M1 Abrams: Wikis

  
  
  
  

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M1 Abrams
Abrams-transparent.png
M1A2 Abrams with prototype TUSK equipment (without optional coaxial .50 machine gun)
Front  · Rear
Type Main battle tank
Place of origin  United States
Service history
In service 1980–present
Used by See operators
Wars Gulf War (Operation Desert Storm)
War in Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom)
Iraq War (Operation Iraqi Freedom)
Production history
Designer Chrysler Defense
Manufacturer Lima Army Tank Plant (1980-present)[1]
Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant (1982-1996)
Unit cost US$6.21 million (M1A2 / FY99)[3]
Number built Over 9,000[2]
Variants See variants
Specifications
Weight 67.6 short tons (61.3 t; 60.4 long tons)
Length Gun forward: 32.04 ft (9.77 m)[4]
Hull length: 26.02 ft (7.93 m)
Width 12 ft (3.66 m)
Height 8 ft (2.44 m)
Crew 4 (commander, gunner, loader, driver)

Armor Chobham, RH armor, steel encased depleted uranium mesh plating
Primary
armament
105 mm M68 rifled cannon (M1)
120 mm M256 smoothbore cannon (M1A1, M1A2, M1A2SEP))
Secondary
armament
1 x .50-caliber (12.7 mm) M2HB heavy machine gun
2 x 7.62 mm (.308) M240 machine guns (1 pintle-mounted, 1 coaxial)
Engine Honeywell AGT1500C multi-fuel turbine engine
1,500 shp (1,120 kW)
Power/weight 24.5 hp/metric ton
Transmission Allison DDA X-1100-3B
Suspension Torsion bar
Ground clearance 0.48 m (1 ft 7 in) (M1, M1A1)
0.43 m (1 ft 5 in) (M1A2)
Fuel capacity 500 US gallons (1,900 l; 420 imp gal)
Operational
range
289 mi (465.29 km)[5]
With NBC system: 279 mi (449.19 km)
Speed Road: 42 mph (67.7 km/h)
Off-road: 30 mph (48.3 km/h)
.The M1 Abrams is a third-generation main battle tank produced in the United States.^ The M1A2 Abrams is America's main battle tank.
  • Armored Fist 2 - M1A2 Abrams Review for PC - GameSpot 22 September 2009 22:49 UTC www.gamespot.com [Source type: General]

^ The main battle tank of the US Army is the M1 Abrams.
  • Al-Ahram Weekly | Special | ...and the war machine 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC weekly.ahram.org.eg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Desert war - M1 Abrams tank?
  • Random Question regarding backgrounds - Team17 Forum 20 September 2009 17:19 UTC forum.team17.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The M1 is named after General Creighton Abrams, former Army Chief of Staff and Commander of US military forces in Vietnam from 1968 to 1972. It is a well armed, heavily armored, and highly mobile tank designed for modern armored ground warfare.^ The M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank is the named after the late Gen.Creighton W. Abrams,former Army Chief of Staff and commander of the 37th Armored Battalion.
  • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's a good tank but definetly not as good as US armed forces claim.
  • ‘Something’ felled an M1A1 Abrams tank in Iraq – but what? [Archive] - Defence Talk Forum 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.defencetalk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank (MBT) was named after the late General Creighton W. Abrams, who served as out nation’s Army Chief of Staff and commander of the 37th Armored Battalion.

[6] .Notable features of the M1 Abrams include the use of a powerful gas turbine engine, the adoption of sophisticated composite armor, and separate ammunition storage in a blow-out compartment for crew safety.^ The Abrams's engine is more powerful but it is so thirsty!
  • Modern Tanks [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Description for Turbine Engine: full power ...
  • fuel videos, fuel music videos, fuel music video codes, video html codes, music video html codes 22 September 2009 22:49 UTC www.rockyourspace.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Notable features of the M1 Abrams include the use of a powerful gas turbine engine, the adoption of sophisticated composite armor, and separate ammunition storage in a blow-out compartment for crew safety.

.It is one of the heaviest tanks in service, weighing in at close to 68 short tons (almost 62 metric tons).^ The new tank weighed in at 67.5 short tons making it one of the heaviest such systems in the world.
  • General Dynamics M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank - History, Specifications and Picture - Military Tanks, Vehicles, and Artillery 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is one of the heaviest tanks in service, weighing in at close to 70 tons.

