Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva: Wikis

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His Excellency
 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
Portrait of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva

Incumbent
Assumed office 
January 1, 2003
Vice President José Alencar
Preceded by Fernando Henrique Cardoso

In office
March 15, 1987 – March 15, 1991

In office
February 10, 1980 – November 15, 1994

Born October 27, 1945 (1945-10-27) (age 64)
Caetés, Pernambuco
Birth name Luiz Inácio da Silva
Nationality Brazilian
Political party Workers' Party
Spouse(s) Maria de Lurdes (deceased)
Marisa Letícia Rocco Casa
Children Fábio Luís
Lurian Cordeiro
Luís Cláudio
Marcos Cláudio (adopted)
Sandro Luís
Residence Alvorada Palace (Offical)
Granja do Torto (Official)
São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo (Private)
Occupation Automotive worker, Union organizer
Religion Roman Catholic
Signature Lula (Signature of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva)
Website Planalto Palace

Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (Portuguese pronunciation: [luˈiz iˈnäsiʊ ˈlulɐ dä ˈsiwvɐ]; born 27 October 1945), known popularly as Lula,[1] is the thirty-fifth and current President of Brazil.

A founding member of the Workers' Party (PT - Partido dos Trabalhadores), he ran for President three times unsuccessfully, first in the 1989 election. Lula achieved victory in 2002, and was inaugurated as President on 1 January 2003. In the 2006 election he was re-elected, extending his term as President until 1 January 2011.

Contents

Early life

Luiz Inácio da Silva was born on 27 October 1945 in Caetés (then a district of Garanhuns), located 155 miles (250 km) from Recife, capital of Pernambuco, a Brazilian state. He was the seventh of eight children of Aristides Inácio da Silva and Eurídice Ferreira de Melo. Two weeks after Lula's birth, his father moved to Santos with Valdomira Ferreira de Góis, a cousin of Eurídice.

In December, 1952, when Lula was only seven years old, his mother decided to migrate to São Paulo with her children to rejoin her husband. After a journey of thirteen days in a pau-de-arara (the open cargo area of a truck), they arrived in Guarujá and discovered that Aristides had formed a second family with Valdomira. Aristides' two families lived in the same house for some time, but they didn't get along very well, and four years later, Eurídice moved with her children to a small room in the back area of a bar in the city of São Paulo. After that, Lula rarely saw his father, who became an alcoholic and died in 1978.

Lula was married twice. In 1969 he married Maria de Lourdes, who died of hepatitis in 1971, when she was pregnant with their first son, who also died.[2] Lula and Miriam Cordeiro had a daughter, Lurian, out of wedlock in 1974. [3][4] In 1974 Lula married Marisa, his current wife and at the time a widow, with whom he had three sons (he has also adopted Marisa's son from her first marriage).

Education and work

Lula had little formal education. He did not learn to read until he was ten years old,[5] and quit school after the fourth grade in order to work to help his family. His working life began at age 12 as a shoeshiner and street vendor.[6] By age 14 he got his first formal job in a copper processing factory as a lathe operator.

At age 19, he lost the little finger on his left hand in an accident while working as a press operator in an automobile parts factory.[5] After losing his finger he had to run to several hospitals before he received medical attention. This experience increased his interest in participating within the Workers' Union. Around that time, he became involved in union activities and held several important union posts.[6] Due to perceived incompatibility with Brazilian military government and trade unions activities, Lula's views moved further to the political left.

Union career

In 1975 he was elected (and reelected in 1978) President of the Steel Workers' Union of São Bernardo do Campo and Diadema, cities in the Greater São Paulo, home to most of Brazil's automobile manufacturing facilities (such as Ford, Volkswagen, Toyota, Mercedes-Benz and others) and among the most industrialized in the country. In the late 1970s, Lula helped organize major union activities including huge strikes. He was jailed for a month, but was released following protests. For many years he was President of the Central Única dos Trabalhadores (CUT), a union federation that is strongly influenced by the Partido dos Trabalhadores (PT).

