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Lutheranism
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.Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teaching of Martin Luther, a 16th century German reformer.^ General Information Lutheranism is the branch of Protestantism that generally follows the teachings of the 16th century reformer Martin Luther.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ General Information Informações gerais Lutheranism is the branch of Protestantism that generally follows the teachings of the 16th century reformer Martin Luther.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like many people of conscience in his day, Luther was disturbed by immorality and corruption in the Roman Catholic church, but he concentrated more on reform of what he thought was corrupt teaching.
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.Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the church launched the Protestant Reformation.^ Like many people of conscience in his day, Luther was disturbed by immorality and corruption in the Roman Catholic church, but he concentrated more on reform of what he thought was corrupt teaching.
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^ In 1997 the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America agreed to share full communion with three other Protestant denominations - the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), the United Church of Christ, and the Reformed Church in America.
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^ Luther, a German Augustinian monk and professor of theology at the University of Wittenberg in Saxony (Sachsen), originally had as his goal the reformation of the Western Christian church.
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.The reaction of the government and church authorities to the international spread of his writings, beginning with the 95 Theses, divided Western Christianity.^ These articles discuss the role of the Christian in and under the government, Christ's return to Judgment, free will, and the origin of sin.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ As such, it lays claim to being the largest non Roman Catholic body in the Western Christian church.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ Augsburg Confession: Abuses Corrected, Articles 22-25 With these articles begins an enumeration of abuses the Lutheran contingent found in the established Church and sought to correct.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

[1]
.The split between the Lutherans and the Roman Catholics arose mainly over the doctrine of Justification.^ The second doctrinal distinctive of Lutheranism is the doctrine of justification.
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^ Unlike Roman Catholic priests, Lutheran clergy may marry.
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^ The third thing, which must be decided this year, is the question whether the Lutheran Churches are ready to deal in a worthy manner with the doctrinal differenc es which obtain between them.
  • The Deconfessionalization of Lutheranism? 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.clai.org.au [Source type: Original source]

.Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification "by grace alone through faith alone because of Christ alone" which went against the Roman view of "faith formed by love", or "faith and works". Unlike the Reformed Churches, Lutherans retain many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-reformation Church.^ The second doctrinal distinctive of Lutheranism is the doctrine of justification.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ Salvation-- Lutherans consider justification by faith (alone) as fundamental to their doctrinal system.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Where there is faith in Christ, love and good works also follow.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
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.Lutheran theology significantly differs from Reformed theology in Christology, the purpose of God's Law, divine grace, the concept of "once saved always saved", and predestination.^ But this is always by God's enabling grace.
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Lutheranism vs. Catholicism (Particularly Regarding Original Sin & Faith Alone) 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Law is part of God's Word, but if faith saves, then what is the purpose of the Law?
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ There was an effort to systematize an objective form of theology (theology defined as a "teaching about God and divine things").
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Contents

History

Church of Our Lady in Aarhus, Denmark. During the Reformation the complex around the church shifted from use as a Dominican priory to a hospital for the sick and poor.
Title page of the Swedish Gustav Vasa Bible, translated by the Petri brothers, along with Laurentius Andreae.
University of Jena around 1600. Jena was the center of Gnesio-Lutheran activity during the controversies leading up to the Formula of Concord.
University of Helmstedt during the Syncretistic Controversy
Historic Pietist orphanage in Halle, Germany, a center of Pietism.
.
University of Jena at 1770, no longer a stronghold of orthodox Lutheranism.
^ I personally had to come to the realization that Lutheranism no longer chooses to consciously be what it was intended to be--a movement for reform in the West.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Having come to understand Orthodox soteriology , I no longer have to do theological gymnastics in trying to reconcile Jesus with St. Paul .
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The sola fide of the Lutheran Reformation can be maintained as a private opinion, but it may no longer be asserted that it is the articulus stantis et cadentis ecclesiae.
  • The Deconfessionalization of Lutheranism? 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.clai.org.au [Source type: Original source]

During the 1700s, Germany turned to Rationalism.
French cavalry charge Prussians at the Battle of Jena, 1806. Rationalist based policies were imposed on the unwilling German populace of the Napoleonic Empire.
A Haugean conventicle, a gathering similar to the cell groups of today.
The Broad and the Narrow Way, a popular German Pietist painting, 1866
Construction of the Ulm Minster finished in 1890. Gothic Revival architecture came from an increased appreciation of the Middle Ages during the Romantic Movement, which the Neo-Lutheran movement also drew from.
.Lutheranism has its roots in the efforts of Martin Luther who sought to reform the Western Church to a more biblical foundation.^ The Lutheran Church, the Church of the Reformation, is a church of repentanc e.
  • The Deconfessionalization of Lutheranism? 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.clai.org.au [Source type: Original source]

^ This resulted in the organization of the Lutheran Church of the Reformation.
  • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A crença religiosa realizada pela mais antiga e na Europa os mais numerosos do seitas protestantes, fundada pelos Wittenberg reformer, Martin Luther.
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[2][3][4][5]

Spread into Scandinavia

.Lutheranism spread through all of Scandinavia during the sixteenth century, as the monarch of Denmark-Norway (also ruling Iceland) and the monarch of Sweden (also ruling Finland) adopted Lutheranism.^ In Europe most Lutheran churches are episcopal, that is, ruled by bishops, and the churches of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden are established.
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^ Apart from Germany, where two thirds of the population had accepted Lutheranism by the end of the sixteenth century, the expansion of Lutheranism through Sweden, Denmark, and Norway left national churches that have endured in strength.
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^ Norway (B) Noruega Norway, which was united with Denmark, became Lutheran during the reigns of Frederick I and Christian III. Noruega, que estava unida com a Dinamarca, tornou-se luterano durante o reina de Frederick Ie III cristã.
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Since 1520, regular[6] Lutheran services were held in Copenhagen. .Under the reign of Frederick I (1523–33), Denmark-Norway remained officially Catholic.^ The Diet of Copenhagen (1546) enacted penal laws, which deprived Catholics of civil rights and forbade priests to remain in Denmark under pain of death.
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^ Norway (B) Noruega Norway, which was united with Denmark, became Lutheran during the reigns of Frederick I and Christian III. Noruega, que estava unida com a Dinamarca, tornou-se luterano durante o reina de Frederick Ie III cristã.
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^ Denmark By the Union of Calmar (1397), Sweden, Norway, and Denmark became a united kingdom under the King of Denmark.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although Frederick initially pledged to persecute Lutherans, he soon adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran preachers and reformers, the most significant being Hans Tausen.^ For the price of de-confessionalization Reformed Christianity today is - as it has been for the most part since the sixteenth century - prepared to acknowledge the Lutheran Church.
  • The Deconfessionalization of Lutheranism? 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.clai.org.au [Source type: Original source]

^ By 1530 they were formulating their own Confessions of Faith and proceeding independently amid the non Lutheran reform parties that proliferated across most of northern Europe.
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^ Although a majority of the world's Lutherans still live in the traditionally Lutheran countries of central and northern Europe, Lutheranism has been growing most rapidly in Africa and Asia.
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[7] .During his reign, Lutheranism made significant inroads among the Danish population.^ Lutheranism in Other Countries of Europe (a) Poland Lutheranism was introduced into Poland during the reign of Sigismund I (1501-48) by young men who had made their studies at Wittenberg.
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^ During the celebration of the tercentenary of the Reformation in 1817, efforts were made in Prussia to unite Lutherans and Reformed.
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^ Lutheranism made some gains in the hereditary states of Austria and in Bohemia during the reigns of Ferdinand 1 (1556-64) and Maximilian II (1564-76).
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.At an open meeting in Copenhagen attended by the king in 1536, the people shouted; "We will stand by the holy Gospel, and do not want such bishops any more".[8] Frederick's son, Christian, was openly Lutheran, which prevented his election to the throne upon his father's death.^ The Lutheran church defines itself as "the assembly of believers among which the Gospel is preached and the Holy Sacraments are administered according to the Gospel" (Augsburg Confession, VII).
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^ Frederick I of Schleswig-Holstein, his successor, openly professed Lutheranism in 1526.
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^ Much money was involved, so the United Lutheran Church in America wanted to be sure of the soundness of such an investment.
  • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, following his victory in the civil war that followed, in 1537 he became Christian III and advanced the Reformation in Denmark-Norway.^ Norway (B) Noruega Norway, which was united with Denmark, became Lutheran during the reigns of Frederick I and Christian III. Noruega, que estava unida com a Dinamarca, tornou-se luterano durante o reina de Frederick Ie III cristã.
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^ Denmark By the Union of Calmar (1397), Sweden, Norway, and Denmark became a united kingdom under the King of Denmark.
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^ Following World War I (1914-1918), however, unification and integration proceeded rapidly.
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The constitution upon which the Danish-Norwegian Church, according to the Church Ordinance should rest was "The pure word of God, which is the Law and the Evangelium", i.e. the Ten Commandments and the message of the four Canonical Gospels.[9] .It does not even mention the[10] Augsburg Confession.^ The confession means for her more than it does for the Reformed, indeed, in many respect even more than for the [Roman] Catholics.
  • The Deconfessionalization of Lutheranism? 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.clai.org.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Augsburg Confession, Articles Six through Ten Articles 6-10 deal with the doctrines of new obedience, the Church, and the Sacraments.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

.The priests at least had to[11] understand the Holy Script well enough to preach and explain the Gospel and the Epistles for their congregations.^ The Lutheran church defines itself as "the assembly of believers among which the Gospel is preached and the Holy Sacraments are administered according to the Gospel" (Augsburg Confession, VII).
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^ And then Paul's exhortation to hold fast to the tradition, whether by word of mouth or by epistle, indicated, most explicitly, the Orthodox understanding of Holy Tradition.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

.The youths were taught[12] from the Small Catechism, available in Danish since 1532. They may in the end expect:[13] "forgiving of their sins", "to be counted as just", and "the eternal life". Regulation is still similar.^ In this final section of the Small Catechism (confession is not addressed in the Large Catechism) Luther addresses confession in the Christian's life.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ Then the reply is 'Is it just that souls are slaughtered eternally , that these mountebanks may disport themselves quietly'?
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Martin Luther 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If you forgive anyone his sins, they are forgiven; if you do not forgive them, they are not forgiven.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

[14] The first Bible in Danish was Martin Luther's. It was translated by 1550 and made available in 3000 copies.[15] It was sold out 30 years later. Important differences relative to today's Roman Catholicism are the Lutherans' refutation of; that the tradition is a carrier of the "Word of God", and that only the communion of the Bishop of Rome had been entrusted to interpret the "Word of God".[16][17]
.The Reformation in Sweden began with Olaus and Laurentius Petri, brothers who took the Reformation to Sweden after studying in Germany.^ I began this paper with the assumption that there were indeed many Lutherans in Eastern Lutheranism who were influenced by the Reform understandings of Scripture.
  • Conservative Elements Within Eastern Lutheranism -- presented by Pastor Roy A. Steward, Jr. 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.elcm.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Emperor Charles V, anxious to avert the disorders which followed the Reformation in Germany, used great severity against those who propagated Lutheranism in the Netherlands.
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^ The studies you speak of are either non-existent or conducted by someone who had strong beliefs about masturbation BEFORE the experiment took place.
  • Is It Ok For My Christian Daughter To Masturbate? | ChristWire 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC christwire.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They led Gustav Vasa, elected king in 1523, to Lutheranism.^ The survival of Lutheranism after the Thirty Years' War was the result of the intervention of the Lutheran Swedish king Gustav II Adolph and of Roman Catholic France on the side of the Protestants.
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.The pope's refusal to allow the replacement of an archbishop that supported the invading forces opposing Gustav Vasa during the Stockholm Bloodbath led to the discontinuance of any official connection between Sweden and the papacy in 1523.[7] Four years later, at the Diet of Västerås, the king succeeded in forcing the diet to accept his dominion over the national church.^ The years 1918-1920 were especially busy as Dr. Greever directed four national campaigns.
  • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During my four years of seminary training, I received an excellent theological education, from both a theoretical as well as practical standpoint.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Is there a connection between the Word of God and the Church?
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

.The king was given possession of all church properties such as the church appointments and the clergy.^ After all, the Scriptures were given to the Church.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They meant the exemption from all taxes to bishops and ecclesiastical corporations , the alienation of church property , the suspension of episcopal authority, and its transfer to the temporal power.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Martin Luther 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With Luther they had little in common, for both were impervious to all religious impulses, unless it was their deadly hatred of the pope , and the confiscation of church property and land.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Martin Luther 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

While this effectively granted official sanction to Lutheran ideas,[7] Lutheranism did not become official until 1593, when the Uppsala Synod declared Holy Scripture the sole guideline for faith, with four documents accepted as faithful and authoritative explanations of it: the Apostles' Creed, the Nicene Creed, the Athanasian Creed, and the unaltered Augsburg Confession of 1530.[18]

Schmalkaldic War and the Formula of Concord

.After the death of Luther in 1546, the Schmalkaldic War started out as a conflict between two German Lutheran rulers in 1547. Soon, Holy Roman Imperial forces joined the battle and conquered the members of the Schmalkaldic League, oppressing and exiling many German Lutherans as they enforced the terms of the Augsburg Interim.^ Conrad Weiser was a very influential member of the New York Lutherans and there appears to have been a very good relationship between the Father and the son-in-law.
  • Conservative Elements Within Eastern Lutheranism -- presented by Pastor Roy A. Steward, Jr. 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.elcm.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the years following Luther's death in 1546, theological conflicts increasingly plagued his followers.
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^ The Lutherans in Germany (a) First Period: From the appearance of Luther's Theses to the adoption of the Formula of Concord (1517-80) Favoured by the civil rulers, Lutheranism spread rapidly in Northern Germany.
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Religious freedom was secured for Lutherans through the Peace of Passau in 1552 and under the Cuius regio, eius religio and Declaratio Ferdinandei clauses of the Peace of Augsburg in 1555.[19]
.Religious disputes between the Crypto-Calvinists, Philippists, Sacramentarians, Ubiquitarians, and Gnesio-Lutherans raged within Lutheranism during the middle of the 16th century.^ In the ecumenical age, however, they have kept a very distinct identity through their general loyalty to the teachings of 16th century Lutheranism.
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^ The term Lutheran was first used by his opponents during the Leipzig Disputation in 1519, and afterwards became universally prevalent.
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^ The peace was not lasting, and during two centuries there was almost continual religious strife which finally led to the downfall of the kingdom.
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This finally ended with the resolution of the issues in the Formula of Concord. .Large numbers of politically and religiously influential leaders met together, debated, and resolved these topics on the basis of Scripture, resulting in the Formula, which over 8,000 leaders signed.^ The Formula of Concord (1577), prepared by theologians to resolve disputes among Lutherans, was signed by political leaders to ensure Lutheran unity at a time when renewed religious warfare threatened.
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^ He decided the scriptural basis for each of the church's causes would be the best promotion, and this book is the result.
  • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was clear that these excesses, uncontrolled by the civil power , unrestrained by the religious leaders, were symptomatic of social and religious revolution.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Martin Luther 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Book of Concord replaced earlier, incomplete collections of doctrine, unifying all German Lutherans with identical doctrine and beginning the period of Lutheran orthodoxy.^ The "Book of Concord" is the collection of Lutheran confessions.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ The confessional writings of Lutheranism generally grant freedom to churches in matters liturgical, so long as they agree in all the articles of faith (Formula of Concord, Article X).
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Lutherans in Germany (a) First Period: From the appearance of Luther's Theses to the adoption of the Formula of Concord (1517-80) Favoured by the civil rulers, Lutheranism spread rapidly in Northern Germany.
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Lutheran Orthodoxy

.The historical period of Lutheran Orthodoxy is divided into three sections: Early Orthodoxy (1580-1600), High Orthodoxy (1600-1685), and Late Orthodoxy (1685-1730).^ Thus the Lutherans of the United States are divided into various conflicting bodies, each claiming to be a truer exponent of Lutheranism than the others.
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^ In the early 1800s men such as Schmucker and Kurtz lead a major movement to transform the Lutheran Church into a general Protestant church.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I then went back and re-examined the Historical section of What's Going on Among the Lutherans, Leppien & Smith.
  • Conservative Elements Within Eastern Lutheranism -- presented by Pastor Roy A. Steward, Jr. 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.elcm.org [Source type: Original source]

.Lutheran scholasticism developed gradually, especially for the purpose of arguing with the Jesuits, and it was finally established by Johann Gerhard.^ The chief representatives of this period of Lutheranism included Johann Gerhard, Nikolaus Hunnius, Abraham Calov, and David Hollaz.
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^ As principais representantes deste período de Lutheranism incluídos Johann Gerhard, Nikolaus Hunnius, Abraham Calov, e David Hollaz.
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^ This development was bitterly opposed by a large number of Lutherans, some of whom broke away to establish a separate church.
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.Abraham Calovius represents the climax of the scholastic paradigm in orthodox Lutheranism.^ The chief representatives of this period of Lutheranism included Johann Gerhard, Nikolaus Hunnius, Abraham Calov, and David Hollaz.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
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.Other orthodox Lutheran theologians include Martin Chemnitz, Aegidius Hunnius, Leonhard Hutter, Nicolaus Hunnius, Jesper Rasmussen Brochmand, Salomo Glassius, Johann Hülsemann, Johann Conrad Dannhauer, Johannes Andreas Quenstedt, Johann Friedrich König, and Johann Wilhelm Baier.^ Often forgotten is the fact that a good number of "Missouri congregations" and other Orthodox Confessional Lutheran Congregations from the Buffalo Synod etc.
  • Conservative Elements Within Eastern Lutheranism -- presented by Pastor Roy A. Steward, Jr. 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.elcm.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And as I have begun the process of clearing out of the Lutheran townhouse, I have discovered other Lutheran clergy who are giving serious consideration to the Orthodox Church.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In Lutheranism I was surprised at how little people knew about Martin Luther, let alone Philip Melanchthon , Martin Chemnitz , etc.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

.Near the end of the Thirty Years' War, the compromising spirit seen in Philip Melanchthon rose up again in Helmstedt School and especially in theology of Georgius Calixtus, causing the Syncretistic Controversy.^ For the part he took in the Thirty Years War, he is venerated by Lutherans as the religious hero of their Church, but it is now admitted that reasons of state led Gustavus into that conflict.
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^ Out of these religious discords grew the horrors of the Thirty Years War, which led many persons to desire better relations between the churches.
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^ The survival of Lutheranism after the Thirty Years' War was the result of the intervention of the Lutheran Swedish king Gustav II Adolph and of Roman Catholic France on the side of the Protestants.
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Another theological issue that arose was the Crypto-Kenotic Controversy.[20]
.Late orthodoxy was torn by influences from rationalism, philosophy based on reason, and Pietism, a revival movement in Lutheranism.^ Pietism had exercised a beneficial influence, but it was followed by the Rationalistic movement, a more radical reaction against orthodoxy, which effected within the Lutheran, as in other Protestant communions, many apostasies from Christian belief.
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^ At the same time, idealism, the dominant movement of modern German philosophy, had a profound effect on Lutheran theological thought.
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^ The effect of the great revivals beginning in the late 1700's caused a good portion of Lutherans to get re-acquainted with the Confessions and with the Lutheran Biblical understanding.
  • Conservative Elements Within Eastern Lutheranism -- presented by Pastor Roy A. Steward, Jr. 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.elcm.org [Source type: Original source]

.After a century of vitality, the Pietist theologians Philipp Jakob Spener and August Hermann Francke warned that orthodoxy had degenerated into meaningless intellectualism and Formalism, while orthodox theologians found the emotional and subjective focuses of Pietism to be vulnerable to Rationalist propaganda.^ Pietism was a reaction to what was perceived as an arid intellectualism in the orthodox theologians.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ O período de luterano ortodoxo deu lugar ao pietist circulação na última parte do século XVII. Pietism was a reaction to what was perceived as an arid intellectualism in the orthodox theologians.
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^ His follower, August Francke, founded in 1694 the University of Halle, which became a stronghold of Pietism.
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[21] .The last famous orthodox Lutheran theologian before the rationalist Aufklärung, or Enlightenment, was David Hollatz.^ It involved living in two major theological houses, Baptist and Lutheran, before finding my home in the Orthodox Church.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Spener was also accused of teaching justification by works by many orthodox Lutheran theologians of his day.
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

.Late orthodox theologian Valentin Ernst Löscher took part in the controversy against Pietism.^ Pietism was a reaction to what was perceived as an arid intellectualism in the orthodox theologians.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ O período de luterano ortodoxo deu lugar ao pietist circulação na última parte do século XVII. Pietism was a reaction to what was perceived as an arid intellectualism in the orthodox theologians.
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.Medieval mystical traditions continued in works of Martin Moller, Johann Arndt, and Joachim Lütkemann.^ Johann Bugenhagen: A Pastor's Pastor A look at the pastor who served Martin Luther during the Reformation and the important role he played in the Reformer's work.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

.Pietism became a rival of orthodoxy but adopted some orthodox devotional literature; for example, Arndt's, Scriver's and Prätorius' which were combined Pietistic literature.^ Nominally orthodox in belief and practice, the Pietists stressed Bible reading, circles of prayer and devotion, and the works of love.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
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Rationalism

.Rationalist philosophers from France and England had an enormous impact during the 18th century, along with the German Rationalists Christian Wolff, Gottfried Leibniz, and Immanuel Kant.^ During the eighteenth century large numbers of Lutheran emigrants from Alsace, the Palatinate, and Würtemberg settled along the Hudson River.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ At the beginning of the 18th century German Lutherans settled in large numbers in Pennsylvania.
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^ Lutheran theology, during the 18th century, reflected the rationalism of the Enlightenment.
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.Their work led to an increase in rationalist beliefs, at the expense of faith in God and agreement with the Bible.^ The article of justification by grace through faith challenged the Roman Catholic tradition, which asserted that faith was pleasing to God only if it were accompanied by good works and perfected by love.
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^ Faith alone can work justification , and man is saved by confidently believing that God will pardon him.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Martin Luther 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ God legally cancels the debt of our sins and imputes Christ's righteousness to us when we place our faith in Christ and His work on the cross to make us acceptable to God.
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[21] .Dissenting Lutheran pastors were often reprimanded by the government bureaucracy overseeing them, for example, when they tried to correct Rationalist influences in the parish school.^ Our Protestant friends, who often assert that they just go by the Bible, conveniently ignore such clear examples from Scripture.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After Luther died in 1546, Lutheran scholars tried to precisely formulate the doctrines of the Christian faith as they understood them.
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Paul Sunday School taught a very literal and inerrant understanding of the Bible and the Pastors of my youth I remember as being very Lutheran.
  • Conservative Elements Within Eastern Lutheranism -- presented by Pastor Roy A. Steward, Jr. 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.elcm.org [Source type: Original source]

[22] .As a result of the impact of a local form of rationalism, termed Neology, by the latter half of the 18th century, genuine piety was found almost solely in small Pietist conventicles.^ The period of Lutheran orthodox gave way to the pietist movement in the latter part of the seventeenth century.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ Lutheran theology, during the 18th century, reflected the rationalism of the Enlightenment.
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^ In the late 17th century its more gentle side, which grew out of the piety of Luther, appeared in the form of a movement called Pietism.
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.However, some of the laity preserved Lutheran orthodoxy from both Pietism and rationalism through reusing old catechisms, hymnbooks, postils, and devotional writings, including those written by Johann Gerhard, Heinrich Müller, and Christian Scriver.^ In fact Lutheranism changed radically shortly after Luther's death, with unchurchly , non-sacramental Pietism and the anti- supernatural Rationalism gutting out the structure.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The chief representatives of this period of Lutheranism included Johann Gerhard, Nikolaus Hunnius, Abraham Calov, and David Hollaz.
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^ The same is true to some extent in the Scandinavian countries, where Rationalism is making inroads on Lutheran orthodoxy.
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[23] .However, Lutheranism was extinguished during the course of the 18th century.^ Lutheran theology, during the 18th century, reflected the rationalism of the Enlightenment.
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^ In the ecumenical age, however, they have kept a very distinct identity through their general loyalty to the teachings of 16th century Lutheranism.
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^ During the eighteenth century large numbers of Lutheran emigrants from Alsace, the Palatinate, and Würtemberg settled along the Hudson River.
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[21]

Revials

.Napoleon's invasion of Germany promoted Rationalism and angered German Lutherans, stirring up a desire among the people to preserve Luther's theology from the Rationalist threat.^ In fact Lutheranism changed radically shortly after Luther's death, with unchurchly , non-sacramental Pietism and the anti- supernatural Rationalism gutting out the structure.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In Lutheranism I was surprised at how little people knew about Martin Luther, let alone Philip Melanchthon , Martin Chemnitz , etc.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Lutheran theology, during the 18th century, reflected the rationalism of the Enlightenment.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
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A revival began, termed the Erweckung, or Awakening. Those associated with this Awakening held that reason was insufficient and pointed out the importance of emotional religious experience. .Small groups sprang up, often in universities, which devoted themselves to Bible study, reading devotional writings, and revival meetings.^ Ambers percentages are false, ther eare no actuall documents from study groups (other then fake ones from christan bible groups throwing darts to pick a percentage) .
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^ Nominally orthodox in belief and practice, the Pietists stressed Bible reading, circles of prayer and devotion, and the works of love.
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^ Much that is of permanent value as an aid to the scientific study of the Bible has been accomplished, but at the same time Rationalism has been making constant gains, not only in the universities, but also amongst the masses.
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.Although the beginning of this Awakening tended heavily toward Romanticism, nationalism, and experience, the emphasis of the Awakening shifted around 1830 to restoring the traditional liturgy, doctrine, and confessions of the Lutheran church in the Neo-Lutheran movement.^ The Lutheran church defines itself as "the assembly of believers among which the Gospel is preached and the Holy Sacraments are administered according to the Gospel" (Augsburg Confession, VII).
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^ Holy Week: Emotion in the Lutheran Church A look at Holy Week in the Lutheran Church and the emotion that Lutherans experience during that week.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ Scriptural Support of Traditional Lutheran Positions The first of a series of Bible studies on the positions of the traditional Lutheran church on fundamental teachings of Scripture.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