^ Assembly plants had manufactured more than 2,300 of the 62-ton M1 tank by January 1985, when the new version, the MlA1, was approved for full production.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.cavhooah.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The M1 Abrams entered U.S. service in 1980, replacing the 105 mm gun, full tracked M60 Patton.^ "Tank, Combat, Full Tracked, 120-mm Gun, M1A1 General Abrams."
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Tank, Combat, Full Tracked, 105 mm Gun, M1 General Abrams."
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Tank, Combat, Full Tracked, 105 mm Gun, IPM1 General Abrams."
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

[7] .It did, however, serve for over a decade alongside the improved M60A3, which had entered service in 1978. Three main versions of the M1 Abrams have been deployed, the M1, M1A1, and M1A2, incorporating improved armament, protection and electronics.^ M1A2 Abrams (Main battle tank) .
  • Army Guide - General Dynamics Land Systems - GDLS 22 September 2009 22:49 UTC www.army-guide.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The M1A2 SEP is an improved version of the M1A2.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ TUSK entered service on M1A1 / M1A2 tanks in late 2007 and has been deployed to Iraq.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

.These improvements, as well as periodic upgrades to older tanks have allowed this long-serving vehicle to remain in front-line service.^ The first M1A1 tanks to receive this upgrade were tanks stationed in Germany, since they were the first line of defense against the Soviet Union.
  • M1 Abrams - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Larger tanks will remain in service through at least 2035, said Rickey Smith, an Army "capabilities integration" expert.
  • National Journal Magazine - Defense - Future Tank 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.nationaljournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is predicted that it will serve as a front-line aircraft until 2040.
  • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The M1A3 is currently under development. .It is the principal main battle tank of the United States Army and Marine Corps, and the armies of Egypt, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Australia, and in 2010 Iraq.^ M1A2 Abrams (Main battle tank) .
  • Army Guide - General Dynamics Land Systems - GDLS 22 September 2009 22:49 UTC www.army-guide.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Army Guide - M1A1 Abrams, Main battle tank .
  • Army Guide - M1A1 Abrams, Main battle tank 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.army-guide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Army Guide - M1A1 Abrams, Main battle tank 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.army-guide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ M1A1 Abrams (Main battle tank) .
  • Army Guide - General Dynamics Land Systems - GDLS 22 September 2009 22:49 UTC www.army-guide.com [Source type: Academic]

.The M1 Abrams is anticipated to be in U.S. service until the 2050s, approximately 70 years after entering U.S. service.^ At the end of my enlistment of 6 years the Army offered me a position working on on the new M1 Abrams tank to help start a rebuild program.
  • Chinese eBay Gas Motor? [Archive] - Bike Forums 20 September 2009 17:19 UTC www.bikeforums.net [Source type: General]

^ The M1A2 is the latest, most technologically advanced Abrams tank, entering service in 1993.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Despite entering service in 1980, the Abrams did not received her combat baptism until the 1991 Gulf War.
  • General Dynamics M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank - History, Specifications and Picture - Military Tanks, Vehicles, and Artillery 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

History

Development

An XM1 Abrams, during a demonstration at Fort Knox, Kentucky in 1979.
.The first attempt to replace the aging M60 Patton was the MBT-70, developed in partnership with West Germany in the 1960s.^ IRONMAN 06-01-2005, 10:00 PM The Americans wish to develop lighter more mobile armoured vehicles to replace the MBTs.
  • Modern Tanks [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The M1 was designed to replace the venerable M60 Patton series, though the two ended up serving side by side for some 10 years.
  • General Dynamics M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank - History, Specifications and Picture - Military Tanks, Vehicles, and Artillery 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Voluntary Escaper 06-01-2005, 10:35 AM The Americans wish to develop lighter more mobile armoured vehicles to replace the MBTs.
  • Modern Tanks [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

.The MBT-70 was very ambitious, and had various ideas that ultimately proved unsuccessful.^ The MBT-70 project, despite its revolutionary design implements, proved too ambitious and was effectively killed by the congressional decision.
  • General Dynamics M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank - History, Specifications and Picture - Military Tanks, Vehicles, and Artillery 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Engineering===== Mine Plow: Compatible — Compatible Mine Roller: Compatible — Compatible Dozer Blade: Not compatible* — Compatible (*: The M1’s drivetrain — in the MBT variants — proved too fragile and anemic to push a Dozer Blade, so one was ever procured) .
  • Challenger vs. Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.murdoconline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As a result of the imminent failure of this project, the U.S. Army introduced the XM803. This succeeded only in producing an expensive system with capabilities similar to the M60.[8]
.Congress canceled the MBT-70 in November and XM803 December 1971, and redistributed the funds to the new XM815 later renamed the XM1 Abrams after General Creighton Abrams.^ The M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank (MBT) was named after the late General Creighton W. Abrams, who served as out nation’s Army Chief of Staff and commander of the 37th Armored Battalion.

