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Lund

Coat of arms
Motto: Idéernas stad (Eng: The city of ideas)
Lund is located in Sweden
Lund
Coordinates: 55°42′N 13°12′E / 55.7°N 13.2°E / 55.7; 13.2Coordinates: 55°42′N 13°12′E / 55.7°N 13.2°E / 55.7; 13.2
Country Sweden
Province Skåne
County Skåne County
Municipality Lund Municipality
Area [1]
 - Total 24.99 km2 (9.6 sq mi)
Population (2005-12-31)[1]
 - Total 76,188
 - Density 3,049/km2 (7,896.9/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)

Lund (Swedish pronunciation: [lɵnd]  ( listen)) is a city in the province of Scania, southern Sweden. The town has 76,188 inhabitants in 2005,[1] out of a municipal total of 105,000. It is the seat of Lund Municipality, Skåne County. The city is believed to have been founded around 990, when the Scanian lands belonged to Denmark. It soon became the Christian center of Northern Europe with an archbishop and with the towering Lund Cathedral, built in 1103.

Lund University, established 1666, is today one of Scandinavia's largest institutions for education and research.[2][3][4]

Contents

History

Along with Uppsala, Lund is one of the oldest cities in Sweden. Lund's origins are unclear. Until recently, the town was thought to have been founded by either Sweyn I Forkbeard or his son Canute the Great of Denmark around 1020.[5] The area was then part of the kingdom of Denmark. However, recent archaeological discoveries suggest that the first settlement was founded around 990, at the present site of the village of Uppåkra. It was later moved to its present location by King Sweyn I Forkbeard. The distance moved was only some five kilometres, but the new location of Lund, on a hill and on the other side of a ford, gave the new site considerable defensive advantages in comparison with Uppåkra, which is situated on the highest point of a rather large plain.

The city was made a see in 1048 and united with Dalby in 1060,[6] and in 1103 became the seat of the archbishop for Scandinavia. The diocese of nearby Dalby was absorbed in 1066. Lund Cathedral was similarly founded in or shortly after 1103. In 1152, the Norwegian archdiocese of Nidaros was founded as a separate province of the church, independent of Lund. In 1164 Sweden also acquired an archbishop of its own, although he was nominally subordinate to the archbishop of Lund. It is still, as the diocese of Lund, a diocese in the Church of Sweden.

A street in the old part of the town

Lund Cathedral School (Katedralskolan) was founded in 1085 by the Danish king Canute the Saint. This is the oldest school in Scandinavia and one of the oldest in Northern Europe. Many well-known people have attended it, among them actor Max von Sydow and several high-ranking politicians.

In 1658, the Scanian lands were ceded by Denmark to Sweden by the Treaty of Roskilde. On December 4, 1676 Lund was defended in the Battle of Lund, one of the bloodiest battles fought in Scandinavia.

Adelgatan Street, Lund

Lund University, established in 1666, is Sweden's largest with 42,000 full or part-time students, although not all actually live in Lund. The figure includes Lund Institute of Technology, which is to some extent independent of the old university. As late as the 1940s, Lund was a relatively small city with few large-scale industries, covering only about a fourth of the current urban area and was dominated by the cathedral and the university. Since then, the student population has increased about twelvefold, many industrial companies in the chemical, medical or electronics branches and, more recently, within information management, have set up establishments in the city, and the town's population, architecture and pulse has been transformed.

Compared with many other Swedish cities, the urban heart of Lund is well preserved. A local law requires any downtown property that is due to be demolished and rebuilt to be archaeologically excavated.

Geography

Lund is located in Sweden's largest agricultural district, in the southwest of Scania, less than ten kilometres from the sandy shore of the Öresund Strait. From the top of the Sankt Hans Hill it is possible to see Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark. It is therefore some distance from other Swedish cities, about 250 kilometres to Gothenburg, 600 to Stockholm and about 1200 to Umeå. The city of Malmö, on the other hand, is only about 15 kilometres away.

Climate

Lund, and the rest of southern Sweden have oceanic climate. Despite its northern location, the climate is relatively mild compared to other locations in similar latitude, or even somewhat further south, mainly because of the Gulf Stream. Because of its northerly latitude, daylight lasts as long as 17 hours in midsummer, and only around 7 hours in midwinter.

Summers are warm and pleasant with average high temperatures of 22 °C (72 °F) and lows of around 14 °C (57 °F), but temperatures do sometimes exceed 25 °C (77 °F) and occasional heat waves are common during the summer. Winters are cold, with temperatures steady between −1 to 3 °C (30 to 37 °F).