[24][25] A layman, Luther scholar Johann Georg Hamann, became famous for countering Rationalism and advancing the Awakening.[26]
.This Awakening also swept through Scandinavia, influenced by both German Neo-Lutheranism and Pietism.^ It was, however, profoundly influenced by the neo Aristotelianism which had secured a foothold in the German universities.
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^ Johann Arndt (1555-1621) has been widely acknowledged as the theological father of German Lutheran Pietism.
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^ Melanchthon does through both testaments to defend the Lutheran position.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

.Danish pastor and philosopher Nikolaj Frederik Severin Grundtvig reshaped church life throughout Denmark through a reform movement beginning in 1830. He also wrote about 1,500 hymns, including God's Word Is Our Great Heritage.^ They reflect the emphasis on justification by grace and the correction of abuses in the life of the church while at the same time "conserving" the church's catholic heritage (through explicit commitment to the ancient creeds, traditional forms of worship, church government, etc.
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^ Protestants will be surprised that, while the Scriptures affirm the Word of God as reliable and true, the same Scriptures declare that the Church itself is "the pillar and ground of the truth" (1 Tim 3:15).
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Is there a connection between the Word of God and the Church?
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

[27] In Norway, Hans Nielsen Hauge, a lay street preacher, emphasized spiritual discipline and sparked the Haugean movement.[28] In Sweden, Lars Levi Læstadius began the Laestadian movement that emphasized moral reform.[28] In Finland, a farmer, Paavo Ruotsalainen, started a reform movement when he took to preaching about repentance and prayer.[28]
.In 1817, Frederick William III of Prussia ordered the Lutheran and Reformed churches in his territory to unite, forming the Evangelical Church of the Prussian Union.^ During the celebration of the tercentenary of the Reformation in 1817, efforts were made in Prussia to unite Lutherans and Reformed.
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^ This resulted in the organization of the Lutheran Church of the Reformation.
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^ In the United Evangelical Church of Germany the agenda of Frederick William III (1817) is the official form.
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.The unification of the two branches of German Protestantism sparked the Schism of the Old Lutherans.^ Protestantism split into two great branches, the Lutheran and the Reformed.
  • Conservative Elements Within Eastern Lutheranism -- presented by Pastor Roy A. Steward, Jr. 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.elcm.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A band of Old Lutherans, who resisted the Prussian union, emigrated from Saxony in 1839, and two years later founded the Buffalo Synod.
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^ General Information Lutheranism is the branch of Protestantism that generally follows the teachings of the 16th century reformer Martin Luther.
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.Many Lutherans, called "Old Lutherans", despite imprisonment and military force,[26] chose to leave the established churches and form independent church bodies, or "free churches" while others left for the United States and Australia.^ Representatives of all the Lutheran Church papers in the United States were there.
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^ The Lutheran churches in the United States have Canadian counterparts.
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^ Greever decided that he would retire at the 1946 convention of the United Lutheran Church in America.
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A similar legislated merger in Silesia prompted thousands to join the Old Lutheran movement. .The dispute over ecumenism overshadowed other controversies within German Lutheranism.^ The Lutheran movement diffused after 1517 from Saxony through many other German territories into Scandinavia.
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[29]
.Despite political meddling in church life, local leaders sought to restore and renew Christianity.^ This commentary discusses Paul vs. James, the Sophist's treatment of the Law, the proper role of Law and Gospel in a Christian's life, and the Church's role in a Christian's life.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ The Formula of Concord (1577), prepared by theologians to resolve disputes among Lutherans, was signed by political leaders to ensure Lutheran unity at a time when renewed religious warfare threatened.
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^ He begins with the church, which sets the tone for Christian faith and life.
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.Ernst Wilhelm Hengstenberg began to study the Bible for his work as a professor, and in doing so became convinced of its reliability and the usefulness of the Augsburg Confession as a summary of faith.^ One way to do this is to make sure they keep busy all the time, through their school work, sports, church, and daily bible study.
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^ This installment of a study of the Apology of the Augsburg Confession deals with saving (justifying) faith.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ Augsburg Confession, Article One: Of God On the fourth day of Christmas the Lutheranism editor continues with his study of the Augsburg Confession.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

.High school teacher August Friedrich Christian Vilmar turned from rationalism to faith, and in doing so, realized the importance of the unaltered Augsburg Confession and the other Lutheran Confessions of faith.^ The Lutheran church defines itself as "the assembly of believers among which the Gospel is preached and the Holy Sacraments are administered according to the Gospel" (Augsburg Confession, VII).
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^ The Lord had already led me to an understanding of infant baptism, the real presence of Christ in the Sacraments, confession, a liturgical form of worship, and acceptance of Orthodox Christology, among other things, during my Lutheran residency.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Lutheranism has always been concerned with the cultural and intellectual aspects of the Christian faith.
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.An advocate of the Neo-Lutheran movement (which was allied with the Old Lutherans against rationalism), he worked to renew the church through the use of the Lutheran Confessions.^ The Lutheran church defines itself as "the assembly of believers among which the Gospel is preached and the Holy Sacraments are administered according to the Gospel" (Augsburg Confession, VII).
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^ It also approved the use of the Lutheran Laymen's Movement for promotion, introduction, and organization of the new financial system.
  • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The contrast of the Book of Worship edition used by my home church with the Older General Synod Book of Worship published by the Lutheran Publication Society.
  • Conservative Elements Within Eastern Lutheranism -- presented by Pastor Roy A. Steward, Jr. 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.elcm.org [Source type: Original source]

.[26] Neo-Lutheran Johann Konrad Wilhelm Löhe and Old Lutheran free church leader Friedrich August Brünn[30] both sent young men overseas to serve as Pastors to German Americans, while the Inner Mission focused on renewing the situation home.^ In 1927 he resigned as pastor of Ascension to devote his energy to the seminary and the American Lutheran Survey, because the magazine was in bad financial condition.
  • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It involved living in two major theological houses, Baptist and Lutheran, before finding my home in the Orthodox Church.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The contrast of the Book of Worship edition used by my home church with the Older General Synod Book of Worship published by the Lutheran Publication Society.
  • Conservative Elements Within Eastern Lutheranism -- presented by Pastor Roy A. Steward, Jr. 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.elcm.org [Source type: Original source]

[31] .Johann Gottfried Herder, superintendent at Weimar and part of the Inner Mission movement, joined with the Romantic movement with his quest to preserve human emotion and experience from Rationalism.^ For Lutherans, baptism signifies God's unconditional love, which is independent of any intellectual, moral, or emotional achievements on the part of human beings.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32]
.The Neo-Lutheran movement managed to slow secularism and counter atheistic Marxist Socialism, but it did not fully succeed in Europe.^ They ranged on every subject from Social Missions to the Lutheran Laymen's Movement.
  • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31] It partly succeeded in continuing the Pietist movement's drive to right social wrongs and focus on individual conversion. .The Neo-Lutheran call to renewal failed to achieve widespread popular acceptance because it both began and continued with a lofty, idealistic Romanticism that did not connect with an increasingly industrialized and secularized Europe.^ There were occasional altar calls (something unheard of in Lutheran circles because of their inconsistency with Lutheran soteriology ).
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

[33] .At best, the work of local leaders resulted in specific areas with vibrant spiritual renewal, but people in Lutheran areas overall continued to become increasingly distant from church life.^ It is a spirituality that is an extension of the Church's liturgical life.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sectional representatives, similar to the representatives of The Lutheran today, were appointed in many areas across the country to be responsible for publicity of the Lutheran Church.
  • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In his subsequent works, Spener continued to outline the needed reform of the Lutheran church.
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

[31]

The Bible (source of doctrine)

.Traditionally, Lutherans hold the Bible of the Old and New Testaments to be the only divinely inspired book, the only source of divinely revealed knowledge, and the only norm for Christian teaching.^ Lutherans traditionally hold that Scripture is the only source and norm of doctrine.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The leaders in the Church adjusted themselves to the new conditions, and soon theological chairs and the pulpits were filled by men who rejected not only the dogmatic teaching of the Symbolical Books, but every supernatural element of religion.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lutheranism pledges itself "to the prophetic and apostolic writings of the Old and New Testaments as the pure and clear fountain of Israel, which is the only norm according to which all teachers and teachings are to be judged and evaluated" (Formula of Concord, Epitome).To be sure, the authority of Scripture had been emphasized prior to Luther and the Reformation.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34] .Scripture alone is the formal principle of the faith, the final authority for all matters of faith and morals because of its inspiration, authority, clarity, efficacy, and sufficiency.^ The confessional writings of Lutheranism generally grant freedom to churches in matters liturgical, so long as they agree in all the articles of faith (Formula of Concord, Article X).
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The fundamental principle enunciated by Luther, namely, the rejection of all religious authority, opened the way for new theories and new sects.
  • The Religious Revolution: Lutheranism and Zwinglianism: In Germany @ ELCore.Net 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC catholicity.elcore.net [Source type: Original source]

^ They have come under suspision--all because of their identity, family origin, skin color, or the actions of a minority of their faith.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

[35]
The authority of the Scriptures has been challenged during the history of Lutheranism. .Martin Luther taught that the Bible was the written Word of God, and the only reliable guide for faith and practice.^ Note that faith consists in living, consoling trust and not in empty sounds and words . . . This is true knowledge of God, which arises out of experience and consists in living faith.
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Protestants will be surprised that, while the Scriptures affirm the Word of God as reliable and true, the same Scriptures declare that the Church itself is "the pillar and ground of the truth" (1 Tim 3:15).
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The article of justification by grace through faith challenged the Roman Catholic tradition, which asserted that faith was pleasing to God only if it were accompanied by good works and perfected by love.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He held that every passage of Scripture has one straightforward meaning, the literal sense as interpreted by other Scripture.^ Reading the Fathers and the proceedings of the ecumenical councils has given me many insights into the interpretation and application of difficult Scriptural passages.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I finally concluded that the Scriptures could not be interpreted on ones own.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An important element of Lutheran biblical interpretation is that one takes words of command and promise literally unless there is some compelling reason for not doing so.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36] .This belief was accepted during the orthodox Lutheranism of the 17th century.^ The staunch Orthodox Lutheran immigrants of the mid 19th century certainly were a significant part of the critique of the General Synod and of the General Council.
  • Conservative Elements Within Eastern Lutheranism -- presented by Pastor Roy A. Steward, Jr. 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.elcm.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the eighteenth century large numbers of Lutheran emigrants from Alsace, the Palatinate, and Würtemberg settled along the Hudson River.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the 19th century, the German theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher, who emphasized universal religious experience, exercised a major influence on liberal Lutheran theologians.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the 18th century, Rationalism advocated reason rather than the authority of the Bible as the final source of knowledge, but most of the laity did not accept this Rationalist position.^ Lutheran theology, during the 18th century, reflected the rationalism of the Enlightenment.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The peace was not lasting, and during two centuries there was almost continual religious strife which finally led to the downfall of the kingdom.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Voigt rather thought Dr. Greever should accept this summons to duty, so the next day he did.
  • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37] .In the nineteenth century, a confessional revival reemphasized the authority of the Bible and agreement with the Lutheran Confessions.^ The effect of the great revivals beginning in the late 1700's caused a good portion of Lutherans to get re-acquainted with the Confessions and with the Lutheran Biblical understanding.
  • Conservative Elements Within Eastern Lutheranism -- presented by Pastor Roy A. Steward, Jr. 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.elcm.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Century and these posed an enormous threat to the Lutheran Confessional stance.
  • Conservative Elements Within Eastern Lutheranism -- presented by Pastor Roy A. Steward, Jr. 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.elcm.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We're Lutherans - and all that that entails A twenty-first century defense of confessional Lutheranism.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

.Today, Lutherans disagree about the inspiration and authority of the Bible.^ Inspiration and Inerrancy A look at the Lutheran position of inspiration and inerrancy of the Bible.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ Lutheranism affirms the ultimate authority of the Word of God (as found in the Bible) in matters of faith and Christian life and emphasizes Christ as the key to the understanding of the Bible.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Theological conservatives use the historical-grammatical method of Biblical interpretation, while theological liberals use the higher critical method.^ Schmauk, interestingly had been raising warnings about the undermining of Holy Scripture by means of the Historical Critical method.
  • Conservative Elements Within Eastern Lutheranism -- presented by Pastor Roy A. Steward, Jr. 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.elcm.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The growing strength of the Biblical/ Confessional Conservatives increased the activities of the Liberal elements.
  • Conservative Elements Within Eastern Lutheranism -- presented by Pastor Roy A. Steward, Jr. 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.elcm.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Their seminaries seemed to have bought into the higher critical methods of biblical scholarship.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

.The 2008 U.S. Religious Landscape Survey conducted by the Pew Research Center surveyed 1,926 adults in the United States that self-identified as Lutheran.^ Again in 1916 the same committee said, "We call attention to the American Lutheran Survey as one of the leading religious periodicals of our country."
  • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the part he took in the Thirty Years War, he is venerated by Lutherans as the religious hero of their Church, but it is now admitted that reasons of state led Gustavus into that conflict.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the United States the Lutherans have been more conservative, and thus far have preserved more of their confessional spirit.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The study found that 30% believed that the Bible was the Word of God and was to be taken literally word for word.^ According to such views, it cannot be said that the Bible is the Word of God, but only that it contains it" (pg.
  • Conservative Elements Within Eastern Lutheranism -- presented by Pastor Roy A. Steward, Jr. 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.elcm.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Lutheranism affirms the ultimate authority of the Word of God (as found in the Bible) in matters of faith and Christian life and emphasizes Christ as the key to the understanding of the Bible.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bore the stigma patiently, were driven by these attacks to a closer study of the Word of God and of the Confessions of the church, and into closer union with one another.
  • Conservative Elements Within Eastern Lutheranism -- presented by Pastor Roy A. Steward, Jr. 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.elcm.org [Source type: Original source]

.40% held that the Bible was the Word of God, but was not literally true word for word or was unsure if it was literally true word for word.^ Note that faith consists in living, consoling trust and not in empty sounds and words . . . This is true knowledge of God, which arises out of experience and consists in living faith.
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ According to such views, it cannot be said that the Bible is the Word of God, but only that it contains it" (pg.
  • Conservative Elements Within Eastern Lutheranism -- presented by Pastor Roy A. Steward, Jr. 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.elcm.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Protestants will be surprised that, while the Scriptures affirm the Word of God as reliable and true, the same Scriptures declare that the Church itself is "the pillar and ground of the truth" (1 Tim 3:15).
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

.23% said the Bible was written by men and not the Word of God.^ According to such views, it cannot be said that the Bible is the Word of God, but only that it contains it" (pg.
  • Conservative Elements Within Eastern Lutheranism -- presented by Pastor Roy A. Steward, Jr. 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.elcm.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Lutheranism affirms the ultimate authority of the Word of God (as found in the Bible) in matters of faith and Christian life and emphasizes Christ as the key to the understanding of the Bible.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

7% didn't know, weren't sure, or had other positions.[38]
Luther's translation of the Bible, from 1534
"I saw another angel fly in the midst of heaven, having the everlasting gospel to preach..."[39] This illustration is from the title page of Luther's Bible.
Law and Grace, by Lucas Cranach. The left side shows our condemnation under God's law, while the right side presents God's grace in Christ.

Characteristics

Inspiration

.Historically, Lutheranism affirms that the Bible does not merely contain the Word of God, but every word of it is, because of verbal inspiration, the direct, immediate word of God.^ Protestants will be surprised that, while the Scriptures affirm the Word of God as reliable and true, the same Scriptures declare that the Church itself is "the pillar and ground of the truth" (1 Tim 3:15).
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It stressed that the Old and New Testaments were 'the inspired and inerrant Word of God,' a phrase that was to become a crucial issue in Lutheran unity discussions for decades.'
  • Conservative Elements Within Eastern Lutheranism -- presented by Pastor Roy A. Steward, Jr. 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.elcm.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Salvation, according to Lutheran teaching, does not depend on worthiness or merit but is a gift of God's sovereign grace.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40] .As Lutherans confess in the Nicene Creed, the Holy Spirit "spoke through the prophets". The Apology of the Augsburg Confession identifies Holy Scripture with the Word of God[41] and calls the Holy Spirit the author of the Bible.^ I have underlined the sections in the 3 above quotations dealing with the Word of God and Holy Scripture.
  • Conservative Elements Within Eastern Lutheranism -- presented by Pastor Roy A. Steward, Jr. 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.elcm.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They were sent from Sweden and were obligated to the Church Law of 1686, whose opening paragraph reads: ' In our kingdom and its dependent lands every citizen shall only and alone confess Christian doctrine and faith which is based on the holy Word of God, the prophetic and apostolic Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, and expressed in the three main symbols, the Apostolic, the Nicene and the Athanasian, and also in the unaltered Augsburg Confession of 1530, and in 1593 again adopted by the Upsala Council, as well as its elaboration in the entire, so called, Book of Concord.
  • Conservative Elements Within Eastern Lutheranism -- presented by Pastor Roy A. Steward, Jr. 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.elcm.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And so we have the prophetic word confirmed, which you do well to heed as a light that shines in a dark place, until the day dawns and the morning star rises in your hearts; 20 knowing this first, that no prophecy of Scripture is of any private interpretation, 21 for prophecy never came by the will of man, but holy men of God spoke [emphasis mine] as they were moved by the Holy Spirit.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

[42] Because of this, Lutherans confess in the Formula of Concord, "we receive and embrace with our whole heart the prophetic and apostolic Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments as the pure, clear fountain of Israel."[43] The apocryphal books were not written by the prophets, by inspiration; they contain errors[44] were never included in the Judean Canon that Jesus used,[45] and therefore are not a part of Holy Scripture.[46] The prophetic and apostolic Scriptures are authentic as written by the prophets and apostles. .A correct translation of their writings is God's Word because it has the same meaning as the original Hebrew and Greek.^ Protestants will be surprised that, while the Scriptures affirm the Word of God as reliable and true, the same Scriptures declare that the Church itself is "the pillar and ground of the truth" (1 Tim 3:15).
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Luther's Tragic Mistake: Part Nineteen Luther examines the words of God to David to determine what the meaning of an eternal Kingdom promised to David is.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ At the same time he undertook to prepare a translation of the New Testament as a means of advancing his propaganda.
  • The Religious Revolution: Lutheranism and Zwinglianism: In Germany @ ELCore.Net 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC catholicity.elcore.net [Source type: Original source]

[46] .A mistranslation is not God's word, and no human authority can invest it with divine authority.^ Blessed is the Kingdom the first words of the Divine Liturgy, means that, in worship, the Kingdom of God is a blessed reality that is manifest in the Church as we worship with angels, and archangels, and all the company of heaven.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Lutheranism affirms the ultimate authority of the Word of God (as found in the Bible) in matters of faith and Christian life and emphasizes Christ as the key to the understanding of the Bible.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore they did not intend to substitute human efforts for God's Grace any more than those who claimed grace came through the preaching of the Word.
  • Conservative Elements Within Eastern Lutheranism -- presented by Pastor Roy A. Steward, Jr. 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.elcm.org [Source type: Original source]

[46]

Divine authority

.Historically, Lutherans maintain that Holy Scripture, the Word of God, carries the full authority of God.^ I have underlined the sections in the 3 above quotations dealing with the Word of God and Holy Scripture.
  • Conservative Elements Within Eastern Lutheranism -- presented by Pastor Roy A. Steward, Jr. 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.elcm.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, I believe that the adherence to the authority of the Lutheran Confessions has been an important aspect to also keep before the inquiry since there are historically very different views of inerrancy within Protestantism, namely, The Calvinistic/ Zwinglian view of Inerrant Scripture and the Lutheran Confessional view of Scripture as God's Inerrant and Infallible Word.
  • Conservative Elements Within Eastern Lutheranism -- presented by Pastor Roy A. Steward, Jr. 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.elcm.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The United Lutheran church position, reports Gilbert 'saw the Scriptures as the human instrument whereby God communicated his Word, the gospel" I believe Gilbert should have been much more forthright and stated the truth that those in control of the ULCA saw the Scriptures as the human instrument whereby God communicated his Word.
  • Conservative Elements Within Eastern Lutheranism -- presented by Pastor Roy A. Steward, Jr. 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.elcm.org [Source type: Original source]

Every single statement of the Bible calls for instant and unqualified acceptance.[47] .Every doctrine of the Bible is the teaching of God and therefore requires full agreement.^ Then they get their Bibles, use their concordances, and footnotes, and place check marks in the appropriate squares for every denomination that teaches according to that individual's understanding of the doctrine in question.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In this way the man of Gods choosing is imparted with the fullness of the faith and is charged to teach it and preserve it undefiled.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

[48] .Every promise of the Bible calls for unshakable trust in its fulfillment.^ The Gospels call out to us about God's love and the fulfillment of his promise.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

[49] Every command of the Bible is the directive of God himself and therefore demands willing observance.[50]

Clarity

.Historically, Lutherans understand the Bible to present all doctrines and commands of the Christian faith clearly.^ Historic Lutheranism viewed Scripture as the organic foundation of faith.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of course, doctrine was stressed, "the cardinal doctrines of Christianity and the distinguishing articles of the Lutheran Church."
  • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead of seeing worship as the faith of the church in action, Lutherans, like most Western Christians, tend to reduce the faith to mere intellectual assent.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

[51] .God's Word is freely accessible to every reader or hearer of ordinary intelligence, without requiring any special education.^ Somehow I graduated without compromising my belief in the entire Scripture as truly Gods Word..
  • Conservative Elements Within Eastern Lutheranism -- presented by Pastor Roy A. Steward, Jr. 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.elcm.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The group’s stated justification for secrecy is that it enables people to speak freely without the need to carefully consider how every word might be interpreted by the mass media .
  • Top 10 Secret Societies - Listverse 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

[52] .Of course, one must understand the language God's Word is presented in, and not be so preoccupied by contrary thoughts so as to prevent understanding.^ Be diligent to present yourself approved to God, a worker who does not need to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth .
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Scripture is the causa media by which man learns to know God and his will; the Word is the one and the only source of theology.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand, the Orthodox Church understands itself to be the One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church , from whence the Holy Spirit conceived the written Word.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

[53] .As a result of this, no one needs to wait for any clergy, and pope, scholar, or ecumenical council to explain the real meaning of any part of the Bible.^ The Protestant princes announced their determination to take no part in a Council convoked and presided over by the Pope.
  • The Religious Revolution: Lutheranism and Zwinglianism: In Germany @ ELCore.Net 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC catholicity.elcore.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There is nothing wrong with masturbating, It’s natural and no one states that we can’t do it, it isnt even covered by the Bible or Koran.
  • Is It Ok For My Christian Daughter To Masturbate? | ChristWire 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC christwire.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ambers percentages are false, ther eare no actuall documents from study groups (other then fake ones from christan bible groups throwing darts to pick a percentage) .
  • Is It Ok For My Christian Daughter To Masturbate? | ChristWire 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC christwire.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[54]

Efficacy

.Lutherans confess that Scripture is united with the power of the Holy Spirit and with it, not only demands, but also creates the acceptance of its teaching.^ The Lutheran church defines itself as "the assembly of believers among which the Gospel is preached and the Holy Sacraments are administered according to the Gospel" (Augsburg Confession, VII).
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is interesting to note that Lutheran systematic theology books employ this passage as a proof text for the inspiration of Holy Scripture.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Scriptural Support of Traditional Lutheran Positions The first of a series of Bible studies on the positions of the traditional Lutheran church on fundamental teachings of Scripture.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

[55] This teaching produces faith and obedience. .Holy Scripture is not a dead letter, but rather, the power of the Holy Spirit is inherent in it.^ Only the Church as a whole, having been led by the Holy Spirit to discern the canon of Scripture, is equipped to interpret its contents.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Where the Spirit of God is, there also is the Spirit's power, salvation, regeneration, renewal; all this is the work of the Holy Spirit.
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Footnote61 In Francke's writings, though, there is a much greater emphasis on the love of God which motivates sanctification and the power of the Holy Spirit which empowers sanctification.
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

[56] .Scripture does not compel a mere intellectual assent to its doctrine, resting on logical argumentation, but rather it creates the living agreement of faith.^ Instead of seeing worship as the faith of the church in action, Lutherans, like most Western Christians, tend to reduce the faith to mere intellectual assent.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

[57] As the Smalcald Articles affirm, "in those things which concern the spoken, outward Word, we must firmly hold that God grants His Spirit or grace to no one, except through or with the preceding outward Word."[58]

Sufficiency

.Lutherans are confident that the Bible contains everything that one needs to know in order to obtain salvation and to live a Christian life.^ Read how one newly Christianized king treated those who sought to kill him--thus by living his life was able to share the Gospel message of full life and true life in our crucified, risen, and ascended Savior.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ Melanchthom finishes the discourse on salvation by faith alone and the true place of works in a Christian's life.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ Includes a link to Christian Life Resources page on living wills and durable powers-of-attorney.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

[59] .There are no deficiencies in Scripture that need to be filled with by tradition, pronouncements of the Pope, new revelations, or present-day development of doctrine.^ There were no churches in this neighborhood, so there was a need.
  • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Protestants, who reject tradition and uphold the principle of sola scriptura , must admit that they interpret the Scriptures through the lens of their own doctrinal systems.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ March, 1525), after assailing the "new Pope ", gave an exhaustive statement of his doctrine of the Lord's Supper.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Martin Luther 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

[60]

Law and Gospel

.Lutherans understand the Bible as containing two distinct types of content, termed Law and Gospel (or Law and Promises).^ Other distinctive doctrines of the Lutheran Church are: Outras distintivo doutrinas da Igreja Luterana são: consubstantiation (although the symbols do not use this term), i.e.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Christian was now thought to be a person who interprets the Bible in terms of the Lutheran symbols as the truth of these symbols is expressed in an orthodox system of theology.
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In Lutheran understanding it is no more difficult for him to work faith in infants through the gospel promise attached to the water of baptism than in adults alienated from God through the proclamation of the gospel in preaching.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[61] .Properly distinguishing between Law and Gospel prevents the Gospel teaching of justification by grace through faith alone from being obscured.^ The critical rediscovery of Luther and the Reformers was the doctrine of justification by grace through faith alone.
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This was distinguished from infused faith (fides infusa), which is a gift of grace and implies adherence to all revealed truth.
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^ Footnote27 However, an examination of their writings proves that all three men believed that justification is by grace through faith alone, and that justification must precede sanctification.
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

[62]
Title Page from the 1580 Dresden Book of Concord

Lutheran Confessions (doctrinal standard)

.The Book of Concord, published in 1580, contains ten documents which some Lutherans believe are faithful and authoritative explanations of Holy Scripture.^ The "Book of Concord" is the collection of Lutheran confessions.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ The Lutheran church defines itself as "the assembly of believers among which the Gospel is preached and the Holy Sacraments are administered according to the Gospel" (Augsburg Confession, VII).
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^ The confessional writings of Lutheranism generally grant freedom to churches in matters liturgical, so long as they agree in all the articles of faith (Formula of Concord, Article X).
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

.Besides the three Ecumenical Creeds, which date to Roman times, the Book of Concord contains seven credal documents articulating Lutheran theology in the Reformation era.^ Forced by Reformation exigencies, Lutherans have forsaken the three offices mentioned in the Pastoral Epistles.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is interesting to note that Lutheran systematic theology books employ this passage as a proof text for the inspiration of Holy Scripture.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Lutherans accept the authority of the three ecumenical creeds (Apostles', Nicene, Athanasian) and use the first two regularly in worship services.
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.The doctrinal positions of Lutheran churches are not uniform because the Book of Concord does not hold the same position in all Lutheran churches.^ The "Book of Concord" is the collection of Lutheran confessions.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ The confessional writings of Lutheranism generally grant freedom to churches in matters liturgical, so long as they agree in all the articles of faith (Formula of Concord, Article X).
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Lutheran World Federation (LWF), headquartered in Geneva, coordinates the activities of almost all Lutheran churches in the world.
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.For example, the state churches in Scandinavia consider only the Augsburg Confession as a "summary of the faith" in addition to the three ecumenical Creeds.^ The Lutheran church defines itself as "the assembly of believers among which the Gospel is preached and the Holy Sacraments are administered according to the Gospel" (Augsburg Confession, VII).
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^ Lutherans accept the authority of the three ecumenical creeds (Apostles', Nicene, Athanasian) and use the first two regularly in worship services.
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^ In these confessions the Scriptures are declared to be the only rule of faith.
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[63] .Lutheran pastors, congregations, and church bodies in Germany and the Americas usually agree to teach in harmony with the entire Lutheran Confessions.^ During the forty-five years of his ministry in America, Muhlenberg presided over widely separated congregations and erected many churches.
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^ Greever decided that he would retire at the 1946 convention of the United Lutheran Church in America.
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^ During the depression, Dr. Greever was the unofficial promoter of larger payments of United Lutheran Church in America apportionments.
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.Some Lutheran church bodies require this pledge to be unconditional because they believe the confessions correctly state what the Bible teaches.^ The Lutheran church defines itself as "the assembly of believers among which the Gospel is preached and the Holy Sacraments are administered according to the Gospel" (Augsburg Confession, VII).
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^ The confessional writings of Lutheranism generally grant freedom to churches in matters liturgical, so long as they agree in all the articles of faith (Formula of Concord, Article X).
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The only reason you believe it is because at some point in your life someone took you in, and it was most likely your parents.
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Others allow their congregations to do so "insofar as" the Confessions are in agreement with the Bible.