Political career

Lula in 1988, as a deputy for the 1998 Constitutional Congress.

On 10 February 1980, a group of academics, intellectuals, and union leaders, including Lula, founded the Partido dos Trabalhadores (PT) or Workers' Party, a left-wing party with progressive ideas created in the midst of Brazil's military government.

In 1982 he added the nickname Lula to his legal name.Nickname[›] In 1983 he helped found the Central Única dos Trabalhadores (CUT) union association. In 1984 PT and Lula joined the popular Diretas Já! (Direct [Elections] Now!) campaign, demanding a direct popular vote for the next Brazilian presidential election. According to the 1967 constitution, Presidents were at that time elected by both Houses of Congress in joint session, with representatives of all State Legislatures; this was widely recognised as a mere sham as, since the March 1964 coup d'état, each "elected" President had been a retired general chosen in a closed military caucus. As a direct result of the campaign and after years of popular struggle, the 1989 elections were the first to elect a President by direct popular vote in 29 years.

In 1992 Lula joined the campaign for the impeachment of President Fernando Collor de Mello after a series of scandals involving public funds. In 2006, after Fernando Collor de Mello's return to the Brazilian Senate, Lula soon brought him to his so-called "allied base", a large-spectrum group of parties which includes many of the politicians Lula aggressively attacked prior to his election.

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Elections

Lula and the mayor of São Paulo, José Serra, meet in 2004. Lula defeated Serra in the 2002 presidential elections.

Lula first ran for office in 1982, for the state government of São Paulo and lost. In the 1986 elections Lula won a seat in Congress with a reasonable majority. The Workers' Party (Partido dos Trabalhadores, PT) helped write the country's post-military government constitution, ensuring strong constitutional guarantees for workers' rights, but failed to achieve redistribution of rural agricultural land.

In 1989, still as a Congressman, Lula ran as the PT presidential candidate. The fact that his party was formed as a loose confederacy of trade unionists, grassroots activists, left-wing Catholics, left-center social democrats and small Trotskyist groupings, while dampening overtly ideological issues, also earned him the distrust of better-off Brazilians precisely because of the ability of the PT to present itself as the first working class mass movement organized at grassroots.[citation needed]

Lula refused to run for re-election as a congressman in 1990, busying himself with expanding the Workers' Party organizations around the country. He ran again for President in 1994 and 1998. As the political scene in the 1990s came under the sway of the Brazilian real monetary stabilization plan, which ended decades of rampant inflation, Lula lost in 1994 (in the first round) to the candidate former ex-Minister of Finance Fernando Henrique Cardoso, who ran for re-election (after a constitutional amendment ended the long-held rule that a president could not have a second term) in 1998, again winning in the first-round.

In the 2002 campaign, Lula foreswore both his informal clothing style and his platform plank of linking the payment of Brazil's foreign debt to a prior thorough audit. This last point had worried economists, businessmen and banks, who feared that even a partial Brazilian default along with the existing Argentine default would have a massive ripple effect through the world economy. Lula became President after winning the second round of the 2002 election, held on 27 October, defeating the Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB) candidate José Serra.

Presidency

Political orientation

Lula climbs the ramp leading to the Palácio do Planalto, with Vice President José Alencar, for the official ceremony marking the beginning of their second term, in 2007.

Since the beginning of his political career to the present, Lula has changed some of his original ideas and moderated his positions. Instead of the drastic social changes he proposed in the past, his government chose a reformist line, passing new retirement, tax, labor and judicial legislation, and discussing university reform. Very few actual reforms have been implemented so far. Some wings of the Worker's Party have disagreed with this moderation in focus and have left the party to form dissident wings such as the Workers' Cause Party, the United Socialist Workers' Party and the Socialism and Freedom Party. Alliances with conservative, right wing politicians, like former Presidents José Sarney and Fernando Collor, have been a cause of disappointment for some.[7]. On 1 October 2006, Lula narrowly missed winning another term in the first round of elections. He faced a run-off on 29 October which he won by a substantial margin.[8] In an interview published 26 August 2007, he said that he had no intention to seek a constitutional change so that he could run for a third consecutive term; he also said that he wanted "to reach the end of [his] term in a strong position in order to influence the succession".[9].