Rainfall is light to moderate throughout the year with 169 wet days. Snowfall occurs sparingly, mainly in December through March, but snow cover does not remain for a long time, and some winters tends to be virtually free of snow.

Weather data for Lund (and rest of southern Sweden)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Average high °C (°F) 3
(37)
3
(37)
6
(43)
12
(54)
17
(63)
19
(66)
22
(72)
22
(72)
18
(64)
12
(54)
8
(46)
4
(39)
Average low °C (°F) -1
(30)
-1
(30)
0
(32)
3
(37)
8
(46)
11
(52)
13
(55)
14
(57)
10
(50)
6
(43)
4
(39)
1
(34)
Precipitation mm (inches) 54
(2.13)
48
(1.89)
37
(1.46)
34
(1.34)
41
(1.61)
58
(2.28)
62
(2.44)
50
(1.97)
45
(1.77)
60
(2.36)
51
(2.01)
61
(2.4)
Source: World Weather Information Service[7] 2008-01-06

Main sights

During the 12th and 13th centuries, when the town was the seat of the archbishop, many churches and monasteries were built. At its peak, Lund had 27 churches, but most of them were demolished as result of the Reformation in 1536. Several medieval buildings remain, including Lund Cathedral, Liberiet, the restaurant Stäket and parts of the Cathedral School. Timber framing is characteristic of the houses built up to the end of the 19th century, for example the Wickmanska gården.

Most of the central buildings in Lund date from the late 19th century, when small houses were replaced by multi-storey ones. Notable buildings built during this period include the University Library (1902), Grand Hotel (1899) and the University Main Building (1882).

Transportation

Major roads

Lund has been connected to the motorway network since 1953 when the E22, the first motorway in Sweden, was built round the edge of the town. There are also other connections to most major roads in the area, for example the E6 via Riksväg 16, and the Länsväg 108 which connects to the E65.

Lund train station

Cycling

Lund has been praised for its cycling infrastructure.[8] There are 5000 bike parking spaces in the town, including a multi-storey facility, 160km of cyclepaths, and 45% of commuters travel by bicycle. There has been no increase in car usage for the past 10 years.

Railways and public transport

Lund has been on the main railway line between Malmö and Stockholm since 1857. Today there are direct connections to Copenhagen and Elsinore via the Öresund Bridge. This connection is mainly served by the Öresundståg, maintained by DSB, the Danske Statsbaner in Denmark and Skånetrafiken in Scania, as well as by SJ in the rest of Sweden. Local traffic is managed by the two-coach electric multiple units Pågatåg, which provide connections to many destinations in Scania. Because of Lund's central position, it is possible to travel to the three largest cities in Sweden without having to change trains.

Public transport within Lund is overseen by Skånetrafiken, but the actual bus network is licensed to the Bergkvarabuss company. The city buses connect around 400 bus stops with 11 bus lines served by a fleet of 40 Mercedes Citaro running on compressed natural gas and a few smaller buses using diesel. There are plans of initiating a tram network to achieve faster and higher-capacity public transport in some parts of the city and to the suburban towns of Dalby, Staffanstorp and Södra Sandby.

In recent years the pressure on rail and bus lines has increased, due to the ever growing commuting between Lund, Malmö and other nearby places and increased casual and professional contacts with the Copenhagen area. As of 2009, the railyard and quays area of Lund station is undergoing some rearrangements to accommodate expected growth in traffic, while Malmö station is also being rebuilt in tandem with the Malmö city rail tunnel, due to open in 2010/11.

Airports

Lund is located very close to Malmö-Sturup Airport which is mainly used for domestic flights. Kastrup, the airport for Copenhagen is often used for longer international flights, and is about 45 minutes by train from Lund. There also used to be a very small airstrip, Hasslanda Flygfält, to the south of Lund, mainly used for private and charter flights.

Culture

Lund University Male Voice Choir at the Lund University main building on 1 May 2005

The culture in Lund is characterized by the large student population and student traditions. A substantial part of the nightlife is located at student fraternities.

Lund also has a city theatre (though without a local ensemble of its own) and a number of other places for concerts and theatres.

Lund hosts the largest open-air museum of Scania, Kulturen. Kulturen is the second oldest dedicated open-air museum in the world and consists of more than 30 buildings, as well as large collections on Scanian art, crafts. local archaeology and history. The museum was founded in 1892 by Georg Karlin. Today the museum often hosts different exhibitions and its visitors can experience how Swedish people lived and worked throughout the centuries.[9]

Literature and art

Classical writers who have lived in Lund at some time include August Strindberg, Esaias Tegnér, Ola Hansson, Carl Linnaeus, Axel Lundegård, Anders Österling, Bengt Lidforss, and Vilhelm Ekelund and in later generations Hjalmar Gullberg and Göran Sonnevi. The film director Lukas Moodysson and the poet and playwright Lars Norén both grew up on the fringe of the municipality.