^ The Abrams is named after former Army Chief of Staff General Creighton Abrams whom served in the Vietnam War from 1968 to 1972 as Commander of US Military Forces.
  • General Dynamics M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank - History, Specifications and Picture - Military Tanks, Vehicles, and Artillery 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank (MBT) is the namesake of the late General Creighton W. Abrams, former Army Chief of Staff and commander of the 37th Armored Battalion.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Reference]
  • JCOC 73 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.jcoc73.com [Source type: Reference]

.Prototypes were delivered in 1976 by Chrysler Defense and General Motors armed with the license-built version of the 105 mm Royal Ordnance L7 gun along with a Leopard 2 for comparison.^ General Motors and Chrysler Corporation each delivered one prototype XM1 vehicle to the U.S. Army in 1976 for testing.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The M1A1 armed with the Rheinmetall-designed 120-mm smoothbore gun is possibly the best (and most expensive) combination of firepower, mobility and protection of any tank in Western service (the German Leopard 2 MBT has also been described in similar terms).
  • Aussies Impressed! Pick M1 Abram over Challenger and Leopard!!! [Archive] - Forums of Pravda.Ru 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC engforum.pravda.ru [Source type: News]

^ The AC-130 is powered by four Rolls-Royce T56-A-15 turboprops and has an armament ranging from 20 mm Gatling guns to 105 mm howitzers.
  • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Chrysler Defense design was selected for development as the M1. In 1979, General Dynamics Land Systems Division purchased Chrysler Defense.^ The Chrysler Corporation design was selected for development as the M1.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The M1 Abrams was designed by Chrysler Defense (in 1979 , General Dynamics Land Systems Division purchased Chrysler Defense Division) and is currently produced by General Dynamics Corporation in Lima, Ohio, and first entered US Army service in 1980.
  • M1 Abrams - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The M1 Abrams was designed by Chrysler Defense and produced under the General Dynamics brand.
  • General Dynamics M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank - History, Specifications and Picture - Military Tanks, Vehicles, and Artillery 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.3273 M1 Abrams were produced 1979-85 and first entered US Army service in 1980. It was armed with the license-built version of the 105 mm Royal Ordnance L7 gun.^ In 1986 first modernized M1A1 "Abrams" entered service in US Armed Forces.
  • Army Guide - M1A1 Abrams, Main battle tank 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.army-guide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Army Guide - M1A1 Abrams, Main battle tank 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.army-guide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Tank, Combat, Full Tracked, 105 mm Gun, M1 General Abrams."
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ M1 tanks were produced for the US Army.
  • :: Battlefield 2 Online.com :: - wfsection-M1A1 ABRAMS 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.bf2online.com [Source type: Academic]

.An improved model called the M1IP was produced briefly in 1984 and contained small upgrades.^ The second model, produced from 1984 to 1986, was the Improved Performance M1 (IPM1).
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The original model, the basic M1, was produced from 1984 to January 1985.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

The M1IP models were used in the Canadian Army Trophy NATO tank gunnery competition in 1985 and 1987.
.About 6000 M1A1 Abrams were produced from 1986–92 and featured the M256 120 mm smoothbore cannon developed by Rheinmetall AG of Germany for the Leopard 2, improved armor, and a CBRN protection system.^ M1A1 Abrams, firing the M256 120 mm gun.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The main weapon of the M1A1 is the M256 120mm smoothbore cannon, designed by the Rheinmetall Corporation of Germany.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Reference]

^ M1 ABRAMS ARMAMENT The main armament is the 120mm M256 smoothbore gun, developed by Rheinmetall GmbH of Germany.
  • :: Battlefield 2 Online.com :: - wfsection-M1A1 ABRAMS 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.bf2online.com [Source type: Academic]

Gulf War

.
Abrams move out on a mission during the Gulf War.
^ I'm still looking for a copy of a video that I saw back in the 90s that showed, I believe, a US Abrams M1 tank company sweep through an Iraqi tank brigade during Gulf War I. They were moving at speed [50MPH?} and firing as they went.