Summary of doctrine

Justification (central teaching)

Moses and Elijah point the sinner looking for God's salvation to the cross to find it.
.The key doctrine, or material principle, of Lutheranism is the doctrine of justification.^ The second doctrinal distinctive of Lutheranism is the doctrine of justification.
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^ In part eight, Melanchthon continues to present the key Lutheran doctrine: saved by faith alone.
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^ For example, the position of Lutheranism on man's free will is understood in the light of the doctrine of justification.
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.Lutherans believe that humans are saved from their sins by God's grace alone (Sola Gratia), through faith alone (Sola Fide).^ Man can be saved by faith alone.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Martin Luther 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Lutheranism soon became more than the experience of Luther, but it never deviated from his theme that people are made right with God sola gratia and sola fide - that is, only by the divine initiative of grace as received through God's gift of faith.
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^ This was distinguished from infused faith (fides infusa), which is a gift of grace and implies adherence to all revealed truth.
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.Lutherans believe that this grace is granted for the sake of Christ's merit alone (Solus Christus).^ Salvation, according to Lutheran teaching, does not depend on worthiness or merit but is a gift of God's sovereign grace.
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^ At the Council of Trent in 1545 the Lutheran view was condemned and the medieval Roman Church reiterated its doctrine that justification is a state of grace in which human good works have merit.
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^ God declares sinners to be righteous, apart from human merit or work, for the sake of Christ (forensic justification).
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.Orthodox Lutheran theology holds that God made the world, including humanity, perfect, holy and sinless.^ In honoring the shining stars of the Church, Orthodox are honoring God who made them what they were.
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^ And lest Lutherans rail at the Orthodox understanding of Holy Tradition, Lutherans should remember that they have a holy tradition of their own--the Book of Concord .
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Lutherans believe that faith, understood as trust in God's steadfast love, is the only appropriate way for human beings to respond to God's saving initiative.
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.However, Adam and Eve chose to disobey God, trusting in their own strength, knowledge, and wisdom.^ Note that faith consists in living, consoling trust and not in empty sounds and words . . . This is true knowledge of God, which arises out of experience and consists in living faith.
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ God set Adam and Eve free to make their own decisions for a reason; the acceptance of Jesus Christ is only valid if it is made as a free and conscious choice.
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[64][65] .Consequently, people are saddled with original sin, born sinful and unable to avoid committing sinful acts.^ Original sin is explained as a positive and total depravity of human nature, which renders all the acts of the unjustified, even those of civil righteousness, sinful and displeasing to God.
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^ All human beings are considered sinners and, because of original sin, are in bondage to the powers of evil and thus unable to contribute to their liberation (see Justification).
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[66] .For Lutherans, original sin is the "chief sin, a root and fountainhead of all actual sins."^ Original sin is explained as a positive and total depravity of human nature, which renders all the acts of the unjustified, even those of civil righteousness, sinful and displeasing to God.
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^ All human beings are considered sinners and, because of original sin, are in bondage to the powers of evil and thus unable to contribute to their liberation (see Justification).
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^ It was originally published in 1906 in english by Lutherans in All Lands Press (Minneapolis, MN), as The Precious and Sacred Writings of Martin Luther, vol.
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[67]
.Lutherans teach that sinners, while capable of doing works that are outwardly "good," are not capable of doing works that satisfy God's justice.^ In addition to being an example of a Lutheran sermon, Rev. Plocher used this opportunity to teach his congregation on what makes a good sermon.
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^ Salvation, according to Lutheran teaching, does not depend on worthiness or merit but is a gift of God's sovereign grace.
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^ The article of justification by grace through faith challenged the Roman Catholic tradition, which asserted that faith was pleasing to God only if it were accompanied by good works and perfected by love.
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[68] Every human thought and deed is infected with sin and sinful motives.[69] .Because of this, all humanity deserves eternal damnation in hell.^ All human beings are considered sinners and, because of original sin, are in bondage to the powers of evil and thus unable to contribute to their liberation (see Justification).
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^ After all, we had been taught that, because of all the hocus pocus and works righteousness of Catholicism, most Catholics already had one foot in hell.
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[70] .God in eternity has turned His Fatherly heart to this world and planned for its redemption because he loves all people and does not want anyone to be eternally damned.^ Rose just got accepted to be a part of a dance company that I’ve been wanting to be a part and all she does is brag about it.
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^ Before I go any further, I want to say that I believe in our Lord Jesus Christ of all my heart (protestant).
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^ Your parents love you with all their heart and are looking out for your best interest.
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[71]
.By God's grace, made known and effective in the person and work of Jesus Christ, a person is forgiven, adopted as a child and heir of God, and given eternal salvation.^ They saw baptism as a means of prevenient grace which must be confirmed in adult life by personal faith in Christ in order to have permanent validity.
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Salvation, according to Lutheran teaching, does not depend on worthiness or merit but is a gift of God's sovereign grace.
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^ That Jesus Christ Was Born a Jew: Part 2, Treatment of Jews Luther in this installment relates the treatment of the Jews by the Church and the honored status God gave the Jews in history.
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[72] .For this reason, Lutherans teach that salvation is possible only because of the grace of God made manifest in the birth, life, suffering, death, and resurrection, and continuing presence by the power of the Holy Spirit, of Jesus Christ.^ Where the Spirit of God is, there also is the Spirit's power, salvation, regeneration, renewal; all this is the work of the Holy Spirit.
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That Jesus Christ Was Born a Jew: Part 11: Jacob's Prophecy 1 Luther turns from the debate on the Virgin Birth and focuses on a prophecy of Jacob, made as he blessed his son Judah before his death.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ The only reason you believe it is because at some point in your life someone took you in, and it was most likely your parents.
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[73]
.Lutherans believe that individuals receive this gift of salvation through faith alone.^ Footnote27 However, an examination of their writings proves that all three men believed that justification is by grace through faith alone, and that justification must precede sanctification.
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Salvation, according to Lutheran teaching, does not depend on worthiness or merit but is a gift of God's sovereign grace.
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^ While Arndt understood and accepted the traditional Lutheran teaching of justification by faith alone he desired to stress the idea that justification is meaningless from the position of the individual who needs salvation unless it is personally appropriated in fiducial commitment."
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

[74] .Saving faith is the knowledge of[75], acceptance of [76], and trust[77] in the promise of the Gospel.^ Note that faith consists in living, consoling trust and not in empty sounds and words . . . This is true knowledge of God, which arises out of experience and consists in living faith.
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Justifying faith is not merely a historical knowledge of the content of the gospel; it is acceptance of the merits of Christ.
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^ Baptism, like the gospel, is powerful to confer the very faith it calls for with its promises, and in each case the Holy Spirit works faith through the instruments of his choosing, namely baptism and the gospel.
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[78] .Even faith itself is seen as a gift of God, created in the hearts of Christians[79] by the work of the Holy Spirit through the Word[80] and Baptism.^ Christianity is a lie, created by men who lied about talking to God.
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^ In Lutheran understanding it is no more difficult for him to work faith in infants through the gospel promise attached to the water of baptism than in adults alienated from God through the proclamation of the gospel in preaching.
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^ If it is granted that these passages refer instead to the baptism by the Holy Spirit into Christ (I Cor.
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[81] Faith is seen as an instrument that receives the gift of salvation, not something that causes salvation.[82] .Thus, Lutherans reject the "decision theology" which is common among modern evangelicals.^ They even felt that they had more in common with the German-speaking Reformed than with the English-speaking Lutherans, and some of them advocated an Evangelical Union such as was then proposed in Prussia.
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^ Thus, for much of Lutheranism today, the very foundation of its faith has been questioned and even rejected.
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Trinity symbol

The Trinity

.Lutherans are Trinitarian; they confess in the Athanasian Creed, "we worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity; Neither confounding the Persons, nor dividing the Substance.^ The Trinity Scriptural support for the doctrine of the Trinity, that is one God with three person in the God-head.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ Lutherans accept the authority of the three ecumenical creeds (Apostles', Nicene, Athanasian) and use the first two regularly in worship services.
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^ By 1530 they were formulating their own Confessions of Faith and proceeding independently amid the non Lutheran reform parties that proliferated across most of northern Europe.
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.For there is one Person of the Father, another of the Son, and another of the Holy Ghost.^ One of there Gods was the Devil, another they named Jesus, but they had a demon for every occasion.
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^ Since Christ sent the Holy Spirit in time and space to the Church, we simply projected back to eternity, asserting that the Holy Spirits proceeds "from the Father and the Son."
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^ There is only one class of Christian in the Church--those who are baptized (the Easter experience), sealed with the Holy Spirit (Pentecost experience), and partake of the Sacrament of the Kingdom.
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.But the Godhead of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost is all one: the glory equal, the majesty coeternal".[83] Lutherans reject the idea that the Father and the Son are merely faces of the same person, stating that both the Old Testament and the New Testament show them to be two distinct persons.^ Lutheranism pledges itself "to the prophetic and apostolic writings of the Old and New Testaments as the pure and clear fountain of Israel, which is the only norm according to which all teachers and teachings are to be judged and evaluated" (Formula of Concord, Epitome).To be sure, the authority of Scripture had been emphasized prior to Luther and the Reformation.
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^ While the German Pietists did not reject the Lutheran doctrine of baptism, they reaffirmed that it could not keep a person in a state of grace unless that individual came to personal faith in Christ.
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^ His chief distinction while at the Wartburg, and one that will always be inseparably connected with his name, was his translation of the New Testament into German.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Martin Luther 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

[84] .Lutherans believe the Holy Spirit proceeds from both the Father and the Son.^ The Lutheran church defines itself as "the assembly of believers among which the Gospel is preached and the Holy Sacraments are administered according to the Gospel" (Augsburg Confession, VII).
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[85]
The Chi Rho, a symbol for Christ

Christ

Lutherans believe Jesus Christ is both by nature God and by nature man in one person, as they confess in Luther's Small Catechism that he is "true God begotten of the Father from eternity and also true man born of the Virgin Mary".[86]

Sacraments

.Lutherans hold that sacraments are sacred acts of divine institution.^ Maundy Thursday: God Chose You On Maundy Thursday, Lutherans celebrate the institution of that most intimate sacrament--Holy Communion.
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^ The Lutheran Church still produces many dogmatic works, but very few of the modern divines hold strictly to the old formulæ of faith.
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^ Only two sacraments are recognized by Lutherans, Baptism and the Lord's Supper; but Confirmation, Ordination, and Confession as just described are regarded as sacred rites.
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[87] .Whenever they are properly administered by the use of the physical component commanded by God[88] along with the divine words of institution,[89] God is, in a way specific to each sacrament, present with the Word and physical component.^ Be diligent to present yourself approved to God, a worker who does not need to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth .
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^ The hierarchy and priesthood are not Divinely instituted or necessary , and ceremonial or exterior worship is not essential or useful.
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^ About the sacraments and the pastor's part in administering them he wrote: "Here as in no other service, the minister acts as God's instrument, not even choosing the Words he uses; but he is none the less a personal instrument whose whole demeanor and spirit must be a testimony to the sacredness and significance of his acts as God's minister.
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[90] .He earnestly offers to all who receive the sacrament[91] forgiveness of sins[92] and eternal salvation.^ Apology 31, 32: What the Fathers Thought concerning Sacrifice; Of the Use of the Sacrament and Sacrifice Melanchthon relates that communion (eucharist, Lord's supper) offers and gives forgiveness of sins and is not a good work on our part.
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^ The Orthodox understanding of salvation is wholistic --the believer, united with Christ, living in the Church as His Body, receiving forgiveness of sins (justification) and growing into Him who fills all things, until we shall be like him (I John 3:2).
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^ May we remember that Luther was still a sinful human who needed forgiveness on a daily basis, even in his words.
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[93] He also works in the recipients to get them to accept these blessings and to increase the assurance of their possession.[94]
A.C. Article IX: Of Confession[95]
.Lutherans are not dogmatic about the number of the sacraments.^ VI. STATISTICS ESTATÍSTICAS The number of Lutherans in the world is about fifty millions, a membership which far exceeds that of any other Protestant denomination.
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[96] In line with Luther's initial statement in his Large Catechism some speak of only two sacraments,[97] Baptism and Holy Communion, although later in the same work he calls Confession and Absolution[98] "the third sacrament."[99] The definition of sacrament in the Apology of the Augsburg Confession lists Absolution as one of them.[100] .Since Absolution is a return to the forgiveness given in baptism, strictly speaking there are only two sacraments.^ Ever since there has been conflict between these two synods.
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^ There is only one class of Christian in the Church--those who are baptized (the Easter experience), sealed with the Holy Spirit (Pentecost experience), and partake of the Sacrament of the Kingdom.
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^ For that reason he always speaks of baptism and faith together and makes it a special point to say that the promise of salvation is not connected with baptism only.
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.Private confession is not practiced among many Lutherans, although some churches allow for individual absolution before the Holy Communion service or on Saturdays.^ It is preceded, sometimes the day before, by the service of public confession and absolution, which consists in the promise of amendment made by the intending communicants, and the declaration of the minister that such as are truly penitent are forgiven.
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^ This development was bitterly opposed by a large number of Lutherans, some of whom broke away to establish a separate church.
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^ Many of the families came from Pennsylvania and were good prospects for the Lutheran Church.
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A general absolution is proclaimed in the Holy Communion liturgy. .Lutherans do not emphasize "penance" as a retribution of sin but rather the proclamation of God's forgiveness by the "called and ordained" minister of the Holy Gospel.^ The Lutheran church defines itself as "the assembly of believers among which the Gospel is preached and the Holy Sacraments are administered according to the Gospel" (Augsburg Confession, VII).
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^ The Gospels call out to us about God's love and the fulfillment of his promise.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ When God justifies, he not only forgives sins, but he also reckons to man Christ's perfect righteousness.
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Children born to practicing Lutheran families are baptized shortly after birth.

Baptism

.Lutherans hold that Baptism is a saving work of God,[101] mandated and instituted by Jesus Christ.^ Faith is instead that which accepts God's verdict of justification: "Faith does not justify because it is so good a work and so God - pleasing a virtue, but because it lays hold on and accepts the merit of Christ in the promise of the holy Gospel" (Formula of Concord, Solid Declaration).
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^ That Jesus Christ Was Born a Jew: Part 2, Treatment of Jews Luther in this installment relates the treatment of the Jews by the Church and the honored status God gave the Jews in history.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ On the one hand, Lutheran doctrine affirms that baptism effects an objective change in the infant's standing with God, placing the infant in the sphere of God's grace.
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

[102] .Baptism is a "means of grace" through which God creates and strengthens "saving faith" as the "washing of regeneration"[103] in which infants and adults are reborn.^ They saw baptism as a means of prevenient grace which must be confirmed in adult life by personal faith in Christ in order to have permanent validity.
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the one hand, Lutheran doctrine affirms that baptism effects an objective change in the infant's standing with God, placing the infant in the sphere of God's grace.
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The article of justification by grace through faith challenged the Roman Catholic tradition, which asserted that faith was pleasing to God only if it were accompanied by good works and perfected by love.
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[104] .Since the creation of faith is exclusively God's work, it does not depend on the actions of the one baptized, whether infant or adult.^ Explain God How does one explain God?
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ If all have sinned applies to all , then why shouldn't baptize all nations apply to all --infant as well as adult?
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Faith is instead that which accepts God's verdict of justification: "Faith does not justify because it is so good a work and so God - pleasing a virtue, but because it lays hold on and accepts the merit of Christ in the promise of the holy Gospel" (Formula of Concord, Solid Declaration).
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even though baptized infants cannot articulate that faith, Lutherans believe that it is present all the same.^ If all have sinned applies to all , then why shouldn't baptize all nations apply to all --infant as well as adult?
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The confessional writings of Lutheranism generally grant freedom to churches in matters liturgical, so long as they agree in all the articles of faith (Formula of Concord, Article X).
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In part eight, Melanchthon continues to present the key Lutheran doctrine: saved by faith alone.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

[105] .Because it is faith alone that receives these divine gifts, Lutherans confess that baptism "works forgiveness of sins, delivers from death and the devil, and gives eternal salvation to all who believe this, as the words and promises of God declare."^ In these confessions the Scriptures are declared to be the only rule of faith.
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^ Remember that these are gifts from God!
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ This is a completion of the gifts from God, gifts for our eternal salvation.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

[106] .Therefore, Lutherans administer Baptism to both infants[107] and adults.^ In Lutheran understanding it is no more difficult for him to work faith in infants through the gospel promise attached to the water of baptism than in adults alienated from God through the proclamation of the gospel in preaching.
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^ Also, the Lutheran view of grace contributed to the retention of infant baptism.
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^ Lutheranism affirms the traditional practice of infant baptism as a sacrament in which God's grace reaches out to newborn children.
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[108] .In the special section on infant baptism in his Large Catechism, Luther argues that infant baptism is God-pleasing because persons so baptized were reborn and sanctified by the Holy Spirit.^ Luther explains the importance of baptism in the Christian's life, why Christians seek baptism, and baptize their children.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ Included is Luther's exhortation, from the Large Catechism, to partake of the sacrament frequently.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ In this final section of the Small Catechism (confession is not addressed in the Large Catechism) Luther addresses confession in the Christian's life.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

[109]
Luther communing John the Steadfast.

Lord's Supper

A.C. Article XII: Of Repentance.
.Lutherans hold that within Holy Communion, also referred to as the Sacrament of the Altar, the Mass, or the Lord's Supper, the true body and blood of Christ are "in, with, and under the form" of bread and wine for all those who eat and drink it,[110] a doctrine that the Formula of Concord calls the sacramental union.^ The demonstrative pronoun "this", does not refer to the bread at all, but to the body of Christ , present at the table.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Martin Luther 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Footnote2 The Formula of Concord of 1580 formally resolved the doctrinal disputes within Lutheranism.
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Lutherans assert the body and blood is "in, with, and under" the bread and wine.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

[111] .Some Lutherans use the term Eucharist to refer to Communion, noting its use in the Book of Concord; however, others reject the term on the basis that the word Eucharist ("thanksgiving") puts the emphasis on the human response to the sacrament, which is contrary to the Lutheran emphasis on God's omnipotence and human powerlessness.^ The "Book of Concord" is the collection of Lutheran confessions.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ Apology 31, 32: What the Fathers Thought concerning Sacrifice; Of the Use of the Sacrament and Sacrifice Melanchthon relates that communion (eucharist, Lord's supper) offers and gives forgiveness of sins and is not a good work on our part.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ In contrast to other Protestants, particularly the Anabaptists, however, Lutherans affirm the real bodily presence of Christ "in, with, and under" the elements of bread and wine at the Lord's Supper.
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.They note that in almost every case, the use of the term in the Book of Concord refers to doctrinal statements that are part of the Roman Catholic tradition.^ Worship was conducted in the language of the people (not in Latin as had been the Roman Catholic tradition), and preaching was stressed in the divine service.
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^ The article of justification by grace through faith challenged the Roman Catholic tradition, which asserted that faith was pleasing to God only if it were accompanied by good works and perfected by love.
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^ Other distinctive doctrines of the Lutheran Church are: Outras distintivo doutrinas da Igreja Luterana são: consubstantiation (although the symbols do not use this term), i.e.
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Conversion

.In Lutheranism, conversion or regeneration in the strict sense of the term is the work of divine grace[112] and power[113] by which man, born of the flesh,[114] and void of all power to think,[115] to will,[116] or to do[117] any good thing, and dead in sin[118] is, through the gospel and holy baptism,[119] taken[120] from a state of sin and spiritual death under God's wrath[121] into a state of spiritual life of faith and grace,[122] rendered able to will and to do what is spiritually good[123] and, especially, made to trust in the benefits of the redemption which is in Christ Jesus.^ Faith, however, is a divine work in us.
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Where the Spirit of God is, there also is the Spirit's power, salvation, regeneration, renewal; all this is the work of the Holy Spirit.
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The gospel, as Lutheranism confessed it, made faith the only way by which man could receive God's grace.
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[124] During conversion, one is moved from impenitence to repentance. The Augsburg Confession divides repentance into two parts: "One is contrition, that is, terrors smiting the conscience through the knowledge of sin; the other is faith, which is born of the Gospel, or of absolution, and believes that for Christ's sake, sins are forgiven, comforts the conscience, and delivers it from terrors."[125]
A.C. Article 18: Of Free Will[126]

Predestination

.Lutherans adhere to divine monergism, the teaching that salvation is by God's act alone, and therefore reject the idea that humans in their fallen state have a free will concerning spiritual matters.^ There was an effort to systematize an objective form of theology (theology defined as a "teaching about God and divine things").
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^ Salvation, according to Lutheran teaching, does not depend on worthiness or merit but is a gift of God's sovereign grace.
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^ While Arndt understood and accepted the traditional Lutheran teaching of justification by faith alone he desired to stress the idea that justification is meaningless from the position of the individual who needs salvation unless it is personally appropriated in fiducial commitment."
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

[127] .Lutherans believe that although humans have free will concerning civil righteousness, they cannot work spiritual righteousness without the Holy Spirit, since righteousness in the heart cannot be wrought in the absence of the Holy Spirit.^ Each side believed they were right.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ The Lutheran church defines itself as "the assembly of believers among which the Gospel is preached and the Holy Sacraments are administered according to the Gospel" (Augsburg Confession, VII).
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^ All of this is idiotic, of course, but they have a perfect right to their opinions; their right to free speech is important to protect.
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[128] Lutherans believe that the elect are predestined to salvation.[129] .Lutherans believe Christians should be assured that they are among the predestined.^ After Luther died in 1546, Lutheran scholars tried to precisely formulate the doctrines of the Christian faith as they understood them.
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Lutherans counter that they did not discard Good Works, but merely teach their proper role in Christian salvation and life.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ With all of Christianity, Lutherans believe Jesus Christ is true God and true man.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

[130] .Lutherans believe that all who trust in Jesus alone can be certain of their salvation, for it is in Christ's work and his promises in which their certainty lies.^ With all of Christianity, Lutherans believe Jesus Christ is true God and true man.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ Before I go any further, I want to say that I believe in our Lord Jesus Christ of all my heart (protestant).
  • Is It Ok For My Christian Daughter To Masturbate? | ChristWire 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC christwire.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where the Spirit of God is, there also is the Spirit's power, salvation, regeneration, renewal; all this is the work of the Holy Spirit.
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