The city has a vivid tradition in music and theatre, stimulated both by the church, schools, student musical festivities (the Lund Student Singers) and the Spex tradition (parodistic musical plays often setting well-known music to new lyrics and mixing up the historical and the present in unconventional intrigues) and, especially, the Lund Carnival (for which see the special section).

Lund has long been a regional centre for classical and church music and in later decades has also developed a lively pop and jazz scene.

Lundakarnevalen (the Lund Carnival)

The Lund carnival has been held every four years since the mid-nineteenth century: the origin is traditionally set at a wedding in 1849 (the four-year intervals place the party in 2002, 2006, 2010 etc). Arranged by the students of the university, from the 1950s onwards the event has grown in size and intensity but still remains an amateur event. midway between a music and stage fair, a city festival and an outpouring of gentle satire, parody and general madness. Some students dress up in costumes, often relating to and poking fun at current issues, and parade in wagons. Others perform humorous skits in the evenings. The carnival revues and other stage entertainments have launched a number of well-known entertainers and actors over the years.

Sports

Lund is not a notable center for sports except for handball, where it has two teams in the top league: H 43 and LUGI. It has also a chess team, Lunds ASK, that for decades has been among the top teams in Sweden. Lund is also the birth place of the online football manager game Hattrick. Lund also has Division 2 football club called Lunds BK.

Industry

Lund is a centre of high tech companies such as Sony Ericsson and Ericsson Mobile Platforms, and other telecommunication companies. The Lund Institute of Technology has historical connections with the industrial life. There is even a business park within Lund, Ideon, for high tech companies that have ties to the university.

Other important industries include medical technology (Gambro), pharmaceuticals (Astra Zeneca), biotechnology (Active Biotech, among others), heat exchanger and separator(Alfa Laval), and publishing and library services. The hospital and the university in Lund are two other big employers, with extensive research facilities.

Lund is also home to the Tetra Pak company that manufactures and markets paper packaging and equipment for milk, orange juice etc. all over the world.

Education

Notable natives

See also

  • Lund Principle, an important principle in ecumenical relations between Christian churches.

Hailee Araya, Ethio-Swedish scriptwriter/actress is also a Lund Native born and raised in Lund.

References

External links

Murkrona.svg Lund is one of 133 places with the historical city status in Sweden.

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Lund Cathedral
Lund Cathedral

Lund [1], in the southern part of Sweden, is home to the country's second oldest university, which is one of the country's largest. The city also has many high-tech companies.

Get in

Lund is fifteen minutes by train from Malmö and an hour from Copenhagen, including its airport. All trains [2] stop at Lund, including the X-2000 expresses from Gothenburg and Stockholm. There are also buses from Malmö.

Get around

Lund is certainly small enough to see most of it in an afternoon's walk. You can pick up a city map at the tourist office [3] just across the street from the cathedral.

The local Skånetrafiken buses [4] can get you to most areas of town. The hubs are around the train station, Botulfsplatsen, and the University Hospital (Universitetssjukhuset). Tickets are 17 SEK for as far as you want to go, if you're under 19 it's 10 SEK. If you are traveling as a pair, ask for a Duo ticket to save a few SEK.

The best place to catch a cab is by the train station. Right there you can also rent a bike for 20 SEK per day.

  • Lund Cathedral (Domkyrkan) was built in 1103 and is the second-largest cathedral of the Nordic countries. There's a free organ concert every Saturday morning at 10:00, and the elaborate astronomical clock (on your left after entering) puts on its show twice a day (12:00 and 15:00). This clock show is highly recommended even if you're not interested in the church, due to its nostalgic value. You can buy 1/200 scale cardboard models of the cathedral at the Arken bookstore just down the street.
  • Ingvar Kamprad Design Centrum, part of the Lund University LTH and home of the Industrial Design program; the building was funded by Ingvar Kamprad, founder of IKEA.
  • Kulturen [5], Tegnersplatsen. Scania's regional museum of cultural history, which includes a great number of preserved rural buildings from the past two centuries, as well as indoor displays of history and crafts.
  • Lunds Konsthall [6], Mårtenstorget. A modern art museum (temporary exhibitions). Free entry.
  • The Museum of Sketches for Public Art [7] is owned by the university and displays sketches for various works of public art, mostly by 20th century Swedish artists.
  • The Botanical Garden is a few blocks east of the town center. It's very nice for walks, and there are greenhouses which house many exotic plants. Good place to take kids.
  • The City Park is on the south side of town. On Walpurgis Night (April 30), it's the place where people gather (about 15 000 people) to light a gigantic bonfire and revel through the night.

