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Lyme Disease
Classification and external resources
.
Nymphal and adult deer ticks can be carriers of Lyme disease.^ This is also when the bacteria are injected if the tick is a carrier for Lyme disease.

^ The person has a tick that can carry Lyme disease attached to their body.
  • Lyme Disease | LIVESTRONG.COM 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ It is carried by the same ticks that transmit Lyme disease.
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

Nymphs are about the size of a poppy seed.
ICD-10 A69.2
ICD-9 088.81
DiseasesDB 1531
MedlinePlus 001319
eMedicine med/1346 ped/1331 neuro/521 emerg/588
MeSH D008193
.Lyme disease, or lyme borreliosis,[1] is an emerging infectious disease caused by at least three species of bacteria belonging to the genus Borrelia.^ Lyme disease Lyme and borreliosis are both caused by the CWD bacteria called a borrelia.
  • http://www.marshallprotocol.com/forum37/3139-1.html 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.marshallprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lyme disease is an illness caused by spirochete bacteria.
  • LymeSpot - Lyme Disease News & Information: September 2005 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC lymespot.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the term Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis is commonly used to describe the infectious diseases that are caused by many Borrelia species.

[2] .Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato[3] is the main cause of Lyme disease in the United States, whereas Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii cause most European cases.^ Persistence of Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii in patients with Lyme arthritis.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The Lyme disease infection in the US is caused by a spirochete called Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Borrelia burgdorferi is the predominant cause of Lyme disease in the United States, whereas Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii are implicated in most European cases.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The disease is named after the village of Lyme, Connecticut, USA, where a number of cases were identified in 1975. Although Allen Steere realized in 1978 that Lyme disease was a tick-borne disease, the cause of the disease remained a mystery until 1982, when B. burgdorferi was identified by Willy Burgdorfer.^ In rare cases, Lyme disease can be fatal.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1982 the brilliant entomologist, Willy Burgdorfer, discovered the etiologic agent of Lyme disease.

^ The Lyme disease infection is caused by a spirochete called Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi.
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

.Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in the Northern Hemisphere.^ Cases of tick-borne disease double .
  • LymeSpot - Lyme Disease News & Information: September 2005 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC lymespot.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anyone exposed to ticks is at risk for Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in the Northern Hemisphere.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Borrelia is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected ticks belonging to a few species of the genus Ixodes ("hard ticks").^ Borrelia is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected ticks belonging to certain species of the genus Ixodes (the hard-bodied 'hard ticks').
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The disease is spread when the tick bites a human.
  • LymeSpot - Lyme Disease News & Information: September 2005 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC lymespot.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These ticks are not the only vector able to transmit Borrelia species.

[4] .Early symptoms may include fever, headache, fatigue, depression, and a characteristic circular skin rash called erythema migrans.^ The initial symptoms can include fatigue, fever, joint aches and sleeplessness.
  • LymeSpot - Lyme Disease News & Information: September 2005 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC lymespot.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Symptoms include headache, fever, chills, headache, and muscle pains.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

^ While it's especially important at this time of year to be aware of the warning signs of the disease – a skin rash around the site of a tick bite, headache, fever, fatigue and muscle or joint pain – Lyme paranoia, as I call it, is not warranted.”-- The previous text was excerpted from Prevention magazine, published by Rodale Press.

.Left untreated, later symptoms may involve the joints, heart, and central nervous system.^ Left untreated, late manifestations involving the joints , heart , and nervous system can occur.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If left untreated, the spirochete may damage the eyes, heart, kidneys, and nervous system.

^ In late-stage disease, the central nervous system may be involved.

.In most cases, the infection and its symptoms are eliminated by antibiotics, especially if the illness is treated early.^ In most cases, the infection and its symptoms are eliminated with antibiotics , especially if diagnosis and treatment occur early in the course of illness.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most symptoms show up days or weeks and occasionally months following infection.
  • WildCondor's Lyme Disease Story 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.wildcondor.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In a trial of patients with early Lyme disease, mild subjective symptoms were noted after treatment in almost one-half of patients and correlated significantly with the severity of the initial illness [ 7 ] .
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

.December 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Late, delayed, or inadequate treatment can lead to the more serious symptoms, which can be disabling and difficult to treat.^ Published reports and clinical experience have shown this regimen to be unacceptable, as nearly half of patients so treated have had to abandon treatment due to serious side effects, many of which were disabling.

^ Other physicians think that Lyme disease is inadequately treated to begin with and causes low-level symptoms that persist for years in many patients.
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lack of benefit from additional antibiotics — Post-Lyme disease symptoms are difficult to treat.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

[5] .Occasionally, symptoms such as arthritis persist after the infection has been eliminated by antibiotics, prompting suggestions that Borrelia causes autoimmunity.^ CEFTRIAXONE TREATMENT A subset of patients who have severe, longstanding illness due to Borrelia burgdorferi carry persistent infection despite having previously received antibiotic treatments which have eliminated the disease in less ill individuals.

^ If the disease remains untreated, then within a few weeks or months a late or persistent infection can occur that causes prolonged bouts of arthritis and neurologic problems.
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi by polymerase chain reaction in synovial membrane, but not in synovial fluid from patients with persisting Lyme arthritis after antibiotic therapy.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

[6]
.Some groups have argued that "chronic" Lyme disease is responsible for a range of medically unexplained symptoms beyond the recognized symptoms of late Lyme disease, and that additional, long-term antibiotic treatments are needed.^ Chronic Lyme disease is often a life-long illness.

^ Stop using the term “Lyme disease”.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Treatment of early Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

[7] .Of four randomized controlled trials of long-term ceftriaxone and doxycycline treatment in patients with ongoing symptoms, two found no benefit,[8][9] and two found inconsistent benefits with significant side effects and risks from the antibiotic treatment.^ At that time she received no antibiotic treatment.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Two controlled trials of antibiotic treatment in patients with persistent symptoms and a history of Lyme disease .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Of four randomized controlled trials of long-term antibiotic courses in patients with ongoing symptoms, two found no benefit [5] [6] , and two found inconsistent benefits and significant side effects and risks from further antibiotic treatment.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[10][11][12] .Most expert groups, including the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Academy of Neurology, have found that existing scientific evidence does not support a role for Borrelia nor ongoing antibiotic treatment in such cases.^ Lyme disease does exist.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://www.marshallprotocol.com/forum37/3139-1.html 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.marshallprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Academy of Neurology recommend a treatment duration of 14 days [1,2] .
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Coyle emphasized that, unlike European Lyme disease, North American neurologic Lyme disease does not commonly demonstrate intrathecal antibody production.
  • Overdiagnosis and overtreatment of Lyme disease - ARCHIVE 4 - Archives from ezboard - Visual snow or static - Message Board - Yuku 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC thosewithvisualsnow.yuku.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13][14] .However, the subject is controversial, with some doctors, patient advocacy groups, and politicians continuing to argue that long-term treatment is beneficial.^ If treatment can be continued long term, then a remarkable degree of recovery is possible.

^ Continue long term.
  • LymeNet - Advanced Topics in Lyme Disease (2000 Burrascano Treatment Guidelines) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www2.lymenet.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Info Packet 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.lymeiniowa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These illnesses can be quite debilitating in a physical way; however, if the cause of the disease is psychiatric, treating them with antibiotics won't work in the long term.
  • Lyme disease---who is credible? : White Coat Underground 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This dispute has led to legal action over treatment guidelines, as well as harassment and death threats made against physicians who will not acknowledge "chronic" Lyme disease as a legitimate diagnosis.^ So, in this debate about "chronic Lyme disease", who is credible?
  • Lyme disease---who is credible? : White Coat Underground 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Treatment of early Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We use this integrative system for the treatment of chronic Lyme disease.
  • Geometry.Net - Health Conditions Books: Lyme Disease 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

Contents

Signs and symptoms

.Lyme disease can affect multiple body systems and produce a range of symptoms.^ Post-Lyme disease symptoms and "chronic Lyme disease" .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lyme disease symptoms still affect local resident .
  • LymeSpot - Lyme Disease News & Information: September 2005 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC lymespot.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lyme disease can affect multiple body systems, producing a range of potential symptoms.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Not all patients with Lyme disease will have all symptoms, and many of the symptoms are not specific to Lyme disease but can occur with other diseases as well.^ Not all patients with Lyme disease will have all symptoms, and many of the symptoms are not specific to Lyme disease but can occur in other diseases as well.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chronic arthritis occurs in 10% of Lyme disease patients.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Post-Lyme disease symptoms and "chronic Lyme disease" .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The incubation period from infection to the onset of symptoms is usually one to two weeks, but can be much shorter (days), or much longer (months to years).^ Most symptoms show up days or weeks and occasionally months following infection.
  • WildCondor's Lyme Disease Story 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.wildcondor.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Symptoms usually resolve in a week, but in some cases it can take months.
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The incubation period from infection to the onset of symptoms is usually 1–2 weeks, but can be much shorter (days), or much longer (months to years).
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Symptoms most often occur from May through September, because the nymphal stage of the tick is responsible for most cases.^ Symptoms most often occur from May through September because the nymphal stage of the tick is responsible for most cases.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Arthritic symptoms may occur as follows: .
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Most often, neurologic symptoms first appear while the initial skin rash is still present or within 6 weeks after its disappearance.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

[15] .Asymptomatic infection exists, but occurs in less than 7% of infected individuals in the United States.^ Asymptomatic infection exists but is found in less than 7% of infected individuals in the United States.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Asymptomatic infection may be much more common among those infected in Europe.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Human infection by tapeworms is rare but possible if an individual were to consume an infected flea or consume the eggs of certain species of tapeworm.
  • NewsLetter 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.vrp.com [Source type: Academic]

[16] .Asymptomatic infection may be much more common among those infected in Europe.^ Asymptomatic infection may be much more common among those infected in Europe.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This pattern is more common in Europe.

^ The joint pain and swelling usually occur one or more months after infection, may involve one or more joints, and may recur in different joints.
  • Wildlife disease - Lyme disease 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC nwco.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17]

Stage 1: Early localized infection

Common bullseye rash pattern associated with Lyme disease
Characteristic "bulls-eye" rash caused by Lyme disease
.The classic sign of early local infection with Lyme disease is a circular, outwardly expanding rash called erythema chronicum migrans (also erythema migrans or EM), which occurs at the site of the tick bite 3 to 30 days after the tick bite [18][19] The rash is red, and may be warm, but is generally painless.^ Treatment of early Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Late Lyme disease occurs months to a few years after the onset of infection and may not be preceded by a history of early localized or disseminated Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Stage 1 – Early localized infection .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

Classically, the innermost portion remains dark red and becomes indurated; the outer edge remains red; and the portion in between clears, giving the appearance of a bullseye. .However, partial clearing is uncommon, and the bullseye pattern more often involves central redness.^ As they expand, some central clearing often develops, and they may have a more complex target or bull's eye appearance.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An EM rash with a round red ring and a central clearing (see figure 10) is called a bulls-eye rash and it is diagnostic for Lyme disease.

^ This can help to heal problems with the central and peripheral nervous system, improve depressed immune function, and help to restore more normal sleeping patterns.

[20]
.Erythema migrans is thought to occur in about 80% of infected patients.^ Multiple lesions of erythema migrans occur in approximately 20% of patients.

^ All systemic symptoms may occur in patients with erythema migrans.

^ Erythema migrans is thought to occur in about 80% of infected patients.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[19] .Patients can also experience flu-like symptoms such as headache, muscle soreness, fever, and malaise.^ Flu-like Symptoms .
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Symptoms include headache, fever, chills, headache, and muscle pains.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Has other symptoms (headache, joint aches, malaise, flu-like symptoms).
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

[21] .Lyme disease can progress to later stages even in patients who do not develop a rash.^ Not all patients with Lyme disease will develop the bull’s eye rash.
  • Lyme Disease - Publications - Public Information - MOHLTC 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.health.gov.on.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If untreated, Lyme disease may progress to the advanced stages.
  • Lyme disease - primary Medical Information 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Patient Surveys for Lyme disease .
  • Lyme disease Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

[22]

Stage 2: Early disseminated infection

.Within days to weeks after the onset of local infection, the borrelia bacteria may begin to spread through the bloodstream.^ Within days to weeks after the onset of local infection, the borrelia bacteria may begin to spread through the bloodstream.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Untreated, the infection spreads through the bloodstream and lymph nodes within days to weeks, involving the joints, nervous system, and possibly the heart.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If the disease remains untreated, then within a few weeks or months a late or persistent infection can occur that causes prolonged bouts of arthritis and neurologic problems.
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

.Erythema chronicum migrans may develop at sites across the body that bear no relation to the original tick bite.^ Erythema migrans may develop at sites across the body that bear no relation to the original tick bite.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Erythema chronicum migrans and "Lyme arthritis".
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ He recalled no tick bites or erythema migrans.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

[23] .Another skin condition, which is apparently absent in North American patients but occurs in Europe, is borrelial lymphocytoma, a purplish lump that develops on the ear lobe, nipple, or scrotum.^ Another skin condition, which is apparently absent in North American patients, is borrelial lymphocytoma , a purplish lump that develops on the ear lobe, nipple, or scrotum.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The recognition that the patients in the United States had EM led to the recognition that "Lyme arthritis" was one manifestation of the same tick-borne condition known in Europe.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some of the skin manifestations of Lyme disease such as borrelial lymphocytoma, acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans, and morphea-like lesions, occur almost exclusively in Europe.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

[24] .Other discrete symptoms include migrating pain in muscles, joint, and tendons, and heart palpitations and dizziness caused by changes in heartbeat.^ Muscle and joint pain.
  • Lyme Disease - Symptoms - Yahoo! Health 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIGNA - Lyme Disease 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Lyme Disease Symptoms and Signs 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC arthritis.webmd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other symptoms may be fever, lethargy and muscle pain.
  • Lyme Disease and the Documentary Under the Eightball - Associated Content - associatedcontent.com 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Others experience shooting pains that interrupt sleep, heart palpitations, dizziness from an irregular heartbeat, and pain that moves from joint to joint.
  • What is Lyme disease? - un knol de Online Editors 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Acute neurological problems, which appear in 15% of untreated patients, encompass a spectrum of disorders.^ Acute neurological problems, which appear in 15% of untreated patients, encompasses a spectrum of disorders.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ About 15% of untreated patients develop neurologic symptoms.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chronic neurologic problems occur in 5% of untreated patients.
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

[21] .These include facial or Bell's palsy, which is the loss of muscle tone on one or both sides of the face, as well as meningitis, which involves severe headaches, neck stiffness, and sensitivity to light.^ Facial paralysis-Bell's Palsy .

^ Both of these sites involve vasculopathy —enteric and dermal as well.

^ Another common neurologic manifestation is meningitis , characterized by severe headaches, neck stiffness, and sensitivity to light.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Radiculoneuritis causes shooting pains that may interfere with sleep as well as abnormal skin sensations.^ Radiculoneuritis causes shooting pains that may interfere with sleep and abnormal skin sensations.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A polyneuropathy manifested primarily as shooting pains, numbness, and tingling in the hands or feet may develop.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As more experience has been gained with Bartonella henselae and its related species, bartonellosis has been found capable of causing severe gastrointestinal pain and malfunction as well as specific skin eruptions.

.Mild encephalitis may lead to memory loss, sleep disturbances, or mood changes.^ Mild encephalitis may lead to memory loss , sleep disturbances , or changes in mood or affect .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If mild, a change in dose may be required.

^ Mood disturbances and loss of concentration.
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

.In addition, some case reports have described altered mental status as the only symptom seen in a few cases of early neuroborreliosis.^ Culture of the Borrelia is rarely possible but can occur in a few early LD cases of B. burgdorferi, usually from biopsies of the EM rash.

^ Studies — Several early case reports and small studies have suggested a link between maternal Lyme disease and congenital malformations or fetal demise [ 42-46 ] .
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In some cases of untreated disease, the infection causes a condition called Lyme encephalopathy or neuroborreliosis .
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

[25]

Stage 3: Late persistent infection

Deer tick life cycle
.After several months, untreated or inadequately treated patients may go on to develop severe and chronic symptoms that affect many parts of the body, including the brain, nerves, eyes, joints and heart.^ About 15% of untreated patients develop neurologic symptoms.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The infection may affect the heart and cause the following symptoms: Palpitations.
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chronic neurologic symptoms occur in up to 5% of untreated patients.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Myriad disabling symptoms can occur, including permanent paraplegia in the most extreme cases.^ Myriad disabling symptoms can occur.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most cases of Lyme disease involve a rash and flu-like symptoms that resolve within 1 month of antibiotic treatment.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In most cases, the infection and its symptoms are eliminated with antibiotics , especially if diagnosis and treatment occur early in the course of illness.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[26]
.Chronic neurologic symptoms occur in up to 5% of untreated patients.^ Neurologic involvement occurs in 10% of patients with untreated Lyme disease.
  • HowStuffWorks "Lyme Disease - Early Disseminated - Medical Dictionary" 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC healthguide.howstuffworks.com [Source type: Academic]

^ About 15% of untreated patients develop neurologic symptoms.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Symptoms 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chronic neurological symptoms and chronic skin conditions may also occur.
  • Lyme Disease: San Mateo County Mosquito and Vector Control District 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.smcmad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21] .A polyneuropathy that involves shooting pains, numbness, and tingling in the hands or feet may develop.^ Tingling, numbness, burning or stabbing sensations, shooting pains .
  • LymeNet - Advanced Topics in Lyme Disease (2000 Burrascano Treatment Guidelines) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www2.lymenet.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A polyneuropathy manifested primarily as shooting pains, numbness, and tingling in the hands or feet may develop.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chronic encephalomyelitis , which may be progressive, may involve cognitive impairment, weakness in the legs, awkward gait, facial palsy, bladder problems, vertigo , and back pain.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.A neurologic syndrome called Lyme encephalopathy is associated with subtle cognitive problems, such as difficulties with concentration and short-term memory.^ A neurologic syndrome called Lyme encephalopathy is associated with subtle cognitive problems such as difficulties with concentration and short term memory.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lyme, with its tremendous problems of morbidity and difficulty with .

^ Forgetfuiness, poor short term memory .
  • LymeNet - Advanced Topics in Lyme Disease (2000 Burrascano Treatment Guidelines) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www2.lymenet.org [Source type: Academic]

.These patients may also experience profound fatigue.^ Such patients may also experience profound fatigue.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Neurotoxins may also be significant in these patients.

^ Some experts theorize that co-infection with ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, or other tick-borne pathogens may be the cause of persistent symptoms in many of these patients.
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

[27] .However, other problems such as depression and fibromyalgia are no more common in people who have been infected with Lyme than in the general population.^ Other problems such as depression and fibromyalgia are no more common in people who have been infected with Lyme than in the general population.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pituitary and other endocrine abnormalities are far more common than generally realized.

^ The prevalence and characteristics of fibromyalgia in the general population.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

[27][28] .Chronic encephalomyelitis, which may be progressive, can involve cognitive impairment, weakness in the legs, awkward gait, facial palsy, bladder problems, vertigo, and back pain.^ Chronic encephalomyelitis , which may be progressive, may involve cognitive impairment, weakness in the legs, awkward gait, facial palsy, bladder problems, vertigo , and back pain.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In Europe, B. garinii may rarely cause chronic encephalomyelitis, characterized by spastic paraparesis, cranial neuropathy, or cognitive impairment with marked intrathecal antibody production to the spirochete [ 28 ] .
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The joint swelling, which may or may not be painful, frequently is episodic, recurrent and migratory if multiple joints are involved.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In rare cases untreated Lyme disease may cause frank psychosis, which has been mis-diagnosed as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.^ In rare cases, Lyme disease can be fatal.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In rare cases, Lyme disease can cause kidney damage in dogs if it is left untreated.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Animals may be reinfected with Lyme disease.
  • Fleas and Ticks 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.k9web.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Panic attack and anxiety can occur, also delusional behavior, including somatoform delusions, sometimes accompanied by a depersonalization or derealization syndrome, where the person begins to feel detached from themselves or from reality.^ Anxiety, panic attacks .