[131] .According to Lutheranism, the central final hope of the Christian is "the resurrection of the body and the life everlasting" as confessed in the Apostles' Creed rather than predestination.^ What place does confession have in a Christian's life?
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ The Lutheran church defines itself as "the assembly of believers among which the Gospel is preached and the Holy Sacraments are administered according to the Gospel" (Augsburg Confession, VII).
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lutherans accept the authority of the three ecumenical creeds (Apostles', Nicene, Athanasian) and use the first two regularly in worship services.
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.Lutherans disagree with those that make predestination the source of salvation rather than Christ's suffering, death, and resurrection.^ Thus God acquits man of all his sins, and he does this not because man is innocent; rather God justifies us and declares man to be righteous for Christ's sake, because of his righteousness, his obedience to God's law, and his suffering and death.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since Lutherans and Lutheranism is not just those who lead and make headlines.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ A look at the resurrection of Jesus Christ and a response to those who believe such an event did not occur.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

Unlike Calvinists, Lutherans do not believe in a predestination to damnation.[132] .Instead, Lutherans teach eternal damnation is a result of the unbeliever's sins, rejection of the forgiveness of sins, and unbelief.^ Why We Left Lutheranism--Inherited Damnation Are humans by nature sinful?
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

[133]

Divine providence

.According to Lutherans, God preserves his creation, cooperates with everything that happens, and guides the universe.^ Your god is good and created everything.
  • Is It Ok For My Christian Daughter To Masturbate? | ChristWire 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC christwire.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Salvation, according to Lutheran teaching, does not depend on worthiness or merit but is a gift of God's sovereign grace.
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[134] .While God cooperates with both good and evil deeds, with evil deeds he does so only inasmuch as they are deeds, but not with the evil in them.^ The article of justification by grace through faith challenged the Roman Catholic tradition, which asserted that faith was pleasing to God only if it were accompanied by good works and perfected by love.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whatever he does, be it good or bad, is not his own work, but God's .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Martin Luther 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

God concurs with an act's effect, but he does not cooperate in the corruption of an act or the evil of its effect.[135] .Lutherans believe everything exists for the sake of the Christian Church, and that God guides everything for its welfare and growth.^ The Lutheran church defines itself as "the assembly of believers among which the Gospel is preached and the Holy Sacraments are administered according to the Gospel" (Augsburg Confession, VII).
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^ Lutheranism is generally friendly to the Ecumenical Movement, and with some exceptions, Lutheran churches have participated in worldwide gatherings of Christians across confessional and denominational boundaries.
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^ The secret "yea" must for the sake of the Christian Church remain a public "nay" (De Witte-Seidemann, op.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Martin Luther 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

[136]
"even though I am a sinner and deserving of death and hell, this shall nonetheless be my consolation and my victory that my Lord Jesus lives and has risen so that He, in the end, might rescue me from sin, death, and hell."—Luther[137]
.The explanation of the Apostles' Creed given in the Small Catechism declares that everything good that people have is given and preserved by God, either directly or through other people or things.^ Your god is good and created everything.
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^ I think you will find that Opus Dei are very open about a very few ‘good’ things but very secretive about a lot of other important things.
  • Top 10 Secret Societies - Listverse 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ The article of justification by grace through faith challenged the Roman Catholic tradition, which asserted that faith was pleasing to God only if it were accompanied by good works and perfected by love.
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[138] .Of the services others provide us through family, government, and work, "we receive these blessings not from them, but, through them, from God."^ The article of justification by grace through faith challenged the Roman Catholic tradition, which asserted that faith was pleasing to God only if it were accompanied by good works and perfected by love.
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^ That you use God, the Creator of us all, as a weapon to get others to beleive as you do sickens me.
  • Is It Ok For My Christian Daughter To Masturbate? | ChristWire 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC christwire.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Does God command us to know Christian doctrine before being baptized into his family?
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

[139] .Since God uses everyone's useful tasks for good, people should look not down upon some useful vocations as being less worthy than others.^ God has other shit to do than listen to you blather on for hours on end.
  • Is It Ok For My Christian Daughter To Masturbate? | ChristWire 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC christwire.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Psalms-Hymnal for God's Old Testament People A look at the Psalms, the hymnbook of God's Old Testament believers and how our Lutheran hymnals reflect the Psalms in style and substance.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ In addition to being an example of a Lutheran sermon, Rev. Plocher used this opportunity to teach his congregation on what makes a good sermon.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

.Instead people should honor others, no matter how lowly, as being the means God uses to work in the world.^ There is no visible Church or one specially established by God whereby men may work out their salvation .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Martin Luther 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Masons use signs and handshakes to gain admission to their meetings, as well as to identify themselves to other people who may be Masons.
  • Top 10 Secret Societies - Listverse 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ That you use God, the Creator of us all, as a weapon to get others to beleive as you do sickens me.
  • Is It Ok For My Christian Daughter To Masturbate? | ChristWire 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC christwire.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[139]

Good works

.Good works are the fruit of saving faith,[140] and always and in every instance spring spontaneously from true faith.^ Good works are necessary as an exercise of faith, and are rewarded, not by justification (which they presuppose), but by the fulfilment of the Divine promises (Apology Aug.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The article of justification by grace through faith challenged the Roman Catholic tradition, which asserted that faith was pleasing to God only if it were accompanied by good works and perfected by love.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where there is faith in Christ, love and good works also follow.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[141] .Any true good works have their true origin in God,[142] not in the fallen human heart or in human striving;[143] their absence would demonstrate that faith, too, is absent.^ Good works are necessary as an exercise of faith, and are rewarded, not by justification (which they presuppose), but by the fulfilment of the Divine promises (Apology Aug.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note that faith consists in living, consoling trust and not in empty sounds and words . . . This is true knowledge of God, which arises out of experience and consists in living faith.
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ God legally cancels the debt of our sins and imputes Christ's righteousness to us when we place our faith in Christ and His work on the cross to make us acceptable to God.
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

[144] .Although Christians are no longer compelled to keep God's law, they freely and willingly serve God and their neighbors.^ They have no inclination to be violent because they are surrounded by American culture and American laws, not Shari’ah law or an Islamic culture.
  • Is It Ok For My Christian Daughter To Masturbate? | ChristWire 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC christwire.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Luther's Tragic Mistake: Part Thirteen Luther refutes the Jewish claim of being God's people by noting they no longer have their country, city, or temple.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ CHRISTIANS, AND MUSLIMS…wait for it…THEY BELIEVE IN THE SAME GOD!!!!!!
  • Is It Ok For My Christian Daughter To Masturbate? | ChristWire 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC christwire.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[145]
The Athanasian Creed teaches that unless one holds the faith[83] "whole and undefiled, without doubt he shall perish everlastingly."

Judgment & Eternal Life

.Lutherans do not believe in any sort of earthly millennial kingdom of Christ either before or after his second coming on the last day.^ Before I go any further, I want to say that I believe in our Lord Jesus Christ of all my heart (protestant).
  • Is It Ok For My Christian Daughter To Masturbate? | ChristWire 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC christwire.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Lutheran Liturgy A look at the components of the Lutheran worship service, a service that dates back to the synagogue services before Christ.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ Augsburg Confession, Articles Two through Five On the eleventh day of Christmas the Lutheranism editor shared with me the second through fifth articles of the Augsburg Confession.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

[146] .Lutherans teach that, at death, the souls of Christians are immediately taken into the presence of Jesus,[147] where they await the second coming of Jesus on the last day.^ While pastors and theologians need to study doctrine and teachings so they know whereof they speak, to the person in the pew, it's simply knowing this "trustworthy saying:" Christ Jesus came into this world to save sinners!
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ He said, "It is sounder to grow into unity through expressions as they come out of life.
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^ In the ecumenical age, however, they have kept a very distinct identity through their general loyalty to the teachings of 16th century Lutheranism.
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[148] .On the last day,[149] all the dead will be resurrected.^ The Resurrection A look at one of the key doctrines of the Christian Church--the resurrection of Christ from the dead as well as our own resurrections on Judgement Day.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

[150] .Their souls will then be reunited with the same bodies they had before dying.^ In 1886 they reorganized their general body, taking the name of the "United Synod in the South", and stating their doctrinal position, which is essentially the same as that of the General Council.
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[151] The bodies will then be changed, those of the wicked to a state of everlasting shame and torment,[152] those of the righteous to an everlasting state of celestial glory.[153] .After the resurrection of all the dead,[154] and the change of those still living,[155] all nations shall be gathered before Christ,[156] and he will separate the righteous from the wicked.^ Before I go any further, I want to say that I believe in our Lord Jesus Christ of all my heart (protestant).
  • Is It Ok For My Christian Daughter To Masturbate? | ChristWire 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC christwire.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Justification, which is not an internal change, but an external, forensic declaration by which God imputes to the creature the righteousness of Christ, comes only by faith, which is the confidence that one is reconciled to God through Christ.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Resurrection A look at one of the key doctrines of the Christian Church--the resurrection of Christ from the dead as well as our own resurrections on Judgement Day.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

[157] .Christ will publicly judge[158] all people by the testimony of their deeds,[159] the good works[160] of the righteous in evidence of their faith,[161] and the evil works of the wicked in evidence of their unbelief.^ Where there is faith in Christ, love and good works also follow.
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^ Good works are necessary as an exercise of faith, and are rewarded, not by justification (which they presuppose), but by the fulfilment of the Divine promises (Apology Aug.
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^ Faith is instead that which accepts God's verdict of justification: "Faith does not justify because it is so good a work and so God - pleasing a virtue, but because it lays hold on and accepts the merit of Christ in the promise of the holy Gospel" (Formula of Concord, Solid Declaration).
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[162] .He will judge in righteousness[163] in the presence of all people and angels,[164] and his final judgment will be just damnation to everlasting punishment for the wicked and a gracious gift of life everlasting to the righteous.^ People masturbate for different reasons, it’s not all just about pleasure, at times it’s relaxation or for stress.
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^ Illustrates the fulfillment of the Law and the death of the one innocent man for the righteousness of all people.
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[165]

Comparison between Protestants

This table summarizes the classical views of three different Protestant beliefs.[166]
Topic Lutheranism Calvinism Arminianism
Human will Total Depravity without free will Total Depravity without free will Depravity does not preclude free will
Election Unconditional election to salvation only Unconditional election to salvation and damnation Conditional election in view of foreseen faith or unbelief
Justification .Justification of all people completed at Christ's death.^ The ground for justification is Christ, who by his death made satisfaction for the sins of mankind.
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.Justification is limited to those elected to salvation, completed at Christ's death.^ The ground for justification is Christ, who by his death made satisfaction for the sins of mankind.
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Justification possible for all, but only completed when one chooses faith.
Conversion Through the means of grace, resistible Without means, irresistible Involves free will and is resistible
Preservation and apostasy Falling away is possible, but God gives assurance of preservation. Perseverance of the saints, once saved, always saved Preservation upon the condition of persevering faith with the possibility of a total and final apostasy.

Practices

Luther composed hymns and hymn tunes, including "A Mighty Fortress Is Our God" ("Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott").

Liturgy

.Most Lutherans place great emphasis on a liturgical approach to worship services; although there have always been substantial non-liturgical minorities, for example, the Haugean Lutherans from Norway.^ In Europe most Lutheran churches are episcopal, that is, ruled by bishops, and the churches of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden are established.
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^ Lutherans accept the authority of the three ecumenical creeds (Apostles', Nicene, Athanasian) and use the first two regularly in worship services.
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^ Salem's Deer Hunter Service Sermon, Notes on Solomon's Song In Wisconsin and Minnesota and Michigan, as well as some other states, there be many Lutherans.
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.Music forms a large part of Lutheran services.^ The Greatest Lutheran Composer Guest columnist James Sucha, currently editor of "Service Hymnal: A Lutheran Homecoming," writes this tribute to Bach, and his contributions to Church music.
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^ The Lutheran Legacy: Restoring Music to the Laity A beginning look at the Lutheran heritage of music as part of worship as well as teaching tool.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

Lutheran hymns are sometimes known as chorales. .Lutheran hymnody is well known for its doctrinal, didactic, and musical richness.^ The Lutheran Legacy: Restoring Music to the Laity A beginning look at the Lutheran heritage of music as part of worship as well as teaching tool.
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^ Felix Mendelssohn Compose Bach is known by Lutherans for his music.
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^ Ever since, Lutheranism has been known as a doctrinal and even dogmatic church.
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.Many Lutheran churches are active musically with choirs, handbell choirs, children's choirs, and occasionally carillon groups that ring bells in a bell tower.^ Many of the families came from Pennsylvania and were good prospects for the Lutheran Church.
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^ Sectional representatives, similar to the representatives of The Lutheran today, were appointed in many areas across the country to be responsible for publicity of the Lutheran Church.
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^ The Greatest Lutheran Composer Guest columnist James Sucha, currently editor of "Service Hymnal: A Lutheran Homecoming," writes this tribute to Bach, and his contributions to Church music.
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.Johann Sebastian Bach, a devout Lutheran, composed music for the Lutheran church.^ Felix Mendelssohn Compose Bach is known by Lutherans for his music.
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^ It is also the birth town of the great composer, Johann Sebastian Bach.
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^ The newly formed Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada, composed of wings of the former LCA and ALC churches, reported membership of 199,600 in the early 1990s.
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Divine Service is conducted according to the Agenda.
.Many Lutherans also preserve a liturgical approach to the celebration of the Holy Communion (or the Holy Eucharist/Lord's Supper), emphasizing the sacrament as the central act of Christian worship.^ From the beginning, therefore, the Bible was central to Lutheran worship, and the sacraments were reduced from the traditional seven to baptism and the Lord's Supper (see Eucharist), because, according to the Lutheran reading of the Scriptures, only these two were instituted by Christ (see Sacrament).
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^ Apology 31, 32: What the Fathers Thought concerning Sacrifice; Of the Use of the Sacrament and Sacrifice Melanchthon relates that communion (eucharist, Lord's supper) offers and gives forgiveness of sins and is not a good work on our part.
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^ The Lutheran church defines itself as "the assembly of believers among which the Gospel is preached and the Holy Sacraments are administered according to the Gospel" (Augsburg Confession, VII).
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.Lutherans believe that the actual body and blood of Jesus Christ are present in, with and under the bread and the wine.^ Lutherans assert the body and blood is "in, with, and under" the bread and wine.
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^ Many Reformed believe the bread and wine merely represent the body and blood.
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^ Luther's Catechisms: Commentary on the Lord's Prayer What is this Lutheran position on the Lord's Supper, "the body and blood of Christ is in, with, and under the bread and wine" all about?
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This belief is called Real Presence or Sacramental Union and is different from consubstantiation and transubstantiation. Additionally Lutherans reject the idea that communion is a mere symbol or memorial. They confess in the Apology of the Augsburg Confession:
"...we do not abolish the Mass but religiously keep and defend it. .Among us the Mass is celebrated every Lord's Day and on other festivals, when the Sacrament is made available to those who wish to partake of it, after they have been examined and absolved.^ How do those days affect each and every one of us?
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^ His proposition at Dallas sounded almost like a 'gold brick' scheme to those who did not know him, but he has more than made it good.
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^ Valentine Who is St. Valentine and why do we celebrate Valentine's Day on February 14?
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We also keep traditional liturgical forms, such as the order of readings, prayers, vestments, and other similar things." (Apology of the Augsburg Confession, Article XXIV.1)
Lutheran youth are confirmed after they learn the Small Catechism.
.Besides the Holy Communion [Divine Service], congregations also hold offices, which are worship services without communion.^ Worship was conducted in the language of the people (not in Latin as had been the Roman Catholic tradition), and preaching was stressed in the divine service.
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^ Young Walton was very impressed when Mr. Bailey introduced a liturgical worship service to the local congregation.
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.They may include Matins, Vespers, Compline, and Easter Vigil.^ It includes, besides the main service, matins and vespers.
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.Private or family offices include the Morning and Evening Prayers from Luther's Small Catechism.^ There were three text books: the Bible, Luther's Small Catechism, and the hymn book.
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^ Christian education goes back to Luther--and is the reason he wrote the Large and Small Catechisms.
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^ In this final section of the Small Catechism (confession is not addressed in the Large Catechism) Luther addresses confession in the Christian's life.
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[167] Meals are blessed with the Common Table Prayer, Psalm 145:15-16, or other prayers, and after eating the Lord is thanked, for example, with Psalm 136:1.[167] .In addition, Lutherans use devotional books, from small daily devotionals, for example, Portals of Prayer, to large breviaries, including the Breviarium Lipsiensae and Treasury of Daily Prayer.^ In addition to being an example of a Lutheran sermon, Rev. Plocher used this opportunity to teach his congregation on what makes a good sermon.
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^ Bailey brought in the Book of Worship used by the General Synod, and many of the non-Lutherans did not approve of this innovation, but he did not make an issue of it, and eventually it was accepted.
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^ This is truly a masterpiece as a book, complete with colorplates and woodcut reproductions, especially the woodcuts used in the original publishing of Luther's "Small Catechism."
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"Scripture does not teach calling on the saints or pleading for help from them. For it sets before us Christ alone as mediator, atoning sacrifice, high priest, and intercessor."—A.C. Article XXI.[168]
.In the 1970s, many Lutheran churches began holding contemporary worship services for the purpose of evangelical outreach.^ Many of the families came from Pennsylvania and were good prospects for the Lutheran Church.
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^ Sectional representatives, similar to the representatives of The Lutheran today, were appointed in many areas across the country to be responsible for publicity of the Lutheran Church.
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^ The transition from the use of German to English caused splits in many congregations, the German party bitterly opposing the introduction of English in the church services.
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These services were in a variety of styles, depending on the preferences of the congregation. .Often they were held alongside a traditional service in order to cater to those who preferred contemporary worship music.^ Worship was conducted in the language of the people (not in Latin as had been the Roman Catholic tradition), and preaching was stressed in the divine service.
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^ Like Did they go to planned parenthood and Abortion clinic as well as those women shelters to protect women who are homeless and or battered?
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.Today, some Lutheran congregations have contemporary worship as their sole form of worship.^ There was some opposition to the establishment of a new Lutheran congregation in Columbia.
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^ In North America and elsewhere Lutherans prefer congregational and synodical forms of government, in which local churches link together for common purposes.
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^ Some time previous to all of this, Professor J. B. Greever had effected the organization of a small Lutheran congregation in the town of Bluefield, West Virginia, and had built a small frame church.
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.Outreach is no longer given as the primary motivation; rather this form of worship is seen as more in keeping with the desires of individual congregations.^ The congregations composing a district synod may unite with other district synods to form a more general body.
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[169] In Finland, Lutherans have experimented with the St Thomas Mass or Metal Mass in which traditional hymns are adapted to heavy metal. .The Lutheran World Federation, in its Nairobi Statement on Worship and Culture, recommended every effort be made to bring church services into a more sensitive position with regard to cultural context.^ The Lutheran World Federation, founded in 1947.
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^ For the part he took in the Thirty Years War, he is venerated by Lutherans as the religious hero of their Church, but it is now admitted that reasons of state led Gustavus into that conflict.
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^ Most Lutheran churches are also members of the World Council of Churches.
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[170]
.Lutheran churches use hymnals as well as electronic projection media.^ Other distinctive doctrines of the Lutheran Church are: Outras distintivo doutrinas da Igreja Luterana são: consubstantiation (although the symbols do not use this term), i.e.
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^ The Greatest Lutheran Composer Guest columnist James Sucha, currently editor of "Service Hymnal: A Lutheran Homecoming," writes this tribute to Bach, and his contributions to Church music.
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^ Time of Grace Ministry Time of Grace is a new Lutheran multi-media ministry that originates in Milwaukee at St. Marcus Lutheran Church.
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.In 2006, both the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod, in cooperation with certain foreign English speaking church bodies within their respective fellowships, released new hymnals: Evangelical Lutheran Worship (ELCA) and Lutheran Service Book (LCMS).^ In the United States, Lutherans have united in three main bodies: the Lutheran Church in America (membership, 2.9 million), the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod (2.6 million), and the American Lutheran Church (2.3 million).
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^ The process accelerated after World War II (1939-1945), and by the early 1980s mergers had consolidated most Lutherans in the United States and Canada into five major bodies: the Lutheran Church in America (LCA), Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod (LCMS), the American Lutheran Church (ALC), the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS), and the Association of Evangelical Lutheran Churches (AELC).
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^ Greever decided that he would retire at the 1946 convention of the United Lutheran Church in America.
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.Along with these, the most widely used among English speaking congregations include: Evangelical Lutheran Hymnary (1996, ELS), The Lutheran Book of Worship (1978, LC-USA), Lutheran Worship (1982, LCMS), Christian Worship (1993, WELS), and The Lutheran Hymnal (1941, Synodical Conference).^ In its place has arisen a worldwide "synodical conference"--the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference.
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^ The transition from the use of German to English caused splits in many congregations, the German party bitterly opposing the introduction of English in the church services.
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^ Lutherans accept the authority of the three ecumenical creeds (Apostles', Nicene, Athanasian) and use the first two regularly in worship services.
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.In the Lutheran Church of Australia, the official hymnal is the 'Lutheran Hymnal with Supplement' of 1986, which includes a supplement to the 'Lutheran Hymnal' of 1973, itself a replacement for the 'Australian Lutheran Hymn Book' of 1921. Prior to this time, the two Lutheran church bodies in Australia (which merged in 1966) used a bewildering variety of hymnals, usually in the German language.^ This treaty provided that the Lutherans should retain permanently what they then possessed, but that all officials of ecclesiastical estates, who from that time forth should go over to Protestantism would be deposed and replaced by Catholics.
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^ The Lutheran church defines itself as "the assembly of believers among which the Gospel is preached and the Holy Sacraments are administered according to the Gospel" (Augsburg Confession, VII).
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^ Lutherans accept the authority of the three ecumenical creeds (Apostles', Nicene, Athanasian) and use the first two regularly in worship services.
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Faith Lutheran School in Hong Kong.

