Luigi Cherubini: Wikis

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Luigi Cherubini, c. 1815-1824, Institut Royal de France, Académie des Beaux Arts (musique).
Luigi Cherubini wearing a Legion d'Honneur medal, lithograph by Marie Alexandre Alophe after a painting (Imp. d'Aubert & Co. Galerie de la Presse de la Literature et des Beaux Arts, c. 1850).

Luigi Cherubini (8 or 14 September [1], 1760 – 15 March 1842) was an Italian-born composer who spent most of his working life in France. His most significant compositions are operas and sacred music. Beethoven regarded Cherubini as the greatest of his contemporaries.[2]

Contents

Biography

Cherubini was born Maria Luigi Carlo Zenobio Salvatore Cherubini in Florence. There is uncertainty about his exact date of birth. Although 14 September is sometimes stated, evidence from baptismal records and Cherubini himself suggests the 8th is correct. Perhaps the strongest evidence is his first name, Maria, which is traditional for a child born on 8 September, feast-day of the Nativity of the Virgin.[3] His Italian name appears most often in modern journals and on recordings. However, after 1790, he adopted the French version of his name, Marie-Louis-Charles-Zénobi-Salvador Cherubini, which appears in all extant documents that show his full name after that date.[3]

His instruction in music began at the age of six with his father, Bartolomeo, maestro al cembalo ("Master of the harpsichord"). Considered a child prodigy, Cherubini studied counterpoint and dramatic style at an early age. By the time he was thirteen, he had composed several religious works. In 1780, he was awarded a scholarship by the Grand Duke of Tuscany to study music in Bologna and Milan.[3]

Cherubini's early opera serias used libretti by Apostolo Zeno, Metastasio (Pietro Trapassi), and others that adhered closely to standard dramatic conventions. His music was strongly influenced by Niccolò Jommelli, Tommaso Traetta, and Antonio Sacchini, who were the leading composers of the day. His only comic work, Lo sposo di tre e marito di nessuna, premiered at a Venetian theater in November 1783.

Feeling constrained by Italian traditions and eager to experiment, Cherubini traveled to London in 1785 where he produced two opera serias and an opera buffa for the King's Theater. In the same year, he made an excursion to Paris with his friend Gianbattista Viotti, who presented him to Marie Antoinette and Parisian society. Cherubini received an important commission to write Démophon to a French libretto by Jean-François Marmontel that would be his first tragédie en musique. Except for a brief return trip to London and to Turin for an opera seria commissioned by the King of the House of Savoy, Cherubini spent the rest of his life in France.[3]

Performances of Démophon were favorably received at the Grand Opéra in 1788. With Viotti's help, the Théâtre de Monsieur in the Tuileries appointed Cherubini as its director in 1789, and three years later, he advanced to the Théâtre Feydeau. This gave him the opportunity to read countless libretti and choose one that best suited his temperament. Cherubini's music began to show more originality and daring. His first major success here was Lodoïska (1791) which was admired for its realistic heroism. This was followed by Eliza (1794), set in the Swiss Alps, and Médée (1797), which is Cherubini's best known work. Les deux journées (1800), in which Cherubini simplified his style, was a popular success. These and other operas were premièred at the Théâtre Feydeau or the Opéra-Comique. Feeling financially secure, he married Anne Cécile Tourette in 1794 and began a family of three children.

The fallout from the French Revolution had a major effect on Cherubini until the end of his life. Politics forced him to hide his connections with the former aristocracy and seek governmental appointments. Napoléon found him too complex for his tastes, however, Cherubini wrote at least one patriotic work per year for more than a decade.[3] He was appointed Napoléon's director of music in Vienna for part of 1805 and 1806, whereupon he conducted several of his works in that city.

After Les deux journées, Parisian audiences began to favor younger composers such as Boieldieu. Cherubini's opera-ballet Anacréon was an outright failure and most stage works after it did not achieve success. Faniska, produced in 1806, was an exception, receiving an enthusiastic response, in particular, by Haydn and Beethoven. Les Abencérages (1813), an heroic drama set in Spain during the last days of the Moorish kingdom of Granada, was Cherubini's attempt to compete with Spontini's La Vestale. It brought the composer critical praise but few performances.

Title page of the first edition of Cherubini's Médée, full score, 1797.
Cherubini's grave at Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris with a bas relief by Augustin Dumont.

Disappointed with his lack of acclaim in the theater, Cherubini turned increasingly to church music, writing seven masses, two requiems and many shorter pieces. During this period, he was also appointed surintendant de la musique du roi under the restored monarchy. (It was a position he held until the fall of the Bourbon Dynasty in the July Revolution of 1830). The London Philharmonic Society commissioned him to write a symphony, an overture, and a composition for chorus and orchestra in 1815, the performances of which he went especially to London to conduct, increasing his international fame.