^ Panic attack and anxiety can occur, also delusional behavior, including somatoform delusions, sometimes accompanied by a depersonalization or derealization syndrome similar to what was seen in the past in the prodromal or early stages of general paresis .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Encephalitis or encephalopathy may manifest as cognitive dysfunction, including short-term memory loss, and psychiatric symptoms such as panic, anxiety, or depression.

[29][30]
.Lyme arthritis usually affects the knees.^ Lyme arthritis usually affects the knees.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ (Knees are usually affected most.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Symptoms 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Lyme arthritis differs from rheumatoid arthritis (Read about " Rheumatoid Arthritis ") in that it tends to come and go and affects two or three joints, rather than producing an all-over effect.

[31] .In a minority of patients arthritis can occur in other joints, including the ankles, elbows, wrist, hips, and shoulders.^ In a minority of patients arthritis can occur in other joints, including the ankles, elbows, wrist, hips, and shoulders.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Eventually up to 60% of patients with untreated infections also have arthritis symptoms with intense joint pain and swelling, most often in the knees.
  • Antibiotic & Lyme Disease Research | LymeCLR™ 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.lymeclr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Large joints such as the knee, elbow, or shoulder are commonly affected, whereas the ankle, wrist, jaw, and finger joints are affected less often.
  • ID Associates:Lyme Disease 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.idcare.com [Source type: Academic]

.Pain is often mild or moderate, usually with swelling at the involved joint.^ Pain is often mild or moderate, usually with swelling at the involved joint.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The inflammation of the joints causes pain and swelling.

^ There may be mild swelling of joints but often this is not present.
  • Lyme Disease in Dogs 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Baker's cysts may form and rupture.^ Baker's cysts may form and rupture.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.In some cases joint erosion occurs.^ In some cases joint erosion occurs.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In some cases, however, the bacteria can spread to the joints, heart, and brain and cause serious health problems.
  • OSH Answers: Lyme Disease 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.ccohs.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In late stage disease, many negative effects to the body are occurring: muscles atrophy, and to some degree, the heart muscle also suffers, as do the joints, tendons, nerves, etc.
  • LymeNet - Advanced Topics in Lyme Disease (2000 Burrascano Treatment Guidelines) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www2.lymenet.org [Source type: Academic]

.Acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (ACA) is a chronic skin disorder observed primarily in Europe among the elderly.^ Acrodermatitis Chronica Atrophicans, biopsy confirmed .
  • LymeNet - Advanced Topics in Lyme Disease (2000 Burrascano Treatment Guidelines) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www2.lymenet.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Chronic Borrelia can also cause a degenerative skin disorder now known as acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (ACA).

^ Some of the skin manifestations of Lyme disease such as borrelial lymphocytoma, acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans, and morphea-like lesions, occur almost exclusively in Europe.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

[24] ACA begins as a reddish-blue patch of discolored skin, often on the backs of the hands or feet. .The lesion slowly atrophies over several weeks or months, with the skin becoming first thin and wrinkled and then, if untreated, completely dry and hairless.^ The lesion slowly atrophies, and the skin may become so thin that it resembles wrinkled cigarette paper.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the 1940s, German neurologist Alfred Bannwarth described several cases of chronic lymphocytic meningitis and polyradiculoneuritis, some of which were accompanied by erythematous skin lesions.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, even untreated patients usually have resolution of facial nerve palsy within several weeks.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

[32]

Cause

.
Borrelia bacteria, the causative agent of Lyme disease.
^ Lyme disease Lyme and borreliosis are both caused by the CWD bacteria called a borrelia.
  • http://www.marshallprotocol.com/forum37/3139-1.html 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.marshallprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lyme disease is an illness caused by spirochete bacteria.
  • LymeSpot - Lyme Disease News & Information: September 2005 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC lymespot.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Lyme disease infection is caused by a spirochete called Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi.
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

Magnified 400 times.
Ixodes scapularis, the primary vector of Lyme disease in eastern North America.
.Lyme disease is caused by Gram-negative spirochetal bacteria from the genus Borrelia.^ Lyme disease is caused by Gram-negative spirochetal bacteria from the genus Borrelia .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lyme disease is an illness caused by spirochete bacteria.
  • LymeSpot - Lyme Disease News & Information: September 2005 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC lymespot.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Lyme disease infection in the US is caused by a spirochete called Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

.At least 11 Borrelia species have been discovered, 3 of which are known to be Lyme-related.^ Therefore, we have a different species of the Lyme spirochete, namely Borrelia lonestari, .

^ Because Borrelia species are spirochetes, there has been concern about the possibility of congenital Lyme disease given the serious congenital disease that can result from maternal syphilis, another spirochetal disease.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The name "Lyme disease" has been used to describe the illness specifically caused by only B. burgdorferi , not other Borrelia species.

[33][34] .The Borrelia species that cause Lyme disease are collectively known as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and show a great deal of genetic diversity.^ The Lyme disease infection in the US is caused by a spirochete called Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness caused by three pathogenic species of the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Balmelli, T, Piffaretti, JC. Association between different clinical manifestations of Lyme disease and different species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

[35]
.The group Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is made up of three closely-related species that are probably responsible for the large majority of cases: B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (predominant in North America, but also present in Europe), B. afzelii, and B. garinii (both predominant in Eurasia).^ Three closely-related species of spirochetes are well-established as causing Lyme disease and are probably responsible for the large majority of cases: B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (predominant in North America , but also in Europe ), B. afzelii , and B. garinii (both predominant in Eurasia ).
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The bacteria name is borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto...
  • http://www.marshallprotocol.com/forum37/3139-1.html 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.marshallprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is name given to the overall category.

[33] .Some studies have also proposed that B. bissettii and B. valaisiana may sometimes infect humans, but these species do not seem to be important causes of disease.^ Some studies have also proposed that B. bissettii and B. valaisiana may sometimes infect humans, but these species do not seem to be important causes of disease.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It can cause disease when the tick attaches to humans.
  • CIGNA - Lyme Disease 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In this way, some ticks get infected with the bacterium that causes Lyme disease.
  • Lyme Disease | Health | Patient UK 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36][37]

Transmission

.Lyme disease is classified as a zoonosis, as it is transmitted to humans from a natural reservoir among rodents by ticks that feed on both sets of hosts.^ Lyme disease transmitted by a biting fly .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is carried by the same ticks that transmit Lyme disease.
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Adult ticks may also transmit disease to humans.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[38] .Hard-bodied ticks of the genus Ixodes are the main vectors of Lyme disease.^ Hard-bodied ticks of the genus Ixodes are the primary vectors of Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The main argument for treating asymptomatic seropositive patients is that some patients with late manifestations of Lyme disease have no history of prior features of the disease.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although they are both borne by the same tick as Lyme disease, all three of these infections are entirely different diseases.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

[2] .Most infections are caused by ticks in the nymphal stage, as they are very small and may feed for long periods of time undetected.^ Maybe not "forever," but for a very long time.
  • Lyme disease---who is credible? : White Coat Underground 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The tick feeds only once at each stage.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Data have demonstrated that prompt removal of an infected tick, within approximately 36 hours, reduces the risk of transmission to nearly zero; however the small size of the tick, especially in the nymph stage, may make detection difficult.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[38] .Larval ticks are very rarely infected.^ The disease is still very rare, but people in tick-infested areas should be aware of it.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Typical HGA symptoms appear very suddenly within 4 - 14 days of being bitten by an infected tick.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

[39] .Tick bites often go unnoticed because of the small size of the tick in its nymphal stage, as well as tick secretions that prevent the host from feeling any itch or pain from the bite.^ Patients often can't recall the tick bite (the ticks can be as small as the periods in this paragraph).
  • Slideshow: Lyme Disease on eMedicineHealth.com 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.emedicinehealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the bite may go unnoticed.
  • AllRefer Health - Lyme Disease (Borreliosis) 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC health.allrefer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Prevention of Lyme disease after tick bites.
  • Lyme Disease: The Sensible Pursuit of Answers 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.lymeinfo.net [Source type: Academic]

.However, transmission is quite rare, with only about 1% of recognized tick bites resulting in Lyme disease; this may be due to the fact that an infected tick must be attached for at least a day for transmission to occur.^ The tick's bite is painless, however, so only about half of people with Lyme disease recall being bitten.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Animals may be reinfected with Lyme disease.
  • Fleas and Ticks 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.k9web.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The disease is spread when the tick bites a human.
  • LymeSpot - Lyme Disease News & Information: September 2005 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC lymespot.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40]
.In Europe the vector is Ixodes ricinus, which is also called the sheep tick or castor bean tick.^ First of all, the familiar tick vector called the deer tick (Ixodes dammini) and black-legged ticks (commonly called deer ticks) (Ixodes scapularis) are more prevalent and spreading wider than reported.

^ The vector that carries B. burgdorferi in the U.S. Northeast and North Central states is the Ixodes scapularis tick.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Again, the familiar tick vectors called the deer tick (Ixodes dammini) and black-legged tick (also commonly called deer ticks) (Ixodes scapularis) are more prevalent and spread wider than reported.

[41] .In China Ixodes persulcatus (the taiga tick) is probably the most important vector.^ Its still important to save the tick for identification as a possible vector.

^ Infected deer ticks ( Ixodes scapularis and similar hard-bodied ticks), vectors of many diseases including the ones discussed below, are thus most widely distributed by birds, geographically.

^ The vector that carries B. burgdorferi in the U.S. Northeast and North Central states is the Ixodes scapularis tick.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

[42] .In North America, the black-legged tick or deer tick (Ixodes scapularis) is the main vector on the east coast.^ Right is the Ixodes scapularis (black-legged tick) larva, adult, and nymph.

^ The vector that carries B. burgdorferi in the U.S. Northeast and North Central states is the Ixodes scapularis tick.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ehrlichiosis is carried by the Ixodes scapularis tick and the Western black-legged tick ( Ixodes Pacificus ).
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

[39] .The lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum), which is found throughout the Southeastern United States as far west as Texas, is unlikely to transmit the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi,[43] though it may be implicated in a related syndrome called southern tick-associated rash illness, which resembles a mild form of Lyme disease.^ Borrelia burgdorferi Spirochete/Cyst .

^ Lyme disease is an illness caused by spirochete bacteria.
  • LymeSpot - Lyme Disease News & Information: September 2005 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC lymespot.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Lyme disease infection in the US is caused by a spirochete called Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

[44] .On the West Coast of the United States, the main vector is the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus).^ In the Northwest the infecting insect is the Western blacklegged tick ( Ixodes Pacificus ).
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ehrlichiosis is carried by the Ixodes scapularis tick and the Western black-legged tick ( Ixodes Pacificus ).
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ On the West Coast , the primary vector is the western black-legged tick ( Ixodes pacificus ).
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[45] .The tendency of this tick species to feed predominantly on host species such as lizards that are resistant to Borrelia infection appears to diminish transmission of Lyme disease in the West.^ The Lyme disease infection is caused by a spirochete called Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi.
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some of the more noted tick borne diseases are babesiosis, anaplasmosis, ehrlichia, East Coast fever, relapsing fever, rocky mountain spotted fever and, of course, Lyme disease .
  • Fleas and Ticks 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.k9web.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LYME/BORRELIOSISlink Plasmids and resistance http://tinyurl.com/8lf88 Borrelia has 17 of these ..Trevor..
  • http://www.marshallprotocol.com/forum37/3139-1.html 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.marshallprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46][47]
.While Lyme spirochetes have been found in insects as well as ticks,[48] reports of actual infectious transmission appear to be rare.^ Lyme disease, with 20,000 cases reported annually, ranks low on the list of the most prevalent infectious diseases.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The widespread distribution of these tick vectors greatly increases the prevalence of Lyme disease well beyond that of official reports.

^ A draft final report completed late last year found one in five full-time residents reported having a tick borne illness, and 12 per cent reported having had Lyme disease.
  • LymeSpot - Lyme Disease News & Information: September 2005 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC lymespot.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49] .Lyme spirochetes have been found in semen[50] and breast milk,[51] however transmission of the spirochete by these routes is not known to occur.^ False positive results occur when results show antibodies to spirochetes, but not necessarily the Lyme bacteria.
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ (Studies on animals, however, have reported transmission of the organism to infant mice through breast milk, these findings do not appear to be applicable to people.
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is important to note that just as the Chronic Lyme symptom complex overlaps CFIDS or Fibromyalgia, they also overlap these other diseases with known pathophysiology.

[52] .Congenital transmission of Lyme disease can occur from an infected mother to fetus through the placenta during pregnancy.^ Silver, HM. Lyme disease during pregnancy.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lyme disease during pregnancy.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Borrelia can also be transmitted in utero from an infected mother to a child during pregnancy.

.The risk for fetal harm is much higher in the first three months of pregnancy than later.^ I personally believe it is much higher than that.

^ None of these seven patients had received more than two months of oral antibiotic treatment or more than three weeks of intravenous antibiotic treatment.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Some studies indicate that Borrelia burgdorferi may be transmitted to the fetus during pregnancy, with the risk highest during the first trimester.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

.Prompt antibiotic treatment almost always prevents fetal harm.^ To the Editor: It has been suggested that Lyme disease may trigger fibromyalgia and that antibiotic therapy beyond 30 days is almost always unnecessary [1].
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Complications: Prompt treatment with antibiotics is very effective in curing Lyme disease in nearly all infected people, including children.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Typical combination of antibiotic treatment is the use of a cell wall agent plus a protein inhibitor (prevents division of cell so it can’t multiply) either by oral or intravenously.

.Pregnant Lyme-disease patients cannot be treated with the first-choice antibiotic, doxycycline (see below), as it is potentially harmful for the fetus.^ In all phases of Lyme disease, antibiotics are the agents of choice.
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Certainly a small percentage of antibiotic-treated patients experience persistent Lyme disease.
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Survival of Borrelia burgdorferi in antibiotically treated patients with Lyme borreliosis.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

.Instead, erythromycin is usually given; it is less effective against the disease but harmless for the fetus.^ This antibiotic is effective against both Lyme disease and human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) and so is the standard antibiotic for any patient over 8 years old (except pregnant women).
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This antibiotic is effective against both Lyme disease and ehrlichiosis.
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ceftriaxone therapy given for two to four weeks may also be effective in children with late neurologic Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

[53]

Tick borne co-infections

.Ticks that transmit B. burgdorferi to humans can also carry and transmit several other parasites such as Theileria microti and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which cause the diseases babesiosis and human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), respectively.^ Ticks that transmit B. burgorferi to humans can also carry and transmit several other parasites such as Theileria microti and Anaplasma phagocytophilum , which cause the diseases babesiosis and human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), respectively.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is another illness spread by the deer tick.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The disease is spread when the tick bites a human.
  • LymeSpot - Lyme Disease News & Information: September 2005 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC lymespot.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[54] .Among early Lyme disease patients, depending on their location, 2–12% will also have HGA and 2–40% will have babesiosis.^ Treatment of early Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The early clinical manifestations of Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Concurrent Lyme disease and babesiosis.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

[55]
.Co-infections complicate Lyme symptoms, especially diagnosis and treatment.^ Lyme” is a single entity with co-infections.
  • Interview with P. Bear R.N. – Chronic Borreliosis (”Lyme”), MCS (multiple chemical sensitivities), Chronic Spinal Inflammation, Peripheral Neuropathy 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC bacteriality.com [Source type: General]

^ Lyme and co-infection.
  • Ticked Off | Cover Story | News and Opinion | Philadelphia Weekly 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.philadelphiaweekly.com [Source type: General]

^ Co-infections complicate Lyme symptoms, especially diagnosis and treatment.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.It is possible for a tick to carry and transmit one of the co-infections and not Borrelia, making diagnosis difficult and often elusive.^ Tick borne co-infections .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is possible for a tick to carry and transmit one of the co-infections and not Borrelia, making diagnosis difficult and often elusive.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Borrelia is a co-infection, not what is primarily making you ill.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Centers for Disease Control studied 100 ticks in rural New Jersey and found that 55% of the ticks were infected with at least one of the pathogens.^ The Centers for Disease Control (CDC)'s emerging infections diseases department did a study in rural New Jersey of 100 ticks and found that 55% of the ticks were infected with at least one of the pathogens.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in Ixodes scapularis in a rural New Jersey County .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sites found to be good sources of accurate information in this study included those of the American College of Physicians , the Centers for Disease Control , the Food and Drug Administration , and Johns Hopkins University (www.hopkins-arthritis.org).
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[56]

Pathophysiology

.Borrelia burgdorferi can spread throughout the body during the course of the disease and has been found in the skin, heart, joint, peripheral nervous system, and central nervous system.^ Borrelia burgdorferi has the ability to disseminate to numerous organs during the course of disease.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lyme disease affects the skin, joints, nervous system, and heart, among other parts of the body.
  • LymeSpot - Lyme Disease News & Information: September 2005 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC lymespot.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The spirochete has been found in many tissues, including the skin, heart, joint, peripheral nervous system, and central nervous system.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[57][58] .Many of the signs and symptoms of Lyme disease are a consequence of the immune response to the spirochete in those tissues.^ Post-Lyme disease symptoms .
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many of the signs and symptoms of Lyme disease are a consequence of the inflammatory response to the presence of the spirochete in those tissues.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Post-Lyme disease symptoms and "chronic Lyme disease" .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[21]
.B. burgdorferi is injected into the skin by the bite of an infected Ixodes tick.^ If the tick bites such animals then it may then infect them with the B. Burgdorferi spirochete.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The bacteria are introduced into the skin by a bite from an infected Ixodes tick.

^ B. burgdorferi is injected into the skin by the bite of an infected Ixodes tick.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Tick saliva, which accompanies the spirochete into the skin during the feeding process, contains substances that disrupt the immune response at the site of the bite.^ Tick saliva, which accompanies the spirochete into the skin during the feeding process, contains substances that disrupt the immune response at the site of the bite.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The bacteria are introduced into the skin by a bite from an infected Ixodes tick.

^ B. burgdorferi is injected into the skin by the bite of an infected Ixodes tick.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[59] This provides a protective environment where the spirochete can establish infection. .The spirochetes multiply and migrate outward within the dermis.^ The spirochetes multiply and migrate outward within the dermis .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The host inflammatory response to the bacteria in the skin causes the characteristic circular EM lesion.^ The host inflammatory response to the bacteria in the skin is associated with the appearance of the characteristic EM lesion.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ EM lesions typically have the following characteristics [9] : .
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However neutrophils , which are necessary to eliminate the spirochetes from the skin, fail to appear in the developing EM lesion thereby permitting the bacteria to survive and eventually spread throughout the body.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[57] .However neutrophils, which are necessary to eliminate the spirochetes from the skin, fail to appear in the developing EM lesion.^ However neutrophils , which are necessary to eliminate the spirochetes from the skin, fail to appear in the developing EM lesion thereby permitting the bacteria to survive and eventually spread throughout the body.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1948, he used a special stain to microscopically observe what he believed were spirochetes in various types of skin lesions, including EM. [168] Although his conclusions were later shown to be erroneous, interest in the study of spirochetes was sparked.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Asbrink, E., Hovmark, A. Successful cultivation of spirochetes from skin lesions of patients with erythema chronicum migrans Afzelius and acrodermatitis Chronica atrophicans.
  • LymeNet - Advanced Topics in Lyme Disease (2000 Burrascano Treatment Guidelines) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www2.lymenet.org [Source type: Academic]

.This allows the bacteria to survive and eventually spread throughout the body.^ However neutrophils , which are necessary to eliminate the spirochetes from the skin, fail to appear in the developing EM lesion thereby permitting the bacteria to survive and eventually spread throughout the body.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is the same time period during which the organisms are being spread throughout the body to other tissues and cells.