Education

.Catechism, especially children's, is considered fundamental in most Lutheran churches.^ In Europe most Lutheran churches are episcopal, that is, ruled by bishops, and the churches of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden are established.
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^ Most Lutheran churches are also members of the World Council of Churches.
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^ Scriptural Support of Traditional Lutheran Positions The first of a series of Bible studies on the positions of the traditional Lutheran church on fundamental teachings of Scripture.
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.Almost all maintain Sunday Schools, and some host or maintain Lutheran schools, at the preschool, elementary, middle, high school or university level.^ Short History of Lutheran Brotherhood With the proposed merger of AAL and Lutheran Brotherhood, I felt it would be nice to feature the histories of these two financial giants that affect almost all Lutherans.
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^ Lutherans have a rich tradition of Christian education, including many WELS, ELS, and LC-MS congregations that support grade schools and local high schools.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ The Lutheran World Federation (LWF), headquartered in Geneva, coordinates the activities of almost all Lutheran churches in the world.
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.Life-long study of the catechism is intended for all ages so that the abuses of the pre-Reformation Church will not recur.^ Only the creeds, the Augsburg Confession, and Luther's two catechisms, however, have been recognized by all Lutheran churches.
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^ The catechism, Biblical study, and church music have a prominent part in the everyday instruction.
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^ The critical state of their churches caused many Protestants to long for a union between the Lutherans and the Reformed.
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[171] .With the emphasis on proper life-long catechesis, Lutherans have a heritage of not only learned theologians, but also theologically adept laypeople.^ The Lutherans counter that they did not discard Good Works, but merely teach their proper role in Christian salvation and life.
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^ In Memoriam: Andrew K. Nitz My brother-in-law, a life-long Lutheran and grandson of a Lutheran pastor, is called home by the Lord.
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^ Review: The Marvel of This Night Missouri Synod Lutheran Jaroslav Vajda was not only a pastor and theologian, he was also a prolific hymn writer and translator.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

Sharon Lutheran School in Tai Kok Tsui.
.Pastors almost always have substantial theological educations, including Greek and Hebrew so that they can refer directly to the canonical Christian scriptures in the original language.^ There was no technical education arrangement to the program of Christian Education then, but Pastor Greever always made certain that his members were instructed in the fundamentals of the Christian faith.
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^ Lutherans have a rich tradition of Christian education, including many WELS, ELS, and LC-MS congregations that support grade schools and local high schools.
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^ It wasn’t even taught in the original Greek/Hebrew versions of the Bible.
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.All Lutheran pastors may marry and have families.^ Unlike Roman Catholic priests, Lutheran clergy may marry.
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.Some Lutheran synods allow women pastors.^ In 1742 Pastor Henry Melchior Muhlenberg arrived from Germany and soon founded (1748) the first Lutheran synod in North America.
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^ This article looks at a Lutheran pastor and comments on his decision and the decision by his synod.
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^ In 1860 the Old Lutherans were greatly reduced in numbers by the defection of Pastor Diedrich, who organized the independent Immanuel Synod.
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Pastors usually teach in the common language of the parish. .In the U.S., some congregations and synods historically taught in German, Finnish, or Norwegian, but this custom, which attracted unfavorable attention during World War I, has been in significant decline since the early/middle 20th century.^ Because of the large numbers of immigrants to the United States and Canada in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the integration of Lutherans into North American society went slowly, and Lutheranism was divided into numerous German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, and Slovak groups.
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^ The crisis of German politics in the 20th century gravely affected German Lutheranism.
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^ Today, the First World War is used as a dividing point in all historical consideration and was indeed the beginning of a new era.
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Church fellowship

"The certain mark by which a Christian community can be recognized is the preaching of the gospel in its purity."—Luther[172]
.Lutherans were divided about the issue of church-fellowship for the first thirty years after Luther's death.^ During the years following Luther's death in 1546, theological conflicts increasingly plagued his followers.
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^ Study this issue as I continue to refute Claude A. Guild's assertion that the Lutheran Church is not Christian.
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^ For the part he took in the Thirty Years War, he is venerated by Lutherans as the religious hero of their Church, but it is now admitted that reasons of state led Gustavus into that conflict.
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.Philipp Melanchthon and his Philippist party felt that Christians of many different beliefs should join in union with each other without completely agreeing on doctrine.^ As Lutherans and Catholics, for the most part, agree on the basic essences of these doctrines, they are not as lengthy as other articles.
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^ The world needs more understanding, more sharing, more belief in brotherhood and Christian love between all parties, even if they have not yet come to Jesus.
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^ The followers of Melanchthon, who favoured Calvin's doctrine (Philippists, Crypto-Calvinists), were also furiously denounced by the orthodox Lutherans.
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Against them stood the Gnesio-Lutherans, led by Matthias Flacius and the faculty at Jena. They condemned the Philippist position for indifferentism, describing it as a "unionistic compromise" of precious Reformation theology. .Instead, they held that genuine unity between Christians and real theological peace was only possible with an honest agreement about every subject of doctrinal controversy.^ Overall the Lutherans express agreement and note only two groups they disagree with on these doctrines: the Donatists and the Anabaptists.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ They ranged on every subject from Social Missions to the Lutheran Laymen's Movement.
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^ The world needs more understanding, more sharing, more belief in brotherhood and Christian love between all parties, even if they have not yet come to Jesus.
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[173]
Hallowed be Thy Name by Cranach illustrates a Lutheran pastor preaching Christ crucified.
.Complete agreement finally came about in 1577, after the death of both Melanchthon and Flacius, when a new generation of theologians resolved the doctrinal controversies on the basis of Scripture in the Formula of Concord of 1577.[174] Although they decried the visible division of Christians on earth, orthodox Lutherans avoided ecumenical fellowship with other churches, believing that Christians should not join together for the Lord's Supper or exchange pastors if they do not completely agree about what the Bible teaches.^ Lutheranism pledges itself "to the prophetic and apostolic writings of the Old and New Testaments as the pure and clear fountain of Israel, which is the only norm according to which all teachers and teachings are to be judged and evaluated" (Formula of Concord, Epitome).To be sure, the authority of Scripture had been emphasized prior to Luther and the Reformation.
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^ The special doctrinal statements of Lutheranism are Luther's Schmalkald Articles (1537), Small Catechism (1529), and Large Catechism (1529); Melanchthon's Augsburg Confession (1530), Apology of the Augsburg Confession (1531), and Treatise on the Power and Primacy of the Pope (1529); and the Formula of Concord (1577), which was written by a commission of theologians after the deaths of the original reformers.
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^ The Formula of Concord (1577), prepared by theologians to resolve disputes among Lutherans, was signed by political leaders to ensure Lutheran unity at a time when renewed religious warfare threatened.
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In the 17th century, Georgius Calixtus began a rebellion against this practice, sparking the Syncretistic Controversy.
Title Page of the unaltered Augsburg Confession, which Schmucker attempted to replace in favor of his Definite Platform. His attempt to compromise with American Protestants on sacramental doctrine echoed Melanchthon's attempts to substitute Variata for the original version pictured above.
Stormtroopers holding German Christians propaganda during the Church Council elections on July 23, 1933 at St. Mary's Church, Berlin. These elections resulted in the merger of the German state churches.
.
Pope John Paul II preaching in the only Lutheran church in Rome
.^ The Lutheran church defines itself as "the assembly of believers among which the Gospel is preached and the Holy Sacraments are administered according to the Gospel" (Augsburg Confession, VII).
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^ Greever is one of the best known men not only in the South Carolina Synod and the territory of the former United Synod in the South but throughout the United Lutheran Church in America.
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^ John Berg, a member of St. Paul's during Dr. Greever's pastorate, was very enthusiastic about church work.
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.In the 18th century, there was some ecumenical interest between the Church of Sweden and the Church of England.^ Since then there has been a persistent and bitter struggle between rationalistic and Evangelical tendencies in the United and Free Churches.
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^ There was much negotiation between their church and the power company, and finally the company offered to give them $10,000 in settlement.
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^ Lutheranism is generally friendly to the Ecumenical Movement, and with some exceptions, Lutheran churches have participated in worldwide gatherings of Christians across confessional and denominational boundaries.
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.John Robinson, Bishop of London, planned for a union of the English and Swedish churches in 1718. The plan failed because most Swedish bishops rejected the Calvinism of the Church of England, although Svedberg of Skara and Gezelius, Bishop of Turku (Finland) were in favor.^ In Europe most Lutheran churches are episcopal, that is, ruled by bishops, and the churches of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden are established.
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^ Although he did not break with the Catholic Church until three years later, he had already come substantially to his later views on the plan of salvation.
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[175]
.In the 19th century, Samuel Simon Schmucker attempted to lead the Evangelical Lutheran General Synod of the United States toward unification with other American Protestants.^ Lutheranism is the third largest Protestant denomination in the United States.
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^ The process accelerated after World War II (1939-1945), and by the early 1980s mergers had consolidated most Lutherans in the United States and Canada into five major bodies: the Lutheran Church in America (LCA), Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod (LCMS), the American Lutheran Church (ALC), the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS), and the Association of Evangelical Lutheran Churches (AELC).
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^ In contrast to other Protestants, particularly the Anabaptists, however, Lutherans affirm the real bodily presence of Christ "in, with, and under" the elements of bread and wine at the Lord's Supper.
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.His attempt to get the synod to reject the Augsburg Confession in favor of his compromising Definite Platform failed.^ The Augsburg Confession: Preface A look at the preface to the Augsburg COnfession in which the Lutherans acknowledge a desire for political unity but not at the expense of compromising Scriptural truth.
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.Instead, it sparked a Neo-Lutheran revival, prompting many to form the General Council, including Charles Porterfield Krauth.^ A fourth general body was formed in 1872, the "Synodical Conference", at present the strongest organization among the Lutheran Churches of America.
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^ Lutherans have a rich tradition of Christian education, including many WELS, ELS, and LC-MS congregations that support grade schools and local high schools.
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^ Bailey brought in the Book of Worship used by the General Synod, and many of the non-Lutherans did not approve of this innovation, but he did not make an issue of it, and eventually it was accepted.
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Their alternative approach was “Lutheran pulpits are for Lutheran ministers only, and Lutheran altars are for Lutheran communicants only.”
.Beginning in 1867, confessional and liberal minded Lutherans in Germany joined together to form the Common Evangelical Lutheran Conference against the ever looming prospect of a state-mandated union with the Reformed.^ In its place has arisen a worldwide "synodical conference"--the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference.
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^ Conferences were held in 1586, 1631, and 1661; a plan of union was proposed by the Heidelberg professor Pareus (1615); the Reformed Synod of Charenton (1631) voted to admit Lutheran sponsors in baptism.
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^ The newly formed Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada, composed of wings of the former LCA and ALC churches, reported membership of 199,600 in the early 1990s.
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[176] .However, they failed to reach a consensus among themselves on how much agreement in doctrine is necessary for church union.^ However, when they realized how much I love him, they supported me.
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^ Overall the Lutherans express agreement and note only two groups they disagree with on these doctrines: the Donatists and the Anabaptists.
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^ Lutheran Architecture: How a Building Reflects Theology A look at the architecture and layout of a Lutheran church and how that architecture and layout reflects Lutheran teaching and doctrine.
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[31] Eventually, the fascist German Christians movement forced the final national merger of Lutheran, Union, and Reformed state churches into a single Reich Church, now the Evangelical Church in Germany, in 1933.
.Presently, Lutherans are divided over how to interact with other Christian denominations.^ Thus the Lutherans of the United States are divided into various conflicting bodies, each claiming to be a truer exponent of Lutheranism than the others.
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^ Lutheranism is generally friendly to the Ecumenical Movement, and with some exceptions, Lutheran churches have participated in worldwide gatherings of Christians across confessional and denominational boundaries.
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^ In 1997 the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America agreed to share full communion with three other Protestant denominations - the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), the United Church of Christ, and the Reformed Church in America.
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.Some Lutherans assert that everyone must share the "whole counsel of God" (Acts 20:27) in complete unity (1 Cor.^ A Lutheran Primer for Mother's Day For Mother's Day I wish to share some Luther quotes on motherhood as well as links to articles on motherhood.
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.1:10)[177] before pastors can share each others' pulpits, and before communicants commune at each others' altars, a practice termed closed (or close) communion.^ In 1997 the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America agreed to share full communion with three other Protestant denominations - the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), the United Church of Christ, and the Reformed Church in America.
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.On the other hand, other Lutherans are practice varying degrees of open communion and allow preachers from other Christian denominations in their pulpits.^ Thus the Lutherans of the United States are divided into various conflicting bodies, each claiming to be a truer exponent of Lutheranism than the others.
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^ Lutheranism is generally friendly to the Ecumenical Movement, and with some exceptions, Lutheran churches have participated in worldwide gatherings of Christians across confessional and denominational boundaries.
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^ In 1997 the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America agreed to share full communion with three other Protestant denominations - the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), the United Church of Christ, and the Reformed Church in America.
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.While not an issue in the majority of Lutheran church bodies, some of them forbid membership in Freemasonry.^ The newly formed Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada, composed of wings of the former LCA and ALC churches, reported membership of 199,600 in the early 1990s.
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^ A fourth general body was formed in 1872, the "Synodical Conference", at present the strongest organization among the Lutheran Churches of America.
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^ To effect harmony the Form of Concord, the last of the Lutheran symbols, was drawn up in 1577, and accepted by the majority of the state Churches.
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Partly, this is because the lodge is viewed as spreading Unitarianism, as the Brief Statement of the Missouri Synod reads, "Hence we warn against Unitarianism, which in our country has to a great extent impenetrated the sects and is being spread particularly also through the influence of the lodges."[178] A 1958 report from the publishing house of the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod states that, "Masonry is guilty of idolatry. Its worship and prayers are idol worship. .The Masons may not with their hands have made an idol out of gold, silver, wood or stone, but they created one with their own mind and reason out of purely human thoughts and ideas.^ I’m sure you have your own well thought out reasons for disagreeing with Christianity, but lashing out at others is not an argument.
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^ They have their own individual minds, and there is NOTHING you can do to change that.
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^ God set Adam and Eve free to make their own decisions for a reason; the acceptance of Jesus Christ is only valid if it is made as a free and conscious choice.
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.The latter is an idol no less than the former."^ No less a preacher than Dr. John W. Horine said of him, "His sermons were - and are - evangelical, clear, logical, with personal application.
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[179]
ELCA pastor wearing an alb during communion
LCMS pastor wearing a chasuble during communion
.The Lutheran World Federation and the Missouri Synod have been in official dialogue with the Roman Catholic Church since shortly after the Second Vatican Council.^ Most Lutheran churches are also members of the World Council of Churches.
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^ The Lutheran World Federation, founded in 1947.
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^ Unlike Roman Catholic priests, Lutheran clergy may marry.
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.In 1999 the LWF and the Roman Catholic Church when they jointly issued a statement, the Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification ("JDDJ"), that stated that the LWF and the Roman Catholic churches agreed about the basics of Justification and lifted certain Roman Catholic anathemas formerly applying to the LWF member churches.^ They wanted a SEPARATION of church and state.
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^ The following is a statement of protest and dissent regarding the Lutheran-Roman Catholic Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification (JDDJ).
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^ They reflect the emphasis on justification by grace and the correction of abuses in the life of the church while at the same time "conserving" the church's catholic heritage (through explicit commitment to the ancient creeds, traditional forms of worship, church government, etc.
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[3]. .The Missouri Synod has participated in every series of talks, except that which produced the Joint Declaration and to which they were not invited.^ Barry Issues New Statement On 'Joint Declaration' The office of Dr. A.L. Barry, president of The Lutheran Church--Missouri Synod (LC-MS) issued this statement on the "Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification" on October 18, 1999.
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.While some Lutheran theologians saw the Joint Declaration as a sign that the Roman Catholic Church was essentially adopting the Lutheran position, other Lutheran theologians disagreed, claiming that, considering the public documentation of the Roman Catholic Church's position, this assertion does not hold up.^ Unlike Roman Catholic priests, Lutheran clergy may marry.
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^ Sectional representatives, similar to the representatives of The Lutheran today, were appointed in many areas across the country to be responsible for publicity of the Lutheran Church.
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^ Like many people of conscience in his day, Luther was disturbed by immorality and corruption in the Roman Catholic church, but he concentrated more on reform of what he thought was corrupt teaching.
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.The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) has been actively involved in ecumenical dialogues with several denominations (the ELCA is one of the members of the LWF that signed the JDDJ).^ To him it was not one of the several causes of the church.
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^ Greever decided that he would retire at the 1946 convention of the United Lutheran Church in America.
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^ It is an example of a sermon in the Lutheran church (as opposed to a homily--notice the focus and study on one reading--the Acts reading--for that Sunday.
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.Recently, the ELCA has declared full communion with several American Churches: the Moravian Church, the Episcopal Church, the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), the Reformed Church in America, the United Methodist Church, and the United Church of Christ.^ The Lutheran Journey Begins in a Land of Freedom On this day of Independence in the United States of America I begin the study of Lutheran synods in America with an overview of the Lutheran Church in the New World and in the American Republic.
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^ Thus, an era in the history of the United Lutheran Church in America came to an end.
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^ United Lutheran Church in America Service Before 1932 Return to Top In 1918, at the merging convention of the United Lutheran Church in America, there was much excitement over officers for the new body.
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Although not an "ecumenical" movement in the formal sense, in the 1990s influences from the megachurches of American evangelicalism have become somewhat common. .Many of the largest Lutheran congregations in the United States have been heavily influenced by these "progressive Evangelicals."^ From these nations Lutherans migrated to the United States and Canada.
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^ Lutheranism is the third largest Protestant denomination in the United States.
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^ And many of these Lutherans hunt.
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.These influences are sharply criticized by some Lutherans as being foreign to orthodox Lutheran beliefs.^ Besides these formulæ of belief, Lutheranism acknowledges six specific confessions which distinguish it from other churches: Além desses formulà .
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[180]
.The Porvoo Communion is a communion of episcopally led Lutheran and Anglican churches in Europe.^ Many German Lutherans were silent or cooperative, however, when the Nazi regime took over the church; only the Confessing Church, led by Martin Niemoller, opposed the regime outright.
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^ In Europe most Lutheran churches are episcopal, that is, ruled by bishops, and the churches of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden are established.
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^ In 1997 the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America agreed to share full communion with three other Protestant denominations - the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), the United Church of Christ, and the Reformed Church in America.
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.Beside its membership in the Porvoo Communion, Church of Sweden also has declared full communion with the Philippine Independent Church and the United Methodist Church.^ He and Dr. A. Steimle were appointed as a committee on independent organizations and the United Lutheran Church.
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^ In the United States, Lutherans have united in three main bodies: the Lutheran Church in America (membership, 2.9 million), the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod (2.6 million), and the American Lutheran Church (2.3 million).
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^ Walton H. Greever has declared himself ineligible for re-election as secretary of the United Lutheran Church.
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Martin Luther church in the city of São Paulo, Brazil
Martin Luther church in Sydney, Australia

Throughout the world

.Today, millions belong to Lutheran churches, which are present on all populated continents.^ Sectional representatives, similar to the representatives of The Lutheran today, were appointed in many areas across the country to be responsible for publicity of the Lutheran Church.
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^ Representatives of all the Lutheran Church papers in the United States were there.
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^ In the United Lutheran Church in America he was a member of several boards, and directed several campaigns for funds - all before his election as secretary in 1932.
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[181] .Lutheranism is the largest religious group in Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Namibia, and the Dakotas.^ In Europe most Lutheran churches are episcopal, that is, ruled by bishops, and the churches of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden are established.
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^ Denmark (A) Dinamarca By the Union of Calmar (1397), Sweden, Norway, and Denmark became a united kingdom under the King of Denmark.
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^ Apart from Germany, where two thirds of the population had accepted Lutheranism by the end of the sixteenth century, the expansion of Lutheranism through Sweden, Denmark, and Norway left national churches that have endured in strength.
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.Lutheranism is also the dominant form of Christianity in the White Mountain and San Carlos Apache nations.^ This Christian heritage binds Lutherans to the one, holy, Christian, and apostolic Church (the Invisible Church)--made up of Christians of all ages, times, races, nations, and tribes.
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.In addition, Lutheranism is the dominant Protestant denomination but not the largest religious group in Germany,[182] Lithuania, Poland, Austria, Slovakia, Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Papua New Guinea, and Tanzania.^ Lutheranism is the third largest Protestant denomination in the United States.
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^ In 1997 the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America agreed to share full communion with three other Protestant denominations - the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), the United Church of Christ, and the Reformed Church in America.
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^ General Information Informações gerais Lutheranism is a major Protestant denomination, which originated as a 16th-century movement led by Martin Luther.
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[183]
.Although Namibia is the only country outside Europe to have a Lutheran majority, there are sizable Lutheran communities in many other countries; including Australia, Brazil, Canada, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia (notably among the Orang Batak), Madagascar, and the United States, especially in the heavily Germanic Upper Midwest.^ Representatives of all the Lutheran Church papers in the United States were there.
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^ Indeed, the only country outside of Europe where a majority of the population is Lutheran is Namibia in southern Africa.
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^ From these nations Lutherans migrated to the United States and Canada.
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[184] .Lutheran missions have also been established in many African countries like Sierra Leone.^ Sectional representatives, similar to the representatives of The Lutheran today, were appointed in many areas across the country to be responsible for publicity of the Lutheran Church.
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^ The Reformed party gradually gained the ascendancy, and, when the republic was established, their political supremacy enabled them to subject the Lutherans to many annoying restrictions.
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.The largest organizations of Lutheran churches around the world are the Lutheran World Federation, the International Lutheran Council, and the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference.^ Most Lutheran churches are also members of the World Council of Churches.
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^ In its place has arisen a worldwide "synodical conference"--the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ The Lutheran World Federation, founded in 1947.
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.These organizations together include the great majority of Lutheran denominations around the globe.^ During this period these organizations agreed to be and were recognized as the official auxiliaries of the United Lutheran Church in America.
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^ Together with the creeds, these documents constitute The Book of Concord, adopted by Lutheran princes and cities in 1580.
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^ General Information Informações gerais Lutheranism is a major Protestant denomination, which originated as a 16th-century movement led by Martin Luther.
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.The Lutheran World Federation supports the activities of Lutheran World Relief, a relief and development agency active in more than 50 countries.^ The Lutheran World Federation, founded in 1947.
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^ Fearing anarchy more than authoritarianism, the Lutherans gravitated to biblical teachings that stressed the authority of the state more than the civil freedom of its citizens.
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^ They even felt that they had more in common with the German-speaking Reformed than with the English-speaking Lutherans, and some of them advocated an Evangelical Union such as was then proposed in Prussia.
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.The LCMS and the LCC are members of the International Lutheran Council (ILC).^ Most Lutheran churches are also members of the World Council of Churches.
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^ The Lutheran Church-Canada was originally a member of the LCMS but became autonomous in 1988.
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.The WELS and ELS are members of the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference.^ In its place has arisen a worldwide "synodical conference"--the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ I served as vicar at two churches in Paint Creek, Iowa, which Dr. Koren founded (both members of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod).
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ Lutherans have a rich tradition of Christian education, including many WELS, ELS, and LC-MS congregations that support grade schools and local high schools.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

Trinity Lutheran in Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Saint Catherine in Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine
.Many Lutheran churches exist throughout the world which are not affiliated with the LWF, the ILC or the CELC, such as those affiliated with Augsburg Lutheran Churches or Church of the Lutheran Confession which are especially active in Africa and India; and those affiliated with the Evangelical Lutheran Free Church (UAC)or Church of the Lutheran Brethren, which are especially active elsewhere in Asia.^ Many of the families came from Pennsylvania and were good prospects for the Lutheran Church.
  • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Lutheran church defines itself as "the assembly of believers among which the Gospel is preached and the Holy Sacraments are administered according to the Gospel" (Augsburg Confession, VII).
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^ Sectional representatives, similar to the representatives of The Lutheran today, were appointed in many areas across the country to be responsible for publicity of the Lutheran Church.
  • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Lutheran World Federation (LWF)-aligned churches do not believe that one church is singularly true in its teachings.^ The Lutheran World Federation, founded in 1947.
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^ It is an example of a sermon in the Lutheran church (as opposed to a homily--notice the focus and study on one reading--the Acts reading--for that Sunday.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ The Lutheran church defines itself as "the assembly of believers among which the Gospel is preached and the Holy Sacraments are administered according to the Gospel" (Augsburg Confession, VII).
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to this belief, Lutheranism is a reform movement rather than a movement into doctrinal correctness.^ The distinctive doctrines of Lutheran theology have commonly been related to the classical leitmotifs of the Reformation: sola Scriptura, sola gratia, sola fide.
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^ Thus the Lutherans of the United States are divided into various conflicting bodies, each claiming to be a truer exponent of Lutheranism than the others.
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^ The Lutheran movement diffused after 1517 from Saxony through many other German territories into Scandinavia.
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.For that reason, a number of doctrinally diverse LWF denominations, now largely separated from state control, are declaring fellowship and joint statements of agreement with other Lutheran and non-Lutheran Christian denominations.^ This development was bitterly opposed by a large number of Lutherans, some of whom broke away to establish a separate church.
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^ For the part he took in the Thirty Years War, he is venerated by Lutherans as the religious hero of their Church, but it is now admitted that reasons of state led Gustavus into that conflict.
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^ Salem's Deer Hunter Service Sermon, Notes on Solomon's Song In Wisconsin and Minnesota and Michigan, as well as some other states, there be many Lutherans.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

.By contrast, the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference and International Lutheran Council as well as many unaffiliated denominations such as the Church of the Lutheran Confession (CLC) maintain that the orthodox confessional Lutheran churches are the only churches with completely correct doctrine.^ In its place has arisen a worldwide "synodical conference"--the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ His conferences were with everybody in the Church House as well as with many others.
  • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the families came from Pennsylvania and were good prospects for the Lutheran Church.
  • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They teach that while other Christian churches teach partially orthodox doctrine and have true Christians as members, the doctrines of those churches contain significant errors.^ Other distinctive doctrines of the Lutheran Church are: Outras distintivo doutrinas da Igreja Luterana são: consubstantiation (although the symbols do not use this term), i.e.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lutheran Architecture: How a Building Reflects Theology A look at the architecture and layout of a Lutheran church and how that architecture and layout reflects Lutheran teaching and doctrine.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ The agreement meant that the churches could exchange clergy and that members could worship and receive sacraments at the other churches.
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.More conservative Lutherans strive to maintain historical distinctiveness while emphasizing doctrinal purity alongside Gospel-motivated outreach.^ The second doctrinal distinctive of Lutheranism is the doctrine of justification.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The distinctive doctrines of Lutheran theology have commonly been related to the classical leitmotifs of the Reformation: sola Scriptura, sola gratia, sola fide.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other distinctive doctrines of the Lutheran Church are: Outras distintivo doutrinas da Igreja Luterana são: consubstantiation (although the symbols do not use this term), i.e.
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.They claim that LWF Lutherans are practicing "fake ecumenism" by desiring church fellowship outside of actual unity of teaching.^ The Lutheran World Federation (LWF), headquartered in Geneva, coordinates the activities of almost all Lutheran churches in the world.
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^ In the ecumenical age, however, they have kept a very distinct identity through their general loyalty to the teachings of 16th century Lutheranism.
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^ Lutheranism is generally friendly to the Ecumenical Movement, and with some exceptions, Lutheran churches have participated in worldwide gatherings of Christians across confessional and denominational boundaries.
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[185]

See also

Print sources

  • Confessional & Historical Perspective: Günther Gassmann & Scott Hendrix. Fortress Introduction to the Lutheran Confessions. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1999. ISBN 0-8006-3162-5.
  • ELCA Perspective: Braaten, Carl E. (1983). Principles of Lutheran Theology. Philadelphia: Fortress Press. 
  • General Council Historical Perspective: Krauth, Charles Porterfield (1875). .The Conservative Reformation and Its Theology: As Represented in the Augsburg Confession, and in the History and Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church.^ The Lutheran church defines itself as "the assembly of believers among which the Gospel is preached and the Holy Sacraments are administered according to the Gospel" (Augsburg Confession, VII).
    • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Sectional representatives, similar to the representatives of The Lutheran today, were appointed in many areas across the country to be responsible for publicity of the Lutheran Church.
    • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The newly formed Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada, composed of wings of the former LCA and ALC churches, reported membership of 199,600 in the early 1990s.
    • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    2nd ed. Philadelphia: J.P. Lippincott. p. 840. http://books.google.com/books?id=qiURAAAAIAAJ.
     
  • LCMS Perspective: Pieper, Franz (1950–1957). Christian Dogmatics. .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    p. 3 Volumes.
     
  • LCMS Perspective: Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). .Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture.^ Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification An introduction into the study of the Joint Declaration in the light of Scripture.
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Other distinctive doctrines of the Lutheran Church are: Outras distintivo doutrinas da Igreja Luterana são: consubstantiation (although the symbols do not use this term), i.e.
    • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Greever was the United Lutheran Church in America's representative on the American Commission which included representatives from four other Lutheran bodies in America.
    • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    p. 526. .http://www.archive.org/details/MN41551ucmf_1. 
  • LCMS Perspective: Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910).^ Journal reference: Journal of Economic Perspectives vol 23, p 209 (pdf) http://www.aeaweb.org/jep/index.php http://people.hbs.edu/bedelman/papers/redlightstates.pdf Praise or Condemn: 0 0 .
    • Is It Ok For My Christian Daughter To Masturbate? | ChristWire 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC christwire.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    p. 250. http://web.archive.org/web/20060709205945/http://showcase.netins.net/web/bilarson/graebner.html. 
  • LCR Perspective: McLaughlin, Wallace H. (1963). .We All Believe in One True God: A Summary of Biblical Doctrine.^ The Trinity Scriptural support for the doctrine of the Trinity, that is one God with three person in the God-head.
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Or do we take on the name of one who looked to Scripture alone for doctrine, grace alone for salvation, and faith alone to let God speak through His Word?
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Lutheran doctrine of the priesthood of all believers is related to baptism, by which all Christians, both male and female, are made priests of God, serving him during their entire life in their chosen vocations, all of which are to be understood as equal opportunities for discipleship.
    • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Midland, Michigan: Cross of Christ Press. http://lutherantheology.com/uploads/works/wabiotg/index.html.
     