Social projects

Lula gives a speech in Diadema, in a public event launching further social assistance in the form of subsidized housing and Bolsa Família credits.

Lula put social programs at the top of his agenda during the campaign and since being elected. Lula's leading program since very early on has been a campaign to eradicate hunger, following the lead of projects already put into practice by the Fernando Henrique Cardoso administration, but expanded within the new Fome Zero.[10] This program brings together a series of programs with the goal to end hunger in Brazil: the creation of water cisterns in Brazil's semi-arid region of Sertão, plus actions to counter juvenile pregnancy, to strengthen family agriculture, to distribute a minimum amount of cash to the poor, and many other measures.

Brazil's largest assistance program, however, is Bolsa Família, which is an expansion based upon the previous Bolsa Escola ("School Allowance"), which was conditional on school attendance, first introduced in the city of Campinas by then-mayor José Roberto Magalhães Teixeira. Not long thereafter, other municipalities and states adopted similar programs. President Fernando Henrique Cardoso later federalized the program in 2001. In 2003, Lula formed Bolsa Família by combining Bolsa Escola with additional allowances for food and kitchen gas. This was preceded by the creation of a new ministry - the Ministry of Social Development and Eradication of Hunger. This merge reduced administrative costs and bureaucratic complexity for both the families involved and the administration of the program.

Fome Zero has a government budget and accepts donations from the private sector and international organizations The Bolsa Família program has been praised internationally for its achievements, despite internal criticism accusing it of having turned into a electoral weapon.

Along with projects such as Fome Zero and Bolsa Família, the Lula administration flagship program is the Growth Acceleration Program (PAC). The PAC has a total budget of $646 billion reais (US $281 billion) by 2010, and is the Lula administration's main investment program. It is intended to strengthen Brazil's infrastructure, and consequently to stimulate the private sector and create more jobs. The social and urban infrastructure sector was scheduled to receive $84.2 billion reais (US $37 billion).

Economy

Lula on a visit to the Brazilian Aluminium Company.
Construction site of the Santo Antônio Dam, with funding from the Growth Acceleration Program.

As Lula gained strength in the run-up to the 2002 elections, the fear of drastic measures (and comparisons with Hugo Chávez of Venezuela) increased internal market speculation. This led to some market hysteria, contributing to a currency maxi-devaluation on the real, and a rise in Brazil's risk factor by more than 2000 base points.[11]

In the beginning of his first term, Lula's chosen Minister of Finance was Antonio Palocci, a physician and former Trotskyist activist who had recanted his far left views while serving as the mayor of the sugarcane processing industry center of Ribeirão Preto, in the state of São Paulo. Lula also chose Henrique Meirelles of the Brazilian Social Democracy Party, a prominent market-oriented economist, as head of the Brazilian Central Bank. As a former CEO of the BankBoston he was well-known to the market.[12] Meirelles was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 2002 as a member of the opposing PSDB, but resigned as deputy to become Governor of the Central Bank.[12]

Silva and his cabinet followed in part with the ideals of the previous government,[13] by renewing all agreements with the International Monetary Fund, which were signed by the time Argentina defaulted on its own deals in 2001. His government achieved a satisfactory primary budget surplus in the first two years, as required by the IMF agreement, exceeding the target for the third year. In late 2005, the government paid off its debt to the IMF in full, two years ahead of schedule.[14] By following the macroeconomic agenda of the previous government,[15] three years after the election, Lula had slowly but firmly gained the market's confidence, and sovereign risk indexes fell to around 250 points. The government's choice of inflation targeting kept the economy stable, and was complimented during the 2005 World Economic Forum in Davos.[citation needed]

