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Luoyang
—  Prefecture-level city  —
Chinese transcription(s)
 - Chinese 洛阳
 - Pinyin Luòyáng
Xiangshan Temple
Luoyang in Henan
Luoyang is located in China
Luoyang
Location in China
Coordinates: 34°40′11″N 112°26′32″E / 34.66972°N 112.44222°E / 34.66972; 112.44222
Country China
Province Henan
Government
 - Mayor Guo Hongchang
Area
 - Prefecture-level city 15,208 km2 (5,871.8 sq mi)
 - Urban 4,304 km2 (1,661.8 sq mi)
Population (2008)
 - Prefecture-level city 6,544,000
 - Density 430.3/km2 (1,114.5/sq mi)
 - Urban 1,500,000
 - Urban Density 348.5/km2 (902.6/sq mi)
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Area code(s) 379
GDP ¥30,080 per capita (2008)
Ethnicities Han, Hui, Manchu, Mongolian
County-level divisions 15
Township-level divisions unknown
Website http://www.ly.gov.cn

Luoyang (simplified Chinese: 洛阳traditional Chinese: 洛陽pinyin: Luòyáng; Postal map spelling: Loyang) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, People's Republic of China. It borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the east, Pingdingshan to the southeast, Nanyang to the south, Sanmenxia to the west, Jiyuan to the north, and Jiaozuo to the northeast.

Situated on the central plain of China, one of the cradles of the Chinese civilization, Luoyang was one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China.

Contents

Names

The origin of the name "Luoyang" is the city's location to the north side ("yang") of the Luo River. The river flows from west to east and the sun is on south of the river, so that the sun shine is always on north side of the river. Luoyang has had several names over the centuries, including "Luoyi" (洛邑) and "Luozhou (洛州)", though Luoyang has been its primary name. It has been called, during various periods, "Dongdu" (東都, meaning the Eastern Capital, during the Tang Dynasty), "Xijing" (西京, meaning the West Capital, during the Song Dynasty), or "Jingluo" (京洛, meaning the general capital for China).

History

The Dragon Gate Cave of Luoyang

The greater Luoyang area has been sacred ground since the late Neolithic. This area at the intersection of the Luo and Yi rivers, called The Waste of Xia, was considered to be the geographical center of China. Because of this sacred aspect several cites, all of which are generally referred to as "Luoyang", have been built there. In 2070 BCE, the Xia Dynasty king Tai Kang moved the Xia capital to the intersection of Luo river and Yi River and named the city Zhenxun (Chinese:斟鄩: Pinyin:Zhēnxún). In c 1600 BCE, King Tang of Shang defeated Jie, the final Xia Dynasty king, and built Western Bo (Chinese: 西亳; Pinyin: Xībó), a new capital on the Luo River. The ruins of Western Bo are located in Luoyang Prefecture.

In the 1136 BCE a settlement named Chengzhou (Chinese: 成周) was constructed by the Duke of Zhou for the remnants of the captured Shang nobility. A second Western Zhou capital, Wangcheng (also: Luoyi) was built 15 km west of Chengzhou. It was the capital of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty in 771 BCE. The Eastern Zhou Dynasty capital was moved to Chengzhou in 510 BCE. Later, the Han dynasty capital of Luoyang would be built over Chengzhou. The ruins of Chengzhou are still visible today 2 km east of the White Horse Temple area.[1] Modern Luoyang is built over the ruins of Wangcheng, which are still visible today at Wangcheng Park.[2]

In AD 25, Luoyang became the capital of Eastern Han Dynasty. For several centuries, Luoyang was the focal point of China. In AD 68, the White Horse Temple, the first Buddhist temple in China, was founded in Luoyang. The temple still exists, though the architecture is of later origin, mainly from the 16th century. An Shigao was one of the first monks to popularize Buddhism in Luoyang. The late second century saw China decline into anarchy.

"The decline was accelerated by the rebellion by the Yellow Turbans, who, although defeated by the Imperial troops in 184, weakened the state to the point where there was a continuing series of rebellions degenerating into civil war, culminating in the burning of the Han capital of Luoyang on 24 September 189 CE. This was followed by a state of continual unrest and wars in China until a modicum of stability returned in the 220s, but with the establishment of three separate kingdoms, rather than a unified empire.[3]

In AD 190, Chancellor Dong Zhuo ordered his soldiers to ransack, pillage and raze the city as he retreated from the coalition set up against him by regional lords from across China. The court was subsequently moved to the more defensible western city of Chang'an. Following a period of disorder, Luoyang was restored to prominence when Emperor Wen of the Wei Dynasty declared it his capital in AD 220. The Jin Dynasty, successor to Wei, was also established in Luoyang. When Jin was overrun by invaders and forced to move its capital to Jiankang (modern day Nanjing), Luoyang was nearly totally destroyed.