^ Government latency has allowed these diseases to spread throughout the country, potentially sparking the next pandemic.
  • LymeSpot - Lyme Disease News & Information: September 2005 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC lymespot.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[60]
.Days to weeks following the tick bite, the spirochetes spread via the bloodstream to joints, heart, nervous system, and distant skin sites, where their presence gives rise to the variety of symptoms of disseminated disease.^ Untreated, the infection spreads through the bloodstream and lymph nodes within days to weeks, involving the joints, nervous system, and possibly the heart.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The disease is spread when the tick bites a human.
  • LymeSpot - Lyme Disease News & Information: September 2005 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC lymespot.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lyme disease affects the skin, joints, nervous system, and heart, among other parts of the body.
  • LymeSpot - Lyme Disease News & Information: September 2005 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC lymespot.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The spread of B. burgdorferi is aided by the attachment of the host protease plasmin to the surface of the spirochete.^ The spread of B. burgdorferi is aided by the attachment of the host protease plasmin to the surface of the spirochete.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Killing of Borrelia burgdorferi by macrophages is dependent on oxygen radicals and nitric oxide and can be enhanced by antibodies to outer surface proteins of the spirochete.

^ These proteins (referred to as Osp A through F) coat the outer surface of the B. burgdorferi spirochete and then attach to human cells after infection.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

[61] .If untreated, the bacteria may persist in the body for months or even years, despite the production of anti-B. burgdorferi antibodies by the immune system.^ If infection persists, this antibody may also persist.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://www.marshallprotocol.com/forum37/3139-1.html 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.marshallprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bacteria may persist in the body for months or even years, despite the production of anti- B. burgdorferi antibodies by the immune system.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, a fetus exposed to Borrelia burgdorferi early in the pregnancy may never make an antibody response to the Lyme bacteria because the baby's immune system doesn't recognize it as foreign.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://www.marshallprotocol.com/forum37/3139-1.html 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.marshallprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40] .The spirochetes may avoid the immune response by decreasing expression of surface proteins that are targeted by antibodies, antigenic variation of the VlsE surface protein, inactivating key immune components such as complement, and hiding in the extracellular matrix, which may interfere with the function of immune factors.^ The spirochetes may avoid the immune response by decreasing expression of surface proteins that are targeted by antibodies, antigenic variation of the VlsE surface protein, inactivating key immune components such as complement , and hiding in the extracellular matrix , which may interfere with the function of immune factors.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The spirochetes hide their flagella, which are normally antigenic, from the host immune defenses.

^ These tests are used to detect antibodies, immune factors that target specific alien proteins (antigens).
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

[62][63]
.In the brain B. burgdorferi may induce astrocytes to undergo astrogliosis (proliferation followed by apoptosis), which may contribute to neurodysfunction.^ In the brain B. burgdorferi may induce astrocytes to undergo astrogliosis (proliferation followed by apoptosis ), which may contribute to neurodysfunction.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pathogenesis of Lyme neuroborreliosis: Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins induce both proliferation and apoptosis in rhesus monkey astrocytes.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The data indicate that Borrelia burgdorferi may persist in the brain and be associated with amyloid plaques in AD. They suggest that these spirochetes, perhaps in an analogous fashion to Treponema pallidum, may contribute to dementia, cortical atrophy and amyloid deposition.
  • http://www.marshallprotocol.com/forum37/3139-1.html 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.marshallprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pensito Review » Politics Worst President Ever » Bush’s Doctors Kept Lyme Disease Secret for a Year; Is the Condition Why His Mind is Degenerating? 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.pensitoreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[64] .The spirochetes may also induce host cells to secrete products toxic to nerve cells, including quinolinic acid and the cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha, which can produce fatigue and malaise.^ Both microglia and astrocytes secrete IL-6 and TNF-alpha in the presence of the spirochete.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The spirochetes may also induce host cells to secrete products toxic to nerve cells, including quinolinic acid and the cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha, which can produce fatigue and malaise.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ [CD-57 cells] are down-regulated by so-called TH1 cytokines (such as IL-2, IFN gamma, TNF alpha).
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[65][66][67] .Both microglia and astrocytes secrete IL-6 and TNF-alpha in the presence of the spirochete.^ Both microglia and astrocytes secrete IL-6 and TNF-alpha in the presence of the spirochete.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ [CD-57 cells] are down-regulated by so-called TH1 cytokines (such as IL-2, IFN gamma, TNF alpha).
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The spirochetes may also induce host cells to secrete products toxic to nerve cells, including quinolinic acid and the cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha, which can produce fatigue and malaise.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[64][68] .This cytokine response may contribute to cognitive impairment.^ Chronic encephalomyelitis , which may be progressive, may involve cognitive impairment, weakness in the legs, awkward gait, facial palsy, bladder problems, vertigo , and back pain.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The variability of these symptoms suggests an episodic release of a endotoxin or cytokine which may contribute to the cognitive dysfunction.
  • Pensito Review » Politics Worst President Ever » Bush’s Doctors Kept Lyme Disease Secret for a Year; Is the Condition Why His Mind is Degenerating? 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.pensitoreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[69]
.A developing hypothesis is that the chronic secretion of stress hormones as a result of Borrelia infection may reduce the effect of neurotransmitters, or other receptors in the brain by cell-mediated pro-inflammatory pathways, thereby leading to the dysregulation of neurohormones, specifically glucocorticoids and catecholamines, the major stress hormones.^ A developing hypothesis is that the chronic secretion of stress hormones as a result of Borrelia infection may reduce the effect of neurotransmitters , or other receptors in the brain by cell-mediated pro-inflammatory pathways, thereby leading to the dysregulation of neurohormones, specifically glucocorticoids and catecholamines , the major stress hormones.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These immunological studies suggest that cell-mediated immune disruption in the Lyme patient amplifies the inflammatory process, often rendering it chronic and self-perpetuating, regardless of whether the Borrelia bacterium is still present in the host.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Research has found that chronic Lyme patients have higher amounts of Borrelia -specific forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) than healthy controls, indicating that regulatory T cells might also play a role, by immunosuppression , in the development of chronic Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[70][71] .This process is mediated via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.^ This process is mediated via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Gupta S, Aslakson E, Gurbaxani BM, Vernon SD. Inclusion of the glucocorticoid receptor in a hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis model reveals bistability.

^ HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY AXIS .

.Additionally tryptophan, a precursor to serotonin appears to be reduced within the central nervous system (CNS) in a number of infectious diseases that affect the brain, including Lyme.^ Lyme neuroborreliosis: central nervous system manifestations.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In late-stage disease, the central nervous system may be involved.

^ Halperin, JJ. Nervous system Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

[72] .Researchers are investigating if this neurohormone secretion is the cause of neuropsychiatric disorders developing in some patients with borreliosis.^ Researchers are investigating if this neurohormone secretion is the cause of neuropsychiatric disorders developing in some patients with borreliosis.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some experts theorize that co-infection with ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, or other tick-borne pathogens may be the cause of persistent symptoms in many of these patients.
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The I. Scapularis tick (Figure 3) is a potential pathogen vector that can cause coinfection and contribute to the variety of clinical responses noted in some tick-borne disease patients" (24).
  • Public Health Alert Newspaper - by Virginia T. Sherr, MD - Palsy of the Gut" and Other GI Manifestations of Lyme and Associated Diseases 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.publichealthalert.org [Source type: Academic]

[73]

Immunological studies

.It is possible that exposure to the Borrelia bacterium during Lyme disease causes a long-lived and damaging inflammatory response.^ The Lyme disease infection is caused by a spirochete called Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi.
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lyme disease during pregnancy.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These illnesses can be quite debilitating in a physical way; however, if the cause of the disease is psychiatric, treating them with antibiotics won't work in the long term.
  • Lyme disease---who is credible? : White Coat Underground 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[74] .This would be a form of pathogen-induced autoimmune disease.^ This would be a form of pathogen-induced autoimmune disease.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is the Th1 pathogens in the intraphagocytic microbiota The bacterial community which causes chronic diseases - one which almost certainly includes multiple species and bacterial forms.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I would suggest you focus on getting rid of the pathogens causing the disease.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .The production of this reaction might be due to a form of molecular mimicry, where Borrelia avoid being killed by the immune system by resembling normal parts of the body's tissues.^ A strong immune system will kill it.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://www.marshallprotocol.com/forum37/3139-1.html 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.marshallprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the same time period during which the organisms are being spread throughout the body to other tissues and cells.

^ At the molecular level, the BLPs cause a dysfunction in the immune system by triggering a complex imbalance of chemical immune mediators (cytokines).

[75][76] .It is therefore possible that if some chronic symptoms come from an autoimmune reaction, this could explain why some symptoms persist even after the spirochetes have been eliminated from the body.^ It is therefore possible that chronic symptoms could come from an autoimmune reaction, even after the spirochetes have been eliminated from the body.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Conversely, due to the possibility of symptoms being engendered by chemical mediators and autoimmune reactions by the host (against non-viable but immunoreactive DNA blebs), organ dysfunction and attendant symptoms can appear at sites removed from the actual spirochetes.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some experts theorize that co-infection with ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, or other tick-borne pathogens may be the cause of persistent symptoms in many of these patients.
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

.This hypothesis may explain chronic arthritis that persists after antibiotic therapy, similar to rheumatic fever, but its wider application is controversial.^ This hypothesis may explain chronic arthritis that persists after antibiotic therapy, but the wider application of this hypothesis is controversial.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi by polymerase chain reaction in synovial membrane, but not in synovial fluid from patients with persisting Lyme arthritis after antibiotic therapy.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ This test may be particularly useful in detecting Lyme disease in people who still have persistent symptoms after being treated with antibiotics.
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

[77][78]

Diagnosis

.Lyme disease is diagnosed clinically based on symptoms, objective physical findings (such as erythema migrans, facial palsy, or arthritis), a history of possible exposure to infected ticks, as well as serological blood tests.^ Facial nerve (Bell's) palsy is another neurological symptom of Lyme disease.

^ Lyme disease is diagnosed clinically based on history, clinical symptoms, and response to therapy.

^ Post-Lyme disease symptoms .
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

.When making a diagnosis of Lyme disease, health care providers should consider other diseases that may cause similar illness.^ Do other insects carry the spirochete which causes Lyme disease?
  • Lyme Disease | Stony Brook University Medical Center 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC sbumc.informatics.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Your health care provider may prescribe the following medications: .
  • Lyme disease 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Lyme disease is an illness caused by spirochete bacteria.
  • LymeSpot - Lyme Disease News & Information: September 2005 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC lymespot.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most but not all patients with Lyme disease will develop the characteristic bulls-eye rash, but many may not recall a tick bite.^ Lyme disease transmitted by a biting fly .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ File:Lymebite.png Characteristic "bulls-eye"-like rash caused by Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The disease is spread when the tick bites a human.
  • LymeSpot - Lyme Disease News & Information: September 2005 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC lymespot.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[79] .Laboratory testing is not recommended for persons who do not have symptoms of Lyme disease.^ Lyme disease is not transmitted from person to person.

^ Lyme Disease lyme-like disease Lyme Symptoms, But...
  • Lyme disease Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the results of blood tests for Lyme disease can vary from laboratory to laboratory.
  • Lyme disease symptoms and diagnosis 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

.Because of the difficulty in culturing Borrelia bacteria in the laboratory, diagnosis of Lyme disease is typically based on the clinical exam findings and a history of exposure to endemic Lyme areas.^ Lyme disease is diagnosed clinically based on history, clinical symptoms, and response to therapy.

^ "If you feel you have Lyme disease, you have to find a Lyme specialist because it is ultimately a clinical diagnosis."
  • LymeSpot - Lyme Disease News & Information: September 2005 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC lymespot.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diagnosis: Proper diagnosis of Lyme disease is important.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

[2] .The EM rash, which does not occur in all cases, is considered sufficient to establish a diagnosis of Lyme disease even when serologic blood tests are negative.^ In rare cases, Lyme disease can be fatal.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In summary, A negative blood test does not rule out a diagnosis of Lyme disease, particularly if symptoms strongly suggest its presence.
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lyme borreliosis—problems of serological diagnosis.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[80][81] .Serological testing can be used to support a clinically suspected case but is not diagnostic by itself.^ Serological testing can be used to support a clinically suspected case but is not diagnostic.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lyme disease specialists must use very keen clinical judgment when diagnosing cases of Lyme disease.

^ Some laboratories offer Lyme disease testing using assays whose accuracy and clinical usefulness have not been adequately established.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[2]
.Diagnosis of late-stage Lyme disease is often difficult because of the multi-faceted appearance which can mimic symptoms of many other diseases.^ Late-stage Lyme disease victims often do not notice and do not recall a rash.
  • Kaiser Permanente Lyme Disease Patient Information 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC lyme.kaiserpapers.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Lyme disease may be hard to diagnose because its symptoms are like those of many other illnesses.
  • CIGNA - Lyme Disease 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lyme Disease lyme-like disease Lyme Symptoms, But...
  • Lyme disease Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

.For this reason, a reviewer called Lyme the new "great imitator."^ Neurologic manifestations of Lyme disease, the new "great imitator".
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ CFSFMLD Lyme disease as "the new great imitator" on Yahoo Groups .
  • LymeBlog 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.lymeblog.com [Source type: General]
  • LymeBlog 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC lymeblog.com [Source type: General]

^ Lyme borreliosis: detecting the great imitator .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[82] .Lyme disease may be misdiagnosed as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), lupus, or other autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases.^ Many with this disease are diagnosed as having Fibromyalgia Syndrome, or Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have had Chronic Lyme Disease for twenty years.
  • Lyme disease---who is credible? : White Coat Underground 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A number of autoimmune diseases have chronic and low-level symptoms that may be confused with Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

Laboratory testing

.Several forms of laboratory testing for Lyme disease are available, some of which have not been adequately validated.^ However, the results of blood tests for Lyme disease can vary from laboratory to laboratory.
  • Lyme disease symptoms and diagnosis 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Diagnostic Tests for Lyme disease .
  • Lyme disease Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A blood test for Lyme disease was positive.
  • Lyme Disease: Arthritis by Infection 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most widely used tests are serologies, which measure levels of specific antibodies in a patient's blood.^ Measure blood levels when possible.

^ Measurement of specific antibody in the CSF also has its limitations.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ For most patients, standard antibody tests are preferred.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

.These tests may be negative in early infection, before the body has produced significant quantites of antibody, but they are considered a reliable aid in the diagnosis of later stages of Lyme disease.^ Treatment of early Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Stage 1 – Early localized infection .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These tests frequently are incorrectly negative.

[83]
.The serological laboratory tests most widely available and employed are the Western blot and ELISA.^ GFAp has been assayed by ELISA, Western Blot.

^ ELISA reactive, but not confirmed by Western Blot.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The serological laboratory tests most widely available and employed are the Western blot and ELISA .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.A two-tiered protocol is recommended by the CDC: the sensitive ELISA test is performed first, and if it is positive or equivocal then the more specific Western blot is run.^ GFAp has been assayed by ELISA, Western Blot.

^ ELISA reactive, but not confirmed by Western Blot.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ All I can say is I have had positive ELISA's and CDC positive Western Blots...what more do you need than that?
  • Lyme disease---who is credible? : White Coat Underground 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[84] .The reliability of testing in diagnosis remains controversial,[2] however studies show the Western blot IgM has a specificity of 94–96% for patients with clinical symptoms of early Lyme disease.^ IgM Western Blot was reactive .
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Clinically over 75% of patients with Lyme disease are negative by ELISA, but positive by Western blot.

^ Treatment of early Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

[85][86] .The initial ELISA test has a sensitivity of about 70%, and in two tiered testing the overall sensitivity is only 64% although this rises to 100% in the subset of people with disseminated symptoms, such as arthritis.^ A two-tiered protocol is recommended by the CDC : the more sensitive ELISA is performed first, if it is positive or equivocal, the more specific Western blot is run.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If only educated people and those familiar with the studies and the jargon were welcome here, PalMD would have required a registration process that involved resumes and such.
  • Lyme disease---who is credible? : White Coat Underground 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Treatment is not recommended for people who do not exhibit symptoms, even if they test positive for antibodies to A. phagocytophilum .
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

[87] .However, ELISA testing is typically done against region specific epitopes and may report a false negative if the patient has been infected with Borrelia from another region than that in which they are tested.^ Negative Borrelia-ELISA in CSF and serum .
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Research has found that chronic Lyme patients have higher amounts of Borrelia -specific forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) than healthy controls, indicating that regulatory T cells might also play a role, by immunosuppression , in the development of chronic Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In other words, once the Borrelia infects the endothelial cells, they stimulate vasculitis of the blood vessel.

[88]
.Erroneous test results have been widely reported in both early and late stages of the disease.^ Fatigue is a prominent feature of both early and late stages.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Erroneous test results have been widely reported in both early and late stages of the disease.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ But, erroneous test results have been widely reported in both early and late stages of the disease.
  • Medical Library and Physician's Directory, Health Information - Lyme Disease 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.medical-library.net [Source type: Academic]

.These errors can be caused by several factors, including antibody cross-reactions from other infections including Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus,[89] as well as herpes simplex virus.^ These errors can be caused by several factors, including antibody cross-reactions from other infections including Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus , [52] as well as herpes simplex virus .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus infections cause false-positive results in IgM two-test protocol for early Lyme borreliosis.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Congenital transmission can cause miscarriages, severe neurological disabilities, or other major system dysfunctions to the baby.

[90] .The overall rate of false positives is low, only about 1 to 3%, in comparison to a false negative rate of up to 36% using two tiered testing.^ ELISA testing is a screen test and can pick up false positives.

^ Either false positive and false negative results are common with these tests.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A two-tiered protocol is recommended by the CDC : the more sensitive ELISA is performed first, if it is positive or equivocal, the more specific Western blot is run.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[87]
.Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for Lyme disease have also been developed to detect the genetic material (DNA) of the Lyme disease spirochete.^ Electron microscopy and the polymerase chain reaction of spirochetes from the blood of patients with Lyme disease.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ False-positive results of PCR testing for Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A CSF specimen for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was taken."
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

.PCR tests are susceptible to false-positive results from poor laboratory technique.^ Positive test results .
  • eLCOSH : Lyme Disease 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.elcosh.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The test also has a high risk of false-positive results.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This decreases the number of false-positive results.
  • Diagnosis of Lyme Disease - July 15, 2005 - American Family Physician 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

[91] .Even when properly performed, PCR often shows false-negative results with blood and CSF specimens.^ Even when properly performed, PCR often shows false-negative results with blood and CSF specimens.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ False positive results and false negative results are common.
  • HyperbaricsRx - An Overview of Lyme Disease and Hyperbaric Oxygen (HBO) Therapy 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.hyperbaricsrx.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The essential problem with PCR testing for Borrelia DNA is the propensity for false negatives due to poor handling, the relative time consuming and expensive nature of the test and so on.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Lyme disease—who is credible? 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[92] .Hence PCR is not widely performed for diagnosis of Lyme disease.^ "Lyme disease is a problematic diagnosis.
  • Kaiser Permanente Lyme Disease Patient Information 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC lyme.kaiserpapers.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Laboratory evaluation in the diagnosis of Lyme disease.
  • Borrelien 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.neuro24.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Hence PCR is not widely performed for diagnosis of Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.However PCR may have a role in diagnosis of Lyme arthritis because it is a highly sensitive way of detecting ospA DNA in synovial fluid.^ However PCR may have a role in diagnosis of Lyme arthritis because it is highly sensitive in detecting ospA DNA in synovial fluid.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Role of serology in the diagnosis of Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ CONCLUSIONS. PCR testing can detect B. burgdorferi DNA in synovial fluid.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

[93] .With the exception of PCR, there is currently no practical means for detecting the presence of the organism, as serologic studies only test for antibodies of Borrelia.^ Because the two antibodies are different, there are two separate tests to detect their presence.
  • LymeSpot - Lyme Disease News & Information: September 2005 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC lymespot.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is currently no laboratory test that is definitive for Lyme disease.

