Lyceum: Wikis

  
  

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The lyceum is a category of educational institution defined within the education system of many countries, mainly in Europe. The definition varies between countries; usually it is a type of secondary school.

Contents

History

"Lyceum" is a Latin rendering of the Ancient Greek Λύκειον ("Lykeion"), the name of a gymnasium in Classical Athens dedicated to Apollo Lyceus. This original Lyceum is remembered as the location of the peripatetic school of Aristotle. Some countries derive the name for their modern schools from the Latin but use the Greek name for the ancient school: for example, Dutch has "Lykeion" (ancient) and "Lyceum" (modern), both rendered "lyceum" in English.

Lyceums of the Russian Empire

In Imperial Russia, a Lyceum was one of the following higher educational facilities: Demidov Lyceum of Law in Yaroslavl (1803), Alexander Lyceum in Tsarskoye Selo (1810), Richelieu lyceum in Odessa (1817), and Imperial Katkov Lyceum in Moscow (1867).

The Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum was opened on October 19, 1811 in the neoclassical building designed by Vasily Stasov and situated next to the Catherine Palace. The first graduates were all brilliant and included Aleksandr Pushkin and Alexander Gorchakov. The opening date was celebrated each year with carousals and revels, and Pushkin composed new verses for each of those occasions. In January 1844 the Lyceum was moved to Saint Petersburg.

During 33 years of the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum's existence, there were 286 graduates. The most famous of these were Anton Delwig, Wilhelm Küchelbecher, Nicholas de Giers, Dmitry Tolstoy, Yakov Karlovich Grot, Nikolay Yakovlevich Danilevsky, Alexei Lobanov-Rostovsky and Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin.

Lyceums also emerged in the former Soviet Union countries after they became independent. One typical example is Uzbekistan, where all high schools were replaced with lyceums ("litsey" is the Russian term, derived from French "lycee"), offering three-year educational program with a certain major in certain direction. Unlike Turkey, Uzbek lyceums do not hold University entrance examination, which gives students the right to enter a University, but they hold a kind of "mock examination" which is designed to test their eligibility for a certain University.

Lyceums in today's education

Belarus

The Belarusian Humanities Lyceum is a private secondary school founded shortly after Belarus' independence from the USSR by intellectuals, such as Vincuk Viacorka and Uladzimir Kolas, with the stated aims of preserving and promoting native Belarusian culture, and raising a new Belarusian elite. It was shut down in 2003 by president Alexander Lukashenko, but continues to operate in secret. It is currently the only educational institution using the Belarusian language as its medium of instruction.

Chile

Liceo is the term used for a secondary education public school, it lasts 4 years. It is mandatory to complete it for every citizen.

Cyprus

Secondary General Education - Ages: 16 ~18

Lykeio (3 years, upper secondary education)[1][2]

Czech Republic

The term lyceum refers to the type of secondary education consisting of 4 years ended by graduation. It is a type between grammar school and a technical high school.

France

The French word for an upper secondary school, lycée, derives from Lyceum. (see Secondary education in France.)

Finland

The concept and name lyceum (or lyseo in Finnish) entered Finland through Sweden. Traditionally, lycea were schools to prepare students to enter universities, as opposed to the typical, more general education. Some old schools continue to use the name lyceum, though their operations today vary. For example, Helsinki Normal Lyceum educates students in grades 7-12, while Oulu Lyceum enrolls students only in grades 10-12. The more commonly used term for upper secondary school in Finland is lukio.

Greece

Secondary Education - Ages: 16 ~ 18

Γενικό Λύκειο (3 years), Geniko Lykeio "General Lyceum", (~ 1996, 2006~present)

Ενιαίο Λύκειο (3 years), Eniaio Lykeio "Unified Lyceum" (1997~2006)

Comparable to the last two or three years of American High School (upper secondary) classes in Greece.

Italy

The Italian word for an upper secondary school, liceo, derives from Lyceum (see Secondary education in Italy). Among the Italian kinds of licei are: liceo classico (specializing in classical studies, including Latin, Ancient Greek and philosophy), liceo scientifico (specializing in scientific studies, and with Latin and English for 5 years), liceo artistico (specializing in art subjects, with English for 5 years), liceo linguistico (specializing in foreign languages: two foreign languages for 5 years and a third foreign language for the last 3 years). They last 5 years between 14 and 18 years of age.

Malta

Junior lyceums refer to secondary education state owned schools.

Pakistan

The Lyceum School in Karachi offers a 2 year program for the preparation of Advanced Level (A Level) curriculum. After attaining Ordinary Level (O Level) degree, students generally apply to The Lyceum School for Economics, Accounting, Commerce, Mathematics or Physics, Chemistry. Social Science subjects are also offered. Most students register for 3 to 5 subjects. The A Level examination is through the Cambridge Board of Education at the Cambridge University. The Lyceum School takes the responsibility of registering the students through the British Council in Karachi which also monitors the examinations at different test centers throughout the city. Students and alumni are called Lyceumites.

Philippines

There is a major university in the City of Manila named Lyceum (complete name: Lyceum of the Philippines University). It can also be called on the acronym LPU. Its branches also bear the name "Lyceum". There are other schools that are not affiliated with LPU but has the word "Lyceum" in their names. Thus, it can also be used to name any educational instititution. However, LPU is the original bearer of the name and still has the word pertained to it.

Poland

The liceum is the Polish secondary-education school. Polish liceums are attended by children aged 16 to 19–21 (see list below). Before graduating, pupils are subject to a final examination, the matura.

Polish liceums are of several types:

Portugal

In the Portuguese educational system in the early 1970s, the Lyceum (Portuguese: Liceu), or National Lyceum (Portuguese: Liceu Nacional), was a high school that prepared students to enter universities or more general education. On the other hand the Industrial school (Portuguese: Escola Industrial) was a technical-oriented school. After several Education reforms, all these schools merged into a single system of Secondary Schools (Portuguese: Escolas Secundárias), offering grades 7 to 12.

Turkey

The Turkish word for the latest part of pre-university education is lise which is derived from the French word "lycée"[3] and corresponds to "high school" in English. It lasts 3 to 5 years with respect to the type of the high school. At the end of their "lise" education, students take the ÖSS test (Öğrenci Seçme Sınavı), i.e. university entrance examination, to get the right to enroll in a university.

Romania

The Romanian term is liceu and it represents a post-secondary, pre-university educational institution. It is more specialized than secondary school. Certain specialized lyceum diplomas are enough to find a job.

United States

The Lyceum is the central building of the University of Mississippi. It is used as the school symbol on all official emblems. The Lyceum Academy of New Hanover High School was founded in same spirit of education as Aristole's earliest intellectual and academic gatherings.

See also

References

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
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From LoveToKnow 1911

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