^ During the Gulf War only 18 Abrams tanks were taken out of service due to battle damage: nine were permanent losses, and another nine suffered repairable damage, mostly from mines.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]
  • JCOC 73 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.jcoc73.com [Source type: Reference]

^ We lost a couple Abrams to tank fire in the first Gulf War, we just never lost any crewmen.
  • DerelictStudios Forums > Realism? 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.derelictstudios.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A Bradley IFV and logistics convoy can be seen in the background.
.As the Abrams entered service in the 1980s, they would operate alongside M60A3 within the United States military, and with other NATO tanks in numerous Cold War exercises.^ The M1 Abrams is a military tank produced in the United States.

^ China would lose a war with the United States.
  • DerelictStudios Forums > Realism? 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.derelictstudios.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These units were important assignments due to the Cold War concern for potential invasion of western Europe by the Soviet Union.
  • Creighton Williams Abrams, Jr., General, United States Army 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.arlingtoncemetery.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These exercises usually took place in Western Europe, especially West Germany, but also in some other countries like South Korea.^ These units were important assignments due to the Cold War concern for potential invasion of western Europe by the Soviet Union.
  • Creighton Williams Abrams, Jr., General, United States Army 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.arlingtoncemetery.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iraqi Resistance fighters carried out a rocket attack south west of Baghdad leaving three dead and five others wounded.
  • Aussies Impressed! Pick M1 Abram over Challenger and Leopard!!! [Archive] - Forums of Pravda.Ru 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC engforum.pravda.ru [Source type: News]

^ However, roads are a predictable approach route and are likely to be mined or defended in some other manner.
  • LAV Stryker 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During such training, Abrams crews honed their skills for use against the men and equipment of the Soviet Union.^ Nautilus August 24th, 2005, 01:08 AM I'd say the Abrams track record largely stems from the fact that its been used against old tanks with poorly trained & experienced crews.
  • ‘Something’ felled an M1A1 Abrams tank in Iraq – but what? [Archive] - Defence Talk Forum 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.defencetalk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not so at all modern Soviet tanks generally have a crew of three and a auto loader while tanks in the west used a loader instead.
  • Is the T-34 the Best Tank in History? [Archive] - Avalon Hill Boards 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC boards.avalonhill.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result they invaded the Soviet Union with an older design...and it came as quite a shock to them that their equipment was so bad.
  • Super Bowl of militaries: who would win? - Page 2 - Straight Dope Message Board 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: General]

.However, by 1991 the USSR had collapsed and the Abrams would have its trial by fire in the Middle East.^ However, you bring up its 'poor uptime and robustness' but below you mention Abrams on fire because of ruptured fuel lines.
  • ‘Something’ felled an M1A1 Abrams tank in Iraq – but what? [Archive] - Defence Talk Forum 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.defencetalk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eliot Abrams the architect of Death Squad training in Hondouras under Reagan; the architect of Bush 2’s middle east policy.
  • Think Progress » Elliott Abrams: Iranian People Wouldn’t Oppose A Military Attack On Their Country 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

.The Abrams remained untested in combat until the Gulf War in 1991. A total of 1,848 M1A1s were deployed to Saudi Arabia.^ M1A1HA, as deployed during the Gulf War, 1991 .
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ With this purchase, Iraq will become the 4th M1 Abrams operator in the region, joining Egypt (M1A1s), Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia (M1A2-​​SEP variant).
  • Iraq Getting World’s Best Tank | Defense Tech 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC defensetech.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Iraq Getting World’s Best Tank | Defense Tech 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC defensetech.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We lost a couple Abrams to tank fire in the first Gulf War, we just never lost any crewmen.
  • DerelictStudios Forums > Realism? 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.derelictstudios.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The M1A1 was superior to Iraq's Soviet-era T-55 and T-62 tanks, as well as Iraqi assembled Russian T-72s, and locally-produced copies (Asad Babil tank).^ The Abrams was not completely done in Iraq, however, for the invasion of 2003 invasion of Iraq - organized under Operation Iraqi Freedom - saw similar tank-versus-tank results in favor of the Abrams.
  • General Dynamics M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank - History, Specifications and Picture - Military Tanks, Vehicles, and Artillery 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This means that M1A1 tanks could hit their targets, while Iraqi tanks couldn't hit, or, if they hit, couldn't damage M1A1 tanks.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ M1A1 KVT ("Krasnovian Variant Tank") - M1A1 models designed to mimic the look of Soviet-era tanks for training purposes.
  • General Dynamics M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank - History, Specifications and Picture - Military Tanks, Vehicles, and Artillery 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The T-72s like most Soviet export designs lacked night vision systems and then-modern rangefinders, though they did have some night fighting tanks with older active infrared systems or floodlights—just not the latest starlight scopes and passive infrared scopes as on the Abrams.^ Follow-up fighting saw several Abrams damaged via Soviet-designed RPG-7 rocket propelled grenade weapons fired at the tank tracks, the tank rear and along the turret top - the three most vulnerable ballistic points of any tank, especially in the realm of urban fighting where elevations now play an advantage to the defensive party.
  • General Dynamics M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank - History, Specifications and Picture - Military Tanks, Vehicles, and Artillery 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The origins of the M1 Abrams can be traced back to a failed partnership between the United States and West Germany in producing a new generation main battle tank system with the latest capabilities to combat whatever the Soviets were brewing (this turned out to be the T-72).
  • General Dynamics M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank - History, Specifications and Picture - Military Tanks, Vehicles, and Artillery 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Improvements to the basic M1 Abrams were planned from the very beginning of its development to keep pace with the new Soviet tank designs.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