^ With the exception of PCR, there is no currently practical means for detection of the presence of the organism, as serologic studies only test for antibodies of Borrelia .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.High titers of either immunoglobulin G (IgG) or immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to Borrelia antigens indicate disease, but lower titers can be misleading.^ Serum Borrelia IgG and IgM negative .
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The second antibody we make after the IgM is the IgG antibody.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://www.marshallprotocol.com/forum37/3139-1.html 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.marshallprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High titers of either immunoglobulin G (IgG) or immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to Borrelia antigens indicate disease, but lower titers can be misleading.
  • Medical Library and Physician's Directory, Health Information - Lyme Disease 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.medical-library.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.This is because the IgM antibodies may remain after the initial infection, and IgG antibodies may remain for years.^ The IgM antibodies may remain after the initial infection, and IgG antibodies may remain for years.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The second antibody we make after the IgM is the IgG antibody.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://www.marshallprotocol.com/forum37/3139-1.html 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.marshallprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If infection persists, this antibody may also persist.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://www.marshallprotocol.com/forum37/3139-1.html 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.marshallprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[94]
.Western blot, ELISA and PCR can be performed by either blood test via venipuncture or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via lumbar puncture.^ Western blot, ELISA and PCR can be performed by either blood test via venipuncture or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via lumbar puncture .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ GFAp has been assayed by ELISA, Western Blot.

^ ELISA reactive, but not confirmed by Western Blot.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

.Though lumbar puncture is more definitive of diagnosis, antigen capture in the CSF is much more elusive; reportedly CSF yields positive results in only 10–30% of patients cultured.^ CSF lumbar puncture Myelogram results, can anyone tell me what this means?
  • The Neurology Support Forum Archive 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ OspA antigen capture assay in CSF was strongly positive.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Though lumbar puncture is more definitive of diagnosis, antigen capture in the CSF is much more elusive; reportedly CSF yields positive results in only 10–30% of patients cultured.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The diagnosis of neurologic infection by Borrelia should not be excluded solely on the basis of normal routine CSF or negative CSF antibody analyses.^ Since CSF antigen implies intrathecal seeding of the infection, the diagnosis of neurologic infection by B burgdorferi should not be excluded solely on the basis of normal routine CSF or negative CSF antibody analyses.
  • immunecx.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.lymenet.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Negative Borrelia-ELISA in CSF and serum .
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ CSF normal, neg.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

[95]
.New techniques for clinical testing of Borrelia infection have been developed, such as LTT-MELISA,[96] which is capable of identifying the active form of Borrelia infection (Lyme disease).^ The early clinical manifestations of Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ HLA tests for Lyme disease .
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clinically over 75% of patients with Lyme disease are negative by ELISA, but positive by Western blot.

.Others, such as focus floating microscopy, are under investigation.^ Others, such as focus floating microscopy , are under investigation.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Unfortunately, levofloxacin and drugs in this family cannot be given to those under the age of 18, so other alternatives, such as azithromycin, are used in children.

^ Focus floating microscopy: "gold standard" for cutaneous borreliosis?

[97] .New research indicates chemokine CXCL13 may also be a possible marker for neuroborreliosis.^ A new animal study indicates that consuming blueberries may reduce the severity of Alzheimer’s and other cognitive disorders.
  • NewsLetter 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.vrp.com [Source type: Academic]
  • NewsLetter 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.cpmedical.net [Source type: Academic]

[98]
.Some laboratories offer Lyme disease testing using assays whose accuracy and clinical usefulness have not been adequately established.^ Lyme antibody tests were repeated at North American Clinical Laboratories.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Stop using the term “Lyme disease”.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some laboratories offer Lyme disease testing using assays whose accuracy and clinical usefulness have not been adequately established.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.These tests include urine antigen tests, PCR tests on urine, immunofluorescent staining for cell wall-deficient forms of Borrelia burgdorferi, and lymphocyte transformation tests.^ These tests include urine antigen tests, immunofluorescent staining for cell wall-deficient forms of Borrelia burgdorferi, and lymphocyte transformation tests.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They include persistence of B. burgdorferi in protective niches, inhibition and lysis of lymphocytes, survival in phagocytic vacuoles, antigenic shifts, slow growth, shifting into alternate forms, and dormancy and latency.

^ Immunofluorescence tests for Borrelia burgdorferi serum antibodies gave positive results , but G-penicillin treatment was ineffective .
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

The CDC does not recommend these tests and a 2005 review by Aguero-Rosenfeld et al. in Clinical Microbiology Reviews stated that their use is "of great concern and is strongly discouraged".[92]

Imaging

.Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has been used to look for cerebral hypoperfusion indicative of Lyme encephalitis in the patient.^ Reversible cerebral hypoperfusion in Lyme encephalopathy.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has been used to look for cerebral hypoperfusion indicative of Lyme encephalitis in the patient.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The presence of global cerebral hypoperfusion deficits on SPECT in the presence of characteristic neuropsychiatric features should dramatically raise suspicion for Lyme encephalopathy among patients who inhabit or have traveled to endemic areas, regardless of patient recall of tick bites.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[99] .Although SPECT is not a diagnostic tool itself, it may be a useful method of determining brain function.^ Although SPECT is not a diagnostic tool itself, it may be a useful method of determining brain function.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One camp postulates that long-term antibiotic use may be as devastating to the body as the disease itself; in my case, I agree.
  • MBB List of Lyme Disease Resources 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.marybyrdbrown.com [Source type: General]

^ Without the diagnostic tools necessary to determine the existence of chronic infection, no answer to the antibiotic enigma seems impending, and many patients are suffering in the process.
  • The Dirty Truth About Lyme Disease Research 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Lyme disease patients, cerebral hypoperfusion of frontal subcortical and cortical structures has been reported.^ Patient Surveys for Lyme disease .
  • Lyme disease Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reversible cerebral hypoperfusion in Lyme encephalopathy.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lyme disease is reported primarily in whites.
  • Lyme Disease: eMedicine Rheumatology 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[100] .In about 70% of chronic Lyme disease patients with cognitive symptoms, brain SPECT scans typically reveal a pattern of global hypoperfusion in a heterogeneous distribution through the white matter.^ Patients presenting with symptoms associated with Lyme disease Patients diagnosed with Lyme disease .
  • NGC - NGC Summary 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.guideline.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Readers write about Lyme brain .

^ Brain perfusion SPECT in Lyme neuroborreliosis.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[101] .This pattern is not specific for Lyme disease, since it can also be seen in other central nervous system (CNS) syndromes such as HIV encephalopathy, viral encephalopathy, chronic cocaine use, and vasculitides.^ Stop using the term “Lyme disease”.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lyme neuroborreliosis: central nervous system manifestations.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Stop using the term "Lyme disease".
  • http://www.marshallprotocol.com/forum37/3139-1.html 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.marshallprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, most of these syndromes can be ruled out easily through standard serologic testing and careful patient history taking.^ However, most of these syndromes can be ruled out easily through standard serologic testing and careful patient history taking.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some reports indicate that transmission may not be likely by these other tick vectors; however, so many Bb strains that have been identified through molecular testing methods have not yet been cultured, thus have not yet been investigated.
  • Georgia Lyme Disease Association - Lyme disease  28 January 2010 0:22 UTC georgialymedisease.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Such a diagnosis would be based on the history of a tick bite or exposure to an environment that could result in the tick bite, the patient's symptoms, a thorough ruling out of other diseases that might cause those symptoms, and other implicating evidence.

.The presence of global cerebral hypoperfusion deficits on SPECT in the presence of characteristic neuropsychiatric features should dramatically raise suspicion for Lyme encephalopathy among patients who inhabit or have traveled to endemic areas, regardless of patient recall of tick bites.^ Lyme disease is transmitted by tick bite.
  • Wing-N-Wave Labradors Lyme 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.labbies.com [Source type: Academic]

^ She does not recall a tick bite but had exposure to ticks.
  • LymeNet - Neurologic Manifestations of Lyme Disease in Children 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC library.lymenet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reversible cerebral hypoperfusion in Lyme encephalopathy.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.August 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Late disease can occur many years after initial infection.^ Late disease can occur many years after initial infection.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Late Lyme disease occurs months to years after the tick bite.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Late Lyme disease may develop months to a few years after the initial infection.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

.The average time from symptom onset to diagnosis in these patients is about 4 years.^ The average time from symptom onset to diagnosis in these patients is about 4 years.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The incubation period from infection to the onset of symptoms is usually 1-2 weeks, but is some cases this can be months or Years after the initial Tick Bite occured.
  • Lime Disease 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ So in 1985, we were able to successfully treat a patient who had obviously been ill for three years with the diagnosis being missed in 1982 when he had the tick bite and the rash.
  • LymeNet - Neurologic Manifestations of Lyme Disease in Children 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC library.lymenet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because seronegative disease can occur, and because CSF testing is often normal, Lyme encephalopathy often becomes a diagnosis of exclusion: once all other possibilities are ruled out, Lyme encephalopathy becomes ruled in.^ Laboratory Investigations No test can completely rule out Lyme Disease.
  • Lyme Disease Treatment | Lyme Disease Natural Cure | Symptoms Lyme Disease Rash Alternative Medicine, Remedies 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tests and diagnosis Lyme disease is frequently overdiagnosed.
  • Lyme disease 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • OhioHealth - Lyme disease 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Lyme disease 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC sidebar.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Lyme disease 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC premium.asia.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Lyme disease 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.cnnstudentnews.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Lyme disease 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC quiz.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A diagnosis of Lyme disease is still a diagnosis of exclusion.
  • Update on canine Lyme disease 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.dogstuff.info [Source type: Academic]

.Although the aberrant SPECT patterns are caused by cerebral vasculitis, brain biopsy is not commonly performed for these cases as it may be for other types of cerebral vasculitis.^ Although the aberrant SPECT patterns are caused by cerebral vasculitis, a vasculitide, brain biopsy is not commonly performed for these cases as opposed to other types of cerebral vasculitis.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, when we look at psychological problems of neuroborreliosis, its clear that the cause of these symptoms arise from BLPs triggering encephalitis and that this inflammation not only causes imbalances in numerous neurotransmitters, it also causes vasculitis which leads to hypoperfusion and hypoxia of the brain.

^ Borreliosis may actually cause many cases of sarcoidosis.

.Abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings are often seen in both early and late Lyme disease.^ Treatment of early Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatment of early manifestations of Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reinfection and relapse in early Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.August 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] MRI scans of patients with neurologic Lyme disease may demonstrate punctuated white matter lesions on T2-weighted images, similar to those seen in demyelinating or inflammatory disorders such as multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), or cerebrovascular disease.^ Musculoskeletal and neurologic outcomes in patients with previously treated Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ January 2010 December 2009 November 2009 October 2009 September 2009 August 2009 July 2009 June 2009 May 2009 April 2009 March 2009 February 2009 January 2009 January 2008 November 2007 Blogroll .
  • Lyme disease---who is credible? : White Coat Underground 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Physicians not familiar with the complex clinical presentation of Lyme disease frequently misdiagnose it as other disorders such as: Fibromyalgia or Chronic Fatigue Immune Dysfunction Syndrome (CFIDS), Multiple Sclerosis, Lupus, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Motor Neuron Disease (ALS, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis -Lou Gherig's disease), Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Syndrome (MCS) and numerous other psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety.

[102] .Cerebral atrophy and brainstem neoplasm has been indicated with Lyme infection as well.^ Indicators of BLO infection include CNS symptoms out of proportion to the other systemic symptoms of chronic Lyme.

^ Lyme disease is usually a "fairly trivial" infection that responds well to treatment, Treadwell said.
  • LymeSpot - Lyme Disease News & Information: September 2005 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC lymespot.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[103]
.Diffuse white matter pathology can disrupt these ubiquitous gray matter connections and could account for deficits in attention, memory, visuospatial ability, complex cognition, and emotional status.^ In subcortical and periventricular white matter, diffuse demyelination with mild perivascular inflammation was seen (Fig.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

.White matter disease may have a greater potential for recovery than gray matter disease, perhaps because neuronal loss is less common.^ Lyme disease is predominately a disease of the white matter, while Alzheimer’s is predominately a disease of the gray matter.
  • Pensito Review » Politics Worst President Ever » Bush’s Doctors Kept Lyme Disease Secret for a Year; Is the Condition Why His Mind is Degenerating? 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.pensitoreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ White matter disease may have a greater potential for recovery than gray matter disease, perhaps because neuronal loss is less common.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Spontaneous remission can occur in multiple sclerosis, and resolution of MRI white matter hyper-intensities, after antibiotic treatment, has been observed in Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Spontaneous remission can occur in multiple sclerosis, and resolution of MRI white matter hyper-intensities, after antibiotic treatment, has been observed in Lyme disease.^ Antibiotic treatment is the current treatment of choice for Lyme disease.
  • Wing-N-Wave Labradors Lyme 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.labbies.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatment of early Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Prevention and treatment are the same as Lyme disease.
  • Ticks, Lyme Disease and Bluebirding 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.sialis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[104]

Prevention

.Attached ticks should be removed promptly, as removal within 36 hours can reduce transmission rates to close to zero.^ Ticks should be removed carefully with tweezers.
  • LymeSpot - Lyme Disease News & Information: September 2005 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC lymespot.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Attached ticks should be removed promptly.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Data have demonstrated that prompt removal of an infected tick, within approximately 36 hours, reduces the risk of transmission to nearly zero; however the small size of the tick, especially in the nymph stage, may make detection difficult.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[105] .Protective clothing includes a hat and long-sleeved shirts and long trousers that are tucked into socks or boots.^ Protective clothing includes a hat and long-sleeved shirts and long pants that are tucked into socks or boots.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ To prevent infection, wear light-colored clothes, tuck pants into socks and wear closed-toe shoes when walking in brush-covered areas.
  • LymeSpot - Lyme Disease News & Information: September 2005 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC lymespot.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CLOTHING When wearing long pants, tuck the cuffs into the socks so any ticks that get on shoes or socks will crawl on the outside of the pants and be less likely to bite.
  • LymeNet - Advanced Topics in Lyme Disease (2000 Burrascano Treatment Guidelines) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www2.lymenet.org [Source type: Academic]

.Light-colored clothing makes the tick more easily visible before it attaches itself.^ Keep in mind that it is easier to spot ticks on light-colored clothes.
  • CIGNA - Lyme Disease 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, light colored clothing should be worn so the ticks will be easier to spot.
  • LymeNet - Advanced Topics in Lyme Disease (2000 Burrascano Treatment Guidelines) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www2.lymenet.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Info Packet 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.lymeiniowa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ticks attach easily to bare flesh.
  • Lyme disease 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • OhioHealth - Lyme disease 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Lyme disease 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC sidebar.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Lyme disease 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC premium.asia.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Lyme disease 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.cnnstudentnews.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Lyme disease 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC quiz.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.People should use special care in handling and allowing outdoor pets inside homes because they can bring ticks into the house.^ In addition, a pet can carry ticks into the house.
  • Lyme Disease -The Facts, The Challenge 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.kidsource.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They can bring infected ticks into the house.
  • CIGNA - Lyme Disease 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But your pet can bring infected ticks inside.
  • CIGNA - Lyme Disease 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A more effective, community wide method of preventing Lyme disease is to reduce the numbers of primary hosts on which the deer tick depends such as rodents, other small mammals, and deer.^ Lyme disease is transmitted by tick bite.
  • Wing-N-Wave Labradors Lyme 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.labbies.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lyme disease is transmitted by the bite of a deer tick .
  • Lyme disease - chronic persistent - Scripps Health - San Diego 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.scripps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Prevention and treatment are the same as Lyme disease.
  • Ticks, Lyme Disease and Bluebirding 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.sialis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Reduction of the deer population may over time help break the reproductive cycle of the deer ticks and their ability to flourish in suburban and rural areas.^ Reduction of the deer population may over time help break the reproductive cycle of the deer ticks and their ability to flourish in suburban and rural areas.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This reproductive cycle may vary from species to species.
  • HyperbaricsRx - An Overview of Lyme Disease and Hyperbaric Oxygen (HBO) Therapy 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.hyperbaricsrx.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Lyme Disease and HBO Therapy 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.hbotoday.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The ticks may be found in rural, suburban, and, less frequently, urban areas.
  • CIGNA - Lyme Disease 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: Academic]

[106]
.An unusual, organic approach to control of ticks and prevention of Lyme disease involves the use of domesticated guineafowl.^ The prevention of Lyme disease with vaccine .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Stop using the term “Lyme disease”.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An unusual, organic approach to control of ticks and prevention of Lyme disease involves the use of domesticated guineafowl .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Guineafowl are voracious consumers of insects and arachnids and have a particular fondness for ticks.^ Ticks are not insects; they are 8-legged arachnids along with chiggers, spiders, and mites.

.Localized use of domesticated guineafowl may reduce dependence on chemical pest-control methods.^ In addition to serologic test methods, analysis of synovial fluid using PCR may be decisive for making the final diagnosis of LA. .
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

[107]

Management of host animals

.Lyme and all other deer-tick-borne diseases can be prevented on a regional level by reducing the deer population that the ticks depend on for reproductive success.^ The prevention of Lyme disease with vaccine .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lyme disease is transmitted by tick bite.
  • Wing-N-Wave Labradors Lyme 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.labbies.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Prevention and treatment are the same as Lyme disease.
  • Ticks, Lyme Disease and Bluebirding 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.sialis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This has been demonstrated in the communities of Monhegan, Maine[108] and in Mumford Cove, Connecticut.[109] .The black-legged or deer tick (Ixodes scapularis) depends on the white-tailed deer for successful reproduction.^ Deer ticks ( Ixodes sp .
  • Ticks, Lyme Disease and Bluebirding 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.sialis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Right is the Ixodes scapularis (black-legged tick) larva, adult, and nymph.

^ The disease is transmitted primarily by a deer tick (Ixodes scapularis.
  • Lyme Disease | Stony Brook University Medical Center 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC sbumc.informatics.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, in the US, it is suggested that by reducing the deer population to levels of 8 to 10 per square mile (from the current levels of 60 or more deer per square mile in the areas of the country with the highest Lyme disease rates), the tick numbers can be brought down to levels too low to spread Lyme and other tick-borne diseases.^ Lyme disease is, of course, spread to humans by ticks.
  • Tale of the Tick: How Lyme Disease is Expanding Northward | Northern Woodlands Magazine 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC northernwoodlands.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lyme disease vaccine does not provide protection against other tick-borne diseases.
  • Prevention of Lyme Disease -- Committee on Infectious Diseases 105 (1): 142 -- AAP Policy 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC aappolicy.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Lyme and tick borne infections are not alone in making us miserable.
  • Ticked Off | Cover Story | News and Opinion | Philadelphia Weekly 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.philadelphiaweekly.com [Source type: General]

[110] .However, such a drastic reduction may be impractical in many areas.^ However, such a drastic reduction may be impractical in many areas.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sometimes, however, the symptoms may be quite severe, such that the patient may be bedridden due to intractable fatigue.
  • Neurological Manifestations Of Lyme Disease, Part II 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients may, however, benefit from a trial on tricyclic medications such as Elavil and, of course, NSAIDS are used frequently.
  • LymeNet - Neurologic Manifestations of Lyme Disease in Children 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC library.lymenet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Vaccination

.A recombinant vaccine against Lyme disease, based on the outer surface protein A (OspA) of B. burgdorferi, was developed by GlaxoSmithKline.^ Polyclonal antisera from patients with Lyme disease and monoclonal antibodies against outer surface protein A (OspA) and flagellin (the latter kindly provided by M. D. Kramer, Institute of Immunology and Serology, University of Heidelberg, Germany) were used to compare the isolated spirochete LW2 and the B burgdorferi strain PKo 2-85 by immunoblot.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ They are often a structural part of the borrelia cell membrane and can be found within the outer surface proteins of borrelia.

^ A study of patients enrolled in a Lyme vaccine trial addressed the question of the prevalence of early Lyme disease in patients lacking an EM lesion.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

.In clinical trials involving more than 10,000 people, the vaccine, called LYMErix, was found to confer protective immunity to Borrelia in 76% of adults and 100% of children with only mild or moderate and transient adverse effects.^ Clinically more effective than azithromycin .