The Brazilian economy was generally not affected by the Mensalão scandal[16]. In early 2006, however, Palocci had to resign as finance minister due to his involvement in an abuse of power scandal. Lula then appointed Guido Mantega, a member of the PT and an economist by profession, as finance minister. Mantega, a former Marxist who had written a Ph.D. thesis (in Sociology) on the history of economic ideas in Brazil from a left-wing viewpoint, is presently known for his criticism of high interest rates, which satisfy banking interests.[citation needed] Besides being unable to do so in practice, he has been supportive of a higher employment by the state, what has been appointed by experts as being the main cause of the banks high interest, the state being the main captor of circulating money to keep its own expenses, i.e., non productive expenses, rolling. Banks have had record profit ever, in Lula's government, and this very fact has been denounced as incompatible with the self proclaimed social orientation in Lula's government economic policy.[17]

Not long after the start of his second term, Lula, alongside his cabinet, announced the new Growth Acceleration Program, an investment program to solve many of the problems that prevent the Brazilian economy from expanding more rapidly. The measures include investment in the creation and repair of roads and railways, simplification and reduction of taxation, and modernization on the country's energy production to avoid further shortages. The money promised to be spent in this Program is considered to be around R$500 billion (more than 250 billion dollars) over four years. Part of the measures still depend on approval by Congress, some have already generated negative reactions from organizations that consider them unfair, and governors of some states claim the share allocated to their regions is insufficient.[citation needed] Although a long-time critic of privatization policies, Lula and his government created public-private partnership concessions for seven federal roadways.[18]

After decades as the largest foreign debtor among emerging economies, Brazil became a net creditor for the first time in January 2008.[19] By mid-2008, both Fitch ratings and S&P had elevated the classification of Brazilian debt from speculative to investment grade

Foreign policy

BRIC leaders in 2008 – Manmohan Singh, Dmitry Medvedev, Hu Jintao and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva

According to The Economist of 2 March 2006, Lula has a pragmatic foreign policy, seeing himself as a negotiator, not an ideologue. As a result, he has befriended both Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez and former U.S. President George W. Bush. Leading a large and competitive agricultural state, Lula generally opposes and criticizes farm subsidies, and this position has been seen as one of the reasons for the walkout of developing nations and subsequent collapse of the Cancún World Trade Organization talks in 2003 over G8 agricultural subsidies.[20] Brazil is becoming influential in dialogue between South America and developed countries, especially the United States. It played an important role in negotiations in internal conflicts of Venezuela and Colombia, and concentrated efforts on strengthening Mercosur.[21].

Lula with Raúl Castro

During the Lula administration, Brazilian foreign trade has increased dramatically, changing from deficits to several surpluses since 2003. In 2004 the surplus reached $29 billion due to a substantial increase in global demand for commodities. Brazil has also provided UN peace-keeping troops and leads a peace-keeping mission in Haiti.

Lula also gained increasing stature in the Southern hemisphere buoyed by economic growth in his country. In 2008, he was said to have become a "point man for healing regional crises," as in the escalation of tensions between Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador. Former Finance Minister, and current advisor, Delfim Netto, said: "Lula is the ultimate pragmatist."[22]

A major goal of Lula's foreign policy has been for the country to gain a seat as a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. In this he has so far been unsuccessful.

Corruption scandals and controversy

José Dirceu and Antonio Palocci are among the top-ranking officials that resigned due to corruption scandals in the Lula administration.

Lula's administration has been plagued by corruption scandals, most notably the Mensalão and Sanguessugas scandals, in his first term. No charges have ever been accepted by the courts against Lula, and top officials involved, such as Roberto Jefferson, José Dirceu, Luiz Gushiken and Humberto Costa, denied he was aware of any wrongdoing. Having lost numerous government aides in the face of political turmoil, Lula has come largely unscathed in the eyes of the public, with overwhelming approval rates.

