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Lysergic acid amide: Wikis


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Systematic (IUPAC) name
CAS number 478-94-4
ATC code none
PubChem 442072
ChemSpider 390611
Chemical data
Formula C16H17N3O 
Mol. mass 267.326 g/mol
Synonyms LSA, d-lysergic acid amide, d-lysergamide, Ergine, and LA-111
Pharmacokinetic data
Metabolism hepatic
Excretion renal
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat. X [1]
Legal status  ? (UK) Schedule III (US)
Routes Oral, Intramuscular

LSA, also known as d-lysergic acid amide, d-lysergamide, ergine, and LA-111, is an alkaloid of the ergoline family that occurs in various species of vines of the Convolvulaceae and some species of fungi. As the dominant alkaloid in the hallucinogenic seeds of Rivea corymbosa (ololiuhqui), Argyreia nervosa (Hawaiian baby woodrose) and Ipomoea tricolor (morning glories, tlitliltzin), it is often stated that ergine and/or isoergine (its epimer) is responsible for the psychedelic activity. In fact, the effects of synthetic LSA and iso-LSA are not particularly psychedelic, see Mixing the Kykeon below for a summary of human trials, and Chapter 17 and entry #26 of TiHKAL for further discussion. As a precursor to LSD, ergine is a DEA schedule III drug in the United States.



A traditional use of morning glory seeds by Mexican Native Americans was first described by Richard Schultes in 1941 in a short report documenting their use going back to Aztec times (cited in TiHKAL by Alexander Shulgin). Further research was published in 1960, when Don Thomes MacDougall reported that the seeds of Ipomoea tricolor were used as sacraments by certain Zapotecs, sometimes in conjunction with the seeds of Rivea corymbosa, another species which has a similar chemical composition, with lysergol instead of ergometrine. Ergine was assayed for human activity by Albert Hofmann in self-trials in 1947, well before it was known to be a natural compound. Intramuscular administration of a 500 microgram dose led to a tired, dreamy state, with an inability to maintain clear thoughts. After a short period of sleep the effects were gone, and normal baseline was recovered within five hours.[2] .

In 1956 the Central Intelligence Agency conducted research on the psychedelic properties of the ergine in the seeds of Rivea corymbosa, as Subproject 22 of MKULTRA.

Natural occurrence

Ergine has been found in high concentrations of 20 µg/g dry weight in the grass Stipa robusta (sleepygrass) infected with an Acremonium endophytic fungus together with other ergot alkaloids.[3]

It is also found in the seeds of several varieties of Morning Glories in concentrations of approximately 10 µg per seed, as well as Hawaiian Baby Woodrose seeds, at a concentration of around .3%.


LSA can be extracted from morning glory (Ipomoea spp.) seeds[4] or Hawaiian baby woodrose[5].

See also


Smith, Sydney; Timmis, Geoffrey M. (1932). "98. The Alkaloids of Ergot. Part III. Ergine, a New Base obtained by the Degradation of Ergotoxine and Ergotinine". J. Chem. Soc. 1932: 763–766. doi:10.1039/JR9320000763. 

Powell, William (2002). The Anarchist Cookbook. Ozark Press,LLC. pp. 44. 


  1. ^ Erowid (04-15-07). "Erowid Morning Glory Basics". 
  2. ^ Alexander Shulgin. "TiHKAL #26". 
  3. ^ Petroski RJ, Powell RG, Clay K (1992). "Alkaloids of Stipa robusta (sleepygrass) infected with an Acremonium endophyte". Nat. Toxins 1 (2): 84–88. doi:10.1002/nt.2620010205. PMID 1344912. 
  4. ^ "Ask Erowid". 
  5. ^ "LSA Extraction". 

External links



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