^ Or, even some other borrelia is involved other than borrelia lonestari?
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ADHD is a syndrome characterized by inability to focus attention and/or periods of hyperactivity, more commonly exhibited in children, but also affecting adults as well.
  • NewsLetter 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.vrp.com [Source type: Academic]
  • NewsLetter 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.cpmedical.net [Source type: Academic]

[111] LYMErix was approved on the basis of these trials by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on December 21, 1998.
.Following approval of the vaccine, its entry in clinical practice was slow for a variety of reasons including its cost, which was often not reimbursed by insurance companies.^ Following approval of the vaccine, its entry in clinical practice was slower than expected for a variety of reasons including its cost, which was often not reimbursed by insurance companies.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The near-death odyssey cost her insurance company $400,000.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You will need to file with your insurance company for reimbursement.

[112] .Subsequently, hundreds of vaccine recipients reported that they had developed autoimmune side effects.^ Subsequently, hundreds of vaccine recipients reported that they had developed autoimmune side effects.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Effective and safe vaccines using recombinant outer surface protein A have been developed, but have not been propagated because of fears that autoimmunity might be induced.
  • Stop The Thyroid Madness » LYME DISEASE and its connection to THYROID/ADRENAL PROBLEMS 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.stopthethyroidmadness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No serious permanent side effects are known to be associated with the vaccine.

.Supported by some patient advocacy groups, a number of class-action lawsuits were filed against GlaxoSmithKline alleging that the vaccine had caused these health problems.^ Interestingly, in a significant number of these patients, .

^ Supported by some patient advocacy groups, a number of class-action lawsuits were filed against GlaxoSmithKline alleging that the vaccine had caused these health problems.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antecedent or concomitant factors which can cause symptoms and physical changes de novo or aggravate contemporary problems are reliably solicited on close questioning of LD patients.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These claims were investigated by the FDA and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC), who found no connection between the vaccine and the autoimmune complaints.^ These claims were investigated by the FDA and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC), who found no connection between the vaccine and the autoimmune complaints.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sites found to be good sources of accurate information in this study included those of the American College of Physicians , the Centers for Disease Control , the Food and Drug Administration , and Johns Hopkins University (www.hopkins-arthritis.org).
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Centers for Disease Control (CDC)'s emerging infections diseases department did a study in rural New Jersey of 100 ticks and found that 55% of the ticks were infected with at least one of the pathogens.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[113]
.Despite the lack of evidence that the complaints were caused by the vaccine, sales plummeted and LYMErix was withdrawn from the U.S. market by GlaxoSmithKline in February 2002,[114] in the setting of negative media coverage and fears of vaccine side effects.^ Despite the lack of evidence that the complaints were caused by the vaccine, sales plummeted and LYMErix was withdrawn from the U.S. market by GlaxoSmithKline in February 2002 [77] in the setting of negative media coverage and fears of vaccine side effects.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is, however, one side effect that would require it to be stopped- it may cause a painful tendonitis, usually of the largest tendons.

^ Sole Lyme Vaccine Is Pulled Off Market , published in the New York Times on February 28, 2002; accessed July 11, 2008.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[113][115] The fate of LYMErix was described in the medical literature as a "cautionary tale";[115] an editorial in Nature cited the withdrawal of LYMErix as an instance in which "unfounded public fears place pressures on vaccine developers that go beyond reasonable safety considerations."[116] The original developer of the OspA vaccine at the Max Planck Institute told Nature: "This just shows how irrational the world can be... .There was no scientific justification for the first OspA vaccine [LYMErix] being pulled."^ There was no scientific justification for the first OspA vaccine [LYMErix] being pulled."
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is no available vaccine for humans.
  • Ticks, Lyme Disease and Bluebirding 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.sialis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are also no documented and verified cases of Lyme being passed through other body fluids.
  • Lyme disease ? | Fodorite Lounge Forum | Fodor's Travel Talk Forums 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.fodors.com [Source type: General]

[113]
.New vaccines are being researched using outer surface protein C (OspC) and glycolipoprotein as methods of immunization.^ They are often a structural part of the borrelia cell membrane and can be found within the outer surface proteins of borrelia.

^ The samples were tested in two separate laboratories with four sets of primers and probes, three of which target plasmid DNA that encodes outer-surface protein A (OspA).
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Killing of Borrelia burgdorferi by macrophages is dependent on oxygen radicals and nitric oxide and can be enhanced by antibodies to outer surface proteins of the spirochete.

[117][118]
Vaccines are available for dogs.[119]

Tick removal

.Folk remedies for tick removal tend to be ineffective, offer no advantages in preventing the transfer of disease, and may increase the risks of transmission or infection.^ Such practices increase the risk of disease transmission.

^ Data have demonstrated that prompt removal of an infected tick, within approximately 36 hours, reduces the risk of transmission to nearly zero; however the small size of the tick, especially in the nymph stage, may make detection difficult.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Transmission is relatively rare, with only about 1% of recognized tick bites resulting in Lyme disease: this may be due to the fact that an infected tick has to be attached for at least a day for transmission to occur.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Generally, the recommended method to is to simply pull the tick straight out with tweezers, without twisting.^ Many old wives' tales exist about the proper and effective method to remove a tick, however it is generally agreed that the most effective method is to pull it straight out with tweezers.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[120] .Data suggests that the prompt removal of an infected tick, within approximately 24 hours, reduces the risk of transmission to nearly zero; however the small size of the tick, especially in the nymph stage, may make detection difficult.^ During the nymph stage the tick is the size of a poppy seed.

^ After a tick bite, Bb undergoes rapid hematogenous dissemination, and for example, can be found within the central nervous system as soon as twelve hours after entering the bloodstream.

^ Since it is believed that a tick needs to be on your skin for at least 24 hours before spreading the disease, this prevention could save you in the long run.

[105]

Treatment

.Antibiotics are the primary treatment for Lyme disease; the most appropriate antibiotic treatment depends upon the patient and the stage of the disease.^ Not everyone approves of massive antibiotic treatment for Lyme disease.

^ Antibiotic treatment is the central pillar in the management of Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatment of the early manifestations of Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[2] .The antibiotics of choice are doxycycline (in adults), amoxicillin (in children), erythromycin (for pregnant women) and ceftriaxone, with treatment lasting 14 to 28 days.^ Adults: Oral therapy for 28 days.

^ Treated with ceftriaxone 2g/day for 14 days.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ In two studies, antibiotic treatment with amoxicillin or doxycycline for 30 days failed to eliminate persistent infection in 11 dogs.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

[121] .Alternative choices are cefuroxime and cefotaxime.^ Alternative choices are cefuroxime and cefotaxime .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[2] .Treatment of pregnant women is similar, but tetracycline should not be used.^ Nothing contained in this site is or should be considered, or used as a substitute for, medical advice, diagnosis or treatment by your physician.
  • http://www.marshallprotocol.com/forum37/3139-1.html 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.marshallprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, it is important to note that women who are either pregnant or expect to become pregnant should not use quercetin.
  • NewsLetter 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.vrp.com [Source type: Academic]

[121]
.A double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter clinical study indicated that 3 weeks of treatment with intravenous ceftriaxone, followed by 100 days of treatment with oral amoxicillin did not improve symptoms any more than just 3 weeks of treatment with ceftriaxone.^ Clinically more effective than azithromycin .

^ A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of supplementation with highly unsaturated fatty acids on ADHD-related symptoms in children with specific learning difficulties.
  • NewsLetter 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.vrp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The study demonstrated significantly decreased fatigue in the treatment group compared to the placebo group.16 Additionally, a second study evaluated students during examinations with supplementation of Rhodiola.
  • NewsLetter 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.vrp.com [Source type: Academic]

.The researchers noted that the outcome should not be evaluated after the initial antibiotic treatment but rather 6–12 months afterwards.^ None of these seven patients had received more than two months of oral antibiotic treatment or more than three weeks of intravenous antibiotic treatment.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ I'm reading from your posts that you (and your doctor) are not sure your body can recover from the damage that has been done over the course of your illness and the 12 years of antibiotic treatments you have already been through.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://www.marshallprotocol.com/forum37/3139-1.html 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.marshallprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two months after treatment, Bb was again isolated from the CSF. Four months after the initial therapy, the symptoms persisted and, in addition, monoarthritis developed.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

.In patients with chronic post-treatment symptoms, persistent positive levels of antibodies did not seem to provide any useful information for further care of the patient.^ Again, if this is true, it has serious consequences for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic, persistent symptoms.
  • HyperbaricsRx - An Overview of Lyme Disease and Hyperbaric Oxygen (HBO) Therapy 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.hyperbaricsrx.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Lyme Disease and HBO Therapy 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.hbotoday.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In patients with chronic post-treatment symptoms, persistent positive levels of antibodies did not seem to provide any useful information for further care of the patient.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Post-Lyme disease symptoms and "chronic Lyme disease" .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[122]
.In later stages, the bacteria disseminate throughout the body and may cross the blood-brain barrier, making the infection more difficult to treat.^ In later stages, the bacteria disseminate throughout the body and may cross the blood-brain barrier , making the infection more difficult to treat.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In later stages, the bacteria disseminate throughout the body and may cross the blood-brain barrier, making the infection more difficult to treat.
  • Lyme Disease Treatment | Lyme Disease Natural Cure | Symptoms Lyme Disease Rash Alternative Medicine, Remedies 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More difficult to treat 8.

.Late diagnosed Lyme is treated with oral or IV antibiotics, frequently ceftriaxone for a minimum of four weeks.^ When Lyme disease is diagnosed, it is normally treated with antibiotics.
  • NewsLetter 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.vrp.com [Source type: Academic]
  • NewsLetter 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.cpmedical.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Co-trimoxazole works well in late stage Lyme disease, especially when given in combination with other antibiotics like amoxcilliln and/or a macrolide such as azithromycin.

^ Typically, a three-week course is prescribed for acute cases, while chronic, longstanding infections with significant morbidity and co-infection will require a minimum of four months of therapy.

.Minocycline is also indicated for neuroborreliosis for its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier.^ L-Theanine crosses the blood-brain barrier and produces a feeling of relaxation with heightened awareness, reduces both mental and physical stress and supports the immune system.
  • NewsLetter 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.vrp.com [Source type: Academic]

[123]

Post-Lyme disease symptoms and "chronic" Lyme disease

.The term "chronic Lyme disease" is often applied to several different sets of patients.^ Chronic Lyme disease is often a life-long illness.

^ Stop using the term “Lyme disease”.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A critical appraisal of "chronic Lyme disease".
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.One usage refers to people with the symptoms of untreated and desseminated late-stage Lyme disease who are suffering from the symptoms of this stage of the disease: these are arthritis, peripheral neuropathy and/or encephalomyelitis.^ There are early and late stages of the disease.

^ Laboratory testing is not recommended for persons who do not have symptoms of Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Post-Lyme disease symptoms and "chronic Lyme disease" .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The term is also applied to people who have had the disease in the past and some symptoms remain after antibiotic treatment, this is also called post-Lyme disease syndrome.^ Stop using the term “Lyme disease”.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Post Treatment Lyme Disease is successfully treated with the Marshall Protocol: .
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not everyone approves of massive antibiotic treatment for Lyme disease.

.A third and controversial use of the term applies to patients with non-specific symptoms such as fatigue who show no objective evidence that they have been infected with Lyme disease in the past, since the standard diagnostic tests for infection are negative.^ HLA tests for Lyme disease .
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stop using the term “Lyme disease”.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is currently no laboratory test that is definitive for Lyme disease.

[13]
.Up to one third of Lyme disease patients who have completed a course of antibiotic treatment continue to have symptoms such as severe fatigue, sleep disturbance, and cognitive difficulties, with these symptoms being severe in about 2% of cases.^ Info published about Lyme disease is not up-to-date .
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not everyone approves of massive antibiotic treatment for Lyme disease.
  • NewsLetter 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.vrp.com [Source type: Academic]
  • NewsLetter 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.cpmedical.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Antimicrobial Therapy: The Conventional Treatment -- Antibiotics are the foundation of conventional Lyme disease therapy.

[5][124] .While it is undisputed that these patients can have severe symptoms, the cause of these symptoms and appropriate treatment is controversial.^ "In 5%–23% of patients with early Lyme borreliosis, there can be gastrointestinal symptoms such as anorexia, nausea, vomiting, severe abdominal pain, hepatitis, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly.

^ These symptoms are consistent with hypothyroidism caused by iodine deficiency.
  • NewsLetter 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.vrp.com [Source type: Academic]
  • NewsLetter 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.cpmedical.net [Source type: Academic]

^ None of these seven patients had received more than two months of oral antibiotic treatment or more than three weeks of intravenous antibiotic treatment.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

.The symptoms may represent "for all intents and purposes" fibromyalgia/chronic fatigue syndrome.^ Many with this disease are diagnosed as having Fibromyalgia Syndrome, or Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://www.marshallprotocol.com/forum37/3139-1.html 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.marshallprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand, offensive as it may be to tell someone that "it's all in your head", that doesn't mean that every patient who complains of vague symptoms has disease.
  • Lyme disease---who is credible? : White Coat Underground 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prior to proper diagnosis, patients habitually report that they were assigned the following diagnoses most often: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Multiple Sclerosis, Fibromyalgia , Lupus, Candidiasis, Chronic mononucleosis, Hypoglycemia, and Stress-related illness.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[125] .A few doctors attribute these symptoms to persistent infection with Borrelia, or coinfections with other tick-borne infections such as Ehrlichia and Babesia.^ Tick borne co-infections .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some doctors attributed these symptoms to persistent infection with Borrelia , or with coinfections of other tick-borne infections such as Ehrlichia and Babesia .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Especially disconcerting are persistent symptoms such as pain, headaches and fatigue.

[126][127] .Other doctors believe that the initial infection may cause an autoimmune reaction that continues to cause serious symptoms even after the bacteria have been eliminated by antibiotics.^ Other discrete symptoms include migrating pain in muscles, joint, and tendons, and heart palpitations and dizziness caused by changes in heartbeat.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some Lyme disease patients who have completed a course of antibiotic treatment continue to have symptoms such as severe fatigue, sleep disturbance, and cognitive difficulties.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The IgM antibodies may remain after the initial infection, and IgG antibodies may remain for years.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[74]
.Four randomized controlled trials have been performed in patients who have persisting complaints and a history of Borrelia infection.^ A double blind, randomized, controlled trial.
  • Late and Chronic Lyme Disease: Symptom Overlap with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & Fibromyalgia 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.prohealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Four randomized controlled trials have been performed in patients who have persisting complaints and a history of Borrelia infection.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi by polymerase chain reaction in synovial membrane, but not in synovial fluid from patients with persisting Lyme arthritis after antibiotic therapy.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

.Some of these patients had evidence of an ongoing Borrelia infection and almost all of them were previously treated with antibiotics.^ Survival of Borrelia burgdorferi in antibiotically treated patients with Lyme borreliosis.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Some of them had evidence of an ongoing Borrelia infection and almost all of them were previously treated with antibiotics.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These illnesses can be quite debilitating in a physical way; however, if the cause of the disease is psychiatric, treating them with antibiotics won't work in the long term.
  • Lyme disease---who is credible? : White Coat Underground 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The authors of all four trials concluded that their results did not support long-term antibiotic therapy.^ All had relapsed after long-term oral and intravenous antibiotics.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Did you undergo a course of long term antibiotics?
  • Lyme disease---who is credible? : White Coat Underground 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Groups of patients, patient advocates, and physicians who support the concept of chronic Lyme disease have organized to lobby for recognition of the disease, as well as insurance coverage of long-term antibiotic therapy, which most insurers deny as it is at odds with guidelines released by major medical organizations.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

Of these four studies,
.
  • two studies showed no benefit from 30 days of IV ceftriaxone and 60 days of oral doxycycline, concluding that "treatment with intravenous and oral antibiotics for 90 days did not improve symptoms more than placebo".[8][9]
  • one study showed an improvement only in fatigue after 28 days of IV antibiotics, an effect that was significant only in a group of patients that never had antibiotics previously.^ Adults: Oral therapy for 28 days.

    ^ The patient now was given intravenous ceftriaxone, 2 g daily for 14 days.
    • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ At that time she received no antibiotic treatment.
    • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

    [12] .The results may have been compromised by unblinding, and detected a large placebo effect.^ The results may have been compromised by unblinding, and a large placebo effect was seen.
    • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Some clinicians favor tinidazole as this may be equally effective but result in fewer side effects.

    [128] .This trials also saw several cases of life-threatening side effects, concluding that "repeated courses of antibiotic treatment are not indicated for persistent symptoms following Lyme disease including those related to fatigue and cognitive dysfunction, particularly in light of the frequency of serious adverse events."
  • one study reported an improvement in fatigue in a subset of patients and a transient improvement in cognition after 10 weeks of IV antibiotics, but concluded that the treatment was "not an effective strategy for sustained cognitive improvement."^ Case 3 had a clear clinical history indicating Lyme disease.
    • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Some Lyme disease patients who have completed a course of antibiotic treatment continue to have symptoms such as severe fatigue, sleep disturbance, and cognitive difficulties.
    • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In East Africa, two cases of Lyme disease have been reported in Kenya .
    • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

    [10][11] .These patients had also been ill for many years and had taken many antibiotic courses.^ IV antibiotics [7] [8] , but again these patients had been ill for many years and had taken many antibiotic courses.
    • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Patient 9 is a 51-year-old woman who has been diagnosed with numerous conditions over many years of being ill.
    • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Arrayed against the establishment is a fraternity of Lyme specialists, many of whom have built large practices treating ostensible Lyme patients with expensive courses of antibiotics.
    • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Also, this study performed ad hoc statistical analysis[129] and its results were questionably significant.^ Also, this study performed ad hoc statistical analysis [89] and its results were questionably significant.
    • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The president of the "chronic" Lyme interest group ILADS questioned the generalizability of the results because the studied patients had been ill an average of 4.7 years and had an average of 3 previous courses of antibiotics.
    • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

    [124]
.A non-profit interest group called the International Lyme And Associated Diseases Society (ILADS)[130] argues that persistence of B. burgdorferi may be responsible for manifestations of late Lyme disease symptoms.^ Post-Lyme disease symptoms and "chronic Lyme disease" .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Borrelia burgdorferi persists in the brain in chronic lyme neuroborreliosis and may be associated with Alzheimer disease 7 .
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ILADS’Position Response May, 2003 .

[7] It has questioned the generalizability and reliability of some of the above trials and the reliability of the current diagnostic tests.[7][127][131] .Major US medical authorities, including the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Academy of Neurology, and the National Institutes of Health, have stated that there is no convincing evidence that Borrelia is involved in the various symptoms classed as chronic Lyme disease, and advise against long-term antibiotic treatment as ineffective and possibly harmful.^ Chronic Lyme disease is often a life-long illness.

^ It has been stated that studies have been done on Chronic Lyme and it has been disproven.
  • Lyme disease---who is credible? : White Coat Underground 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stop using the term “Lyme disease”.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13][132][133][134] There are significant side effects and risks of prolonged antibiotic therapy, and one death has been reported from complications of a 27-month course of intravenous antibiotics for an unsubstantiated diagnosis of "chronic Lyme disease".[135]

Treatment of post-Lyme disease symptoms

.Antibiotic treatment is the central pillar in the management of Lyme disease.^ Treatment of early Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Table 2: Antibiotic treatment of Lyme borreliosis .