  • Neo-Lutheran Historical Perspective: Schmid, Heinrich Friedrich Ferdinand (1876). .The Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church.^ The newly formed Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada, composed of wings of the former LCA and ALC churches, reported membership of 199,600 in the early 1990s.
    • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The distinctive doctrines of Lutheran theology have commonly been related to the classical leitmotifs of the Reformation: sola Scriptura, sola gratia, sola fide.
    • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Evangelical Lutheran Synod Of Australia: A Brief History (1) A brief history of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Australia, starting with the first Lutheran immigrants to Australia.
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    Philadelphia: Lutheran Publication Society. http://books.google.com/books?id=eK9ZAAAAMAAJ.
     
  • Slovak Synod Historical Perspective: Richter, V. W. (1913). .Why Should a Lutheran Not Join Any Sectarian Church?.^ This sermon illustrates the concept of church and fellowship and why we should not "give up meeting with one another."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Greever and Dr. Wiles agreed on a statement recommending the United Lutheran Church in America not join and submitted it to the Executive Board.
    • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Why We Left Lutheranism-- Foundation Human not Divine This dialogue reviews whether the Lutheran church has origins in man or in Scripture.
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    Streator, Illinois: Svedok Publishing House. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&id=OPL0XZG7j70C.
     
  • WELS Perspective: Lange, Lyle W. (2006). .God So Loved the World: A Study of Christian Doctrine.^ Does God command us to know Christian doctrine before being baptized into his family?
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The world needs more understanding, more sharing, more belief in brotherhood and Christian love between all parties, even if they have not yet come to Jesus.
    • Is It Ok For My Christian Daughter To Masturbate? | ChristWire 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC christwire.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ God is good--he loved the WORLD so much he sent his Son!
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    .Northwestern Publishing House. 
  • Comparison of Catholic, Lutheran, and Protestant doctrine: Jackson, Gregory L. (2007).^ Lutherans: Catholic, Protestant, or Other?
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The survival of Lutheranism after the Thirty Years' War was the result of the intervention of the Lutheran Swedish king Gustav II Adolph and of Roman Catholic France on the side of the Protestants.
    • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The book is available at Amazon.com through Suite's marketplace.
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    .Catholic, Lutheran, Protestant: A Doctrinal Comparison of Three Christian Confessions.^ The Doctrine of the Means of Grace A Look at the Differences in the Teachings of the Lutheran, Roman, and Reformed Branches of Christianity.
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Lutherans: Catholic, Protestant, or Other?
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The survival of Lutheranism after the Thirty Years' War was the result of the intervention of the Lutheran Swedish king Gustav II Adolph and of Roman Catholic France on the side of the Protestants.
    • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Glendale, Arizona: Martin Chemnitz Press. http://www.gljackson.com/795931.pdf. 

Footnotes

  1. ^ MSN Encarta, s.v. "Lutheranism" by George Wolfgang Forell; Christian Cyclopedia, s.v. "Reformation, Lutheran" by Lueker, E. et. al. Archived 2009-10-31.
  2. ^ How Lutherans Got Started
  3. ^ Lutherans, biblehistory.com
  4. ^ Martin Luther Biography - Martin Luther Childhood, Life & Timeline
  5. ^ Reformation: Martin Luther
  6. ^ http://books.google.no/books?id=29k9AAAAYAAJ&pg=PA195&lpg=PA195&dq=%22confession%22&source=bl&ots=qk3QtrqJUX&sig=lyUOF5_qDXMJ-inkQ9hnETLjwc8&hl=no&ei=S5vASsWFCIGE-QbUz9GuAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1#v=snippet&q=1520&f=false
  7. ^ a b c Chapter 12 The Reformation In Germany And Scandinavia, Renaissance and Reformation by William Gilbert.
  8. ^ http://books.google.no/books?id=29k9AAAAYAAJ&pg=PA195&lpg=PA195&dq=%22vilde+blive+ved+det+hellige+evangelium%22&source=bl&ots=qk3QtrqJUX&sig=lyUOF5_qDXMJ-inkQ9hnETLjwc8&hl=no&ei=S5vASsWFCIGE-QbUz9GuAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1#v=onepage&q=%22vilde%20blive%20ved%20det%20hellige%20evangelium%22&f=false
  9. ^ http://books.google.no/books?id=29k9AAAAYAAJ&pg=PA202&lpg=PA202&dq=%22efter+kirkeordinantsen%22&source=bl&ots=qk3QuotLUX&sig=OhoizX0WK9pCYYpn2uzi3U9Y4zQ&hl=no&ei=O7nBSs--NZWG4QaVgIWLCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6#v=onepage&q=%22efter%20kirkeordinantsen%22&f=false
  10. ^ http://books.google.no/books?id=29k9AAAAYAAJ&pg=PA195&lpg=PA195&dq=%22confession%22&source=bl&ots=qk3QtrqJUX&sig=lyUOF5_qDXMJ-inkQ9hnETLjwc8&hl=no&ei=S5vASsWFCIGE-QbUz9GuAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1#v=onepage&q=confession&f=false
  11. ^ http://books.google.no/books?id=29k9AAAAYAAJ&pg=PA195&lpg=PA195&dq=%22foredrage%22&source=bl&ots=qk3QtrqJUX&sig=lyUOF5_qDXMJ-inkQ9hnETLjwc8&hl=no&ei=S5vASsWFCIGE-QbUz9GuAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1#v=onepage&q=%22og%20foredrage%22&f=false
  12. ^ http://books.google.no/books?id=29k9AAAAYAAJ&pg=PA195&lpg=PA195&dq=%22vilde+blive+ved+det+hellige+evangelium%22&source=bl&ots=qk3QtrqJUX&sig=lyUOF5_qDXMJ-inkQ9hnETLjwc8&hl=no&ei=S5vASsWFCIGE-QbUz9GuAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1#v=onepage&q=katechismus&f=false
  13. ^ http://books.google.no/books?id=29k9AAAAYAAJ&pg=PA195&lpg=PA195&dq=%22vilde+blive+ved+det+hellige+evangelium%22&source=bl&ots=qk3QtrqJUX&sig=lyUOF5_qDXMJ-inkQ9hnETLjwc8&hl=no&ei=S5vASsWFCIGE-QbUz9GuAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1#v=snippet&q=tilregnelse&f=false
  14. ^ https://www.retsinformation.dk/Forms/R0710.aspx?id=72723 (line 33-34)
  15. ^ http://books.google.no/books?id=Rxt3f6fbHGgC&pg=PA416&lpg=PA416&dq=3000+1550+bible+danish&source=bl&ots=QeTWOXb_KH&sig=OmnYOz7ex-nlWUV6pK2Eq_IJs1c&hl=no&ei=LcbVSs-_F5PE-QaO_-HuCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CBkQ6AEwBA#v=snippet&q=%203000%201550&f=false
  16. ^ http://www.vatican.va/archive/compendium_ccc/documents/archive_2005_compendium-ccc_en.html § 13 and 16
  17. ^ http://books.google.no/books?id=29k9AAAAYAAJ&pg=PA195&lpg=PA195&dq=%22vilde+blive+ved+det+hellige+evangelium%22&source=bl&ots=qk3QtrqJUX&sig=lyUOF5_qDXMJ-inkQ9hnETLjwc8&hl=no&ei=S5vASsWFCIGE-QbUz9GuAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1#v=snippet&q=%22paven%20har%22&f=false
  18. ^ N.F. Lutheran Cyclopedia, article, "Upsala, Diet of", New York: Schrivner, 1899. p. 528-9.
  19. ^ Fuerbringer, L., Concordia Cyclopedia Concordia Publishing House. 1927. p. 425
  20. ^ Lutheran Theology after 1580 article in Christian Cyclopedia
  21. ^ a b c Fuerbringer, L., Concordia Cyclopedia Concordia Publishing House. 1927. p. 426
  22. ^ Rietschel, William C. An Introduction to the Foundations of Lutheran Education. St. Louis: Concordia, 2000. p. 25 (Although this reference specifically mentions Saxony, government promoted rationalism was a trend across Germany)
  23. ^ Devotional Literature Project
  24. ^ Armin Sierszyn: 2000 Jahre Kirchengeschichte, Book.4, Die Neuzeit, p. 155
  25. ^ Suelflow, Roy A. Walking With Wise Men. Milwaukee: South Wisconsin District (LCMS), 1967. p.10
  26. ^ a b c Gritsch, Eric W. A History of Lutheranism. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002. p. 180.
  27. ^ Gritsch, Eric W. A History of Lutheranism. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002. p. 182.
  28. ^ a b c Gritsch, Eric W. A History of Lutheranism. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002. p. 183.
  29. ^ Benton, William, ed. (1974), "Lutheran Churches", Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11 (15 ed.), Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., pp. 198, ISBN 0-85229-290-2 .
  30. ^ Christian Cyclopedia article on Brünn]
  31. ^ a b c d Gritsch, Eric W. A History of Lutheranism. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002. p. 184.
  32. ^ Gritsch, Eric W. A History of Lutheranism. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002. p. 187.
  33. ^ Gritsch, Eric W. A History of Lutheranism. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002. p. 188.
  34. ^ For the traditional Lutheran view of the Bible, see Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    pp. 3ff.. http://web.archive.org/web/20060712193848/showcase.netins.net/web/bilarson/bibliology.txt.
     . For an overview of the doctrine of verbal inspiration in Lutheranism, see Inspiration, Doctrine of in the Christian Cyclopedia.
  35. ^ Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    pp. 7ff. http://web.archive.org/web/20060712193848/showcase.netins.net/web/bilarson/bibliology.txt.
     , Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). .Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture.^ Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification An introduction into the study of the Joint Declaration in the light of Scripture.
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Other distinctive doctrines of the Lutheran Church are: Outras distintivo doutrinas da Igreja Luterana são: consubstantiation (although the symbols do not use this term), i.e.
    • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Greever was the United Lutheran Church in America's representative on the American Commission which included representatives from four other Lutheran bodies in America.
    • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    p. 29. http://www.archive.org/details/MN41551ucmf_1.
     
  36. ^ Braaten, Carl E. (1983). Principles of Lutheran Theology. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, p. 9
  37. ^ Benton, William, ed. (1978), "Lutheran Churches", Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11 (15 ed.), Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., pp. 197–198, ISBN 0-85229-290-2 .
  38. ^ U.S. Religious Landscape Survey: Religious Beliefs and Practices, Diverse and Politically Relevant. Washington D.C.: Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life. June 2008. p. 127. Accessed online on September 27, 2009 at http://religions.pewforum.org/pdf/report2-religious-landscape-study-full.pdf.
  39. ^ Revelation 14:6
  40. ^ 2 Timothy 3:16, 1 Corinthians 2:13, 1 Thessalonians 2:13, Romans 3:2, 2 Peter 1:21, 2 Samuel 23:2, Hebrews 1:1, John 10:35, John 16:13, John 17:17, Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). .Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture.^ Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification An introduction into the study of the Joint Declaration in the light of Scripture.
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Other distinctive doctrines of the Lutheran Church are: Outras distintivo doutrinas da Igreja Luterana são: consubstantiation (although the symbols do not use this term), i.e.
    • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Greever was the United Lutheran Church in America's representative on the American Commission which included representatives from four other Lutheran bodies in America.
    • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    p. 26. http://www.archive.org/details/MN41551ucmf_1.
     
  41. ^ "God's Word, or Holy Scripture" from the Apology of the Augsburg Confession, Article II, of Original Sin
  42. ^ "the Scripture of the Holy Ghost." Apology to the Augsburg Confession, Preface, 9
  43. ^ The Solid Declaration of the Formula of Concord, "Rule and Norm", 3.
  44. ^ Divination: Tobit 6:17, Prayer to the dead: 2 Macc. 12:42, Suicide: 2 Macc. 14:41-46,
  45. ^ See Bible, Canon in the Christian Cyclopedia
  46. ^ a b c Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). .Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture.^ Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification An introduction into the study of the Joint Declaration in the light of Scripture.
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Other distinctive doctrines of the Lutheran Church are: Outras distintivo doutrinas da Igreja Luterana são: consubstantiation (although the symbols do not use this term), i.e.
    • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Greever was the United Lutheran Church in America's representative on the American Commission which included representatives from four other Lutheran bodies in America.
    • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    p. 27. http://www.archive.org/details/MN41551ucmf_1.
     
  47. ^ Matthew 4:3, Luke 4:3, Genesis 3:1, John 10:35, Luke 24:25, Psalm 119:140, Psalm 119:167, Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). .Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture.^ Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification An introduction into the study of the Joint Declaration in the light of Scripture.
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Other distinctive doctrines of the Lutheran Church are: Outras distintivo doutrinas da Igreja Luterana são: consubstantiation (although the symbols do not use this term), i.e.
    • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Greever was the United Lutheran Church in America's representative on the American Commission which included representatives from four other Lutheran bodies in America.
    • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    p. 27. http://www.archive.org/details/MN41551ucmf_1.
     , Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    pp. 8–9. http://web.archive.org/web/20060712193848/showcase.netins.net/web/bilarson/bibliology.txt.
     
  48. ^ 2 Thessalonians 2:15, Luke 24:25-27, Luke 16:29-31, 2 Timothy 3:15-17, Jeremiah 8:9, Jeremiah 23:26, Isaiah 8:19-20, 1 Corinthians 14:37, Galatians 1:8, Acts 17:11, Acts 15:14-15, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    pp. 8–10. http://web.archive.org/web/20060712193848/showcase.netins.net/web/bilarson/bibliology.txt.
     
  49. ^ 2 Thessalonians 2:13, 2 Corinthians 1:20, Titus 1:2-3, 2 Thessalonians 2:15, 2 Peter 1:19, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    pp. 8–9. http://web.archive.org/web/20060712193848/showcase.netins.net/web/bilarson/bibliology.txt.
     
  50. ^ Deuteronomy 12:32, Deuteronomy 5:9-10, James 2:10, Joshua 1:8, Luke 16:29, 2 Timothy 3:16, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    pp. 8–11. http://web.archive.org/web/20060712193848/showcase.netins.net/web/bilarson/bibliology.txt.
     
  51. ^ Psalm 19:8, Psalm 119:105, Psalm 119:130, 2 Timothy 3:15, Deuteronomy 30:11, 2 Peter 1:19, Ephesians 3:3-4, John 8:31-32, 2 Corinthians 4:3-4, John 8:43-47, 2 Peter 3:15-16, Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). .Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture.^ Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification An introduction into the study of the Joint Declaration in the light of Scripture.
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Other distinctive doctrines of the Lutheran Church are: Outras distintivo doutrinas da Igreja Luterana são: consubstantiation (although the symbols do not use this term), i.e.
    • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Greever was the United Lutheran Church in America's representative on the American Commission which included representatives from four other Lutheran bodies in America.
    • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    p. 29. http://www.archive.org/details/MN41551ucmf_1.
     , Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    pp. 11–12. http://web.archive.org/web/20060712193848/showcase.netins.net/web/bilarson/bibliology.txt.
     
  52. ^ Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    p. 11. http://web.archive.org/web/20060712193848/showcase.netins.net/web/bilarson/bibliology.txt.
     , Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). .Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture.^ Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification An introduction into the study of the Joint Declaration in the light of Scripture.
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Other distinctive doctrines of the Lutheran Church are: Outras distintivo doutrinas da Igreja Luterana são: consubstantiation (although the symbols do not use this term), i.e.
    • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Greever was the United Lutheran Church in America's representative on the American Commission which included representatives from four other Lutheran bodies in America.
    • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    p. 28. http://www.archive.org/details/MN41551ucmf_1.
     
  53. ^ Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    p. 11. http://web.archive.org/web/20060712193848/showcase.netins.net/web/bilarson/bibliology.txt.
     
  54. ^ Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). .Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture.^ Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification An introduction into the study of the Joint Declaration in the light of Scripture.
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Other distinctive doctrines of the Lutheran Church are: Outras distintivo doutrinas da Igreja Luterana são: consubstantiation (although the symbols do not use this term), i.e.
    • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Greever was the United Lutheran Church in America's representative on the American Commission which included representatives from four other Lutheran bodies in America.
    • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    p. 28. http://www.archive.org/details/MN41551ucmf_1.
     
  55. ^ Romans 1:16, 1 Thessalonians 2:13, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    p. 11. http://web.archive.org/web/20060712193848/showcase.netins.net/web/bilarson/bibliology.txt.
     , Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). .Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture.^ Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification An introduction into the study of the Joint Declaration in the light of Scripture.
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Other distinctive doctrines of the Lutheran Church are: Outras distintivo doutrinas da Igreja Luterana são: consubstantiation (although the symbols do not use this term), i.e.
    • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Greever was the United Lutheran Church in America's representative on the American Commission which included representatives from four other Lutheran bodies in America.
    • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    p. 27. http://www.archive.org/details/MN41551ucmf_1.
     
  56. ^ Romans 1:16, 1 Thessalonians 1:5, Psalm 119:105, 2 Peter 1:19, 2 Timothy 1:16-17,Ephesians 3:3-4, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    pp. 11–12. http://web.archive.org/web/20060712193848/showcase.netins.net/web/bilarson/bibliology.txt.
     , Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). .Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture.^ Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification An introduction into the study of the Joint Declaration in the light of Scripture.
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Other distinctive doctrines of the Lutheran Church are: Outras distintivo doutrinas da Igreja Luterana são: consubstantiation (although the symbols do not use this term), i.e.
    • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Greever was the United Lutheran Church in America's representative on the American Commission which included representatives from four other Lutheran bodies in America.
    • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    p. 28. http://www.archive.org/details/MN41551ucmf_1.
     
  57. ^ John 6:63, Revelation 1:3, Ephesians 3:3-4, John 7:17, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    p. 12. http://web.archive.org/web/20060712193848/showcase.netins.net/web/bilarson/bibliology.txt.
     , Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). .Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture.^ Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification An introduction into the study of the Joint Declaration in the light of Scripture.
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Other distinctive doctrines of the Lutheran Church are: Outras distintivo doutrinas da Igreja Luterana são: consubstantiation (although the symbols do not use this term), i.e.
    • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Greever was the United Lutheran Church in America's representative on the American Commission which included representatives from four other Lutheran bodies in America.
    • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    p. 28. http://www.archive.org/details/MN41551ucmf_1.
     
  58. ^ Smalcald Articles, part 8, "Of Confession"
  59. ^ 2 Timothy 3:15-17, John 5:39, John 17:20, Psalm 19:7-8, Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). .Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture.^ Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification An introduction into the study of the Joint Declaration in the light of Scripture.
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Other distinctive doctrines of the Lutheran Church are: Outras distintivo doutrinas da Igreja Luterana são: consubstantiation (although the symbols do not use this term), i.e.
    • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Greever was the United Lutheran Church in America's representative on the American Commission which included representatives from four other Lutheran bodies in America.
    • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    p. 28. http://www.archive.org/details/MN41551ucmf_1.
     
  60. ^ Isaiah 8:20, Luke 16:29-31, 2 Timothy 3:16-17, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    p. 13. http://showcase.netins.net/web/bilarson/bibliology.txt.
     , Engelder, Theodore E.W. (1934). .Popular Symbolics: The Doctrines of the Churches of Christendom and Of Other Religious Bodies Examined in the Light of Scripture.^ Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification An introduction into the study of the Joint Declaration in the light of Scripture.
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Other distinctive doctrines of the Lutheran Church are: Outras distintivo doutrinas da Igreja Luterana são: consubstantiation (although the symbols do not use this term), i.e.
    • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Greever was the United Lutheran Church in America's representative on the American Commission which included representatives from four other Lutheran bodies in America.
    • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    p. 28. http://www.archive.org/details/MN41551ucmf_1.
     
  61. ^ Apology of the Augsburg Confession IV, 5
  62. ^ Walther, C. F. W. The Proper Distinction Between Law and Gospel. W. H. T. Dau, trans. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1929.
  63. ^ F.E. Mayer, The Religious Bodies of America. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1954, p. 184. For further information, see The Formula of Concord in the History of Swedish Lutheranism by Seth Erlandsson
  64. ^ Paul R. Sponheim, "The Origin of Sin," in Christian Dogmatics, Carl E. Braaten and Robert W. Jenson, eds. (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1984), 385–407.
  65. ^ Francis Pieper, "Definition of Original Sin," in Christian Dogmatics (St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1953), 1:538.
  66. ^ Krauth, C.P.,The Conservative Reformation and Its Theology: As Represented in the Augsburg Confession, and in the History and Literature of the Evangelical Lutheran Church . Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott. 1875. pp. 335-455, Part IX The Specific Doctrines Of The Conservative Reformation: Original Sin.
  67. ^ Formula of Concord, Original Sin.
  68. ^ Rom. 7:18, 8:7 1 Cor. 2:14, Martin Chemnitz, Examination of the Council of Trent: Vol. I. Trans. Fred Kramer, St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1971, pp. 639-52, "The Third Question: Whether the Good Works of the Regenerate in This Life Are So Perfect that They Fully, Abundantly, and Perfectly Satisfy the Divine Law".
  69. ^ Gen. 6:5, 8:21, Mat. 7:17, Krauth, C.P.,The Conservative Reformation and Its Theology: As Represented in the Augsburg Confession, and in the History and Literature of the Evangelical Lutheran Church . Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott. 1875. pp. 388-90, Part IX The Specific Doctrines Of The Conservative Reformation: Original Sin, Thesis VII The Results, Section ii Positive.
  70. ^ Dt. 27:26,Rom. 5:12,2 Th. 1:9 Rom. 6:23, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 38-41, Part VIII. "Sin"
  71. ^ 1 Tim. 2:4, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 43-44, Part X. "Saving Grace", paragraph 55.
  72. ^ Rom. 10:4, Gal. 4:4–5, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. p. 42, Part X. "Saving Grace", paragraph 52.
  73. ^ Gal. 3:13, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. p. 43, Part X. "Saving Grace", paragraph 54.
  74. ^ Augsburg Confession, Article 4, "Of Justification"
  75. ^ John 17:3, Luke 1:77,Galatians 4:9, Philippians 3:8, and 1 Timothy 2:4 refer to faith in terms of knowledge.
  76. ^ John 5:46 refers to acceptance of the truth of Christ's teaching, while John 3:36 notes the rejection of his teaching.
  77. ^ John 3:16,36, Galatians 2:16, Romans 4:20-25, 2 Timothy 1:12 speak of trust, confidence, and belief in Christ. John 3:18 notes belief in the name of Christ, and Mark 1:15 notes belief in the gospel.
  78. ^ Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 54-5, Part XIV. "Sin"
  79. ^ Ps. 51:10, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934, p.57 Part XV. "Conversion", paragraph 78.
  80. ^ John 17:20, Rom. 10:17, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934, p.101 Part XXV. "The Church", paragaph 141.
  81. ^ Titus 3:5, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934, p.87 Part XXIII. "Baptism", paragraph 118.
  82. ^ Eph. 2:8, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934, p.57 Part XV. "Conversion", paragaph 78.
  83. ^ a b Athanasian Creed, Book of Common Prayer translation, used in the Triglot ed. of the Book of Concord
  84. ^ Is. 63:8-9, Mueller, J.T., Christian Dogmatics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 158-160, section "The Doctrine of God", part 5. "The Holy Trinity Revealed in the Old Testament",Heb. 1:5, see Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 33-36, Part VI. "The Trinity".
  85. ^ The Nicene Creed and the Filioque: A Lutheran Approach by Rev. David Webber for more information
  86. ^ Luther's Small Catechism, The Apostles' Creed, Second Article, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    pp. 100ff.. http://web.archive.org/web/20060712194230/showcase.netins.net/web/bilarson/christology.txt.
     
  87. ^ Matthew 28:19, 1 Corinthians 11:23-25, Matthew 26:26-28, Mark 14:22-24, Luke 22:19-20, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    p. 161. http://www.ctsfw.edu/etext/graebneral/soteriology.txt.
     
  88. ^ Ephesians 5:27, John 3:5, John 3:23, 1 Corinthians 10:16, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    p. 162. http://www.ctsfw.edu/etext/graebneral/soteriology.txt.
     
  89. ^ Ephesians 5:26, 1 Corinthians 10:16, 1 Corinthians 11:24-25, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    p. 162. http://www.ctsfw.edu/etext/graebneral/soteriology.txt.
     
  90. ^ Matthew 3:16-17, John 3:5, 1 Corinthians 11:19, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    p. 162. http://www.ctsfw.edu/etext/graebneral/soteriology.txt.
     
  91. ^ Luke 7:30, Luke 22:19-20, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    p. 162. http://www.ctsfw.edu/etext/graebneral/soteriology.txt.
     
  92. ^ Acts 21:16, Acts 2:38, Luke 3:3, Ephesians 5:26, 1 Peter 3:21, Galatians 3:26-27, Matthew 26:28, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    p. 163. http://www.ctsfw.edu/etext/graebneral/soteriology.txt.
     
  93. ^ 1 Peter 3:21, Titus 3:5, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    p. 163. http://www.ctsfw.edu/etext/graebneral/soteriology.txt.
     
  94. ^ Titus 3:5, John 3:5, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    p. 163. http://www.ctsfw.edu/etext/graebneral/soteriology.txt.
     