His administration has been heavily criticized for relying on local political barons, like José Sarney, Jader Barbalho, Renan Calheiros and Fernando Collor, to ensure a majority in Congress. He lost some important votes there, though, for example when the Senate barred the financial tax from being reinstated. Another frequent reproach relates to his ambiguous treatment of the left wing in the Workers' Party. Analysts fear that he occasionally gives in to their wishes for tighter government control of the media and increased state intervention: in 2004, he pushed for the creation of a "Federal Council of Journalists" (CFJ) and a "National Cinema Agency" (Ancinav), the latter of which would overhaul funding for electronic communications. Both proposals ultimately failed amid concerns that they would lead to excessive state intervention over free speech.[23][24]

Awards and recognition

Lula and his wife, First Lady Marisa Letícia, pictured in the Palácio da Alvorada, the official residence of the Brazilian president.

Since Lula began his term as President, he has attained numerous medals, such as the Brazilian Order of Merit, the Brazilian Orders of Military, Naval and Aeronautical Merit, the Brazilian Order of Scientific Merit, the Order of the Southern Cross, the Mexican Order of the Aztec Eagle [25] and the Norwegian Order of Royal Merit. He also received the Prince of Asturias Award for International Cooperation in 2003[26] and was the chief guest at India's Republic Day celebration in 2004.[27]

Lula was chosen as the 2009 Man of the Year by prominent European newspapers El País and Le Monde. The Financial Times ranks Lula among the 50 faces that shaped the 2000s.[28] On 20 December 2008, he was named the 18th most important person in the world by Newsweek magazine, and was the only Latin American person featured in a list of 50 most influential World leaders.[29] On July 7, 2009, he received UNESCO's Félix Houphouët-Boigny Peace Prize at UNESCO Headquarters in Paris, France. On 5 November 2009, President Lula was awarded the Chatham House Prize, awarded to the statesperson who is deemed by Chatham House members to have made the most significant contribution to the improvement of international relations in the previous year.[30] On 29 January 2010, President Lula was awarded as a Global Statesman by the World Economic Forum, held in Davos, Switzerland, but could not attend the ceremony due to problems of high blood pressure.[31]