^ Not everyone approves of massive antibiotic treatment for Lyme disease.
  • NewsLetter 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.vrp.com [Source type: Academic]
  • NewsLetter 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.cpmedical.net [Source type: Academic]

.However, in the late stages of borreliosis, symptoms may persist despite extensive and repeated antibiotic treatment.^ Her symptoms persisted and antibiotic treatment was extended for a total of 3 months.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi despite antibiotic treatment.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Stage 3 – Late persistent infection .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[136] .Although it is possible that these chronic symptoms are due to either autoimmunity or residual bacteria (see immunological studies below), no Borrelia DNA can usually be detected in the joints after antibiotic treatment, which suggests that the arthritis may continue even after the bacteria have been killed.^ At that time she received no antibiotic treatment.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ And scientists have been slow to study these bacteria.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The only symptom - tinnitus - didn't respond to usual antibiotic treatment(?
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

[74] .Lyme arthritis that persists after antibiotic treatment may be treated with hydroxychloroquine or methotrexate.^ Lyme arthritis which is antibiotic resistant may be treated with hydroxychloroquine or methotrexate .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Therapy for Lyme arthritis: strategies for the treatment of antibiotic-refractory arthritis.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This test may be able to show whether Lyme arthritis that persists after antibiotic treatment is due to persistence of the spirochete.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

[137] .Corticosteroid injections into the affected joint are not recommended for any stage of Lyme arthritis.^ Corticosteroid injections into the affected joint are not recommended for any stage of Lyme arthritis.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lyme arthritis usually affects the knees.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lyme, Conn had an unusual number of juvenile arthritis cases, which triggered the investigation into this disease .

[138]
.Patients with chronic neuropathic pain responded well to gabapentin monotherapy with residual pain after intravenous ceftriaxone treatment in a pilot study.^ Antibiotic refractory patients with neuropathic pain responded well to gabapentin monotherapy with residual pain after intravenous ceftriaxone treatment in a pilot study.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Gabapentin for the symptomatic treatment of chronic neuropathic pain in patients with late-stage lyme borreliosis: a pilot study.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This pilot study examined 11 patients with chronic lyme.

[139] .Some antibiotics may have a dual effect on Lyme disease, since minocycline and doxycycline have anti-inflammatory effects in addition to their antibiotic actions including anti-inflammatory effects specific to the inflammation caused by Lyme Disease.^ There is, however, one side effect that would require it to be stopped- it may cause a painful tendonitis, usually of the largest tendons.

^ These illnesses can be quite debilitating in a physical way; however, if the cause of the disease is psychiatric, treating them with antibiotics won't work in the long term.
  • Lyme disease---who is credible? : White Coat Underground 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ OBJECTIVE: 1) More clearly define the clinical manifestation and pathogenetic mechanisms of Lyme disease in dogs; 2) evaluate the effect of antibiotics in dogs infected with B. burgdorferi; 3) describe the effects of corticosteroids on dogs persistently infected with B. burgdorferi.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

[140][141] .Indeed, minocycline is used in other neurodegenerative and inflammatory disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ALS.^ Physicians not familiar with the complex clinical presentation of Lyme disease frequently misdiagnose it as other disorders such as: Fibromyalgia or Chronic Fatigue Immune Dysfunction Syndrome (CFIDS), Multiple Sclerosis, Lupus, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Motor Neuron Disease (ALS, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis -Lou Gherig's disease), Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Syndrome (MCS) and numerous other psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety.

^ The erythrocyte sediment rate (ESR) is most often normal, distinguishing it from some of the purely inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus.

^ The therapy most often prescribed that is extremely contraindicated is the use of steroidal anti-inflammatories; usually the glucocorticosteroids (such as prednisone).

[142]

Alternative therapies

Portable Mild Hyperbaric Chamber 40" diameter
.A number of other alternative therapies have been suggested, though clinical trials have not been conducted.^ A number of other alternative therapies have been suggested, though clinical trials have not been conducted.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Engorged larvae were infected at mean cell density similar to the numbers found in other engorged tick stages, suggesting efficient transmission of infection from the birds to larvae.
  • PLoS ONE: Complex Population Structure of Lyme Borreliosis Group Spirochete Borrelia garinii in Subarctic Eurasia 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (which is used conventionally to treat a number of other conditions), as an adjunct to antibiotics for Lyme has been discussed.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.For example, the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, as an adjunct to antibiotics for Lyme has been discussed.^ For example, the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (which is used conventionally to treat a number of other conditions), as an adjunct to antibiotics for Lyme has been discussed.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi by polymerase chain reaction in synovial membrane, but not in synovial fluid from patients with persisting Lyme arthritis after antibiotic therapy.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Issuing Lyme treatment guidelines to doctors that warned against using long-term infused or oral antibiotics.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[143] .Though there are no published data from clinical trials to support its use, preliminary results using a mouse model suggest its effectiveness against B. burgdorferi both in vitro and in vivo.^ Though there are no published data from clinical trials to support its use, preliminary results using a mouse model suggest its effectiveness against B. burgdorferi both in vitro and in vivo .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Alternative medicine approaches include bee venom because it contains the peptide melittin , which has been shown to exert inhibitory effects on Lyme bacteria in vitro ; [102] no clinical trials of this treatment have been carried out, however.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, there are reports of good result when doxycycline is used with flagyl.

[144] .Anecdotal clinical research has suggested that antifungal azole medications such as diflucan could be used in the treatment of Lyme, but the use of these drugs has yet to be tested in a controlled study.^ Fluconazole (Diflucan) used for Lyme Disease Treatment .

^ European Journal of Medical Research in July of 2004 on the use of an antifungal drug, fluconazole, in .

^ Anecdotal clinical research has suggested that antifungal azole medications such as diflucan could be used in the treatment of Lyme, but the use of these drugs has yet to be tested in a controlled study.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[145]
.Alternative medicine approaches include bee venom because it contains the peptide melittin, which has been shown to exert inhibitory effects on Lyme bacteria in vitro;[146] no clinical trials of this treatment have been carried out, however.^ Alternative medicine approaches include bee venom because it contains the peptide melittin , which has been shown to exert inhibitory effects on Lyme bacteria in vitro ; [102] no clinical trials of this treatment have been carried out, however.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Published reports and clinical experience have shown this regimen to be unacceptable, as nearly half of patients so treated have had to abandon treatment due to serious side effects, many of which were disabling.

^ Fallon and Nields point out “B. burgdorferi has been shown to be capable of persisting in human hosts despite extensive antibiotic treatment….
  • NewsLetter 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.vrp.com [Source type: Academic]
  • NewsLetter 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.cpmedical.net [Source type: Academic]

Prognosis

.For early cases, prompt treatment is usually curative.^ For early cases, prompt treatment is usually curative.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antibiotic treatment for early Lyme disease is effective, and symptoms usually go away within 3 weeks of treatment.
  • CIGNA - Lyme Disease 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In general, early disseminated LB is treated for four to six weeks, and late LB usually requires a minimum of four to six months of continuous treatment.
  • LymeNet - Advanced Topics in Lyme Disease (2000 Burrascano Treatment Guidelines) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www2.lymenet.org [Source type: Academic]

[147] .However, the severity and treatment of Lyme disease may be complicated due to late diagnosis, failure of antibiotic treatment, and simultaneous infection with other tick-borne diseases (co-infections) including ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, and bartonella, and immune suppression in the patient.^ Tick borne co-infections .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Not everyone approves of massive antibiotic treatment for Lyme disease.

^ It is based on retrospective study of over 600 patients with late Lyme disease.

.A meta-analysis published in 2005 found that some patients with Lyme disease have fatigue, joint or muscle pain, and neurocognitive symptoms persisting for years despite antibiotic treatment.^ Muscle and joint pain.
  • CIGNA - Lyme Disease 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Patients presenting with symptoms associated with Lyme disease Patients diagnosed with Lyme disease .
  • NGC - NGC Summary 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.guideline.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ For the past six to seven years I have had severe muscle and joint pain.

[5] .Patients with late stage Lyme disease have been shown to experience a level of physical disability equivalent to that seen in congestive heart failure.^ It is based on retrospective study of over 600 patients with late Lyme disease.

^ Lyme patients experience.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are early and late stages of the disease.

[148] .In rare cases, Lyme disease can be fatal.^ Lyme disease is rarely, if ever, fatal.
  • Symptoms of Lyme disease - WrongDiagnosis.com 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In rare cases, Lyme disease can be fatal.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lyme disease cases rising .
  • LymeSpot - Lyme Disease News & Information: September 2005 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC lymespot.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[149]

Epidemiology

.Northern hemisphere temperate regions are most endemic for Lyme disease.^ Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in the Northern Hemisphere.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An area which is endemic for Lyme Disease.
  • Lyme disease---who is credible? : White Coat Underground 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Northern hemisphere temperate regions are most endemic for Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[150][151]

Africa

.In Northern Africa B. burgdorferi sensu lato has been identified in Morocco, Algeria, Egypt and Tunisia.^ In Northern Africa B. burgdorferi sensu lato has been identified in Morocco , Algeria , Egypt and Tunisia .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Association of genetic variability within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato with the ecology, epidemiology of Lyme borreliosis in Europe .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ B. burgdorferi sensu lato infested ticks are being found more frequently in Japan , as well as in Northwest China and far eastern Russia .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[152][153][154]
.Lyme disease in sub-Saharan is presently unknown, but evidence indicates that Lyme disease may occur in humans in this region.^ The human Lyme disease vaccine has been discontinued.
  • Lyme Disease (Borreliosis) in Dogs 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Animals may be reinfected with Lyme disease.
  • Fleas and Ticks 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.k9web.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is evidence of faithfulness to human disease.

.The abundance of hosts and tick vectors would favor the establishment of Lyme infection in Africa.^ Lyme disease is an infection that is spread by ticks.
  • CIGNA - Lyme Disease 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The abundance of hosts and tick vectors would favor the establishment of Lyme infection in Africa.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ During subsequent blood meals, infected nymphs and adult ticks can transmit the infection to other hosts, including humans.
  • EcoTone » Lyme disease 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.esa.org [Source type: General]

[155] .In East Africa, two cases of Lyme disease have been reported in Kenya.^ Lyme disease case reported in McHenry County, Illinois .
  • LymeBlog 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC lymeblog.com [Source type: General]

^ In East Africa, two cases of Lyme disease have been reported in Kenya .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In rare cases, Lyme disease can be fatal.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[156]

Asia

.B. burgdorferi sensu lato infested ticks are being found more frequently in Japan, as well as in Northwest China and far eastern Russia.^ B. burgdorferi sensu lato infested ticks are being found more frequently in Japan , as well as in Northwest China and far eastern Russia .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In Europe, cases of B. burgdorferi sensu lato infected ticks are found predominantly in Norway , Netherlands , Germany , France , Italy , Slovenia and Poland , but have been isolated in almost every country on the continent.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Before 1976, elements of B. burgdorferi sensu lato infection were called or known as tickborne meningopolyneuritis, Garin-Bujadoux syndrome, Bannworth syndrome, Afzelius syndrome, Montauk Knee or sheep tick fever.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[157][158] .Borrelia has been isolated in Mongolia as well.^ Borrelia has been isolated in Mongolia as well.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[159]

Australia

.In Australia there is no definitive evidence for the existence of B. burgdorferi or for any other tick-borne spirochete that may be responsible for a local syndrome being reported as Lyme disease.^ "Lyme disease" may be unique among spirochetal infections, in that respect.
  • ActionLyme History 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.actionlyme.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There is no evidence at this time that the vaccine can trigger an autoimmune response.
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Do other insects carry the spirochete which causes Lyme disease?
  • Lyme Disease | Stony Brook University Medical Center 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC sbumc.informatics.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[160] .Cases of neuroborreliosis have been documented in Australia but are often ascribed to travel to other continents.^ Cases of neuroborreliosis have been documented in Australia but are often ascribed to travel to other continents.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are also no documented and verified cases of Lyme being passed through other body fluids.
  • Lyme disease ? | Fodorite Lounge Forum | Fodor's Travel Talk Forums 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.fodors.com [Source type: General]

.The existence of Lyme disease in Australia is controversial.^ Controversy over Lyme disease frustrating patients .
  • LymeBlog 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.lymeblog.com [Source type: General]
  • LymeBlog 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.lymeblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • LymeBlog 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.lymeblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • LymeBlog 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.lymeblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The existence of Lyme disease in Australia is controversial.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Lyme disease controversy.
  • NewsLetter 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.vrp.com [Source type: Academic]
  • NewsLetter 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.cpmedical.net [Source type: Academic]

Canada

.Due to changing climate the rank of ticks able to carry Lyme disease has expanded from a limited area of Ontario to include areas of southern Quebec, Manitoba, northern Ontario, the Maritimes and parts of the Prairie provinces, as well as British Columbia.^ This is also when the bacteria are injected if the tick is a carrier for Lyme disease.

^ Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in the Northern Hemisphere.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lyme disease—a new disease in southern Africa?.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[161][162][163][164][165]

Europe

.In Europe, cases of B. burgdorferi sensu lato infected ticks are found predominantly in central Europe, particularly in Slovenia and Austria, but have been isolated in almost every country on the continent.^ Cases of LD being contracted from infected pets are well documented; likely due to the pet bringing infected ticks into the home.

^ After a tick bite, Bb undergoes rapid hematogenous dissemination, and for example, can be found within the central nervous system as soon as twelve hours after entering the bloodstream.

^ This writer may have been infected from a known tick bite in Southern Louisiana, one in Northern Wisconsin, and one in Central Missouri, over many years.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://www.marshallprotocol.com/forum37/3139-1.html 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.marshallprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[166][167] Incidence in Southern Europe, such as Italy and Portugal, is much lower.

South America

.In South America tick-borne disease recognition and occurrence is rising.^ In South America tick-borne disease recognition and occurrence is rising.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cases of tick-borne disease double .
  • LymeSpot - Lyme Disease News & Information: September 2005 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC lymespot.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Are there other tick-borne diseases?
  • Lyme Disease | Stony Brook University Medical Center 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC sbumc.informatics.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ticks carrying B. burgdorferi sensu lato, as well as canine and human tick-borne disease, have been reported widely in Brazil, but the subspecies of Borrelia has not yet been defined.^ Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is name given to the overall category.

^ Lyme disease is caused by borrelia burgdorferi senso stricto, which is but one subspecies of the greater family, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.
  • http://www.marshallprotocol.com/forum37/3139-1.html 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.marshallprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The widespread distribution of these tick vectors greatly increases the prevalence of Lyme disease well beyond that of official reports.

[168] .The first reported case of Lyme disease in Brazil was made in 1993 in Sao Paulo.^ The first reported case of clinical Lyme disease was made in Germany by Dr. Alfred Buchwald in 1883.

^ Why are health officials under-reporting cases of Lyme disease?

^ Lyme Disease is the second largest epidemic in the USAnext to AIDS. It is called Lyme because of the large number of cases discovered .

[169] .B. burgdorferi sensu stricto antigens in patients have been identified in Colombia and Bolivia.^ The bacteria name is borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto...
  • http://www.marshallprotocol.com/forum37/3139-1.html 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.marshallprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In my opinion it is likely that Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto is not a homogenous organism, is not a homogenous genome.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://www.marshallprotocol.com/forum37/3139-1.html 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.marshallprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The CDC has given us a starting point by saying that the PROVEN causative agent of so-called Lyme disease is borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://www.marshallprotocol.com/forum37/3139-1.html 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.marshallprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

United States

CDC map showing the prevalence of Lyme disease in the United States, particularly its concentration in the Northeast Megalopolis, and Western Wisconsin.
.Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in North America and Europe and one of the fastest-growing infectious diseases in the United States.^ Lyme is one of the most prevalent diseases in the U.S. today,” said Smith.
  • BADAblog » Diagnosis 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.bada-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lyme disease: One man's story .
  • Lyme Disease Forum - Topix 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: General]

^ Rates of Lyme disease in Europe may be similar to those in the United States.
  • Lyme Disease: eMedicine Rheumatology 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Of cases reported to the United States CDC, the ratio of Lyme disease infection is 7.9 cases for every 100,000 persons.^ Lyme disease case reported in McHenry County, Illinois .
  • LymeBlog 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC lymeblog.com [Source type: General]

^ It is estimated that only one of every 10 cases of Lyme disease is reported.
  • LymeBlog 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.lymeblog.com [Source type: General]
  • LymeBlog 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.lymeblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • LymeBlog 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.lymeblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • LymeBlog 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.lymeblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In East Africa, two cases of Lyme disease have been reported in Kenya .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

In the ten states where Lyme disease is most common, the average was 31.6 cases for every 100,000 persons for the year 2005.[170]
.Although Lyme disease has been reported in 49 of 50 states in the U.S, about 99% of all reported cases are confined to just five geographic areas (New England, Mid-Atlantic, East-North Central, South Atlantic, and West North-Central).^ Lyme disease case reported in McHenry County, Illinois .
  • LymeBlog 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC lymeblog.com [Source type: General]

^ In East Africa, two cases of Lyme disease have been reported in Kenya .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Detailed Information about Lyme Disease.

[171] .New 2008 CDC Lyme case definition guidelines are used to determine confirmed CDC surveillance cases.^ New 2008 CDC Lyme case definition guidelines are used to determine confirmed CDC surveillance cases.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The CDC has indicated that only 10% of cases that meet its surveillance definition are actually reported, thus true numbers may be 10 times higher than these reported numbers.

^ In 1996, there were 16,455 new cases reported in the U.S. The number dropped in 1997(see table above), but in 1998 there were 16,801 cases, and in 1999 there were 16,273 new cases reported to the CDC. In 2002, 18,000 cases of Lyme disease were reported in the U.S. .

[172] .Effective January 2008, the CDC gives equal weight to laboratory evidence from 1) a positive culture for B. burgdorferi; 2) two-tier testing (ELISA screening and Western Blot confirming); or 3) single-tier IgG (old infection) Western Blot.^ GFAp has been assayed by ELISA, Western Blot.

^ ELISA reactive, but not confirmed by Western Blot.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ IgG showed a weakly positive reaction in western blot.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

.Previously, the CDC only included laboratory evidence based on (1) and (2) in their surveillance case definition.^ Previously, the CDC only included laboratory evidence based on (1) and (2) in their surveillance case definition.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The CDC has indicated that only 10% of cases that meet its surveillance definition are actually reported, thus true numbers may be 10 times higher than these reported numbers.

^ Many additional cases were reported which did not meet the surveillance case definition.
  • Neurological Manifestations Of Lyme Disease, Part II 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Academic]

.The case definition now includes the use of Western Blot without prior ELISA screen.^ The case definition now includes the use of Western Blot without prior ELISA screen.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ GFAp has been assayed by ELISA, Western Blot.

^ ELISA reactive, but not confirmed by Western Blot.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

.The number of reported cases of the disease have been increasing, as are endemic regions in North America.^ The number of reported cases of the disease have been increasing, as are endemic regions in North America.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The highest number of cases were reported from Colorado.
  • Homeopathic Homeopathy Holistic Complimentary Medicine Medical Care Physician | New York City, Rhinebeck, Hudson Valley, New York | Ronald Whitmont, MD 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.homeopathicmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lyme disease: report of two cases.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.For example, it had previously been thought that B. burgdorferi sensu lato was hindered in its ability to be maintained in an enzootic cycle in California because it was assumed the large lizard population would dilute the prevalence of B. burgdorferi in local tick populations, but this has since been brought into question as some evidence has suggested that lizards can become infected.^ Question: I have received messages that some lymies don't think that the protocol works for them… any evidence of lymies getting full recovery from this???
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The South; from Texas to Florida, and from Georgia to Virginia, where knowledge of the disease is still very limited, tick populations are large, and vector-borne disease cycles are still poorly understood and under reported.

^ Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is name given to the overall category.