Cherubini's Requiem in C-minor (1816), commemorating the anniversary of the execution of King Louis XVI of France, was a huge success. The work was greatly admired by Beethoven, Schumann and Brahms. In 1836, Cherubini wrote a Requiem in D Minor to be performed at his own funeral. It is for male choir only, as the religious authorities had criticised his use of female voices in the earlier work.

Although chamber music does not make up a large portion of his output, what he did write was important. Wilhelm Altmann, writing in his Handbuch für Streichquartettspielers (Handbook for String Quartet Players) about Cherubini's six string quartets, states that they are first rate and regarded Nos. 1 and 3 as masterworks. His String Quintet for two violins, viola and two cellos is also considered a first rate work.

In 1822, Cherubini became director of the Conservatoire and completed his textbook, Cours de contrepoint et de fugue, in 1835. His role at the Conservatoire would bring him into conflict with the young Hector Berlioz, who went on to portray the old composer as a crotchety pedant in his memoirs. Some critics, such as Basil Deane, maintain that Berlioz's depiction has distorted Cherubini's image with posterity. There are many allusions to Cherubini's personal irritability among his contemporaries; Adolphe Adam wrote, "some maintain his temper was very even, because he was always angry." Nevertheless, Cherubini had many friends, including Rossini, Chopin and, above all, the artist Ingres. The two had mutual interests: Cherubini was a keen amateur painter and Ingres enjoyed practising the violin. In 1841, Ingres produced the most celebrated portrait of the old composer.

During his life, Cherubini received France's highest and most prestigious honors. These included the Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur (1814) and Membre de l'Académie des Beaux-Arts (1815). In 1841, he was made Commandeur de la Légion d'honneur, the first musician to receive that title.[4]

Cherubini died in Paris at age 81 and is buried at Père Lachaise Cemetery, just four metres from his friend Chopin. His tomb was designed by the architect Achille Leclère and includes a figure representing "Music" crowning a bust of the composer with a wreath by sculptor Augustin Dumont.

Selected works

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Operas

Religious Music

Masses

  • Five masses: (1773–1776) (lost).
  • Mass in B flat major, Messe solennelle breve (first) (–?–).
  • Mass in A major for Three Voices (1808–1809).
  • Mass in F major, Messe de Chimay (1808-1809).
  • Missa solemnis in D minor, Per il Principe Esterházy (1811).
  • Mass in C major (1816).
  • Mass in G major for the coronation of Louis XVIII. (1816-1819).
  • Missa solemnis in E major (1818).
  • Mass in A major, Messe solennelle (third), for the coronation of Charles X (1825).

Requiems

Motets & other choral works

  • 38 motets.
  • Hymne du Pantheon.

Chamber Music

  • String Quartet No.1 in E flat major, (1814).
  • String Quartet No.2 in C major, (1829). This is a transcription of his Symphony in D major with a new second movement.
  • String Quartet No.3 in D minor, (1834).
  • String Quartet No.4 in E major, (1835).
  • String Quartet No.5 in F major, (1835).
  • String Quartet No.6 in A minor, (1837).
  • String Quintet (2 violins, viola & 2 violoncellos) in E minor (1837).

Other compositions

  • Include a symphony, cantata, overture, and Hymne au printemps ("Hymn to Spring") for the Philharmonic Society of London (1815).

Notes

  1. ^ Sadie, Stanley (Ed.) (1994) [1992]. The New Grove Dictionary of Opera. vol. 1, A-D, chpt: "Cherubini, (Maria) Luigi (Carlo Zanobi Salvadore)" by Stephen C. Willis. New York: MacMillan. p. 833. ISBN 0-935859-92-6.  
  2. ^ Holden, Amanda; (editor), with Kenyon, Nicholas and Walsh, Stephen. The Viking Opera Guide. London: Viking. pp. 209. ISBN 0-670-81292-7.  
  3. ^ a b c d e Sadie, p. 833
  4. ^ Sadie, p. 834

Sources

  • Basil Deane, Cherubini (Oxford Studies of Composers, 1965)
  • Cobbett's Cyclopedic Survey of Chamber Music, Ed. W.W. Cobbett, Oxford University Press, 1963
  • Wilhelm Altmann, Handbuch für Streichquartettspielers, Hinrichtshofen, Amsterdam, 1972
  • Sadie, Stanley (Ed.) (1994) [1992]. The New Grove Dictionary of Opera. vol. 1, A-D, chpt: "Cherubini, (Maria) Luigi (Carlo Zanobi Salvadore)" by Stephen C. Willis. New York: MacMillan. ISBN 0-935859-92-6.  
  • Cherubini, Luigi (1835). Cours de contrepoint et de fugue. with Fromental Halévy. Paris: M. Schlesinger. OCLC 11909698.  

External links


Simple English

medal, lithograph by Marie Alexandre Alophe after a painting (Imp. d'Aubert & Co. Galerie de la Presse de la Literature et des Beaux Arts, c. 1850).]]