See also

References

  1. ^ Luiz Inácio da Silva was Lula's full birth name, which he used from 1945 to 1982, but he has been known as Lula since childhood; the nickname itself is a hypocoristic for Luiz with consonantal reduplication. Consequently, Lula became the name by which he was known throughout his career as a metallurgical worker, and as he emerged in the national scene as a union leader, and for all his political life. In 1982, in order to run for governorship of the state of São Paulo, Lula changed his legal name, adding the nickname Lula by which he was nationally known. Under Brazilian electoral laws at the time, one could only use one's legal name to run for public office. Currently, Brazilian newspapers refer to him either (more formally) using his full name Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva or (informally or on second reference) only his moniker Lula.
  2. ^ "Hoje em dia" (in Portuguese). http://www.hojeemdia.com.br/cmlink/hoje-em-dia/noticias/politica/da-distante-pauliceia-lula-vinha-namorar-todas-as-noites-1.38045. Retrieved 2009-12-14. 
  3. ^ http://www.estadao.com.br/noticias/nacional,lurian-filha-de-lula-foi-atendida-no-hospital-sirio-libanes,201085,0.htm
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ a b "Lula: Fourth time lucky?". BBC News (BBC). 2002-10-28. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/2367851.stm. Retrieved 2007-04-27. 
  6. ^ a b "Biography". Presidency of the Federative Republic of Brazil. 2005. http://www.presidencia.gov.br/ingles/president. Retrieved 2007-09-02. 
  7. ^ The Economist (2009-02-05). "Where dinausaurs still roam". http://www.economist.com/displaystory.cfm?story_id=13062220. Retrieved 2009-05-12. 
  8. ^ "Brazil re-elects President Lula". BBC News (BBC). 2006-10-30. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/6095820.stm. Retrieved 2007-04-27. 
  9. ^ Newsroom (2007-08-27). "Brazilian President Vows Not to Seek a Third Term". Mercopress via Brazzil Magazine. http://www.brazzilmag.com/content/view/8599/54/. Retrieved 2008-04-05. 
  10. ^ Kirksey, Emily (2006-06-21). "Lula - Brazil's Lost Leader". Council on Hemispheric Affairs. http://www.coha.org/2006/06/21/lula-brazils-lost-leader/. Retrieved 2008-04-05. 
  11. ^ "Brazil hit by debt downgrade". BBC News (BBC). 2002-06-21. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/2057137.stm. Retrieved 2007-08-09. 
  12. ^ a b "Henrique de Campos Meirelles". Banco Central do Brazil. http://www.bcb.gov.br/pre/quemequem/ingl/presidentes/henriqueMeirelles.asp. Retrieved 2007-08-09. 
  13. ^ Balbi, Sandra (2005-12-18). "Economistas Alertam para Desindustrialização" (in Portuguese). Folha de S. Paulo. http://www.iedi.org.br/cgi/cgilua.exe/sys/start.htm?2=217&sid=77&1=43&infoid=1749. Retrieved 2008-04-05. 
  14. ^ "Brazil to pay off IMF debts early". BBC News (BBC). 2005-12-14. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/4527438.stm. Retrieved 2007-04-27. 
  15. ^ Pimenta, Angela (2006-06-27). "Lula segue política econômica de FHC, diz diretor do FMI" (in Portuguese). BBC Brasil (New York City, New York: BBC). http://www.bbc.co.uk/portuguese/reporterbbc/story/2006/06/060626_lulafhcpimenta.shtml. Retrieved 2008-04-05. 
  16. ^ Newsroom. "O Chefe (The Boss) by Ivo Patarra". http://www.escandalodomensalao.com.br. 
  17. ^ "Lula e o lucro recorde dos bancos" (in Portuguese). La Agencia Latinoamericana de Información – ALAI. 2007-08-16. http://:alainet.org/active/19077&lang=es. Retrieved 2009-06-23. 
  18. ^ Clemente, Isabel; Leal, Andréa; Neves, Maria Laura. "Enfim, Lula privatizou..." (in Portuguese). Época (Rede Globo). http://revistaepoca.globo.com/Revista/Epoca/0,,EDG79551-6009,00.html. Retrieved 2008-04-05. 
  19. ^ Parra-Bernal, Guillermo; Pimentel, Lester. "Brazil Became Net Creditor for First Time in January". Bloomberg.com (Bloomberg). http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=aPLYQJIG_Re8. Retrieved 2008-01-06. 
  20. ^ Padgett, Tim (2004-04-26). "Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva". Time. http://www.time.com/time/subscriber/2004/time100/leaders/100lula.html. Retrieved 2008-03-26. 
  21. ^ Lapper, Richard; Wheatley, Jonathan; Silva, Luiz Inácio Lula da (2006-07-11). "Interview transcript: Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva". Financial Times (Brasília, Brazil). http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/6d42ae3a-110b-11db-9a72-0000779e2340.html. Retrieved 2008-04-05. 
  22. ^ "Brazil's Lula takes center stage in Latin America – Los Angeles Times". Latimes.com. 2008-10-05. http://www.latimes.com/news/printedition/asection/la-fg-latin5-2008oct05,0,1861646.story. Retrieved 2009-07-02. 
  23. ^ Caram, Fabio. Conselho, imprensa e controle, Observatório da Imprensa, 2004-08-17.
  24. ^ Op. Ed. O Estado de S. Paulo, 2009-09-06.
  25. ^ Walle, Suzanne Stephens (2007-08-06). "President Calderón at Dinner Hosted in Honor of Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and his wife, Marisa Leticia Lula da Silva". Sistema Internet de la Presidencia. http://www.presidencia.gob.mx/prensa/?contenido=31289. Retrieved 2007-09-13. 
  26. ^ "The Prince of Asturias Foundation". Fundacionprincipedeasturias.org. http://www.fundacionprincipedeasturias.org/ing/04/generados/galardonados2003_0.html. Retrieved 2009-07-02. 
  27. ^ "India shows off on republic day". BBC News (BBC). 2004-01-26. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/3424537.stm. Retrieved 2008-04-05. 
  28. ^ Fifty faces that shaped the decade
  29. ^ "The NEWSWEEK 50: Brazil's Chief, Lula da Silva | Newsweek The Global Elite". Newsweek.com. 2009-01-05. http://www.newsweek.com/id/176304. Retrieved 2009-07-02. 
  30. ^ http://www.chathamhouse.org.uk/events/special_events/chatham_house_prize/2009/
  31. ^ http://www.weforum.org/en/events/AnnualMeeting2010/IntProgramme/index.htm?id=30199 Retrieved 2010-02-19