[173] .Except for one study in Europe,[174] much of the data implicating lizards is based on DNA detection of the spirochete and has not demonstrated that lizards are able to infect ticks feeding upon them.^ Except for one study in Europe, [114] much of the data implicating lizards is based on DNA detection of the spirochete and has not demonstrated that lizards are able to infect ticks feeding upon them.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Data have demonstrated that prompt removal of an infected tick, within approximately 36 hours, reduces the risk of transmission to nearly zero; however the small size of the tick, especially in the nymph stage, may make detection difficult.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The recognition that the patients in the United States had EM led to the recognition that "Lyme arthritis" was one manifestation of the same tick-borne condition known in Europe.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[175][176][177][178] .As some experiments suggest lizards are refractory to infection with Borrelia, it appears likely their involvement in the enzootic cycle is more complex and species-specific.^ As they expand, some central clearing often develops, and they may have a more complex target or bull's eye appearance.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), the cause of Lyme disease, has appeared not to evoke a detectable specific antibody response in humans until long after infection.
  • immunecx.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.lymenet.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Borrelia burgdorferi, Ixodes Ticks and the Cycle of Infection .
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

[47]
.While B. burgdorferi is most associated with ticks hosted by white-tailed deer and white-footed mice, Borrelia afzelii is most frequently detected in rodent-feeding vector ticks, Borrelia garinii and Borrelia valaisiana appear to be associated with birds.^ While B. burgdorferi is most associated with ticks hosted by white-tailed deer and white-footed mice , Borrelia afzelii is most frequently detected in rodent-feeding vector ticks, Borrelia garinii and Borrelia valaisiana appear to be associated with birds.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In early CNS infection, when anti-B. burgdorferi antibody had not yet appeared, or in immunocompromised hosts , the MIT compared favorably to culture and PCR in infected NHPs; antibody in the CSF was the most useful assay in immunocompetent NHPs.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Association of genetic variability within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato with the ecology, epidemiology of Lyme borreliosis in Europe .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Both rodents and birds are competent reservoir hosts for B. burgdorferi sensu stricto.^ Both rodents and birds are competent reservoir hosts for B. burgdorferi sensu stricto.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While B. burgdorferi is most associated with ticks hosted by white-tailed deer and white-footed mice , Borrelia afzelii is most frequently detected in rodent-feeding vector ticks, Borrelia garinii and Borrelia valaisiana appear to be associated with birds.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The bacteria name is borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto...
  • http://www.marshallprotocol.com/forum37/3139-1.html 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.marshallprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The resistance of a genospecies of Lyme disease spirochetes to the bacteriolytic activities of the alternative complement pathway of various host species may determine its reservoir host association.^ Lyme Disease Alternative medicine .
  • Geometry.Net - Health Conditions Books: Lyme Disease 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

^ Animals may be reinfected with Lyme disease.
  • Fleas and Ticks 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.k9web.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The spirochetal etiology of Lyme disease.
  • Borrelien 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.neuro24.de [Source type: Academic]

History

.The evolutionary history of Borrelia burgdorferi genetics has been the subject of recent studies.^ Association of genetic variability within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato with the ecology, epidemiology of Lyme borreliosis in Europe .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Das R, Hegyi H, Gerstein M Genome analyses of spirochetes: a study of the protein structures, functions and metabolic pathways in Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Genome analyses of spirochetes: a study of the protein structures, functions and metabolic pathways in Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi 3 Fulltext preprint .
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One study has found that prior to the reforestation that accompanied post colonial farm abandonment in New England and the wholesale migration into the mid-west that occurred during the early 1800s, Lyme disease was present for thousands of years in America and had spread along with its tick hosts from the Northeast to the Midwest.^ I have had Chronic Lyme Disease for twenty years.
  • Lyme disease---who is credible? : White Coat Underground 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Treatment of the early manifestations of Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Early Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[179] .This is confirmed by the writings of Peter Kalm, a Swedish botanist who was sent to America by Linnaeus, and who found the forests of New York "abound" with ticks when he visited in 1749. When Kalm's journey was retraced 100 years later the forests were gone and the Lyme bacterium had probably become isolated to a few pockets along the northeast coast, Wisconsin, and Minnesota.^ Sole Lyme Vaccine Is Pulled Off Market , published in the New York Times on February 28, 2002; accessed July 11, 2008.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Centers for Disease Control (CDC)'s emerging infections diseases department did a study in rural New Jersey of 100 ticks and found that 55% of the ticks were infected with at least one of the pathogens.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Study: Antibiotics Can Treat Persistent Lyme Disease Symptoms (2007-10-10) A study has found that treating patients who have persistent Lyme disease symptoms with antibiotics can be effective.

[180] .Perhaps the first detailed description of what we now know of as Lyme disease appeared in the writings of Reverend Dr John Walker after a visit to the Island of Jura (Deer Island) off the west coast of Scotland in 1764.[181] He gives a good description both of the symptoms of Lyme disease (with "exquisite pain (in) the interior parts of the limbs") and of the tick vector itself which he describes as a "worm" with a body which is "of a reddish colour and of a compressed shape with a row of feet on each side" that "penetrates the skin". Many people from this area of Great Britain emigrated to North America between 1717 and the end of the eighteenth century.^ Lyme patients suffer with many painful inflammatory symptoms.

^ Give both sides equal representation.
  • Lyme disease---who is credible? : White Coat Underground 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An area which is endemic for Lyme Disease.
  • Lyme disease---who is credible? : White Coat Underground 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The examination of preserved museum specimens has found Borrelia DNA in an infected Ixodes ricinus tick from Germany that dates back to 1884 and from an infected mouse from Cape Cod that died in 1894.[182]
.The early European studies of what is now known as Lyme disease described its skin manifestations.^ Treatment of early Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Early disseminated Lyme disease is characterized by neurologic and cardiac manifestations.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatment of the early manifestations of Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The first study dates to 1883 in Wrocław, Poland (then known as Breslau, Free State of Prussia) where physician Alfred Buchwald described a man who had suffered for 16 years with a degenerative skin disorder now known as acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans.^ Acrodermatitis Chronica Atrophicans, biopsy confirmed ..

^ Chronic Borrelia can also cause a degenerative skin disorder now known as acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (ACA).

^ The first study dates to 1883 in Wrocław , Poland (then known as Breslau , Germany ) where physician Alfred Buchwald described a man who had suffered for 16 years with a degenerative skin disorder now known as acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.At a 1909 research conference, Swedish dermatologist Arvid Afzelius presented a study about an expanding, ring-like lesion he had observed in an older woman following the bite of a sheep tick.^ At a 1909 research conference, Swedish dermatologist Arvid Afzelius presented a study about an expanding, ring-like lesion he had observed in an older woman following the bite of a sheep tick.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Borrelia Slowly Spreads Throughout the Body -- Approximately 4-6 weeks following the tick bite, the first systemic signs of Lyme disease that may or may not occur are in the form of flu-like symptoms or malaise.

^ Patient #2 was a 51 year old female who developed erythema migrans (EM) following a tick bite.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

.He named the lesion erythema migrans.^ He named the lesion erythema migrans .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ About 60% will notice a round rash called an erythema chronicum migrans (ECM), as doctors like to have a nice, neat name for everything they observe.
  • Lyme Disease: Arthritis by Infection 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most readily identifiable clinical feature is the distinctive skin lesion, erythema migrans.
  • ActionLyme History 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.actionlyme.org [Source type: Academic]

[183] The skin condition now known as borrelial lymphocytoma was first described in 1911.[184]
.Neurological problems following tick bites were recognized starting in the 1920s.^ "She was starting to have neurological problems.
  • LymeSpot - Lyme Disease News & Information: September 2005 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC lymespot.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Neurological problems following tick bites were recognized starting in the 1920s.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antibiotic prophylaxis following a tick bite by an Ixodes tick is only indicated in a minority of cases and locales.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

.French physicians Garin and Bujadoux described a farmer with a painful sensory radiculitis accompanied by mild meningitis following a tick bite.^ French physicians Garin and Bujadoux described a farmer with a painful sensory radiculitis accompanied by mild meningitis following a tick bite.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the 1940s, German neurologist Alfred Bannwarth described several cases of chronic lymphocytic meningitis and polyradiculoneuritis, some of which were accompanied by erythematous skin lesions.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1930, the Swedish dermatologist Sven Hellerstrom was the first to propose that EM and neurological symptoms following a tick bite were related.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.A large ring-shaped rash was also noted, although the doctors did not relate it to the meningoradiculitis.^ A large ring-shaped rash was also noted, although the doctors did not relate it to the meningoradiculitis.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If a rash, even ring-shaped, appears hours rather than days after a tick bite, it is most likely an allergic reaction to the tick, not a symptom of Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

.In 1930, the Swedish dermatologist Sven Hellerström was the first to propose that EM and neurological symptoms following a tick bite were related.^ In 1930, the Swedish dermatologist Sven Hellerstrom was the first to propose that EM and neurological symptoms following a tick bite were related.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Neurological problems following tick bites were recognized starting in the 1920s.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ At a 1909 research conference, Swedish dermatologist Arvid Afzelius presented a study about an expanding, ring-like lesion he had observed in an older woman following the bite of a sheep tick.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[185] .In the 1940s, German neurologist Alfred Bannwarth described several cases of chronic lymphocytic meningitis and polyradiculoneuritis, some of which were accompanied by erythematous skin lesions.^ In the 1940s, German neurologist Alfred Bannwarth described several cases of chronic lymphocytic meningitis and polyradiculoneuritis, some of which were accompanied by erythematous skin lesions.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I suspect that some cases of chronic pyelonephritis are actually LD. Pediatricians may want to consider that nocturnal enuresis (bedwetting) is secondary to LD. .
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the Pubmed articles describing this test is here: Longterm decrease in the CD57 lymphocyte subset in a patient with chronic Lyme disease 9 .
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Carl Lennhoff, who worked at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden, believed that many skin conditions were caused by spirochetes.^ Carl Lennhoff, who worked at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden, believed that many skin conditions were caused by spirochetes.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Patient 9 is a 51-year-old woman who has been diagnosed with numerous conditions over many years of being ill.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many collateral conditions result in those who have been chronically ill so it is not surprising that damage to .

.In 1948, he used a special stain to microscopically observe what he believed were spirochetes in various types of skin lesions, including EM.[186] Although his conclusions were later shown to be erroneous, interest in the study of spirochetes was sparked.^ Although our electron microscopic studies were of a subcultured ligament specimen, and therefore in vitro effects cannot be excluded, it is of great interest that spirochetes penetrated into the extracellular matrix without causing apparent destruction.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Lymph nodes showed a transformed lymphocytic response, and, when Dieterle silver stain was used, 3 spirochetes compatible with B burgdorferi infection were demonstrated (Fig 2).
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Approximately 6 months later, the patient underwent left total knee replacement and once again spirochete-like structures were observed in synovial tissue on modified Dieterle silver stain.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

.In 1949, Nils Thyresson, who also worked at the Karolinska Institute, was the first to treat ACA with penicillin.^ In 1949, Nils Thyresson, who also worked at the Karolinska Institute, was the first to treat ACA with penicillin.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Carl Lennhoff, who worked at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden, believed that many skin conditions were caused by spirochetes.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When penicillin was first used to treat syphilis, thousands of cured schizophrenics were released from mental asylums.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://www.marshallprotocol.com/forum37/3139-1.html 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.marshallprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[187] .In the 1950s, the relationship among tick bite, lymphocytoma, EM and Bannwarth's syndrome was recognized throughout Europe leading to the widespread use of penicillin for treatment in Europe.^ Lymphocytoma after tick bite.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the 1950s, the relationship among tick bite, lymphocytoma, EM and Bannwarth's syndrome was recognized throughout Europe leading to the widespread use of penicillin for treatment in Europe.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The recognition that the patients in the United States had EM led to the recognition that "Lyme arthritis" was one manifestation of the same tick-borne condition known in Europe.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[188][189]
.In 1970 a dermatologist in Wisconsin named Rudolph Scrimenti recognized an EM lesion in a patient after recalling a paper by Hellerström that had been reprinted in an American science journal in 1950. This was the first documented case of EM in the United States.^ This was the first documented case of EM in the United States.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1970 a dermatologist in Wisconsin named Rudolph Scrimenti recognized an EM lesion in a patient after recalling a paper by Hellerstrom that had been reprinted in an American science journal in 1950.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The present case apparently is the first of this type to be reported from the United States.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

.Based on the European literature, he treated the patient with penicillin.^ Based on the European literature, he treated the patient with penicillin.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ None of 39 patients given tetracycline developed major late complications compared with 3 of 40 penicillin-treated patients and 4 of 29 given erythromycin (p = 0.07).
  • ActionLyme History 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.actionlyme.org [Source type: Academic]

^ High-dose intravenous penicillin was associated with more rapid resolution of symptoms in 12 patients compared to historical controls treated with prednisone [ 19 ] .
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

[190]
.The full syndrome now known as Lyme disease was not recognized until a cluster of cases originally thought to be juvenile rheumatoid arthritis was identified in three towns in southeastern Connecticut in 1975, including the towns Lyme and Old Lyme, which gave the disease its popular name.^ At that time the condition was named 'Lyme arthritis.

^ He misdiagnosed this outbreak as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis near the community of Lyme, Connecticut.

^ Samento®: New Support For An Ancient Enemy—Lyme Disease James South, M.A. Although the first record of a condition associated with Lyme disease dates back to 1883 in Breslau, Germany,1 it was not identified in the United States until 1975 when a mysterious outbreak of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis occurred around Lyme, Connecticut.2 In 1982, the causative agent of Lyme disease was discovered by Willy Burgdorfer.
  • NewsLetter 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.vrp.com [Source type: Academic]
  • NewsLetter 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.cpmedical.net [Source type: Academic]

[191] .This was investigated by physicians David Snydman and Allen Steere of the Epidemic Intelligence Service, and by others from Yale University.^ This was investigated by physicians David Snydman and Allen Steere of the Epidemic Intelligence Service , and by others from Yale University .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The recognition that the patients in the United States had EM led to the recognition that "Lyme arthritis" was one manifestation of the same tick-borne condition known in Europe.^ At that time the condition was named 'Lyme arthritis.

^ This is a condition called chronic Lyme arthritis .
  • CIGNA - Lyme Disease 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lyme patients of co-infection with multiple tick-borne pathogens.

[192]
.Before 1976, elements of B. burgdorferi sensu lato infection were called or known as tick-borne meningopolyneuritis, Garin-Bujadoux syndrome, Bannwarth syndrome, Afzelius' disease,[1] Montauk Knee or sheep tick fever.^ Tick-Borne and Other Emerging Infectious Diseases (article from Medscape subscription site, requires log in) .
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other familiar humans diseases caused by Borrelia species include: 1) relapsing fever, which use soft ticks or lice as vectors, and 2) gum disease.

^ I did a WB test in August of 1999 to be used as a “base” of information for later use should I come down with any tick-borne disease.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since 1976 the disease is most often referred to as Lyme disease,[193][194] Lyme borreliosis or simply borreliosis.^ There is also an entity often referred to as " chronic Lyme disease ".
  • Lyme disease---who is credible? : White Coat Underground 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chronic Lyme disease is often a life-long illness.

^ Lyme disease, with 20,000 cases reported annually, ranks low on the list of the most prevalent infectious diseases.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1980 Steere, et al., began to test antibiotic regimens in adult patients with Lyme disease.^ HLA tests for Lyme disease .
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clinically over 75% of patients with Lyme disease are negative by ELISA, but positive by Western blot.

^ I know that I failed to test for Lyme disease on a WB test per CDC criteria, but I did have some bands for borrelia.
  • http://www.marshallprotocol.com/forum37/3139-1.html 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.marshallprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[195] .In the same year, New York State Health Dept.^ Paterson rushes to propose budget (2008-03-26) Not unlike his predecessors, New York Governor David Paterson is having trouble meeting the state budget deadline.

^ NY commission recommends capping property tax (2008-06-02) On Monday, a New York commission recommended capping the state's property taxes at 4 percent per year and implementing a "circuit breaker" for the lowest income state residents.

^ NY lawmakers surprised by Governor's move to recognize same-sex marriage (2008-05-30) New York lawmakers expressed surprise at the news that Governor David Paterson authorized state agencies to recognize same sex marriages performed in other states and other countries.

epidemiologist .Jorge Benach provided Willy Burgdorfer, a researcher at the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory, with collections of I. dammini [scapularis] from Shelter Island, NY, a known Lyme-endemic area as part of an ongoing investigation of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.^ Willy Burgdorfer: Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ She bicycled regularly in a Lyme endemic area.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ An area which is endemic for Lyme Disease.
  • Lyme disease---who is credible? : White Coat Underground 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In examining the ticks for rickettsiae, Burgdorfer noticed “poorly stained, rather long, irregularly coiled spirochetes.” Further examination revealed spirochetes in 60% of the ticks. .Burgdorfer credited his familiarity with the European literature for his realization that the spirochetes might be the “long-sought cause of ECM and Lyme disease.” Benach supplied him with more ticks from Shelter Island and sera from patients diagnosed with Lyme disease.^ He showed that these spirochetes reacted with immune serum from patients that had been diagnosed with Lyme disease.

^ Her dedication has enabled thousands of Lyme disease patients to get diagnosed and treated.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://www.marshallprotocol.com/forum37/3139-1.html 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.marshallprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spirochetes in the spleen of a patient with chronic Lyme disease.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

.University of Texas Health Science Center researcher Alan Barbour “offered his expertise to culture and immunochemically characterize the organism.” Burgdorfer subsequently confirmed his discovery by isolating from patients with Lyme disease spirochetes identical to those found in ticks.^ (A symptom required to be counted as a Lyme patient by the Center for Disease Control) .

^ Spirochetes in the spleen of a patient with chronic Lyme disease.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Lyme disease is believed to cause, mimic, manifest as, be misdiagnosed as, or contribute to more than 300 conditions and diseases.7 About 60 percent of those bitten by Bb-infected ticks or insects will develop a characteristic “bulls-eye” rash (erythema migrans), yet many confirmed Lyme disease patients never develop such a rash.14 .
  • NewsLetter 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.vrp.com [Source type: Academic]

[196] .In June 1982 he published his findings in Science, and the spirochete was named Borrelia burgdorferi in his honor.^ Borrelia burgdorferi Spirochete/Cyst .

^ Consequently, the etiologic agent was named in his honor, Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb ).

^ The spirochete was named Borrelia burgdorferi in his honor.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[197]
.After identification B. burgdorferi as the causative agent of Lyme disease, antibiotics were selected for testing, guided by in vitro antibiotic sensitivities, including tetracycline antibiotics, amoxicillin, cefuroxime axetil, intravenous and intramuscular penicillin and intravenous ceftriaxone.^ HLA tests for Lyme disease .
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After identification B. burgdorferi as the causative agent of Lyme disease, antibiotics were selected for testing, guided by in vitro antibiotic sensitivities, including tetracycline antibiotics , amoxicillin , cefuroxime axetil , intravenous and intramuscular penicillin and intravenous ceftriaxone .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fibroblasts protect the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, from ceftriaxone in vitro.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

[198][199] .The mechanism of tick transmission was also the subject of much discussion.^ The mechanism of tick transmission was also the subject of much discussion.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.B. burgdorferi spirochetes were identified in tick saliva in 1987, confirming the hypothesis that transmission occurred via tick salivary glands.^ B. burgdorferi spirochetes were identified in tick saliva in 1987, confirming the hypothesis that transmission occurred via tick salivary glands.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ At this time Borrelia burgdorferi begins to multiply in the gut of the tick, whence it crosses into the tick's circulation system, migrating to the salivary glands and passing with the tick's saliva through the host's skin.
  • Lyme Disease: Arthritis by Infection 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All three pathogenic species, B. burgdorferi, B. afzelii and B. garinii, occur in Europe, and the latter two species have been identified in Asia.
  • Lyme disease - a knol by Samuel Barrack 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

[200]

Society and culture

Ecology

.Urbanization and other anthropogenic factors can be implicated in the spread of Lyme disease to humans.^ Urbanization and other anthropogenic factors can be implicated in the spread of Lyme disease to humans.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Borrelia burgdorferi is the predominant cause of Lyme disease in the United States, whereas Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii are implicated in most European cases.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ On the West Coast of the United States , Lyme disease is spread by the western black-legged tick ( Ixodes pacificus ), which has a different life cycle.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.In many areas, expansion of suburban neighborhoods has led to gradual deforestation of surrounding wooded areas and increased border contact between humans and tick-dense areas.^ In many areas, expansion of suburban neighborhoods has led to the gradual deforestation of surrounding wooded areas and increasing border contact between humans and tick-dense areas.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ PROPERTY Remove wood piles, rock walls, and bird feeders as these attract tick-carrying small animals and can increase the risk of acquiring Lyme.