Entertainment

Being a university town, Lund has good arts and entertainment for its size.

  • Lunds Stadsteater, Kiliansgatan 13, +46 46-13 14 15. The city's main performance hall.
  • Lunds Teaterförening [8] is often performing.
  • Mejeriet [9], Stora Södergatan 64, +46 46-211 00 23. An arts center and performance hall which occasionally has concerts by internationally known pop and rock performers as well as local music groups.
  • The Kino [10], Kyrkogatan 3. Movie theater which has a good art-movie schedule.
  • Filmstaden, Västra Mårtensgatan 12, is the main cinema which shows all the blockbusters.
  • Game Center, Östra Mårtensgatan 15, is a gaming cafe with high end computers running all the latest games. 35 SEK per hour for non-members, members pay 10-30 SEK per hour.
  • Cyrus, Allhelgona kyrkogata. This restaurant is a little run-down, but their marinated grilled chicken pieces ("Juje kebab") are simple and delicious.
  • Mondo, Kyrkogatan 23. Across from Lundagård, this cafe serves great sandwiches, soups, and pie for reasonable prices. Crowded during lunch hours, although takeaway is available.
  • Tandoor, Bantorget. Indian restaurant. Once featured in national Swedish tabloid "Aftonbladet" due to poor hygienic and employee conditions. Current hygiene/employee situation unknown though the restaurant is best avoided.
  • Hemma hos Greken, Sandgatan. This basement lunch establishment has a large student clientele but is open to all. Not your standard greek tourist fare, but a menu of traditional greek dishes. The bean soup, lentil soup (with or without garlic) and the meatloaf ("köttfärslimpa") are cheap and delicious. Large portions, and you can usually ask for more if you're still hungry afterwards.
  • Govinda's, Bredgatan. Hare krishna vegetarian lunch restaurant. Unusual and often tasty food.
  • Portofino, Sofiavägen 3, +46 46-14 92 10. Friendly neighborhood pizzeria with delivery.
  • Lundakebab, Saluhallen, Mårtenstorget. Somewhat pricey, but their 100% Swedish beef kebabs are the best in Lund.
  • Lunds Falafel, on the main street just south of Stortorget. A hole in the wall.
  • Pölsemannen, Danish pölser (hot dogs) are sold at Mårtenstorget next to the kebab stand. Good prices and equally good hot dogs.
  • Spisen (previously called Papaya), Magle L. Kyrkogata and Kiliansgatan, +46 46-37 04 02. Mid-range Swedish and Mexican.
  • Cafe Finn, off Mårtenstorget, this cafe offers mid-priced Swedish food at a great location. The lunch specials are a good deal, and are best enjoyed during a nice spring or summer day out on the patio adjacent to the square.
  • Stortorget, Stortorget, Reasonably priced good food.
  • Tabemono, Vårfrug 8A (by Botulfs square), +46 46-15 91 41. Overpriced Japanese fare.
  • Tatung, Bantorget 6, +46 46-211 15 06. Good, reasonably priced Chinese.
  • V.E.S.P.A [11], Karl XI Gatan 1, +46 46-12 71 27. Trendy restaurant located just north of the station. Pizza and pasta using fresh ingredients, but somewhat pretentious. Mains 71-105 SEK.
  • Carlssons Trädgård, Mårtenstorget 6, +46 46-13 11 72. Popular bar with restaurant. Swedish/European cuisine. Lunches are good value (try the fish soup). Dinners are more elaborate and pricier, but still worth it.
  • Masala House [12], Klostergatan 9, +46 46-30 36 20. The newest addition to Lund Indian eateries, an excellent Indian restaurant, made to a Swedish taste (if you really want it spicy, make sure to request REALLY INDIAN SPICY). A nice selection of dishes and drinks in a relaxed venue. They serve lunches of great value as well.
  • Italia Il Ristorante [13], Lilla Fiskaregatan 11, +46 46-14 80 80. Great atmosphere, great pasta and great service. Probably the best Italian restaurant in town. Mains 105-240 SEK.
  • Bantorget 9, Bantorget 9, +46 46-32 02 00. Serving gourmet cuisine for 150 years.
  • Grand Hotel [14], Bantorget 1, +46 46-280 61 00. Serving good Swedish food in a classic atmosphere.
  • The Old Bull Pub, Bantorget 2, +46 46-14 09 20. English pub with an impressive but overpriced selection of draft beers. Features a live dixieland jazz band every Tuesday night, and a karaoke contest on Saturdays.
  • Bishop's Arms, Sankt Petri Kyrkogata. Expensive English pub with a good selection of British beers which are unfortunately often served ice-cold instead of the correct temperature. Good selection of whiskeys.
  • Gloria's - sports bar.
  • Cafe Ariman, Kungsgatan. Where the alternative crowd hangs out. Also has a bunch of oldtimers who spend their days playing board games. The best coffee shop, also has beer and club events on weekends.

