But today women are lawyers.
  • Fifty years ago the legal injustice imposed upon women was appalling. Wives, widows and mothers seemed to have been hunted out by the law on purpose to see in how many ways they could be wronged and made helpless. A wife by her marriage lost all right to any personal property she might have. The income of her land went to her husband, so that she was made absolutely penniless. If a woman earned a dollar by scrubbing, her husband had a right to take the dollar and go and get drunk with it and beat her afterwards. It was his dollar. If a woman wrote a book the copyright of the same belonged to her husband and not to her. The law counted out in many states how many cups and saucers, spoons and knives and chairs a widow might have when her husband died. I have seen many a widow who took the cups she had bought before she was married and bought them again after her husband died, so as to have them legally. The law gave no right to a married woman to any legal existence at all. Her legal existence was suspended during marriage. She could neither sue nor be sued. If she had a child born alive the law gave her husband the use of all her real estate as long as he should live, and called it by the pleasant name of "the estate by courtesy." When the husband died the law gave the widow the use of one-third of the real estate belonging to him, and it was called the "widow's encumbrance."
  • While the law dealt thus with her in regard to her property, it dealt still more hardly with her in regard to her children. No married mother could have any right to her child, and in most of the states of the Union that is the law to-day. But the law's in regard to the personal and property rights of women have been greatly changed and improved, and we are very grateful to the men who have done it.
  • By what toil and fatigue and patience and strife and the beautiful law of growth has all this been wrought? These things have not come of themselves. They could not have occurred except as the great movement for women has brought them out and about. They are part of the eternal order, and they have come to stay. Now all we need is to continue to speak the truth fearlessly, and we shall add to our number those who will turn the scale to the side of equal and full justice in all things.

About Lucy Stone

  • I have half-believed for a long time that you were preparing for a public speaker, though I hoped I might be mistaken. Not that I think I wrong in itself, but because I think it an employment a great many grades below, what I believe my only and dearly loved sister qualified to engage in. I don't hardly know what you mean by "laboring for the restoration and salvation of our sex" but I conclude you mean a salvation from some thralldom imposed by man. Now my sister I don't believe woman is groaning under half so heavy a yoke of bondage as you imagine. I am sure I do not feel burdened by anything man has laid upon me, be sure I can't vote, but what care I for that, I would not if I could. I know there is a distinction made in the wages of males and females when they perform the same labor, this I think is unjust, and it is the only thing in which woman is oppressed, that I know of, but women have no one to blame, but themselves in this matter. If as a general thing they had qualified themselves, as men have they would command the same price, but they have not, and the few who have are obliged to suffer on that account. I think my sister if you would spend the remainder of your life in educating our sex, you would do afar greater good than you will if you spend your noble energies in forever hurling "back the insults and indignities that men heap upon us." This I am sure you can never do "by the grace of God" for it is entirely contrary to his spirit and teachings. My sister commit your ways unto the Lord, and he will direct your steps.
    • Letter from Lucy's sister, Sarah Stone (1846-11-28)
  • Now Miss Lucy, you will hear what Mother thinks about your Public Speaking. Mother said she had rather you would marry and have a pair [of] twin babies every year. She did not say how many years. Mother cannot bear to think of your Preaching or Lecturing. She thinks it is a wrong course for you to take, says if you go to Lecturing you will fix it so you can’t keep school. Mother wants you should Teach, she thinks you would do the most good that way. You will want to know [my] mind. I don’t know what to tell you. You know it will make much talk in our quarter of the World. You will do that which seems right in your own eyes. I suppose, to be honest, I like mother’s plan better than yours. You are of age to [do] that which you think is your duty. Mother says she cannot find no place where Christ ever sent Women to Preach. We shall want to hear from you as soon as you get this, you will write what you think about Mother’s plan.
    • Letter from Lucy’s father, Francis Stone
  • The Bible says, “Let your women keep silence.” It is flying in the face of Providence!
    • Letter from Lucy’s mother, Hannah Stone
  • If you think you have got brass enough, and can do more good by giving public lectures than any other way, I say go to it. But Mother doesn’t like the idea.
    • Letter from Lucy’s brother, Frank Stone; to which his wife added a postscript: Lucy, if there should be any probability of your changing your mind, I hope you will let Mother Stone know it the first thing, for she feels dreadfully about it. Mother wants you to think carefully of it, and see if you cannot do more good teaching than by lecturing. And if you think you must lecture, she wants to know if you don’t think you could do more good by going from house to house...
  • I believe Sarah said in her last letter that if you intend lecturing she hoped you would not come into this State. I wish you to do what you think is your duty. If you violate your sense of duty to please your friends, you will lose more than you will gain.
    • Letter from Lucy’s brother, Bowman Stone