In AD 493 the Northern Wei Dynasty moved its capital from Datong to Luoyang and started the construction of the rock-cut Longmen Grottoes. More than 30,000 Buddhist statues from the time of this dynasty have been found in the caves. Many of these sculptures were two-faced. The Empress Dowager Wenming tomb and Yongning Temple (永寧寺), which had a pagoda nine stories high, were also built here.

During the Tang Dynasty, Luoyang was the 'Eastern Capital' and at its height had a population of around one million, second only to Chang'an, the 'Western Capital', and the largest city in the world.[4] During the short-lived Five Dynasties, Luoyang was the capital of the Later Tang. After that period, Luoyang no longer served as capital of any subsequent dynasties.

Administrative divisions

Luoyang groty z rzezbami wotywnymi Longmen Shiku - Smoczych Wrot i okolice 07.JPG
Luoyang.miasto.6.JPG

The prefecture-level city of Luoyang administers 6 districts, 1 county-level city and 8 counties.

Culture

The Longmen Grottoes were listed by UNESCO in the list of World Heritage Sites in November 2000. White Horse Temple is located 12 km east of the modern town. Guanlin is a series of temples that have been built in honor of a hero of the Three Kingdoms period, Guan Yu, close to the grottoes to the south of the city. China's only tombs museum, the Luoyang Ancient Tombs Museum is situated north of the modern town. Luoyang Museum was founded in 1958. The exhibitions in the museum are the ancient relics handed down from Xia Dynasty, Shang Dynasty and Zhou Dynasty. The total number of the exhibitions is 1700.

Guanlin Temple, May 2007

Luoyang is also famous for the Water Banquet Shui Xi, which consists of 8 cold and 16 warm dishes cooked in various broths, gravies or juices, hence its name.

Luoyang has a reputation as a cultivation centre for peony (city flower of Luoyang).

An ancient Chinese musical piece, Spring in Luoyang, was adopted in Korea during the Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392), and is still performed in its Koreanized (Dangak) version, called Nakyangchun (hangul: 낙양춘; hanja: ). The American composer Lou Harrison created an arrangement of this work.

80 km south-east of Luoyang stands the Dengfeng Observatory (also known as "The Tower of Chou Kong"). It is a tower which was constructed during the Yuan Dynasty in 1276 by Guo Shou-Ching, as a giant gnomon for the 'Measurement of the Sun's Shadow'. It was used for establishing the Summer and Winter Solstices. This astronomic instrument is described in detail by Joseph Needham in "Science and Civilisation in China", Cambridge Univ. Press.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Luoyang

Colleges and universities

  • Luoyang Institute of Science and Technology (洛阳理工学院)
  • Henan University of Science and Technology (河南科技大学)
  • Luoyang Normal College (洛阳师范学院)
  • Luoyang PLA College of Foreign Languages (解放军洛阳外语学院), now known as PLAUFL (PLA University of Foreign language)

Famous residents

Sister cities

Notes

  1. ^ Luoyang, 2009
  2. ^ China.org.cn, 2009
  3. ^ Hill (2009), p. xvi,
  4. ^ Abramson (2008), p. viii.

References

Further reading

  • Jenner, W. J. Memories of Loyang (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1981).

External links

Preceded by
Yin
Capital of China
1136 BC-221 BC
Succeeded by
Xianyang

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Luoyang (洛阳; Luòyáng) is a city in Henan province.

Get in

By plane

Luoyang Airport (IATA: LYA) is located about 10 km north of the city center. Flights are available from Beijing, Shanghai and Shenzhen.

By train

The train station sits at the northern end of Jinguyuan Road.

  • Beijing - takes about 11 hours
  • Guangzhou - takes about 24 hours
  • Shanghai - takes about 17 hours
  • Wuhan - takes about 8 hours
  • Xian - takes about 5-6 hours

By bus

The bus station is across the plaza from train station, at the corner of Jinguyuan Road and Daonan Road.