  95. ^ "Private Absolution ought to be retained in the churches, although in confession an enumeration of all sins is not necessary." Article XI: Of Confession
  96. ^ The Apology of the Augsburg Confession XIII, 2: "We believe we have the duty not to neglect any of the rites and ceremonies instituted in Scripture, whatever their number. We do not think it makes much difference if, for purposes of teaching, the enumeration varies, provided what is handed down in Scripture is preserved" (cf. Theodore G. Tappert, trans. and ed., The Book of Concord: The Confessions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1959), 211).
  97. ^ Luther's Large Catechism IV, 1: "We have now finished the three chief parts of the common Christian doctrine. Besides these we have yet to speak of our two Sacraments instituted by Christ, of which also every Christian ought to have at least an ordinary, brief instruction, because without them there can be no Christian; although, alas! hitherto no instruction concerning them has been given" (emphasis added; cf. Theodore G. Tappert, trans. and ed., The Book of Concord: The Confessions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1959), 733).
  98. ^ John 20:23, and Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 112-3, Part XXVI "The Ministry", paragraph 156.
  99. ^ Luther's Large Catechism IV, 74-75: "And here you see that Baptism, both in its power and signification, comprehends also the third Sacrament, which has been called repentance, as it is really nothing else than Baptism" (emphasis added; cf. Theodore G. Tappert, trans. and ed., The Book of Concord: The Confessions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1959), 751).
  100. ^ The Apology of the Augsburg Confession XIII, 3, 4: "If we define the sacraments as rites, which have the command of God and to which the promise of grace has been added, it is easy to determine what the sacraments are, properly speaking. For humanly instituted rites are not sacraments, properly speaking, because human beings do not have the authority to promise grace. Therefore signs instituted without the command of God are not sure signs of grace, even though they perhaps serve to teach or admonish the common folk. Therefore, the sacraments are actually baptism, the Lord’s Supper, and absolution (the sacrament of repentance)" (cf. Tappert, 211). Apology of the Augsburg Confession, Article 13, Of the Number and Use of the Sacraments
  101. ^ 1 Pet. 3:21, Mueller, J.T., Christian Dogmatics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 491-496, section "The Doctrine of Baptism", part 4. "Baptism a True Means of Grace", and Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. p. 87, Part XXIII. "Baptism", paragraph 118.
  102. ^ Martin Luther, Small Catechism 4
  103. ^ Titus 3:5
  104. ^ John 3:3-7
  105. ^ "Baptism and Its Purpose". Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod. http://www.lcms.org/pages/internal.asp?NavID=2607. Retrieved 24 February 2009. 
  106. ^ Luther, Martin (2009) [1529]. "The Sacrament of Holy Baptism". Luther's Small Catechism. http://www.bookofconcord.org/smallcatechism.html#baptism. Retrieved 24 February 2009. 
  107. ^ Mat. 19:14, Acts 2:38–39, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. p. 90, Part XXIII. "Baptism", paragraph 122.
  108. ^ 1 Cor. 1:14, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. p. 90, Part XXIII. "Baptism", paragraph 122.
  109. ^ Luther, Martin (2009) [1529]. "Of Infant Baptism". Luther's Large Catechism. http://www.bookofconcord.org/largecatechism/6_baptism.html. Retrieved 24 February 2009. 
  110. ^ 1 Cor. 10:16, 11:20, 27, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. p. 95, Part XXIV. "The Lord's Supper", paragraph 131.
  111. ^ The Solid Declaration of the Formula of Concord, Article 8, The Holy Supper
  112. ^ 1 Peter 1:3, 2 Timothy 1:9, Ephesians 2:7, Titus 3:5
  113. ^ Ephesians 1:19, Colossians 2:12, John 1:13, John 6:26, 2 Corinthians 5:17
  114. ^ John 3:6
  115. ^ 2 Corinthians 3:5, 1 Corinthians 2:14, Ephesians 4:18, Ephesians 5:8
  116. ^ Genesis 6:5, Genesis 8:2, Romans 8:7
  117. ^ Philippians 1:6, Philippians 2:13, John 15:45, Romans 7:14
  118. ^ Colossians 2:13, Ephesians 2:5
  119. ^ James 1:18, 1 Peter 1:23, John 3:5, Titus 3:5, 1 Corinthians 4:15, Galatians 4:19
  120. ^ Colossians 1:12-13, 1 Peter 2:25, Jeremiah 31:18
  121. ^ Romans 3:9-23, Romans 6:17, Job 15:14, Psalm 14:3, Ephesians 2:3, 1 Peter 2:10, 1 Peter 2:25, Acts 26:18
  122. ^ Ephesians 2:5, Colossians 2:13, John 3:5, Titus 3:5, Acts 20:21, Acts 26:18
  123. ^ Philippians 2:13
  124. ^ 1 Peter 1:3, Galatians 3:26, Galatians 4:5, 1 Peter 2:10, Acts 26:18, Augustus Lawrence Graebner, Lutheran Cyclopedia p. 136, "Conversion"
  125. ^ Augsburg Confession, Article XII: Of Repentance
  126. ^ See Augsburg Confession, Article XVIII: Of Free Will
  127. ^ 1 Cor. 2:14, 12:3, Rom. 8:7, Martin Chemnitz, Examination of the Council of Trent: Vol. I. Trans. Fred Kramer, St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1971, pp. 409-53, "Seventh Topic, Concerning Free Will: From the Decree of the Sixth Session of the Council of Trent".
  128. ^ Augsburg Confession, Article 18, Of Free Will.
  129. ^ Acts 13:48, Eph. 1:4–11, Epitome of the Formula of Concord, Article 11, Election, Mueller, J.T., Christian Dogmatics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 585-9, section "The Doctrine of Eternal Election: 1. The Definition of the Term", and Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 124-8, Part XXXI. "The Election of Grace", paragraph 176.
  130. ^ 2 Thess. 2:13, Mueller, J.T., Christian Dogmatics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 589-593, section "The Doctrine of Eternal Election: 2. How Believers are to Consider Their Election, and Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 127-8, Part XXXI. "The Election of Grace", paragraph 180.
  131. ^ Rom. 8:33, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 127-8, Part XXXI. "The Election of Grace", paragraph 179., Engelder, T.E.W., The Certainty of Final Salvation. The Lutheran Witness 2(6). English Evangelical Missouri Synod: Baltimore. 1891, pp. 41ff.
  132. ^ 1 Tim. 2:4, 2 Pet. 3:9, Epitome of the Formula of Concord, Article 11, Election, and Engelder's Popular Symbolics, Part XXXI. The Election of Grace, pp. 124-8.
  133. ^ Hos. 13:9, Mueller, J.T., Christian Dogmatics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. p. 637, section "The Doctrine of the Last Things (Eschatology), part 7. "Eternal Damnation", and Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 135-6, Part XXXIX. "Eternal Death", paragraph 196.
  134. ^ Mueller, J.T., Christian Dogmatics. Concordia Publishing House. 1934. pp. 189-195 and Fuerbringer, L., Concordia Cyclopedia Concordia Publishing House. 1927. p. 635 and Christian Cyclopedia article on Divine Providence. For further reading, see The Proof Texts of the Catechism with a Practical Commentary, section Divine Providence, p. 212, Wessel, Louis, published in Theological Quarterly, Vol. 11, 1909.
  135. ^ Mueller, Steven P.,Called to Believe, Teach, and Confess. Wipf and Stock. 2005. pp. 122-123.
  136. ^ Mueller, J.T., Christian Dogmatics. Concordia Publishing House: 1934. pp. 190 and Edward. W. A.,A Short Explanation of Dr. Martin Luther's Small Catechism. Concordia Publishing House. 1946. p. 165. and Divine Providence and Human Adversity by Markus O. Koepsell
  137. ^ quoted in Scaer, David. Luther's Concept of the Resurrection Concordia Theological Quarterly 47(3) p.219
  138. ^ Luther's Small Catechism, The Apostles' Creed
  139. ^ a b Luther's Large Catechism, First Commandment
  140. ^ John 15:5, Tit. 2:14, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 62-3, Part XV. "Conversion", paragraph 88 The New Obedience Is The Fruit Of Conversion, The Product Of Faith.
  141. ^ 2 Cor. 9:8, Krauth, C.P.,The Conservative Reformation and Its Theology: As Represented in the Augsburg Confession, and in the History and Literature of the Evangelical Lutheran Church . Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott. 1875. pp. 313-4, Part D Confession of the Conservative Reformation: II, Secondary Confessions: Book of Concord, Formula of Concord, Part IV The Doctrinal Result, 2, Section iv, Of Good Works.
  142. ^ Phil 2:13, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 74, Part XIX. "Preservation in Faith", paragraph 102.
  143. ^ Rom. 7:18 Heb 11:6, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 39-40, Part VIII. "Sin", paragraph 46 “Original Sin”.
  144. ^ Mat. 7:15–16, Tit. 1:16. Augsburg Confession, Article 20, Of Good Works
  145. ^ Albrecht Beutel, "Luther's Life," tr. Katharina Gustavs, in The Cambridge Companion to Martin Luther, ed. Donald K. McKim (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 11.
  146. ^ John 18:36, Augsburg Confession, Article 17, Of Christ's Return to Judgment.
  147. ^ Luke 23:42-43, 2 Cor. 5:8, Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 130, Part XXXIV. "The State of the Soul in the Interval Between Death and the Resurrection", paragraph 185.
  148. ^ 1 Cor. 15:22–24, Francis Pieper, Christian Dogmatics, 505-515; Heinrich Schmid, The Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, 624-632; John Mueller, Christian Dogmatics, 616-619
  149. ^ John 6:40, John 6:54
  150. ^ John 5:21, John 5:28-29, Matthew 25:32, 2 Corinthians 5:10, Acts 24:15
  151. ^ Romans 8:11, Philippians 3:21, 2 Corinthians 5:10, Job 19:26, 1 Corinthians 15:44, 1 Corinthians 15:53, John 5:28, Revelation 20:12
  152. ^ Daniel 12:2, Matthew 25:41-46, John 5:29
  153. ^ Daniel 12:1-2, John 5:29, 1 Corinthians 15:52, 1 Corinthians 15:42-44, 1 Corinthians 15:49-53, Philippians 3:21, Matthew 13:43, Revelation 7:16
  154. ^ John 6:40, John 6:44, John 11:24
  155. ^ 1 Corinthians 15:51-52, 1 Thessalonians 4:15-17
  156. ^ Matthew 25:32, Romans 14:10, John 5:22, Acts 17:31, Revelation 1:7
  157. ^ Matthew 25:32, Mark 16:16
  158. ^ 2 Corinthians 5:10, 1 Corinthians 4:5, Romans 2:5, Romans 2:16
  159. ^ Romans 2:6, 2 Corinthians 5:10, Matthew 25:35-36, Matthew 25:42-43
  160. ^ Isaiah 43:25, Ezekiel 18:22, 1 John 2:28
  161. ^ Matthew 25:34-35, John 3:16-18, John 3:36, Revelation 14:13, Galatians 5:6, John 13:35
  162. ^ Matthew 25:42, Matthew 7:17-18, John 3:18, John 3:36
  163. ^ Romans 2:5, Acts 17:31, Romans 2:16
  164. ^ Luke 9:26, Matthew 25:31-32
  165. ^ Matthew 25:41, Matthew 25:34, Matthew 25:46, Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. .Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House.^ Book Review: Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions COncordia Publishing House just issued a reader's version of the "Book of Concord."
    • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

    pp. 233–8. http://www.ctsfw.edu/etext/graebneral/eschatology.txt.
     
  166. ^ Table drawn from, though not copied, from Lange, Lyle W. God So Loved the Word: A Study of Christian Doctrine. Milwaukee: Northwestern Publishing House, 2006. p. 448.
  167. ^ a b See Luther's Small Catechism, Daily Prayers
  168. ^ Augsburg Confession, Article 21, "Of the Worship of the Saints". trans. Kolb, R., Wengert, T., and Arand, C. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 2000.
  169. ^ Principle examples of this in the ELCA include Family of God, Cape Coral FL., The Well, Charlotte NC, Hosanna! of Lakeville, Minnesota, and Church of the Apostles, Seattle WA..
  170. ^ "A given culture's values and patterns, insofar as they are consonant with the values of the Gospel, can be used to express the meaning and purpose of Christian worship. Contextualization is a necessary task for the Church's mission in the world, so that the Gospel can be ever more deeply rooted in diverse local cultures." The Nairobe Statement
  171. ^ preface to Luther's Large and preface to Luther's Small Catechism.
  172. ^ Tappert, T.G., Selected Writings of Martin Luther, Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2007, p.325
  173. ^ Klug, Eugene F. and Stahlke, Otto F. Getting into the Formula of Concord. St. Louis: Concordia, 1977. p.16
  174. ^ Klug, Eugene F. and Stahlke, Otto F. Getting into the Formula of Concord. St. Louis: Concordia. p.18
  175. ^ [1].
  176. ^ Gritsch, Eric W. A History of Lutheranism. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002. p. 185.
  177. ^ For a historical example, see Robert Preus, To Join or Not To Join. North Dakota District of The Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod, 1968.
  178. ^ See http://www.lcms.org/pages/internal.asp?NavID=564 Brief Statement was adopted as Missouri Synod doctrine in 1932, and from time to time has been adopted by other Lutherans
  179. ^ Report of the Lutheran Church, The Northwestern Lutheran, page 281, August 31, 1988.
  180. ^ See scholarly articles on the [2] from the Wisconsin Lutheran Seminary Library and Implications of the Church Growth Movement for Lutherans: Possibilities and Concerns by Harold L. Senkbeil as examples of criticism from confessional Lutherans
  181. ^ Lutheran World Federation, "Slight Increase Pushes LWF Global Membership to 66.2 Million", The Lutheran World Federation, http://www.lutheranworld.org/ (accessed May 18, 2006). However, some Lutherans disagree with the way the Lutheran World Federation arrives at this number, as millions of them actually come from bodies that are largely Reformed, but include some Lutherans. For more information on this, see William Schumacher, "Theological Observer: How Many Lutherans?", Concordia Journal April 2005, http://www.csl.edu/CJApril05.pdf/
  182. ^ Compare the LWF Statistics 2009 for German Lutherans with the figures for Roman Catholicism in Germany.
  183. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica, Dominant Protestant Denomination Per Country, 1995.
  184. ^ http://theblackcordelias.wordpress.com/2008/08/12/map-largest-non-catholic-denominations-by-state/
  185. ^ see Ecumenism: Facts and Illusions by Kurt E. Marquart for a short explanation of the modern ecumenism movement from a Confessional Lutheran perspective

External links

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Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

.This learning resource offers information about Lutheranism through the Wikiversity School of Theology.^ This Thanksgiving a couple looking to be married also learned about the Bridegroom and his bride, the Church, through a chance encounter and through an ad that shouldn't have been published.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ During this time, I also attended a Brethren day school, where I learned a good deal of Bible, not to mention dispensational theology.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

It is being expanded to be as inclusive as possible. Feel free to add links to other relevant pages and learning projects.

Introduction

.Lutheranism is a monotheistic, Trinitarian religion that acknowledges Jesus Christ as the Messiah.^ But they refuse to acknowledge the necessity of the bishops ontological relationship with the apostles and Jesus Christ.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Luther points out that since it did not exist past the days of Jesus, then the promise of an eternal Kingdom dealt with a spiritual Kingdom, a Kingdom with Christ (the Messiah) as King.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ Luther's Tragic Mistake: Part Seventeen Luther continues by relaying to his reader the various interpretations of the passage he has heard, all interpretations that deny that Jesus is the Christ, the Messiah.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

.It is a Protestant religious denomination within Christianity which traces its roots to Martin Luther, who was the founder of the Protestant Reformation.^ Lutheranism é o ramo do protestantismo que geralmente segue os ensinamentos do 16o século reformer Martin Luther.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of these came from men who had no desire for a religious change, but who thought that Luther’s campaign was directed only against abuses in the Church.
  • The Religious Revolution: Lutheranism and Zwinglianism: In Germany @ ELCore.Net 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC catholicity.elcore.net [Source type: Original source]

^ General Information Lutheranism is the branch of Protestantism that generally follows the teachings of the 16th century reformer Martin Luther.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.The heart of the Reformation was in Germany, where Martin Luther lived and taught, and the Lutheran Church arose from those pastors in Germany who intended to remain faithful to the goals of Martin Luther and the Reformation.^ The Lutheran Church, the Church of the Reformation, is a church of repentanc e.
  • The Deconfessionalization of Lutheranism? 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.clai.org.au [Source type: Original source]

^ This resulted in the organization of the Lutheran Church of the Reformation.
  • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Except for individual pastors who take this verse seriously, Lutheranism, in general, avoids any reference to this passage in a sacramental context.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

.The confessional writings of the Lutheran fathers, including Martin Luther, Philip Melanchthon, and later writers (Martin Chemnitz et al), were gathered together in 1580 with the three ecumenical creeds (Nicene Creed, Apostles' Creed and Athanasian Creed) into the Book of Concord, which is also referred to as the Lutheran Confessions.^ Lutherans accept the authority of the three ecumenical creeds (Apostles', Nicene, Athanasian) and use the first two regularly in worship services.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ Together with the creeds, these documents constitute The Book of Concord, adopted by Lutheran princes and cities in 1580.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The "Book of Concord" is the collection of Lutheran confessions.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

Beliefs

.As a part of the Reformation, Lutherans believe that Salvation comes by God's grace alone (sola gratia) through faith alone (sola fide) for the sake of Jesus Christ's atoning death and without any merit on the part of those who are redeemed.^ The critical rediscovery of Luther and the Reformers was the doctrine of justification by grace through faith alone.
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With all of Christianity, Lutherans believe Jesus Christ is true God and true man.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ How can a person who believes on Christ at the same time have a desire to sin, not wish to leave sin, for which Christ had to pay with his blood and death, and with his life? . . . Therefore, all those who call themselves Christians crucify Christ again and hold him up to contempt . . . They cannot partake of the sufferings of Christ for they have tread on the blood of Christ with their feet . . . they must experience the righteous judgment of God . . .  Footnote50 .
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

.Lutherans believe that the Bible alone (sola Scriptura) is the sole norm and basis of all Christian doctrine and anything which is contrary to what Scripture teaches is not in accordance with God's Will.^ Its principle of sola Scriptura affirms the Bible as the only norm of Christian doctrine.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lutherans traditionally hold that Scripture is the only source and norm of doctrine.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With all of Christianity, Lutherans believe Jesus Christ is true God and true man.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

.The Book of Concord is held to be the faithful and true interpretation of the Bible and it is the basic symbolic document and body of doctrine for the Lutheran faith.^ The "Book of Concord" is the collection of Lutheran confessions.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ The confessional writings of Lutheranism generally grant freedom to churches in matters liturgical, so long as they agree in all the articles of faith (Formula of Concord, Article X).
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After Luther died in 1546, Lutheran scholars tried to precisely formulate the doctrines of the Christian faith as they understood them.
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

.Within the Lutheran tradition, there are various doctrinal positions.^ If there is a shift in Bach's outlook, then perhaps -entirely within Lutheranism- this is it.
  • Bach and Religion - Part 6 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.bach-cantatas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Scriptural Support of Traditional Lutheran Positions The first of a series of Bible studies on the positions of the traditional Lutheran church on fundamental teachings of Scripture.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ For example, the position of Lutheranism on man's free will is understood in the light of the doctrine of justification.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The "mainline" position holds the Book of Concord to be true "insofar as" it is reflective of Scripture and employs modern historical critical scholarship in the exegesis of the Bible.^ It is interesting to note that Lutheran systematic theology books employ this passage as a proof text for the inspiration of Holy Scripture.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Schmauk, interestingly had been raising warnings about the undermining of Holy Scripture by means of the Historical Critical method.
  • Conservative Elements Within Eastern Lutheranism -- presented by Pastor Roy A. Steward, Jr. 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.elcm.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I began my reading with a sense that Orthodox Lutherans holding to an inerrant view of Scripture as well as to a subscription of the Lutheran Confessional writings of the Book of Concord have been a persistent force within the development of Lutheranism in the Eastern United States.
  • Conservative Elements Within Eastern Lutheranism -- presented by Pastor Roy A. Steward, Jr. 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.elcm.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Confessional Lutheran position holds to the Lutheran Confessions "because" they are a faithful interpretation of Scripture and prefers to employ a more conservative "historical-grammatical" interpretation.^ Historic Lutheranism viewed Scripture as the organic foundation of faith.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Controversy Part one of the scriptural support for confessional Lutheran positions on Scripture.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ [Although St. Paul Congregation continued to have some strands of Conservative Confessional orientation during my youth most of this has now sadly disappeared and the congregation seems to have been fully absorbed by the Liberal ELCA orientation at least in regard to the interpretation of Holy Scripture and adherence to the Unaltered Augsburg Confession.
  • Conservative Elements Within Eastern Lutheranism -- presented by Pastor Roy A. Steward, Jr. 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.elcm.org [Source type: Original source]

.The major modern Lutheran groups are associated with the Lutheran World Federation (e.g.^ The Lutheran World Federation, founded in 1947.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is to be feared that the meeting of the Lutheran World Federation in Hannover will not contradict this view.
  • The Deconfessionalization of Lutheranism? 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.clai.org.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The modern type of the Lutheran Pastor began in Germany in the First World War, when so many theologians became reserve officers.
  • The Deconfessionalization of Lutheranism? 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.clai.org.au [Source type: Original source]

.ELCA), the International Lutheran Council (e.g.^ ELCA Council Approves Time Line, Funds For Sexuality Studies This press release is added to document trends in some branches of Lutheranism.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

.LCMS) or the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference (e.g.^ CELC Conference In the 1800's, C. F. W. Walther sought to unite confessional American Lutherans in a body of fellowship.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ I thought I was seeing the Lutheran house according to the blueprint of the Lutheran Confessions--an evangelical, catholic, confessional, and liturgical church!
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ultimately, I chose to join the LCMS because of its conservative position on the Bible, its seeming adherence to the Book of Concord (the collection of the confessional writings of Lutheranism).
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

WELS). .There are also numerous smaller Lutheran groups, especially in the United States.^ Representatives of all the Lutheran Church papers in the United States were there.
  • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Salem's Deer Hunter Service Sermon, Notes on Solomon's Song In Wisconsin and Minnesota and Michigan, as well as some other states, there be many Lutherans.
  • Lutheranism Articles 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ Because of the large numbers of immigrants to the United States and Canada in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the integration of Lutherans into North American society went slowly, and Lutheranism was divided into numerous German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, and Slovak groups.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Etymology

Eponym from Martin Luther.

Noun

Singular
Lutheranism
Lutheranism (uncountable)
  1. (Christianity) (theology) The system of beliefs and doctrines first developed by Martin Luther and his immediate followers.

Meronyms

See also


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

.The religious belief held by the oldest and in Europe the most numerous of the Protestant sects, founded by the Wittenberg reformer, Martin Luther.^ Catholic Information Católica Informação The religious belief held by the oldest and in Europe the most numerous of the Protestant sects, founded by the Wittenberg reformer, Martin Luther.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Martin Luther Protestant Reformation 500th .
  • Martin Luther Protestant Reformation 500th 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newsahead.com [Source type: News]

^ The religious belief held by the oldest and in Europe the most numerous of the Protestant sects , founded by the Wittenberg reformer, Martin Luther .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The term Lutheran was first used by his opponents during the Leipzig Disputation in 1519, and afterwards became universally prevalent.^ The term Lutheran was first used by his opponents during the Leipzig Disputation in 1519, and afterwards became universally prevalent.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lutheran churches often term themselves Evangelical as distinct from Reformed , but these uses are not always strictly applied.
  • Leibnitiana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.gwleibniz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the beginning of the 17th century, Lutheranism had hardened into a scholastic system useful for contending with Roman Catholic and Reformed opponents but not for spiritual nourishment.
  • Leibnitiana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.gwleibniz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Luther preferred the designation "Evangelical", and today the usual title of the sect is "Evangelical Lutheran Church". In Germany, where the Lutherans and the Reformed have united (since 1817), the name Lutheran has been abandoned, and the state Church is styled the Evangelical or the Evangelical United.^ Representatives of all the Lutheran Church papers in the United States were there.
  • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the United States today, Braaten finds, the Lutheran churches have forsaken their catholic legacy.
  • Books in Review: Mother Church: Ecclesiology and Ecumenism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Evangelical and Catholic | First Things 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.firstthings.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Where does Sychar Lutheran Church get its name?

Contents

I. DISTINCTIVE TEACHINGS

.In doctrine official Lutheranism is part of what is called orthodox Protestantism, since it agrees with the Catholic and the Greek Churches in accepting the authority of the Scriptures and of the three most ancient creeds (the Apostles' Creed, the Nicene Creed, and the Athanasian Creed).^ I. DISTINCTIVE TEACHINGS In doctrine official Lutheranism is part of what is called orthodox Protestantism, since it agrees with the Catholic and the Greek Churches in accepting the authority of the Scriptures and of the three most ancient creeds (the Apostles' Creed, the Nicene Creed, and the Athanasian Creed).
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lutherans accept the authority of the three ecumenical creeds (Apostles', Nicene, Athanasian) and use the first two regularly in worship services.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This church accepts the Apostles', Nicene, and Athanasian Creeds as true declarations of the faith of this church.
  • Lutheranism - ReligionFacts 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.religionfacts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Besides these formulæ of belief, Lutheranism acknowledges six specific confessions which distinguish it from other churches:
  • the unaltered Augsburg Confession (1530),
  • the Apology of the Augsburg Confession (1531),
  • Luther's Large Catechism (1529),
  • Luther's Catechism for Children (1529),
  • the Articles of Smalkald (1537), and
  • the Form of Concord (1577).
.These nine symbolical books (including the three Creeds) constitute what is known as the "Book of Concord", which was first published at Dresden in 1580 by order of Elector Augustus of Saxony (see FAITH, PROTESTANT CONFESSIONS OF).^ The Book of Concord contains the Lutheran confessions of faith.
  • What is a Lutheran? 7 January 2010 5:21 UTC bookofconcord.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These are all included in the Book of Concord (1580).
  • Lutheranism Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Lutheranism: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The "confessions" or symbolic writings of the Lutheran Church are contained in the Book of Concord.

