Lye: Wikis

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Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Lye is a corrosive alkaline substance, commonly sodium hydroxide (NaOH, also known as 'caustic soda') or historically potassium hydroxide (KOH, from hydrated potash). Previously, lye was among the many different alkalis leached from hardwood ashes.[1] Now, lye is commercially manufactured using a membrane cell method.

Solid dry lye is commonly available as flakes, pellets, microbeads, and coarse powder. It is also available as solution, often dissolved in water. Lye is valued for its use in food preparation, soap making, biodiesel production, and household uses, such as oven cleaner and drain opener.

Canister of solid dry lye.

Contents

Food uses

Lye is used to cure many types of food, such as lutefisk, green olives, canned mandarin oranges, hominy, lye rolls, century eggs, pretzels, zongzi (Chinese glutinous rice dumplings), and Chinese noodles. In the United States, food-grade lye must meet the requirements outlined in the Food Chemicals Codex (FCC),[2] as prescribed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).[3] Lower grades of lye are commonly used as drain openers and oven cleaners and should not be used for food preparation.[3][4] Lye is a strong alkali, producing solutions of about pH 13.0.

Controversy

Lye may be made by the Castner-Kellner process, which uses mercury as an electrode. Lye manufactured using this process has been used to make food, such as High Fructose Corn Syrup. The concern is that mercury from the process would find its way into food products, which could lead to mercury poisoning.[5]

Safety

Both solid dry lye and lye solutions are corrosive and will degrade organic tissue.

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Hazardous reactions

Chemical burn caused by exposure to a sodium hydroxide solution.

Solid sodium hydroxide or solutions containing high concentrations of sodium hydroxide may cause chemical burns, permanent injury or scarring, and blindness. Lye may be harmful or fatal if swallowed.

Solvation of sodium hydroxide is highly exothermic, and the resulting heat may cause heat burns or ignite flammables.

The combination of aluminium and sodium hydroxide results in a large production of hydrogen gas: 2Al(s) + 6NaOH(aq) → 3H2(g) + 2Na3AlO3(aq). Hydrogen gas is flammable; mixing lye (sodium hydroxide) and aluminium in a closed container is therefore dangerous. In addition to aluminium, lye (sodium hydroxide) may also react with magnesium, zinc (galvanized), tin, chromium, brass, and bronze to produce hydrogen gas and is therefore dangerous.

Lye may react with various sugars to generate carbon monoxide, which is a poisonous gas; mixing sodium hydroxide and sugar in a closed container is therefore dangerous.

Lye intoxication can cause esophageal stricture.

Protection

Personal protection for the safe handling of lye includes safety glasses, chemical-resistant gloves, and adequate ventilation. When in the close proximity of lye dissolving in an open container of water, a vapor-resistant face mask is recommended.[6]

Storage

Lye is a deliquescent salt and has a strong affinity for moisture. Lye will deliquesce (dissolve or melt) when exposed to open air. It will absorb a relatively large amount of water from the atmosphere (air) if exposed to it. Eventually, it will absorb enough water to form a liquid solution because it will dissolve in the water it absorbs.

Hygroscopic substances are often used as desiccants to draw moisture away from water-sensitive items. Desiccants should never be placed inside a canister of lye because lye has much stronger hygroscopic properties than activated carbon and silica gel (the most common ingredients in commercial desiccant packets) and will pull and absorb the water from the desiccant packets.

Lye should be stored in air-tight plastic containers. Glass should never be used for storage as lye will slowly eat away at this material. The containers should be labeled to indicate the potential danger of the contents and stored away from children, pets, heat, and moisture.[6]

See also

Notes

References


Lye is a corrosive alkaline substance, commonly sodium hydroxide (NaOH, also known as 'caustic soda') or historically potassium hydroxide (KOH, from hydrated potash). Previously, lye was among the many different alkalis leached from hardwood ashes.[1] Now, lye is commercially manufactured using a membrane cell method.

Solid dry lye is commonly available as flakes, pellets, microbeads, and coarse powder. It is also available as solution, often dissolved in water. Lye is valued for its use in food preparation, soap making, biodiesel production, and household uses, such as oven cleaner and drain opener.

Contents

Food uses

Lye is used to cure many types of food, such as lutefisk, green olives, canned mandarin oranges, hominy, lye rolls, century eggs, pretzels, as well as some types of zongzi (Chinese glutinous rice dumplings), and Chinese noodles. In the United States, food-grade lye must meet the requirements outlined in the Food Chemicals Codex (FCC),[2] as prescribed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).[3] Lower grades of lye are commonly used as drain openers and oven cleaners and should not be used for food preparation.[3][4] Lye is a strong alkali, producing solutions of about pH 13.0.

Safety

Both solid dry lye and lye solutions are highly corrosive and will degrade organic tissue.

Hazardous reactions

File:Sodium hydroxide
Chemical burn caused by exposure to a sodium hydroxide solution.

Solid sodium hydroxide or solutions containing high concentrations of sodium hydroxide may cause chemical burns, permanent injury or scarring, and blindness. Lye may be harmful or fatal if swallowed.

Solvation of sodium hydroxide is highly exothermic, and the resulting heat may cause heat burns or ignite flammables.