.Only 23 M1A1s were taken out of service in the Gulf[9] and one of these losses resulted in crew deaths from Iraqi fire.^ One of the biggest benefits of the Abrams system lay in the range of its main guns which out-shot Iraqi tanks by at least 500 meters.
  • General Dynamics M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank - History, Specifications and Picture - Military Tanks, Vehicles, and Artillery 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The resultant explosion means no crew get out alive.
  • ‘Something’ felled an M1A1 Abrams tank in Iraq – but what? [Archive] - Defence Talk Forum 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.defencetalk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These kits were used a lot during the Gulf War and in Operation Iraqi Freedom.

.Some others took minor combat damage, with little effect on their operational readiness.^ At this time, it appears most likely that an RPG-22 or some other improved variant of the Russian-designed weapon damaged the M1 tank, sources concluded.
  • ‘Something’ felled an M1A1 Abrams tank in Iraq – but what? [Archive] - Defence Talk Forum 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.defencetalk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Very few Abrams tanks were hit by enemy fire, and there was only one fatality, along with a handful of woundings as a result.^ There are only a few issues.
  • Vodnik's Dragon Panther II review 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC strony.aster.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Armorama :: In-Box Review: M1 Panther II MDCV by Pawel Krupowicz 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.armorama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ M1A2 Abrams Tank firing range?
  • WikiAnswers - What is the best tank Challenger 2 or Abrams M1A2 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Well, there is an M1 Abrams Tank.
  • Think Progress » Elliott Abrams: Iranian People Wouldn’t Oppose A Military Attack On Their Country 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

An M1A1 destroyed by Iraqi fire during the Liberation of Kuwait.
.The M1A1 was capable of making kills at ranges in excess of 2,500 metres (8,200 ft).^ The M1A1 was capable of making kills at ranges in excess of 4000 m .
  • M1 Abrams - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Academic]

.This range was crucial in combat against tanks of Soviet design in Desert Storm, as the effective range of the main gun in the Soviet/Iraqi tanks was less than 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) (Iraqi tanks could not fire anti-tank missiles like their Russian counterparts).^ Russian tank design.
  • ‘Something’ felled an M1A1 Abrams tank in Iraq – but what? [Archive] - Defence Talk Forum 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.defencetalk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Maximum effective range is 3,000 meters.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ M1A2 Abrams Tank firing range?
  • WikiAnswers - What is the best tank Challenger 2 or Abrams M1A2 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This meant Abrams tanks could hit Iraqi tanks before the enemy got in range—a decisive advantage in this kind of combat.^ M1A2 Abrams Tank firing range?
  • WikiAnswers - What is the best tank Challenger 2 or Abrams M1A2 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The high speed, high temperature jet exhaust emitted from the rear of M1 Abrams tanks makes it difficult for the infantry to proceed shadowing the tank in urban combat .
  • M1 Abrams - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ London's Daily Telegraph said the commander of an Army Abrams died Friday near Karbala when his tank was hit by ground-launched rockets.
  • Aussies Impressed! Pick M1 Abram over Challenger and Leopard!!! [Archive] - Forums of Pravda.Ru 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC engforum.pravda.ru [Source type: News]