Luigi Cherubini (pronounce: "ke-roo-BEE-nee"), (born Florence, 8 or 14 Sep 1760; died Paris, 15 March 1842) was an Italian-born composer. He spent most of his working life in France. He is famous for his operas as well as for his religious music. Beethoven thought that Cherubini was the greatest composer who was living at that time.

Contents

Life

Early years

Cherubini was born in Florence. The exact date of his birth is not known. He was only six years old when his father taught him to play the harpsichord. He was a child prodigy. By the time he was thirteen, he had composed several religious works. In 1780, he was given a scholarship by the Grand Duke of Tuscany to study music in Bologna and Milan.

At first, Cherubini composed operas about serious stories (opera seria). He composed in the style of Italian composers of that time. Soon he felt he wanted to travel to learn other ways of composing. He went to London in 1785 and then to Paris where he met many important people including Marie Antoinette. He spent the rest of his life in France.

Rising fame in Paris

His opera Démophon was performed at the Grand Opéra in 1788. It helped to make him famous. He soon became director of the Théâtre de Monsieur in the Tuileries, and three years later he went to the Théâtre Feydeau. He started to try out many new ideas in his music. His opera Lodoïska (1791) was very popular for the way he showed heroism. His best-known work is Médée (1797). Les deux journées (1800) was very popular.

The French Revolution affected Cherubini’s life. He tried not to show that he had been friendly with aristocratic people before the revolution. He tried to get government jobs, and he wrote several patriotic works in order to please the politicians. He was made Napoléon's director of music in Vienna for part of 1805 and 1806, and he conducted some of his music there.

Later career

After he had written his opera Les deux journées, audiences in Paris started to get tired of Cherubini’s music. They wanted to hear younger composers such as Boieldieu. Cherubini found it difficult to get his music performed. Instead, he wrote church music. When France became a monarchy again he was appointed surintendant de la musique du roi (director of the king’s music). He kept this title until 1830 when there was another revolution.

In 1815 he went to London where he was asked to compose a symphony, an overture and a work for chorus and orchestra. This helped to make him more famous outside France.


Cherubini's Requiem in C-minor (1816), which celebrated the anniversary of the execution of King Louis XVI of France, was a huge success. Beethoven, Schumann and Brahms all liked it very much. In 1836, Cherubini wrote a Requiem in D Minor to be performed at his own funeral. It is for male choir only, because the religious authorities had criticised the way he had written for ladies’ voices in his C-minor Requiem.

Cherubini wrote some chamber music. He wrote several string quartets. His String Quintet for two violins, viola and two cellos is a very great work.

In 1822, Cherubini became director of the Conservatoire. In 1835 he wrote a book called Cours de contrepoint et de fugue,. This showed music students how to write counterpoint and compose fugues.

His personality

There are several stories told by people who lived at that time, showing that Cherubini often became rather cross. Hector Berlioz tells an amusing story in his autobiography about how Cherubini chased him round and round the library [1]. But he also had many friends, including Rossini, Chopin and, especially, the painter Ingres. The two men had the same interests: Cherubini was a keen amateur painter and Ingres enjoyed practising the violin. In 1841, Ingres painted a well-known portrait of Cherubini.

During his life, Cherubini received the highest honours, including Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur (1814) and Membre de l'Académie des Beaux-Arts (1815). In 1841, he was made Commandeur de la Légion d'honneur, the first time a musician had been given that title.

Cherubini died in Paris at age of 81 and is buried at Père Lachaise Cemetery, just four metres from his friend Chopin.

His music

Cherubini wrote many operas. He also wrote a lot of religious music, including masses, motets and 2 requiems. He wrote several string quartets.

During the first ten years of his life in Paris he wrote very good music which was excellent for dramatic stage works. After 1800 things became more difficult for him. Napoleon was ruling in France, and the two men did not like one another much. The audiences expected an Italian composer to write beautiful melodies rather than dramatic music. The Feydeau Theatre did not exist any more. The Opéra was the important place to be successful as an opera composer. Cherubini concentrated on his teaching at the Paris Conservatoire. Even after Napoleon had lost his power Cherubini left it to younger people such as Rossini to compose operas[2]. He preferred to write religious music.

By the end of the 19th century Cherubini’s music was almost forgotten, and he was only remembered for the book he wrote on how to compose. During the 20th century people became interested in his music again, and his religious music is now sometimes performed. However, his operas do not belong to any popular tradition and are hardly ever performed. Yet they contain some very good music.

References

  • The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. Stanley Sadie; 1980; ISBN 1-56159-174-2
  1. Berlioz: “Mémoires”, ed Garnier Flammarion, Paris 1969, page79
  2. The Age of Mozart and Beethoven; Giorgio Pestelli, translated Eric Cross, Cambridge University Press 1984

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