The combination of aluminium and sodium hydroxide results in a large production of hydrogen gas: 2Al(s) + 6NaOH(aq) → 3H2(g) + 2Na3AlO3(aq). Hydrogen gas is flammable; mixing lye (sodium hydroxide) and aluminium in a closed container is therefore dangerous. In addition to aluminium, lye (sodium hydroxide) may also react with magnesium, zinc (galvanized), tin, chromium, brass, and bronze to produce hydrogen gas and is therefore dangerous.

Lye intoxication can cause esophageal stricture.

Protection

Personal protection for the safe handling of lye includes safety glasses, chemical-resistant gloves, and adequate ventilation. When in the close proximity of lye dissolving in an open container of water, a vapor-resistant face mask is recommended.[5] Abstaining from protection can result in serious injuries. (see adjacent picture)

Storage

Lye is a deliquescent salt and has a strong affinity for moisture. Lye will deliquesce (dissolve or melt) when exposed to open air. It will absorb a relatively large amount of water from the atmosphere (air) if exposed to it. Eventually, it will absorb enough water to form a liquid solution because it will dissolve in the water it absorbs.

Hygroscopic substances are often used as desiccants to draw moisture away from water-sensitive items. Desiccants should never be placed inside a canister of lye because lye has much stronger hygroscopic properties than activated carbon and silica gel (the most common ingredients in commercial desiccant packets) and will pull and absorb the water from the desiccant packets.

Lye should be stored in air-tight plastic containers. Glass should never be used for storage as lye will slowly eat away at this material. The containers should be labeled to indicate the potential danger of the contents and stored away from children, pets, heat, and moisture.[5]

See also

Notes

References

  • McDaniel, Robert (1997). The Elegant Art of Handmade Soap: Making, Scenting, Coloring, and Shaping. Iola, WI: Krause Publications. ISBN 0873418328. 


Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010
(Redirected to The Lye article)

From Wikisource

The Lye
by Walter Raleigh
"The Lye," by Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618), is one of the strongest and most appealing poems a teacher can read to her pupils when teaching early American history. The poem is full of magnificent lines, such as "Go, soul, the body's guest." The poem never lacks an attentive audience of young people when correlated with the study of North Carolina and Sir Walter Raleigh. The solitary, majestic character of Sir Walter Raleigh, his intrepidity while undergoing tortures inflicted by a cowardly king, the ring of indignation--- all these make a weapon for him stronger than the ax that beheaded him. In this poem he "has the last word."

    Goe, soule, the bodie's guest,
      Upon a thanklesse arrant;
    Feare not to touche the best--
      The truth shall be thy warrant!
        Goe, since I needs must dye,
        And give the world the lye.

    Goe tell the court it glowes
      And shines like rotten wood;
    Goe tell the church it showes
      What's good, and doth no good;
        If church and court reply,
        Then give them both the lye.

    Tell potentates they live
      Acting by others' actions--
    Not loved unlesse they give,
      Not strong but by their factions;
        If potentates reply,
        Give potentates the lye.

    Tell men of high condition,
      That rule affairs of state,
    Their purpose is ambition,
      Their practice only hate;
        And if they once reply,
        Then give them all the lye.

    Tell zeale it lacks devotion;
      Tell love it is but lust;
    Tell time it is but motion;
      Tell flesh it is but dust;
        And wish them not reply,
        For thou must give the lye.

    Tell wit how much it wrangles
      In tickle points of nicenesse;
    Tell wisdome she entangles
      Herselfe in over-wisenesse;
        And if they do reply,
        Straight give them both the lye.

    Tell physicke of her boldnesse;
      Tell skill it is pretension;
    Tell charity of coldnesse;
      Tell law it is contention;
        And as they yield reply,
        So give them still the lye.

    Tell fortune of her blindnesse;
      Tell nature of decay;
    Tell friendship of unkindnesse;
      Tell justice of delay;
        And if they dare reply,
        Then give them all the lye.

    Tell arts they have no soundnesse,
      But vary by esteeming;
    Tell schooles they want profoundnesse,
      And stand too much on seeming;
        If arts and schooles reply,
        Give arts and schooles the lye.

    So, when thou hast, as I
      Commanded thee, done blabbing--
    Although to give the lye
      Deserves no less than stabbing--
        Yet stab at thee who will,
        No stab the soule can kill.

PD-icon.svg This work published before January 1, 1923 is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

LYE (0. Eng. leag, cf. Dutch loog, Ger. Lauge, from the root meaning to wash, see in Lat. lavare, and Eng. "lather," froth of soap and water, and "laundry"), the name given to the solution of alkaline salts obtained by leaching or lixivi'ating wood ashes with water, and sometimes to a solution of a caustic alkali. Lixiviation (Lat. lixivium, lye, lix, ashes) is the action of separating, by the percolation of water, a soluble from an insoluble substance. "Leaching," the native English term for this process, is from "leach," to water, the root probably being the same as in "lake."


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010
(Redirected to lye article)

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Etymology

From Old English lēag, from Proto-Germanic *laugō, from Proto-Indo-European *leu(ə)- (to wash).

Pronunciation

Homophones

Noun

Singular
lye

Plural
uncountable

lye (uncountable)

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

  1. A strong caustic alkaline solution of potassium or sodium salts, obtained by leaching wood ashes. It is much used in making soap as well as its use in biodiesel.

Translations

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Verb

lye

  1. Obsolete spelling of lie.

Anagrams

  • Anagrams of ely
  • ley

Simple English

Lye is the name of different things:


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