In general, the lumped component model is a way of simplifying the behaviour of spatially distributed systems into a topology consisting of discrete entities that approximate the behaviour of the distributed system under certain assumptions. It is useful in electronics, heat transfer, mechanics and acoustics
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The lumped element model of electronic circuits makes the simplifying assumption that each element is a finite point in space, and that the wires connecting elements are perfect conductors.
The lumped element model is valid whenever L_{c} < < λ, where L_{c} denotes the circuit's characteristic length, and λ denotes the circuit's operating wavelength. Otherwise, we must consider more general models, such as the Distributed element model.
Realworld components exhibit nonideal characteristics. To account for leakage in capacitors for example, we can visualize the capacitor as having a large resistor connected inparallel. Similarly to account for inductive reactance, we can visualize component leads as small inductors.
In this context, the lumped component model extends the distributed concepts of Acoustic theory subject to approximation. In the acoustical lumped component model, certain physical components with acoustical properties may be approximated as behaving similarly to standard electronic components or simple combinations of components.