  • Anyang - takes about 4 hours
  • Guangzhou - takes about 27 hours
  • Jinan - takes about 9 hours
  • Kaifeng - takes about 4 hours
  • Taiyuan - takes about 8 hours
  • Xian - takes about 4 hours
  • Zhengzhou - takes about 2 hours

Get around

Transportation inside the city of the Luoyang is very convenient, the bus is divided into city inside is two kinds of with suburb, public bus which costs ¥1 or ¥2 per ride, hands over big and parts of beauty spots that the circuit overlaid whole citieses basically, embarking the bus to go the convenience but real benefit.

The taxi start price is ¥5 (includes 3 kilometers), ¥1.5 per kilometer.

  • Ancient Han Tombs Museum. Fascinating museum with reconstructed and unearthed tombs from the Western Han dynasty to the Northern Song Dynasty.  edit
  • Baima Temple (白马寺; Báimǎsì; lit. White Horse Temple), (12km east of the city centre, take bus 56). 7:30AM-5:30PM. This is the first officially sanctioned Buddhist temple in China and one of the oldest in the world. It was established almost 2000 years ago but rebuilt many times since. ¥50.  edit
  • Guanlin Temple. Commemorating Guan Yu, great warrior of the Kingdom of Shu.  edit
  • Longmen National Park (Longmen Shiku (Dragon Gate Grottoes)), (On the banks of Yi River). Considered to be one of the the great sculptural treasure sites in China and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. See individual article here.  edit
  • Luoyang Museum. Very well done museum.  edit
  • Wangcheng Park. Site of the Luoyang Peony Festival in April, something not to be missed.  edit
  • Ancient Store Street. Luoyang has a long, beautiful with fully functioning stores, a lot like Pingyao, another incredible visit.  edit
  • Shanghai Market. A long street where you can find a lot of stuff such shoes (some very cheap), clothes, sports, dvds... All along the street there are mini malls at both sides of the street where you can find an endless stuff, electronic devices, mobiles, clothes, accessories, packages and many other things you may need.  edit
  • Walmart, (In front of Shanghai Market). Many western products.  edit
  • Wanfuqin. A big mall like any you can find in Europe.  edit
  • Image, Lianmeng Road. Bar Tu-Su 10AM-midnight, M 5PM-midnight; Kitchen 10AM-1PM and 5PM-9:30PM or 10PM. A western bar and restaurant owned by a Swiss expat who is not around much, but the food is great and the service about the same as anywhere else in China. The staff speaks English fairly well, one pool table, and decent music selection. Fridays will usually find a good selection of foreign teachers and other expats for dinner and pool.  edit
  • Qianjude Peking Duck Restaurant. Famous for duck of course, but has many other delicious entrees.  edit

Drink

In Luoyang you can find a huge selection of restaurants, but there are not so many bars and clubs. If you want to drink baijiu (strong liquor based on rice) you should go to a restaurant, because clubs do not carry it.