Further reading

  • Silva, Luis Inácio da; Castro, Cassiana Rosa de; Machado, Sueli de Fátima; Santos, Alveci Oliveira de Orato; Ferreira, Luiz Tarcísio Teixeira; Teixeira, Paulo; Suplicy, Marta; Dutra, Olívio (2003). "The programme for land tenure legalization on public land in São Paulo, Brazil." Environment and Urbanization 15 (2): 191–200.
  • Bourne, R (2008). Lula of Brazil : The story so far. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-24663-8

External links

Party political offices
Preceded by
None
Workers' Party presidential candidate
1989, 1994, 1998, 2002, 2006
Succeeded by
Dilma Rousseff
Political offices
Preceded by
Fernando Henrique Cardoso
President of Brazil
2003 – Present
Succeeded by
Incumbent

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva.

Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (born October 27, 1945) is the current Brazilian president (2002-present).

Sourced

  • "I am the son of an illiterate father and mother" (In August 2005 speech [1])
  • "Brazil is in a solid position. In the past, if the United States sneezed, we caught pneumonia. Today, if the United States sneezes, we sneeze too." (Financial Times, July 7, 2006 [2])
  • "The foundation is in place, and now we have to get to work." – about his second term as president (October 29, 2006 [3])
  • "If the US is the country that most contributes with greenhouse gases, in the world, it should assume more responsibility to reduce emissions" (The Guardian, May 31, 2007 [4])
  • "A long time ago I learned not to put the blame for backwardness in Brazil on the US. We have to blame ourselves. Our backwardness is caused by an elite which for a century didn't think about the majority and subordinated itself to foreign interests." (The Guardian, May 31, 2007 [5])
  • "I want to know if the people are in the shit and I want to take the people out of the shit in which they are." – during a speech in São Luís, the capital of the Brazilian state of Maranhão. After recognizing he cursed, he stated: "Of course I cursed. Tomorrow, commentators of the major newspapers will say that Lula cursed, but I'm aware that they curse more than I do everyday, and I'm aware of how the poor people of this country live." "Quero tirar o povo da merda", diz Lula; assista - Folha de S. Paulo

Unsourced

  • "One day we will make land reform in this country, and one day the worker´s class will take control of the production means of this country and they will stop investing in weapons." (Interview to newspaper "Jornal da Tarde", January 1989)
  • "This is a government that has not been putting the dirt under the carpet." (June 23, 2005, during a nationally televised speech)
  • "The government tries to do what's easy because what's hard is hard."(June 17, 2004 in a speech)
  • "(...)When Napoleon went to China (...)". ("O Globo" and several newspapers, May 1, 2004. Note: Napoleon did not travel to China, Marco Polo did)
  • "Don't think that you have did a little thing in the history of the humanity, no. Possibly, the citizen who voted for me is not conscious of his gesture in an important country like Brazil." (newspaper "Folha de São Paulo, September 4, 2004)
  • "We do not accept defamations against our partners." (Referring to US criticisms of Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, March 29, 2005.)
  • "There are many people talking badly about us in the world." (In Ciudad Guyana, Venezuela, March 29, 2005)
  • "I am afraid of the isolation." (About his contact to the people)
  • "No candidate is better than me". (During campaign for Presidency, newspaper "O Estado de S. Paulo", March 24, 2002)
  • "Hope has defeated fear." (After his victory in 2002 Presidential elections in Brazil)
  • "Give me a chance as President and I will do in 4 years what the elite didn't do in 40." (In Juiz de Fora, August 1994)
  • "I went this time to Gabon to learn how as a president one can get 37 years in power and still apply himself for re-election." (Talking to the President of Costa Rica, August 2004)

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