There are a number of better pubs around Stortorget and Botulfs square.

  • Ibis Hotel Lund.  edit
  • STF Vandrarhem Tåget [15], Vävareg 22, +46 46-14 28 20. Follow the walkway over the train platform down to the west side; the hostel is in some converted old railroad cars right by the tracks, but it's nicer than that sounds.
  • Hotel Concordia [16], Stålbrogatan 1, +46 46-13 50 50. Good central location.
  • Hotel Lundia [17], Knut den Stores torg 2, +46 46-280 65 00. Just a block from the train station.
  • Hotel Djingis Khan [18], Margaretavägen 7, +46 46-33 36 00. A ways from the center, in a quiet residential neighborhood. Apartment rooms available for long-term stays.
  • Scandic Hotel Star [19], Glimmervägen 5, +46 46-2852500. A bit away from the center. Scandic-Hotels standard hotel.
  • Grand Hotel, Bantorget 1, +46 46-280 61 00, [20]. The oldest hotel in town, dating to 1899. Old fashioned European style, overlooking a small park.  edit
  • Game Center, Östra Mårtensgatan 15.
  • Public Library [21] (Lund Stadsbibliotek), Sankt Petri Kyrkogatan 6, +46 46-35 59 90.
  • Lund Post Office, Bangatan 10, 020-23 22 20 21. There's a branch in the ICA supermarket just up the block that has more services and longer hours. Most other convenience stores also have Post branches.
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

LUND, a city of Sweden, the seat of a bishop, in the district (kin) of MalmOhus, io m. N.E. of Malmo by rail. Pop. (1900) 16,621. A university was founded here in 1668 by Charles XI., with faculties of law, medicine, theology and philosophy. The number of students ranges from 600 to Boo, and there are about 5 o professors. Its library of books and MSS. is entitled to receive a copy of every work printed in Sweden. Important buildings include the university hall (1882), the academic union of the students (1850 containing an art museum; the astronomical observatory, built in 1866, though observations have been carried on since 1760; the botanical museum, and ethnographical and industrial art collections, illustrating life in southern Sweden from early times. Each student belongs to one of twelve nations (landskap), which mainly comprises students from a particular part of the country. The Romanesque cathedral was founded about the middle of the 10th century. The crypt under the raised transept and choir is one of the largest in the world, and the church is one of the finest in Scandinavia. A statue of the poet Esaias Tegner stands in the Tegners Plads, and the house in which he lived from 1813 to 1826 is indicated by an inscribed stone slab. The chief industries are sugar-refining, iron and brick works, and the manufacture of furniture and gloves.

Lund (Londinum Gothorum), the "Lunda at Eyrarsund" of Egil's Saga, was of importance in Egil's time (c. 920). It appears that, if not actually a seaport, it was at least nearer the Sound than now. In the middle of the 11th century it was made a bishopric, and in 1103 the seat of an archbishop who received primatial rank over all Scandinavia in 1163, but in 15 3 6 Lund was reduced to a bishopric. Close to the town, at the hill of Sliparabacke, the Danish kings used to receive the homage of the princes of Skare, and a monument records a victory of Charles XI. over the Danes (1676), which extinguished the Danish claim to suzerainty over this district.


<< Troels Frederik Lund

Benjamin Lundy >>


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also lund

Norwegian

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Wikipedia

Proper noun

Lund

  1. A city and municipality in Skåne, Sweden
  2. A municipality in Rogaland, Norway

Derived terms

  • lunddøl

Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Peter Wilhelm Lund article)

From Wikispecies

Danish naturalist and palaeontologist (1801–1880).


Simple English

Lund is a city in Scania, in the south of Sweden. About 80,000 people live there, which makes it the eleventh biggest city in Sweden. It is close to Malmö. The municipality has about 105,000 people.

Lund is known for its university, Lund University (founded in 1666). It is the largest university in Scandinavia. The city is also known for its cathedral, Lund Cathedral (Lunds domkyrka).

Lund is an old city. It was probably founded around the year 990, when Scania belonged to Denmark.

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