.In friendly fire incidents, the front armor and fore side turret armor survived direct APFSDS hits from other M1A1s.^ In friendly fire incidents the front armor and side turret armor survived direct APFSDS hits from other M1A1s.
  • M1 Abrams - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ On the other hand, the M1A2 Abrams is smaller and can now be equipped with the TUSK (Tank Urban Survival) kit which will incorporate reactive armor on the sides and slat armor on the rear to protect it from RPGs and other shaped charges.
  • WikiAnswers - What is the best tank Challenger 2 or Abrams M1A2 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, it seemed that friendly fire incidents were a bigger threat to the Abrams than were the Iraqi main battle tank and anti-tank weapon systems.
  • General Dynamics M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank - History, Specifications and Picture - Military Tanks, Vehicles, and Artillery 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was not the case for the side armor of the hull and the rear armor of the turret, as both areas were penetrated at least in two occasions by friendly DU ammunition during the Battle of Norfolk.^ The tank carries 55 rounds of 105mm ammunition: 44 in the turret bustle, three horizontally in spall-proof containers on the turret basket, and eight in a hull box.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If penetrated by a HEAT projectile, the ready-use ammunition stowed in the turret bustle would explode through top panels.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The hull and turret are protected by advanced armor similar to the Chobam armor developed by the British Ministry of Defense.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Reference]
  • JCOC 73 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.jcoc73.com [Source type: Reference]

[10]

Interwar upgrades

.The M1A2 was a further improvement of the M1A1 with a commander's independent thermal viewer and weapon station, position navigation equipment, digital data bus and a radio interface unit.^ Improved commander's weapon station (CWS).
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The newer M1A2 series includes all of the M1A1 features plus a commander’s independent thermal viewer, an independent commander’s weapon station, position navigation equipment, and a digital data bus and radio interface unit providing a common picture among M1A2s on the battlefield.
  • JCOC 73 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.jcoc73.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Commander's independent thermal viewer (CITV).
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

.The M1A2 SEP (System Enhancement Package) added digital maps, FBCB2 (Force XXI Battlefield Command Brigade and Below) capabilities, and an improved cooling system to maintain crew compartment temperature with the addition of multiple computer systems to the M1A2 tank.^ The program upgrades the M1A2's computer systems and its night vision capabilities.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ M1A1 Abrams tanks to the M1A2 Systems Enhancement Package Version Two configuration.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The M1A2 SEP is an improved version of the M1A2.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

.Further upgrades included depleted uranium armor for all variants, a system overhaul that returns all A1s to like-new condition (M1A1 AIM), a digital enhancement package for the A1 (M1A1D), a commonality program to standardize parts between the U.S. Army and the Marine Corps (M1A1HC) and an electronic upgrade for the A2 (M1A2 SEP).^ The upgrade involves rebuilding to a 'like new' condition, similar to the US Army Abrams Integrated Management Program (AIM).
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Under the AIM program, M1A1 Abrams tanks are completely disassembled and overhauled to a like-new, zero-mile condition.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The program upgrades the M1A2's computer systems and its night vision capabilities.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

.During Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm and for Bosnia, some M1A1s were modified with armor upgrades.^ What year was operation desert storm fought?
  • WikiAnswers - What is the best tank Challenger 2 or Abrams M1A2 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now retired from service, it saw extensive combat in Vietnam, and limited service in Operation Just Cause (Panama), and Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm (Iraq).

^ The M1A1’s M256 120 mm smooth bore cannon, designed by a German company known as the Rheinmetall Corporation, is able to engage enemies from up to 4,000 meters away and did so during Operation Desert Storm.

.The M1 can be equipped with mine plow and mine roller attachments if needed.^ The M1 can be equipped with mine plow and mine roller attachments if needed.
  • M1 Abrams - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A mine-clearing roller (MCR) can be mounted on an M1 or M60 tank that is modified with a permanently attached mine-roller mounting kit.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Abrams tank itself can be converted to operate a mine plow and mine roller for mine-clearing services.
  • General Dynamics M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank - History, Specifications and Picture - Military Tanks, Vehicles, and Artillery 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The M1 chassis also serves as a basis for the Grizzly combat engineering vehicle and the M104 Wolverine heavy assault bridge.^ The M1 chassis also serves as a basis for the Grizzly combat engineering vehicle and the M104 Wolverine heavy assault bridge.
  • M1 Abrams - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ M1 Grizzly Engineer Vehicle [ link ].
  • M1 Abrams - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ M104 "Wolverine" HAB ("Heavy Assault Bridge")- Bridgelayer based on M1 chassis.
  • General Dynamics M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank - History, Specifications and Picture - Military Tanks, Vehicles, and Artillery 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Over 8,800 M1 and M1A1 tanks have been produced at a cost of US$2.35–$4.30 million per unit, depending on the variant.^ Over 8,800 M1 and M1A1 tanks have been produced.
  • M1 Abrams - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Over 8,800 M1 and M1A1 tanks have been produced - 3,273 M1 tanks were produced for the US Army.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A single Abrams can carry a price tag of up to $4.35 million USD or more depending on the model and variant.
  • General Dynamics M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank - History, Specifications and Picture - Military Tanks, Vehicles, and Artillery 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Iraq War