Lucy Stone: Pioneer of Women's Rights (1930)

A biography written by her daughter Alice Stone Blackwell

  • At the low wages then paid to women, it took Lucy nine years to save up money enough to enter college. There was no difficulty as to the choice of an alma mater. There was only one college that admitted women.
  • The young men had to hold debates as part of their work in rhetoric, and the young women were required to be present, for an hour and a half every week, in order to hlep form an audience for the boys, but were not allowed to take part.
  • A few of the young women, led by Lucy, organized the first debating society ever formed among college girls. At first they held their meetings secretly in the woods, with sentinels on the watch to give warming of intruders. When the weather grew colder, Lucy asked an old colored woman who owned a small house, the mother of one of her colored pupils, to let them have the use of her parlor. At first she was doubtful, fearing that the meetings might be a cover for flirtation; but when she found that the debating society was made up of girls only, she decided that it must be an innocent affair, and gave her consent. Her house was on the outskirts of the town, and the girls came one or two at a time, so as not to attract attention. Lucy opened the first formal meeting with the following statement:
    "We shall leave this college with the reputation of a thorough collegiate course, yet not one of use has received any rhetorical or elocutionary training. Not one of us could state a question or argue it in successful debate. For this reason I have propsed the formation of this association."

External links

Wikipedia has an article about:

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

LUCY STONE [BLACKWELL] (1818-1893), American reformer, anti-slavery and woman's-rights leader, was born in West Brookfield, Massachusetts, on the 13th of August 1818. Her father refused her the college education that she so eagerly desired, but she earned enough to carry her through Oberlin College, where she graduated in 1847. She immediately went on the lecture platform as an advocate of abolition and of woman's rights, and her remarkable voice and commanding eloquence often held in check the most disorderly audiences. In 1855 she married Dr Henry B. Blackwell (1824-1909), a. prominent abolitionist and advocate of woman's rights, who agreed that she should keep her maiden name; after 1870 he assisted his wife in the management of the Woman's Journal of Boston, of which she became editor in 1872. She allowed her New Jersey property to be sold for taxes, and then published a pamphlet on "taxation without representation." She campaigned for woman's suffrage amendments in Kansas (1867), Vermont (1870), Michigan (1874), Colorado (1877) and Nebraska (1892). She died in Dorchester, Mass., on the 18th of October 1893. Her daughter, Alice Stone Blackwell (b. 1857), carried on, with her father, the Woman's Journal after 1893, and in1885-1905edited the Woman's Column. Her husband's sisters, Elizabeth Blackwell (1821-1910) and Emily Blackwell (1826-1910), were prominent physicians. The former graduated at the Geneva Medical College, Geneva, New York, in 1849, receiving the first physician's degree granted to a woman in the United States, and studied in Philadelphia, in Paris and in London, where she began to practise in 1869. She died at Hastings on the 1st of June 1 9 10. Emily Blackwell graduated at the Medical Department of Western Reserve University in 1854; in 1853, with her sister, she founded the New York Infirmary for Women and Children; and she was for many years dean of the Woman's Medical College of the New York Infirmary which she and her sister established in 1865.

<< George Stone

Marcus Stone >>

(Blackwell (Blackwell


Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address