.In these confessions the Scriptures are declared to be the only rule of faith.^ In these confessions the Scriptures are declared to be the only rule of faith.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In these confessions the Scriptures are declared to be the only rule of faith .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They accepted as tradition "the canon of the Holy Scripture," confessing primary Christian dogmas: the Trinity, the nativity of Gods Son, and the three ancient symbols of faith (Creeds) in which these dogmas are recorded.
  • Lutheranism and its Evolution 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.orthodoxphotos.com [Source type: Original source]

.The extent of the Canon is not defined, but the bibles in common use among Lutherans have been generally the same as those of other Protestant denominations (see CANON OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURES).^ Lutheranism is the third largest Protestant denomination in the U.S. .
  • LUTHERANISM, 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The extent of the Canon is not defined, but the bibles in common use among Lutherans have been generally the same as those of other Protestant denominations (see CANON OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURES).
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Lutheran denomination is the oldest Protestant denomination.
  • Lutheranism - ReligionFacts 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.religionfacts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The symbols and the other writings not contained in Scripture do not possess decisive authority, but merely show how the Scriptures were understood and explained at particular times by the leading theologians (Form of Concord).^ The "confessions" or symbolic writings of the Lutheran Church are contained in the Book of Concord.

^ The symbols and the other writings not contained in Scripture do not possess decisive authority, but merely show how the Scriptures were understood and explained at particular times by the leading theologians (Form of Concord).
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These writings are contained the The Book of Concord.
  • What do Lutheran's Believe? 7 January 2010 5:21 UTC linetap.com [Source type: Original source]

.The chief tenet of the Lutheran creed, that which Luther called "the article of the standing and falling Church", has reference to the justification of sinful man.^ The chief tenet of the Lutheran creed, that which Luther called "the article of the standing and falling Church ", has reference to the justification of sinful man.
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The chief tenet of the Lutheran creed, that which Luther called "the article of the standing and falling Church", has reference to the justification of sinful man.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reformed (Calvinist) and Lutheran Churches in Prussia (1817), together with the challenge of biblical and historical criticism, stimulated a romantic rediscovery of Luther and a renewed confessionalism.
  • Lutheranism Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Original sin is explained as a positive and total depravity of human nature, which renders all the acts of the unjustified, even those of civil righteousness, sinful and displeasing to God.^ Original sin is explained as a positive and total depravity of human nature , which renders all the acts of the unjustified, even those of civil righteousness, sinful and displeasing to God .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Original sin is explained as a positive and total depravity of human nature, which renders all the acts of the unjustified, even those of civil righteousness, sinful and displeasing to God.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Condemnation is not an act or the will of God at all.
  • Predestination - Christian Forums 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.christianforums.com [Source type: Original source]

.Justification, which is not an internal change, but an external, forensic declaration by which God imputes to the creature the righteousness of Christ, comes only by faith, which is the confidence that one is reconciled to God through Christ.^ We know God's will only through Christ and what he has done for us.
  • Predestination - Christian Forums 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.christianforums.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Justification, which is not an internal change, but an external, forensic declaration by which God imputes to the creature the righteousness of Christ, comes only by faith, which is the confidence that one is reconciled to God through Christ.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Through His gift of faith, God covers their sin with Christ's perfect righteousness (2 Cor.
  • Repentance: Roman Catholicism, American Evangelicalism & Lutheranism from Good News magazine 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.mtio.com [Source type: Original source]

.Good works are necessary as an exercise of faith, and are rewarded, not by justification (which they presuppose), but by the fulfilment of the Divine promises (Apology Aug.^ Faith, however, is a divine work in us.
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Good works are necessary as an exercise of faith , and are rewarded, not by justification (which they presuppose), but by the fulfilment of the Divine promises (Apology Aug.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Good works are necessary as an exercise of faith, and are rewarded, not by justification (which they presuppose), but by the fulfilment of the Divine promises (Apology Aug.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Conf.).
Other distinctive doctrines of the Lutheran Church are:
  • consubstantiation (although the symbols do not use this term), i.e. the real, corporeal presence of Christ's Body and Blood during the celebration of the Lord's Supper, in, with, and under the substance of bread and wine, in a union which is not hypostatic, nor of mixture, nor of local inclusion, but entirely transcendent and mysterious;
  • the omnipresence of the Body of Christ, which is differently explained by the commentators of the Symbolical Books.
.Since the official formulæ of faith claim no decisive authority for themselves, and on many points are far from harmonious, the utmost diversity of opinion prevails among Lutherans.^ Since the official formulæ of faith claim no decisive authority for themselves, and on many points are far from harmonious, the utmost diversity of opinion prevails among Lutherans.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the official formulæ of faith claim no decisive authority for themselves, and on many points are far from harmonious, the utmost diversity of opinion prevails among Lutherans.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Germany was also less united than before because Germans were no longer of one faith, a situation officially recognized by the Peace of Augsburg.
  • History of Germany, The Protestant Reformation, Martin Luther 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC motherearthtravel.com [Source type: Original source]

.Every shade of belief may be found among them, from the orthodox, who hold fast to the confessions, to the semi-infidel theologians, who deny the authority of the Scriptures.^ Every shade of belief may be found among them, from the orthodox, who hold fast to the confessions, to the semi-infidel theologians, who deny the authority of the Scriptures.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Every shade of belief may be found among them, from the orthodox , who hold fast to the confessions, to the semi-infidel theologians , who deny the authority of the Scriptures.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This is the way our pastors, and every layman who confesses his belief in the Small Catechism, is able with great joy and without reservation or qualification to say what it is that he believes to be the truth of God's Word.
  • What is a Lutheran? 7 January 2010 5:21 UTC bookofconcord.org [Source type: Original source]

II. HISTORY

.Lutheranism dates from 31 October, 1517, when Luther affixed his theses to the church door of the castle of Wittenberg.^ Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany, where Luther posted his 95 Theses.
  • Lutheranism - ReligionFacts 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.religionfacts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Luther's return to Wittenberg occurred on the anniversary of his nailing the Theses to the castle church door (31 October, 1518).
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Martin Luther 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This is the day (1517 A.D.) that Dr. Martin Luther nailed the 95 Theses to the Castle Church door in Wittenberg, Germany and started the Reformation.
  • What do Lutheran's Believe? 7 January 2010 5:21 UTC linetap.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although he did not break with the Catholic Church until three years later, he had already come substantially to his later views on the plan of salvation.^ Although he did not break with the Catholic Church until three years later, he had already come substantially to his later views on the plan of salvation.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although he did not break with the Catholic Church until three years later, he had already come substantially to his later views on the plan of salvation .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Protestant leaders gained by receiving lands that formerly belonged to the Roman Catholic Church, although not to as great an extent as, for example, would occur in England.
  • History of Germany, The Protestant Reformation, Martin Luther 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC motherearthtravel.com [Source type: Original source]

.The new teachings, however underwent a great change after Luther's return from Wartburg (1521).^ The new teachings, however underwent a great change after Luther's return from Wartburg (1521).
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Secreted away by the ruler of Saxony, Frederick the Wise, Luther retreated to the castle of Wartburg, where he worked on a translation of the New Testament and wrote numerous religious tracts.
  • History of Germany, The Protestant Reformation, Martin Luther 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC motherearthtravel.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Germany Martin Luther - Flags, Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, International Agreements,Population, Social Statistics, Political System 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC workmall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Organizers say the meeting will begin the creation of an alternative fellowship for Lutherans who uphold traditional marriage and are unwilling to support the new changes in the churchs teaching.
  • Meeting after pro-homosexual ELCA decisions could reorganize American Lutheranism :: Catholic News Agency (CNA) 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholicnewsagency.com [Source type: General]

.Before he died (18 Feb., 1546), his teachings had been propagated in many states of Germany in Poland, in the Baltic Provinces, in Hungary, transylvania, the Netherlands, Denmark and Scandinavia.^ Before he died (18 Feb., 1546), his teachings had been propagated in many states of Germany in Poland, in the Baltic Provinces, in Hungary, transylvania, the Netherlands, Denmark and Scandinavia.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before he died (18 Feb., 1546), his teachings had been propagated in many states of Germany in Poland , in the Baltic Provinces, in Hungary , Transylvania, the Netherlands , Denmark and Scandinavia.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of them were farmers and sought out climates and soils similar to those of their homelands in Germany, Sweden, Norway, and Denmark and settled in the Midwest.
  • Content Pages of the Encyclopedia of Religion and Social Science 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.hirr.hartsem.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From these European countries Lutheranism has been carried by emigration to the New World, and in the United States it ranks among the leading Protestant denominations.^ From these European countries Lutheranism has been carried by emigration to the New World , and in the United States it ranks among the leading Protestant denominations .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ From these European countries Lutheranism has been carried by emigration to the New World , and in the United States it ranks among the leading Protestant denominations.
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Lutheranism is the third largest Protestant denomination in the U.S. .
  • LUTHERANISM, 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(1) The Lutherans in Germany
(a) First Period: From the appearance of Luther's Theses to the adoption of the Formula of Concord (1517-80)
.Favoured by the civil rulers, Lutheranism spread rapidly in Northern Germany.^ Favoured by the civil rulers, Lutheranism spread rapidly in Northern Germany.
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Lutheranism in Germany and spread to other countries.
  • LUTHERANISM, 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lutheranism soon spread outward from Germany.
  • History of Lutheran Church 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stjohnlutheran.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the Diet of Speyer (1526) the Elector of Saxony and other princes established Lutheran state Churches.^ The Lutheran Church was established as the state church in the Scandinavian countries.
  • Content Pages of the Encyclopedia of Religion and Social Science 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.hirr.hartsem.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other distinctive doctrines of the Lutheran Church are: .
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After the Diet of Speyer (1526) the Elector of Saxony and other princes established Lutheran state Churches.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An alliance between these princes was concluded at Torgau in 1526, and again at Smalkald in 1531. The Protestant League was continually increased by the accession of other states, and a religious war broke out in 1546, which resulted in the Peace of Augsburg (1555).^ The Peace of Augsburg in 1555 settled the matter.
  • The Reformation in Germany 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In September 1555 the Peace of Augsburg was concluded.
  • The Religious Revolution: Lutheranism and Zwinglianism: In Germany @ ELCore.Net 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC catholicity.elcore.net [Source type: Original source]

^ French religious wars between Catholics and Protestant Huguenots.
  • THE REFORMATION AND WARS OF RELIGION (1517-1648) 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.rbvhs.org [Source type: Original source]

.This treaty provided that the Lutherans should retain permanently what they then possessed, but that all officials of ecclesiastical estates, who from that time forth should go over to Protestantism would be deposed and replaced by Catholics.^ They provide a standard of what is truly Lutheran and what is not.
  • Facts about Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.orlutheran.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This treaty provided that the Lutherans should retain permanently what they then possessed, but that all officials of ecclesiastical estates, who from that time forth should go over to Protestantism would be deposed and replaced by Catholics .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This treaty provided that the Lutherans should retain permanently what they then possessed, but that all officials of ecclesiastical estates, who from that time forth should go over to Protestantism would be deposed and replaced by Catholics.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This latter provision, known as the "Reservatum Ecclesiasticum", was very unsatisfactory to the Protestants, and its constant violation was one of the causes that lead up to the Thirty Years War (1618-48).^ This latter provision, known as the "Reservatum Ecclesiasticum", was very unsatisfactory to the Protestants , and its constant violation was one of the causes that lead up to the Thirty Years War (1618-48).
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This latter provision, known as the "Reservatum Ecclesiasticum", was very unsatisfactory to the Protestants, and its constant violation was one of the causes that lead up to the Thirty Years War (1618-48).
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This clause, known as the Ecclesiasticum Reservatum , gave rise to many disputes, and was one of the principal causes of the Thirty Years’ War.
  • The Religious Revolution: Lutheranism and Zwinglianism: In Germany @ ELCore.Net 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC catholicity.elcore.net [Source type: Original source]

.At the time of the Peace of Augsburg Lutherans predominated in the north of Germany, while the Zwinglians or Reformed were very numerous in the south.^ As long as it's restricted to Lutheran north Germany.

^ At the time of the Peace of Augsburg Lutherans predominated in the north of Germany, while the Zwinglians or Reformed were very numerous in the south.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the time of the Peace of Augsburg Lutherans predominated in the north of Germany , while the Zwinglians or Reformed were very numerous in the south.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Austria, Bavaria, and the territories subject to spiritual lords were Catholic, although many of these afterwards became Protestant.^ These lords became stamped by their signing this letter of protest.
  • The Reformation in Germany 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Austria, Bavaria, and the territories subject to spiritual lords were Catholic, although many of these afterwards became Protestant.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Austria , Bavaria , and the territories subject to spiritual lords were Catholic , although many of these afterwards became Protestant .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Several attempts were made to effect a reunion.^ Several attempts were made to effect a reunion.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The attempt made by the Landgrave Philip, to bring the contending forces together and effect a compromise at the Marburg Colloquy, 1-3 October, 1529, was doomed to failure before its convocation.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Martin Luther 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1534 Pope Paul III invited the Protestants to a general council.^ In 1534 Pope Paul III invited the Protestants to a general council.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1534 Pope Paul III invited the Protestants to a general council .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ League of Schmalkalden formed by Protestant German princes to defend themselves against Emperor Charles V. Charles called on the Pope to call a Church council to reform the Church and compromise with the Lutherans.
  • THE REFORMATION AND WARS OF RELIGION (1517-1648) 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.rbvhs.org [Source type: Original source]

.Emperor Charles V arranged conferences between Catholic and Lutheran theologians in 1541, 1546, and 1547. His successor, Ferdinand I (1556-64), and many private individuals such as the Lutheran Frederick Staphylus and Father Contzen, laboured much for the same end.^ His successor, Ferdinand I (1556-64), and many private individuals such as the Lutheran Frederick Staphylus and Father Contzen , laboured much for the same end.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Emperor Charles V arranged conferences between Catholic and Lutheran theologians in 1541, 1546, and 1547.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His successor, Ferdinand I (1556-64), and many private individuals such as the Lutheran Frederick Staphylus and Father Contzen, laboured much for the same end.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All these efforts, however, proved fruitless.^ All these efforts, however, proved fruitless.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Footnote27 However, an examination of their writings proves that all three men believed that justification is by grace through faith alone, and that justification must precede sanctification.
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

.Melanchthon, Crusius, and other Lutheran theologians made formal proposals of union to the Greek Church (1559, 1574, 1578), but nothing came of their overtures.^ Melanchthon , Crusius, and other Lutheran theologians made formal proposals of union to the Greek Church (1559, 1574, 1578), but nothing came of their overtures.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Other distinctive doctrines of the Lutheran Church are: .
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Melanchthon, Crusius, and other Lutheran theologians made formal proposals of union to the Greek Church (1559, 1574, 1578), but nothing came of their overtures.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From the beginning bitter hostility existed between the Lutherans and the Reformed.^ From the beginning bitter hostility existed between the Lutherans and the Reformed.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The proper distinction between Law and Gospel is the crucial question which has always separated the Lutheran Church from the Reformed.
  • What Does It Mean to be Lutheran Today? - by Laurence L. White 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.mtio.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But even if Lutherans were to accept this dogma as a logical explanation of Christ's words, there yet exists a profound difference between Lutherans and Catholics on the point at issue.
  • Catholic Culture : Library : Lutheranism and Transubstantiation 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholicculture.org [Source type: Original source]

.This first appeared in the Sacramentarian controversy between Luther and Zwingli (1524).^ This first appeared in the Sacramentarian controversy between Luther and Zwingli (1524).
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Esta apareceu pela primeira vez no Sacramentarian controvérsia entre Lutero e Zwingli (1524).
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Luther's replies to Zwingli's unorthodox private letter to Alber (16 Nov., 1524) and his nettling treatises came in 1527.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Martin Luther 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.They met in conference at Marburg in 1529, but came to no agreement.^ They met in conference at Marburg in 1529, but came to no agreement.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eles se reuniram em conferência de Marburg, em 1529, mas não chegaram a acordo.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The hopes of union created by the compromise formula of 1536, known as the Concordia Wittenbergensis, proved delusive.^ The hopes of union created by the compromise formula of 1536, known as the Concordia Wittenbergensis, proved delusive.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hopes of union created by the compromise formula of 1536, known as the Concordia Wittenbergensis , proved delusive.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It resulted in the theological compromise, reunion it can hardly be called, known as the Concord of Wittenberg (21-29 Mat, 1536).
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Martin Luther 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Luther continued to make war on the Zwinglians until his death.^ Luther continued to make war on the Zwinglians until his death.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Luther continued to write, teach, and preach until his death in 1546 at the age of 62, leaving a wife and ten children.

^ The Church continued to develop until the Black Death (1349) inflicted losses from which the Church never recovered.
  • Gibraltar 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Sacramentarian strife was renewed in 1549 when the Zwinglians accepted Calvin's view of the Real Presence.^ The Sacramentarian strife was renewed in 1549 when the Zwinglians accepted Calvin's view of the Real Presence.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Sacramentarian strife was renewed in 1549 when the Zwinglians accepted Calvin's view of the Real Presence .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Classic example of the difference in understanding is evidenced in Luther's meeting with Zwinglian the final disagreement over the real presence of Christ in the Sacrament.
  • Conservative Elements Within Eastern Lutheranism -- presented by Pastor Roy A. Steward, Jr. 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.elcm.org [Source type: Original source]

.The followers of Melanchthon, who favoured Calvin's doctrine (Philippists, Crypto-Calvinists), were also furiously denounced by the orthodox Lutherans.^ The followers of Melanchthon, who favoured Calvin's doctrine (Philippists, Crypto-Calvinists), were also furiously denounced by the orthodox Lutherans.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The followers of Melanchthon , who favoured Calvin's doctrine (Philippists, Crypto-Calvinists), were also furiously denounced by the orthodox Lutherans.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Catholics, Lutherans, Calvinists, and Zwinglians all recognized the doctrine of separation of church and state as pointing toward a secular society, and they persecuted Anabaptists.

.During these controversies the State Church of the Palatinate, where Philippism predominated, changed from the Lutheran to the Reformed faith (1560).^ During these controversies the State Church of the Palatinate, where Philippism predominated, changed from the Lutheran to the Reformed faith (1560).
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Lutheran Church, the Church of the Reformation, is a church of repentanc e.
  • The Deconfessionalization of Lutheranism? 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.clai.org.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Lutheranism is also distinct from the Reformed Churches, another major church which arose during the Reformation.
  • Calvary Lutheran Church: About Lutherans 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.calvarychurch.com.au [Source type: Original source]

.From the beginning Lutheranism was torn by doctrinal disputes, carried on with the utmost violence and passion.^ From the beginning Lutheranism was torn by doctrinal disputes, carried on with the utmost violence and passion.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Footnote2 The Formula of Concord of 1580 formally resolved the doctrinal disputes within Lutheranism.
  • Early German Lutheran Pietism's 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Book of Concord is a collection of Lutheran writings that sought to reconcile doctrinal disputes and clarify beliefs.
  • History of Lutheran Church 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stjohnlutheran.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They had reference to the questions of sin and grace, justification by faith, the use of good works, the Lord's Supper, and the Person and work of Christ.^ Where there is faith in Christ, love and good works also follow.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Saving faith is not a good work or virtue.

^ They had reference to the questions of sin and grace, justification by faith , the use of good works , the Lord's Supper, and the Person and work of Christ.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The bitterest controversy was the Crypto-Calvinistic.^ The bitterest controversy was the Crypto-Calvinistic.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A controvérsia foi bitterest o crypto-Calvinistic.
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To effect harmony the Form of Concord, the last of the Lutheran symbols, was drawn up in 1577, and accepted by the majority of the state Churches.^ Church and formed...Lutheran Church in America.
  • Lutheranism: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ To effect harmony the Form of Concord, the last of the Lutheran symbols, was drawn up in 1577, and accepted by the majority of the state Churches.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference of North America, formed in 1872, broke up in 1960, when the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (with 411,000 members, now the third largest Lutheran group in the United States) withdrew.
  • Lutheranism Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Lutheranism: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The document was written in a conciliatory spirit, but it secured the triumph of the orthodox party.^ The document was written in a conciliatory spirit, but it secured the triumph of the orthodox party.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand, the Orthodox Church understands itself to be the One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church , from whence the Holy Spirit conceived the written Word.
  • My Spiritual Odyssey 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.straphaelva.org [Source type: Original source]

(b) Second Period: From the Adoption of the Form of Concord to the Beginning of the Pietistic Movement (1580-1689)
.During this period Lutheranism was engaged in bitter polemics with its neighbours in Germany.^ Second Period: From the Adoption of the Form of Concord to the Beginning of the Pietistic Movement (1580-1689) During this period Lutheranism was engaged in bitter polemics with its neighbours in Germany.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During this period Lutheranism was engaged in bitter polemics with its neighbours in Germany.
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During this period Lutheranism was engaged in bitter polemics with its neighbours in Germany .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Out of these religious discords grew the horrors of the Thirty Years War, which led many persons to desire better relations between the churches.^ Out of these religious discords grew the horrors of the Thirty Years War, which led many persons to desire better relations between the churches.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Out of these religious discords grew the horrors of the Thirty Years War , which led many persons to desire better relations between the churches.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What was their view of the relation between church and state?
  • Reformation and Counter-reformation 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www2.sunysuffolk.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A "charitable colloquy" was held at Thorn in 1645 by Catholic, Lutheran, and Calvinist theologians, but nothing was accomplished.^ A "charitable colloquy" was held at Thorn in 1645 by Catholic, Lutheran, and Calvinist theologians, but nothing was accomplished.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A "charitable colloquy" was held at Thorn in 1645 by Catholic , Lutheran, and Calvinist theologians , but nothing was accomplished.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Catholics, Lutherans, Calvinists, and Zwinglians all recognized the doctrine of separation of church and state as pointing toward a secular society, and they persecuted Anabaptists.

.The proposal of the Lutheran professor, George Calixtus, that the confessions organize into one church with the consensus of the first five centuries as a common basis (Syncretism), aroused a storm of indignation, and, by way of protest, a creed was accepted by the Saxon universities which expressed the views of the most radical school of Lutheran orthodoxy (1655).^ In this way the first national Protestant church in France was organized; its members were known as Huguenots.

^ His religion, Lutheranism, became the first Protestant Christian church (from the word Protest .

^ Lutheranism has a relationship of clergy to laity similar to most Protestant churches.
  • Lutheran Origins, Lutheran History, Lutheran Beliefs 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.patheos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Lutheran theologians of this period imitated the disorderly arrangement of Melanchthon's "Loci Theologici", but in spirit they were with few exceptions loyal supporters of the Form of Concord.^ The Lutheran theologians of this period imitated the disorderly arrangement of Melanchthon's "Loci Theologici", but in spirit they were with few exceptions loyal supporters of the Form of Concord.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The spirit of Melanchthon was the spirit of religious indifference and of unionism, which, though thoroughly eliminated by the Formula of Concord, was from time to time revived within the Lutheran Church by such men as Calixtus, Spener, Zinzendorf,Neander, and, in our own country, by S. S. Schmucker.
  • Book of Concord 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC bookofconcord.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They carried with them letters of introduction to the foremost Lutheran theologians in Europe.
  • Walton Harlowe Greever and His Contributions to American Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although the writings of Luther abound with diatribes against the speculative sciences, his followers early perceived the necessity of philosophy for controversial purposes.^ Although the writings of Luther abound with diatribes against the speculative sciences , his followers early perceived the necessity of philosophy for controversial purposes.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the writings of Luther abound with diatribes against the speculative sciences, his followers early perceived the necessity of philosophy for controversial purposes.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Learn more about Martin Luther by following our links about his early years , teachings , 95 Theses , reforms , career , and seal .
  • History of Lutheran Church 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stjohnlutheran.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Melanchthon developed a system of Aristoteleanism, and it was not long before the Scholastic method, which Luther had so cordially detested, was used by the Evangelical theologians, although the new Scholasticism was utterly different from the genuine system.^ Melanchthon developed a system of Aristoteleanism , and it was not long before the Scholastic method, which Luther had so cordially detested, was used by the Evangelical theologians , although the new Scholasticism was utterly different from the genuine system.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Melanchthon developed a system of Aristoteleanism, and it was not long before the Scholastic method, which Luther had so cordially detested, was used by the Evangelical theologians, although the new Scholasticism was utterly different from the genuine system.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When Luther realized that the reforms he desired could not be carried out within the Roman Catholic Church, he devoted himself to questions of faith rather than form in the new Evangelical churches that developed.
  • Lutheranism Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lutheran dogmatics became a maze of refined subtleties, and mere logomachy was considered the chief duty of the theologian.^ Lutheran dogmatics became a maze of refined subtleties, and mere logomachy was considered the chief duty of the theologian.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lutheran dogmatics became a maze of refined subtleties, and mere logomachy was considered the chief duty of the theologian .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The modern type of the Lutheran Pastor began in Germany in the First World War, when so many theologians became reserve officers.
  • The Deconfessionalization of Lutheranism? 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.clai.org.au [Source type: Original source]

.The result was a fanatical orthodoxy, whose only activity was heresy-hunting and barren controversy.^ The result was a fanatical orthodoxy , whose only activity was heresy-hunting and barren controversy.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The result was a fanatical orthodoxy, whose only activity was heresy-hunting and barren controversy.
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Lutheranism, Igreja Luterana 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.New attempts were made to unite the Evangelical Churches.^ New attempts were made to unite the Evangelical Churches.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lutherans and Lutheranism 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • http://mb-soft.com/believe/text/lutheran.htm 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Lutheranism - Wikisource 11 January 2010 10:38 UTC