M1A1 conducts reconnaissance in Iraq in September 2004.
.Further combat was seen during 2003 when US forces invaded Iraq and deposed the Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein.^ Further combat was seen during 2003 when US forces invaded Iraq and deposed the Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein .
  • M1 Abrams - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Abrams was not completely done in Iraq, however, for the invasion of 2003 invasion of Iraq - organized under Operation Iraqi Freedom - saw similar tank-versus-tank results in favor of the Abrams.
  • General Dynamics M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank - History, Specifications and Picture - Military Tanks, Vehicles, and Artillery 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US Armor in Operation “Iraqi Freedom” Protection The Abrams tank armor system was not really put to the test during military operations in Iraq.
  • The new Japanese tank the TK-X, page 1 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.abovetopsecret.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As of March 2005, approximately 80 Abrams tanks were forced out of action by enemy attacks.^ He marched his army out to attack.
  • Is the T-34 the Best Tank in History? [Archive] - Avalon Hill Boards 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC boards.avalonhill.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though 80 or so Abrams tank systems were knocked out of action on the part of Iraqis, the Abrams still enjoyed its superior technological edge coupled with better crew training and well-developed tactics (along with an overly effective air support element).
  • General Dynamics M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank - History, Specifications and Picture - Military Tanks, Vehicles, and Artillery 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ STS funds engineering studies on Abrams tanks with the purpose of identifying improvements and conducting the change-out of obsolete parts, while keeping Abrams tanks current to their base configurations.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

[11] .Nevertheless, the campaign saw very similar performance from the tank with no Abrams crew member being lost to hostile fire during the invasion of Iraq, although several tank crew members were later killed by snipers and roadside bombs during the occupation that followed.^ M1A2 Abrams Tank firing range?
  • WikiAnswers - What is the best tank Challenger 2 or Abrams M1A2 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of 1,955 Abrams M1A1 tanks in battle, no crew members were killed by enemy fire, four tanks were disabled and four tanks were damaged but were repairable.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Follow-up fighting saw several Abrams damaged via Soviet-designed RPG-7 rocket propelled grenade weapons fired at the tank tracks, the tank rear and along the turret top - the three most vulnerable ballistic points of any tank, especially in the realm of urban fighting where elevations now play an advantage to the defensive party.
  • General Dynamics M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank - History, Specifications and Picture - Military Tanks, Vehicles, and Artillery 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most lopsided achievement of the M1A2s was the destruction of seven T-72 Lion of Babylon tanks in a point-blank skirmish (less than 50 yards (46 m)) near Mahmoudiyah, about 18 miles (29 km) south of Baghdad, with no losses for the American side.^ Three US divisions wiped out nine Iraqi divisions and traversed over 300 kilometers culminating in the fall of Baghdad in less than 17 days.
  • Aussies Impressed! Pick M1 Abram over Challenger and Leopard!!! [Archive] - Forums of Pravda.Ru 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC engforum.pravda.ru [Source type: News]

^ Side hit; Bustle hit, again right between the slats, resulting in a loss of the entire tank, casualties are unknown; [img] u.foto.radikal.ru...
  • The new Japanese tank the TK-X, page 1 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.abovetopsecret.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most M1A2s have been created by modifying older M1 tanks.
  • 105mm Gun Tank M1 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC afvdb.50megs.com [Source type: Academic]

[12] .In addition to the Abrams' already heavy armament, some crews were also issued M136 AT4 shoulder-fired anti-tank weapons under the assumption that they might have to engage heavy armor in tight urban areas where the main gun could not be brought to bear.^ That and the tank's main gun is directly linked to a heavy machine gun in the turret.
  • Is the T-34 the Best Tank in History? [Archive] - Avalon Hill Boards 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC boards.avalonhill.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bradley penetrating the rear of an abrams could do with some additional support.
  • ‘Something’ felled an M1A1 Abrams tank in Iraq – but what? [Archive] - Defence Talk Forum 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.defencetalk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ M1A2 Abrams Tank firing range?
  • WikiAnswers - What is the best tank Challenger 2 or Abrams M1A2 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Following lessons learned in Desert Storm, the Abrams and many other US combat vehicles used in the conflict were fitted with Combat Identification Panels to reduce friendly fire incidents.^ Now retired from service, it saw extensive combat in Vietnam, and limited service in Operation Just Cause (Panama), and Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm (Iraq).

