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Luis Filipe, Duke of Braganza: Wikis

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Luís Filipe
Prince Royal of Portugal
House House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Father Charles I
Mother Amélie of Orléans
Born 21 March 1887(1887-03-21)
Lisbon
Died 1 February 1908 (aged 20)
Lisbon

Luís Filipe, Prince Royal of Portugal, Regent of Portugal (1907; Portuguese pronunciation: [luˈiʃ fɨˈlip(ɨ)]; Dom Luís Filipe Maria Carlos Amélio Francisco Víctor Manuel António Lourenço Miguel Rafael Gabriel Gonzaga Xavier Francisco de Assis Bento de Bragança Saxe Coburgo Gotha Sabóia e Orleães; 21 March 1887 – 1 February 1908) was the eldest son of King Dom Carlos I of Portugal. He was born in 1887 while his father was still Prince Royal, and received the usual style of the heirs to the heir of the Portuguese crown: he was then at birth 4th Prince of Beira, with the subsidiary title of 14th Duke of Barcelos, private to the heir of the Dukedom of Braganza; and after his grandfather king Dom Luís I died, he became Prince Royal of Portugal, with the subsidiary titles of 21st Duke of Braganza, 20th Marquis of Vila Viçosa, 28th count of Barcelos, 25th count of Ourém, 23rd count of Arraiolos, 22nd count of Neiva; he was later creted Knight Commander of the Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila Viçosa, Knight of the Order of the Garter, and Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece.

Early life

The Coat of arms of HRH the Prince Royal Luís Filipe.

Dom Luís was born in Lisbon, the elder son of Carlos, Prince Royal of Portugal, (later King Carlos I of Portugal) and the Princess Amélie of Orléans. Dom Luís Filipe was granted when born the titles of Prince of Beira and Duke of Barcelos, traditionally held by the heir apparent of the Prince Royal of Portugal (Príncipe Real).

Two years later, Dom Luís inherited all his father's royal princely titles when Charles became king, being himself restyled Prince Royal, and inheriting at the same time the Dukedom of Braganza (21st Duke), the biggest private fortune in Portugal at that time, who was at the disposal of the heir to the Portuguese crown. In English, he is sometimes, but inaccurately, called Crown Prince of Portugal.

In 1907 the Prince Royal acted as regent of the Kingdom while his father was outside the country. The same year he made a very successful official visit to the Portuguese colonies in Africa, being the first royal ever to go there.

Dom Luís was the pupil to the African War Hero Mouzinho de Albuquerque, and like all the Braganza, showed many aptitudes to the arts, besides his military education. Negotiations were being held when he was assassinated for him to marry his cousin Princess Patricia of Connaught, granddaughter to Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, the daughter of British Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Louise Margareth, princess of Prussia. She was sister to Princess Margaret of Connaught, wife of Crown Prince Gustaf (VI) Adolf, later King of Sweden.

Lisbon Regicide

On 1 February 1908 Dom Luís Filipe and his family were returning to Lisbon from Vila Viçosa Palace, in Alentejo, private head to the House of Braganza. Alfredo Costa and Manuel Buiça, two members of a revolutionary society called the Carbonária, shot at all the royal family, hitting Luís Filipe, his father king Dom Carlos, and his younger brother Infante Dom Manuel, Duke of Beja. Dom Carlos I died immediately, while Dom Luís lived for another twenty minutes. Manuel survived the attack, having only been shot in the arm, while his mother Amelia was unharmed. Manuel would succeed Carlos as Manuel II. Some genealogists used to refer to Dom Luís as king Dom Luís II. However, although he survived his father for twenty minutes, he cannot be considered a king because the Portuguese monarchy lacked the rule of automatic succession. That rule does not apply in Portugal, where the heirs apparent always needed to be acclaimed by Parliament before legally becoming sovereigns.

Dom Luís is buried next to his father and forefather's in the Dynasty of Braganza Royal Pantheon, at the Monastery of São Vicente de Fora, in Lisbon. His younger brother, Dom Manuel II, and his mother, Queen Amélie of Orléans, are buried opposite.

On 5 October 1910, the monarchy under the reign of his surviving younger brother, Dom Manuel II, was overthrown in a military coup and the Portuguese First Republic was established. That would have been very difficult to do at the time if Luís Filipe had not died, as he inherited his father's stronger popularity among the Portuguese Army officers, who despised the lack of military sensibility of his younger brother.

Arms

The heraldic arms shown above are not the arms of the dead Prince Royal, but those present in the Windsor chapel of the Garter, in England, as knight of that Order.

Born heir to the throne, Dom Luís Filipe used full arms of Portugal, with royal mantelpiece, no military orders around it, not even the three Portuguese band Orders (as it is not the Portuguese custom) and the Royal Prince crown over it, with just two golden arms less in the closed royal crown than his father the King. No difference, except in the crown, to his father full royal arms: and so no threefolded bank of an infante could be there, as he was superior in rank to the infantes, being born a Prince of Portugal and a Royal Highness (Infantes are styled in Portugal Highnesses, not Royal Highnesses, style reserved to the Princes heir apparent to the crown).

Luís Filipe, Prince Royal of Portugal
Cadet branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Born: 21 March 1887 Died: 1 February 1908
Portuguese royalty
Preceded by
Charles I of Portugal
Prince Royal of Portugal
1889 – 1908
Succeeded by
Afonso Henriques, Prince Royal of Portugal
Duke of Braganza
1889 – 1908
Vacant
Title next held by
Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza
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