^ A favorite tick habitat is the transitional zone between woods and lawns or meadows.

.Human expansion has also resulted in reduction of predators that hunt deer as well as mice, chipmunks and other small rodents – the primary reservoirs for Lyme disease.^ Human expansion has also resulted in a gradual reduction of the predators that normally hunt deer as well as mice, chipmunks and other small rodents – the primary reservoirs for Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the fall, large acorn forests attract deer as well as mice, chipmunks and other small rodents infected with B. burgdorferi .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A more effective, community wide method of preventing Lyme disease is to reduce the numbers of primary hosts on which the deer tick depends such as rodents, other small mammals, and deer.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.As a consequence of increased human contact with host and vector, the likelihood of transmission of the disease has greatly increased.^ As a consequence of increased human contact with host and vector , the likelihood of transmission to Lyme residents has greatly increased.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In many areas, expansion of suburban neighborhoods has led to the gradual deforestation of surrounding wooded areas and increasing border contact between humans and tick-dense areas.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, all animal studies of susceptibility to date have only addressed early disease in models that behave differently than human hosts.

[201][202] .Researchers are investigating possible links between global warming and the spread of vector-borne diseases, including Lyme disease.^ The widespread distribution of these tick vectors greatly increases the prevalence of Lyme disease well beyond that of official reports.

^ By using the term “Lyme” one tends to think of a primary pathogen, and a vector-borne pathogen at that, and this tends to blind one to the complexity (and sophistication) of the antibiotic-resistant pathogens we are dealing with in Th1 disease.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like many disease conditions, researchers are looking at several possible causes for this condition.
  • NewsLetter 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.vrp.com [Source type: Academic]

[203]
.The deer tick (Ixodes scapularis, the primary vector in the northeastern U.S.) has a two-year life cycle, first progressing from larva to nymph, and then from nymph to adult.^ Deer ticks ( Ixodes sp .
  • Ticks, Lyme Disease and Bluebirding 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.sialis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Right is the Ixodes scapularis (black-legged tick) larva, adult, and nymph.

^ What is the life cycle of a tick?
  • Lyme Disease | Stony Brook University Medical Center 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC sbumc.informatics.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The tick feeds only once at each stage.^ The tick feeds only once at each stage.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ (Even so, the only people who might need preventive antibiotics are unvaccinated individuals in high-risk areas who have been bitten by ticks in the nymph stage.
  • Lyme Disease and Related Tick-Borne Infections 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ticks generally feed once during the spring, but they may feed in the fall and anytime during the year.

.In the fall, large acorn forests attract deer as well as mice, chipmunks and other small rodents infected with B. burgdorferi.^ Deer ticks lay their eggs on mice and other small rodents.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the fall, large acorn forests attract deer as well as mice, chipmunks and other small rodents infected with B. burgdorferi .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Human expansion has also resulted in a gradual reduction of the predators that normally hunt deer as well as mice, chipmunks and other small rodents – the primary reservoirs for Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.During the following spring, the ticks lay their eggs.^ During the following spring, the ticks lay their eggs.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the spring, eggs hatch into a larvae ("seed" tick) that have six legs.

^ The mature female tick lays her eggs in the fall.
  • Homeopathic Homeopathy Holistic Complimentary Medicine Medical Care Physician | New York City, Rhinebeck, Hudson Valley, New York | Ronald Whitmont, MD 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.homeopathicmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.The rodent population then "booms". Tick eggs hatch into larvae, which feed on the rodents; thus the larvae acquire infection from the rodents.^ The eggs are dormant over the winter and hatch into larvae in the spring or summer.
  • Homeopathic Homeopathy Holistic Complimentary Medicine Medical Care Physician | New York City, Rhinebeck, Hudson Valley, New York | Ronald Whitmont, MD 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.homeopathicmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These eggs develop into larvae that feed on these small animals.
  • Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections - Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the spring, eggs hatch into a larvae ("seed" tick) that have six legs.

.At this stage, tick infestation may be controlled using acaricides (miticides).^ Do Not squeeze the tick or use gasoline or Vaseline because this may cause the tick to inject the Lyme spirochetes into the host.

.Adult ticks may also transmit disease to humans.^ Through a painless bite, the tick can transmit the disease to humans and animals.
  • Lyme Disease | Stony Brook University Medical Center 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC sbumc.informatics.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The disease is spread when the tick bites a human.
  • LymeSpot - Lyme Disease News & Information: September 2005 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC lymespot.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The tick can transmit the disease in the nymph and adult stages of its life cycle.
  • Lyme Disease | Stony Brook University Medical Center 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC sbumc.informatics.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After feeding, female adult ticks lay their eggs on the ground, and the cycle is complete.^ The mature female tick lays her eggs in the fall.
  • Homeopathic Homeopathy Holistic Complimentary Medicine Medical Care Physician | New York City, Rhinebeck, Hudson Valley, New York | Ronald Whitmont, MD 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.homeopathicmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ After feeding, female adult ticks lay their eggs on the ground, and the cycle is complete.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Adult ticks, produce eggs.
  • Fleas and Ticks 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC www.k9web.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the West Coast of the United States, Lyme disease is spread by the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus), which has a different life cycle.^ In North America, the black-legged tick or deer tick ( Ixodes scapularis ) has been identified as the key to the disease's spread on the east coast.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ On the West Coast of the United States , Lyme disease is spread by the western black-legged tick ( Ixodes pacificus ), which has a different life cycle.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ On the West Coast , the primary vector is the western black-legged tick ( Ixodes pacificus ).
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The risk of acquiring Lyme disease does not depend on the existence of a local deer population, as is commonly assumed.^ The risk of acquiring Lyme disease does not depend on the existence of a local deer population, as is commonly assumed.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The existence of Lyme disease in Australia is controversial.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When are you more at risk for Lyme disease?
  • Lyme Disease | Stony Brook University Medical Center 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC sbumc.informatics.sunysb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

New research suggests that eliminating deer from smaller areas (less than 2.5 ha or 6 acres) may in fact lead to an increase in tick density and the rise of "tick-borne disease hotspots".[204]

Controversy and politics

While there is general agreement on the optimal treatment of early Lyme disease, there is considerable controversy over the existence, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, and treatment of "chronic Lyme disease".[130][205] The mainstream view is exemplified by a 2007 review in the New England Journal of Medicine, which noted that the diagnosis of "chronic Lyme disease" is used by a few physicians despite a lack of "reproducible or convincing scientific evidence", leading the authors to describe this diagnosis as "the latest in a series of syndromes that have been postulated in an attempt to attribute medically unexplained symptoms to particular infections."[13] Most medical authorities agree with this viewpoint: the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the American Academy of Neurology, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, and the National Institutes of Health advise against long-term antibiotic treatment for "chronic" Lyme disease, given the lack of supporting evidence and the potential toxicities.[132][133][134]
.A minority view holds that chronic Lyme disease is responsible for a range of unexplained symptoms, sometimes in people without any evidence of past infection.^ A critical appraisal of "chronic Lyme disease".
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I have had Chronic Lyme Disease for twenty years.
  • Lyme disease---who is credible? : White Coat Underground 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The chronic debate over Lyme disease.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[205] .This viewpoint is promoted by many patient advocates, notably an advocacy organization[130] called the International Lyme And Associated Diseases Society.^ Groups of patients, patient advocates, and physicians who support the concept of chronic Lyme disease have organized to lobby for recognition of the disease, as well as insurance coverage of long-term antibiotic therapy, which most insurers deny as it is at odds with guidelines released by major medical organizations.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In early 2004, The International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society (ILADS) released the first evidence-based comprehensive set of Lyme Disease Treatment Guidelines to assist physicians, public health officials and organizations involved in the evaluation and treatment of Lyme disease.

^ Lyme Disease is the second largest epidemic in the USAnext to AIDS. It is called Lyme because of the large number of cases discovered .

[7] .Groups of patients, patient advocates, and the small number of physicians who support the concept of chronic Lyme disease have organized to lobby for recognition of this diagnosis, as well as to argue for insurance coverage of long-term antibiotic therapy, which most insurers deny as it is at odds with the guidelines of major medical organizations.^ Chronic Lyme disease is often a life-long illness.

^ Stop using the term “Lyme disease”.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, in this debate about "chronic Lyme disease", who is credible?
  • Lyme disease---who is credible? : White Coat Underground 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[205][206]
.In 2006, Richard Blumenthal, the Connecticut Attorney General, opened an antitrust investigation against the IDSA, accusing the IDSA Lyme disease panel of undisclosed conflicts of interest and of unduly dismissing alternative therapies and "chronic" Lyme disease.^ I have had Chronic Lyme Disease for twenty years.
  • Lyme disease---who is credible? : White Coat Underground 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He's denying that CHRONIC Lyme Disease exists.
  • Lyme disease---who is credible? : White Coat Underground 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blumenthal: Vonage agrees to emergency system (2008-03-25) Connecticut Attorney General Richard Blumenthal said Tuesday that the internet phone company Vonage agreed to upgrade its system to allow customers to contact emergency services quickly.

.The investigation was closed on May 1, 2008 without charges when the IDSA agreed to submit to a review of its guidelines by a panel of independent scientists and physicians which will occur on July 30, 2009.[207] Views on the motivation and outcome of the investigation varied.^ May 8, 2009 5:30 PM .
  • Lyme disease---who is credible? : White Coat Underground 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 7, 2009 10:30 AM .
  • Lyme disease---who is credible? : White Coat Underground 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ January 2010 December 2009 November 2009 October 2009 September 2009 August 2009 July 2009 June 2009 May 2009 April 2009 March 2009 February 2009 January 2009 January 2008 November 2007 Blogroll .
  • Lyme disease---who is credible? : White Coat Underground 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Blumenthal's press release described the agreement as a vindication of his investigation and repeated his conflict-of-interest allegations.^ Blumenthal's corresponding press release argued that the agreement vindicated his investigation and again alleged conflicts of interest.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In your article you wrote: "Part of the allegation was that there was a massive conflict of interest.
  • Lyme disease---who is credible? : White Coat Underground 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Feature: Connecticut Officials Look into College Loan Conflicts of Interest (2007-04-30) Connecticut Attorney General Richard Blumenthal is investigating whether colleges and universities are trading favors with banks and other student loan providers.

[208] .The IDSA focused on the fact that the medical validity of the IDSA guidelines was not challenged,[209] and cited mounting legal costs and the difficulty of presenting scientific arguments in a legal setting as their rationale for accepting the settlement.^ The IDSA's press release focused on the fact that the medical validity of the IDSA guidelines was not challenged.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The medical and scientific basis of the 2006 guidelines remains in place and unchallenged.
  • Lyme disease---who is credible? : White Coat Underground 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The medical establishment needs to connect the complex clinical picture of Lyme disease with the evidence already present in the scientific literature.

[210] .A journalist writing in Nature Medicine suggested that some IDSA members may not have disclosed potential conflicts of interest,[205] while a Forbes piece described Blumenthal's investigation as "intimidation" of scientists by an elected official with close ties to Lyme advocacy groups.^ A journalist writing in Nature Medicine [133] later wrote that some IDSA members may not have disclosed potential conflicts of interest.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As part of this controversy, Connecticut Attorney General Richard Blumenthal , whose decade-long ties to chronic Lyme advocacy groups [134] had prompted the rebuke of medical experts, [135] opened an antitrust investigation against the IDSA, accusing the IDSA panel of undisclosed conflicts of interest and of unduly dismissing alternative therapies.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Feature: Connecticut Officials Look into College Loan Conflicts of Interest (2007-04-30) Connecticut Attorney General Richard Blumenthal is investigating whether colleges and universities are trading favors with banks and other student loan providers.

[206] .The Journal of the American Medical Association described the decision as an example of the "politicization of health policy" that went against the weight of scientific evidence and may have a chilling effect on future decisions by medical associations.^ The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 91 (6): 573–574, 577–578.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The medical establishment needs to connect the complex clinical picture of Lyme disease with the evidence already present in the scientific literature.

^ Because there is laboratory evidence that tetracyclines may inhibit the effect of Flagyl, this class of medication should not be used in these two- and three-drug regimens.

[211]
.The state of Connecticut went on to enact a law on June 18, 2009 "to allow a licensed physician to prescribe, administer or dispense long-term antibiotics for a therapeutic purpose to a patient clinically diagnosed with Lyme disease."^ Stop using the term “Lyme disease”.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Long-term outcomes of persons with Lyme disease .
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Improve physician understanding of Lyme disease .

[212] The adjacent state of Rhode Island has a similar law.[213]
Harassment of researchers
.In 2001, the New York Times Magazine reported that Allen Steere, chief of immunology and rheumatology at Tufts Medical Center and a codiscoverer and leading expert on Lyme disease, had been harassed, stalked, and threatened by patients and patient advocacy groups angry at his refusal to substantiate their diagnoses of "chronic" Lyme disease and endorse long-term antibiotic therapy.^ Chronic Lyme disease is often a life-long illness.

^ Stop using the term "Lyme disease".
  • http://www.marshallprotocol.com/forum37/3139-1.html 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.marshallprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have had Chronic Lyme Disease for twenty years.
  • Lyme disease---who is credible? : White Coat Underground 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[214] .Because this intimidation included death threats, Steere was assigned security guards.^ Because of death threats, security guards were assigned to Steere.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[113] .Paul G. Auwaerter, director of infectious disease at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, cited the political controversy and high emotions as contributing to a "poisonous atmosphere" around Lyme disease, which he believes has led to doctors trying to avoid having Lyme patients in their practice.^ The existence of Lyme disease in Australia is controversial.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Lyme disease controversy.
  • NewsLetter 20 November 2009 8:50 UTC www.vrp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Paul G. Auwaerter, director of infectious disease at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine , cited this political controversy as an example of the "poisonous atmosphere" surrounding Lyme disease research which has led younger researchers to avoid the field.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[207]
Media and Internet material
.A 2004 study in The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal stated that 9 of 19 internet websites surveyed contained what were described as major inaccuracies.^ A 2004 study found that 9 of 19 websites surveyed contained major inaccuracies.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Another study in the same journal found that 60% of Lyme disease patients lacked any evidence of previous or active Lyme infections.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CT uses internet to monitor insurance companies (2007-12-31) The state will soon start posting reports of insurance company conduct on a state website.

.Websites described as providing inaccurate information included several with the word "lyme" in their domain name (e.g.^ The name "Lyme disease" has been used to describe the illness specifically caused by only B. burgdorferi , not other Borrelia species.

lymenet.org), as well as the website of the .International Lyme And Associated Diseases Society.^ Lyme Disease Association, Inc.

^ Advance the standards of care for Lyme and its associated diseases .

^ Other GI Manifestations of Lyme and Associated Diseases .

[215] A 2008 article in the New England Journal of Medicine argued that media coverage of chronic Lyme disease ignored scientific evidence in favor of anecdotes and testimonials:
.The media frequently disregard complex scientific data in favor of testimonials about patients suffering from purported chronic Lyme disease and may even question the competence of clinicians who are reluctant to diagnose chronic Lyme disease.^ Chronic arthritis occurs in 10% of Lyme disease patients.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Patient 2 is a 58-year-old woman who was diagnosed with Lyme disease in 1999.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://www.marshallprotocol.com/forum37/3139-1.html 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.marshallprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have been able to educate myself about Lyme disease.

.All these factors have contributed to a great deal of public confusion with little appreciation of the serious harm caused to many patients who have received a misdiagnosis and have been inappropriately treated.^ Published reports and clinical experience have shown this regimen to be unacceptable, as nearly half of patients so treated have had to abandon treatment due to serious side effects, many of which were disabling.

^ FIrst of all, you have never asked the question, why are these patients turning to alternative medicine?
  • Lyme disease---who is credible? : White Coat Underground 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Patient 9 is a 51-year-old woman who has been diagnosed with numerous conditions over many years of being ill.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]
.The 2008 film Under Our Skin: The Untold Story of Lyme Disease opened June 19, 2009 in New York City.^ Paterson defends work during session (2008-06-26) New York's governor David Paterson defended the work he's done this year during the legislative session.

^ Paterson follows Spitzer's environmental legacy (2008-03-18) New York's new governor, David Paterson, is inheriting from Eliot Spitzer an administration with an environmental focus.

^ Paterson rushes to propose budget (2008-03-26) Not unlike his predecessors, New York Governor David Paterson is having trouble meeting the state budget deadline.

.This documentary, made by a director whose sister contracted the disease, argues that chronic lyme disease conditions do exist.^ I have had Chronic Lyme Disease for twenty years.
  • Lyme disease---who is credible? : White Coat Underground 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lyme disease does exist.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://www.marshallprotocol.com/forum37/3139-1.html 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.marshallprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He's denying that CHRONIC Lyme Disease exists.
  • Lyme disease---who is credible? : White Coat Underground 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[216] .Lyme Disease was also the focus of a major feature in The Times (London) in February 2010[217] which detailed the impact the disease had had on British author Alex Wade.^ Sole Lyme Vaccine Is Pulled Off Market , published in the New York Times on February 28, 2002; accessed July 11, 2008.
  • Lyme disease - Psychology Wiki 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The clinical features of our patient were, however, highly atypical for Lyme disease.
  • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

^ These species can share their plasmids, share their ribosomes, share their toxins, and in a chronic disease they have plenty of time to figure out how to share the very best features of each species.
  • Lyme disease (MPKB) 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC mpkb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://www.marshallprotocol.com/forum37/3139-1.html 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC www.marshallprotocol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

Bibliography

.
  • Jonathan A. Edlow MD, Bull's Eye: Unraveling the Medical Mystery of Lyme Disease, Yale University Press, 2003
  • Pamela Weintraub, Cure Unknown: Inside the Lyme Disease Epidemic, May 2008. 400 p.^ Lyme Disease is the second largest epidemic in the USAnext to AIDS. It is called Lyme because of the large number of cases discovered .

    ^ Their ignorance surrounding Lyme disease (LD) may be one of conventional medicines biggest failures.

    ^ Lyme arthritis (LA) may be confused with other rheumatic diseases, particularly in the absence of a history of erythema migrans (EM).
    • persistent-borreliosis.htm 11 September 2009 22:58 UTC lymerick.net [Source type: Academic]

    St. Martin's Press, hardcover. ISBN 978-0-312-37812-7. MED

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External links

General

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Noun

Singular
Lyme disease
.
  1. (pathology) Infection by a bacterium of the genus Borrelia which is transmitted by ticks.^ It is caused by an infection transmitted by the bite of ticks carrying the Borrelia burgdorferi bacterium.
    • Lyme Disease - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention 28 January 2010 0:22 UTC health.stateuniversity.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It is transmitted by ticks from the genus Ixodes.

    ^ This bacterial infection is transmitted by a tick.
    • Lyme Disease – The Lee Clinic 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.theleeclinic.com [Source type: Academic]

    Symptoms include a rash followed by fever, joint pain, and headaches.

Translations

See also

References

.
  • Wikipedia-logo.png Lyme disease on Wikipedia.^ Wikipedia on lyme disease: note the controversies .
    • Liberation Park - Lyme disease precautions 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.liberationpark.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Lyme disease at HighBeam Research Lyme disease on Wikipedia .
    • Lyme disease Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Lyme disease 31 January 2010 13:32 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

    Wikipedia

Simple English

Lyme disease or borreliosis, is an infectious disease. It is the most common tick-borne infection in the United States. Although Allen Steere realized in 1978 that Lyme disease was a tick-borne disease, the cause of the disease remained a mystery until 1982. It can cause joint swelling, rashes, and neurological disorders.

Symptoms

References


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 13, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Lyme disease, which are similar to those in the above article.