  • Aipai, (Third floor of Xinduhui Commercial Center). Close about 2AM. They also have private rooms and it is quite big. They have live music, dancing, gogo girls and the cocktail guys' show is really nice. Full bar with a nice cocktail selection.  edit
  • Art Bar, Zhujiang South Road. This is not for dance but for drink. They have many tables and a second floor with private rooms and a pool. They have many artists that sing and play live music from 9:30PM. Full bar plus popcorn or fruit. On the same street there are a few bars, all of them with live music and a variety of drinks.  edit
  • Come Bar, (Near Shanghai Market). Private minirooms popular with couples. Romantic or slow music. You can drink, have an ice-cream or eat something.  edit
  • Lanmei, Nan Chang Road. Close about 1:30AM. Disco where you can drink beer, vodka, rum or many other spirits seated at a table. They also have private rooms with karaoke. At 10PM they start to play music for dance. It has a bouncing floor so you can follow the rhythm easily. They have gogo girls that dance 5 minutes every hour more or less.  edit
  • Mirage Bar, (Near Shanghai Market, on the same street as Walmart). A quiet bar where you can talk and drink. Full bar.  edit
  • New Paradise, (3rd floor of Xindouhui). Taiwanese owned bar. Good mix of expats and Chinese. Extremely cute and intelligent staff, good food and cheap beer. Say "hi" to the beautiful Rebecca!  edit
  • Luoyangmingyuan Youth Hostel, 20 Jiefang North Road (About 5 minutes walk from the railway station), +86 379 63191269 (). checkout: Noon. A nice hostel that looks very much like a hotel. Clean rooms with air conditioning and breakfast included. Dorms ¥50.  edit
  • Luoyang Jujia Hostel, Qiaonan D Section, Longlin Road, Jianxi District. Not a hostel per se but a private apartment. Rooms with shared facilities and free Internet. Guest kitchen, washing machine, safety box and café available. The owner is a very nice person but his English is not very good. It is located a bit far from the train station (40min by bus) but do not try to find it alone, the owner or his son will kindly pick you up. If visiting during the winter be prepare for the cold night because there is not ambient heater. However the owner will provide you with a comfortable heated blanket which will be more than enough for a nice evening sleep. Rooms from ¥60.  edit
  • Luoyang International Hostel, Binjiang office Building, 72 Jinguyuan.  edit
  • Nanyuan Express Hotel (洛阳南苑快捷酒店; Luòyáng Nányuàn Kuàijiéjiǔdiàn), South end of Nanchang Road, Jianxi District (涧西区南昌路南段231号; Jiàn​xī​qū​ Nán​chāng​lù​nán​duàn​). Rooms with free internet and electric kettle. Ticket office, fitness and massage available. Listed rates for doubles from ¥198, discounted from ¥130, including breakfast.  edit
  • Kaifute Hotel (Bolichang Road Branch) (凯芙特酒店 (洛阳玻璃厂路店); Kǎi Jiǔdiàn (Luòyánglichǎngdiàn)), Intersection of Bolichang North Road, Xigong District (西工区玻璃厂北路口; Xī​gōng​qū​ Bō​li​chǎng​běi​lù​kǒu​), +86 379 63291111 (fax: +86 379 63291113), [1]. Rooms with free internet. Meeting facilities, beauty salon and ticket office available. Chinese restaurant, coffee shop and room service. Listed rates for doubles from ¥178, discounted from ¥150, including breakfast.  edit
  • Luoyang Xiaolangdi Hotel (洛阳小浪底宾馆; Luòyáng xiǎolàng Bīnguǎn), South end of Nanchang Road, Jianxi District (涧西区南昌路南段; Jiàn​xī​qū Nán​chāng​lù​nán​duàn)​​, +86 379 64946688 (fax: +86 379 64946288). Three star hotel with rooms with free internet. Business center, gift shop, ticket office, billards and fitness available. Chinese restaurant. Listed rates for doubles from ¥380, discounted ¥218, breakfast ¥15.  edit
  • Luoyang Shendu Hotel (洛阳神都大厦; Luòyáng Shénshà), 168 Huangmei Road, Xigong District (西工区黄梅路168号; Xī​gōng​qū​ Huángméilù), +86 379 63485088 (fax: +86 37962560866). Three star hotel with large rooms with free internet. Business center, ticket office, table tennis, fitness and massage available. Chinese restaurant and room service. Listed rates for doubles from ¥480, discounted from ¥228, including breakfast.  edit
  • Lee Royal Hotel Mudu (洛阳钼都利豪国际饭店; Luòyáng dūlìháoguó Fàndiàn​​), Middle section of Kaiyuan Avenue, Luonanxin District (洛南新区开元大道中段; Luò​nán​xīn​qū​ Kāi​yuán​dà​dào​zhōng​duàn​), +86 379 65979999 (, fax: +86 379 65923393), [2]. Five star hotel with rooms with free internet. Business center, currency exchange, gift shop, beauty salon, ticket office, table tennis, fitness, tennis and indoor swimming pool available. Chinese and Western restaurants as well as coffee shop and bar. Listed rates ¥1,088-1,980, including breakfast.  edit
  • Luoyang Dongshan Hotel (洛阳东山宾馆; Luòyáng Dōngshān Bīnguǎn), Dongshan, Luolong District (洛龙区东山; Luò​lóng​qū​ Dōng​shān)​, +86 379 64686000 (fax: +86 379 64686001), [3]. Rooms with free internet. Business center, currency exchange, gift shop, ticket office, billards, table tennis, fitness, tennis, basketball, indoor swimming pool, massage and water sports available. Chinese and Western restaurants as well as coffee shop and bar. Listed rates ¥880-1,580, including breakfast.  edit
Routes through Luoyang
XianSanmenxia  W noframe E  ZhengzhouXuzhou
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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia

Noun

Singular
Luoyang

Plural
-

Luoyang

  1. A prefecture-level city Henan province, in central China.

Translations


Mandarin

Proper noun

Luoyang (Pinyin Luo4yang2, traditional 洛陽, simplified 洛阳)

  1. Luoyang







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