^ For the first time exclusive nanofiber technology – the same technology used in the Abrams M1 tank and other heavy duty applications – was made available for automotive applications.

^ In fact, it seemed that friendly fire incidents were a bigger threat to the Abrams than were the Iraqi main battle tank and anti-tank weapon systems.
  • General Dynamics M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank - History, Specifications and Picture - Military Tanks, Vehicles, and Artillery 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These were fitted on the sides and rear of the turret, with flat panels equipped with a four-cornered 'box' image on either side of the turret front (as seen in the image above).^ The M1A1 carries 40 rounds of 120mm ammunition; 34 in the turret bustle and six in a rear hull box.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These armor packages can be applied to either the side or front of Abrams tanks to provide additional protection as required by the mission.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These are definitely the best side skirts I've seen in any M1-family model.
  • Vodnik's Dragon Panther II review 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC strony.aster.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Armorama :: In-Box Review: M1 Panther II MDCV by Pawel Krupowicz 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.armorama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some Abrams were also fitted with a secondary storage bin on the back of the existing bustle rack on the rear of the turret referred to as a bustle rack extension to enable the crew to carry more supplies and personal belongings.^ The tank carries 55 rounds of 105mm ammunition: 44 in the turret bustle, three horizontally in spall-proof containers on the turret basket, and eight in a hull box.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A single Abrams can carry a price tag of up to $4.35 million USD or more depending on the model and variant.
  • General Dynamics M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank - History, Specifications and Picture - Military Tanks, Vehicles, and Artillery 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The M1A1 carries 40 rounds of 120mm ammunition; 34 in the turret bustle and six in a rear hull box.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

.Many Abrams (unrecoverable due to loss of mobility or other circumstances) were destroyed by friendly forces to prevent their capture, usually by other Abrams, who often found them very difficult to destroy despite their firepower.^ These modern Soviet tanks were armed with an excellent 125mm smoothbore weapon and had many of the same advanced features found on the Abrams.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Often difficult terrain or confined urban situations confront the soldier with adversaries hiding in buildings, behind sand-bags or other structures.
  • ‘Something’ felled an M1A1 Abrams tank in Iraq – but what? [Archive] - Defence Talk Forum 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.defencetalk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the nine Abrams destroyed, seven were due to friendly fire, and two were intentionally destroyed to prevent capture after they became disabled.
  • Challenger vs. Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.murdoconline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]
.A majority of Abrams damaged post-invasion were by Improvised explosive devices (IEDs).^ In Iraq, Army ground vehicles have proven highly vulnerable to Improved Explosive Devices (IEDs).
  • Defense Tech: Farewell JLTV? So Long MRAP? 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.defensetech.org [Source type: General]

^ What you saw was probably a tank which ran over an improvised explosive device.
  • King Tiger vs. M1 abrams - Guru3D.com Forums 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC forums.guru3d.com [Source type: General]

^ "Improved Explosive Devices (IEDs)" IED = Improvised Explosive Device .
  • Defense Tech: Farewell JLTV? So Long MRAP? 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.defensetech.org [Source type: General]

[14]
.Some Abrams were disabled by Iraqi infantrymen in ambushes during the invasion.^ The Abrams was not completely done in Iraq, however, for the invasion of 2003 invasion of Iraq - organized under Operation Iraqi Freedom - saw similar tank-versus-tank results in favor of the Abrams.
  • General Dynamics M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank - History, Specifications and Picture - Military Tanks, Vehicles, and Artillery 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US Armor in Operation “Iraqi Freedom” Protection The Abrams tank armor system was not really put to the test during military operations in Iraq.
  • The new Japanese tank the TK-X, page 1 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.abovetopsecret.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Did you read/see about the Abrams that caught on fire in Baghdad during the invasion?
  • Is the T-34 the Best Tank in History? [Archive] - Avalon Hill Boards 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC boards.avalonhill.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some employing short-range anti-tank rockets fired at the tracks, rear and top.^ M1A2 Abrams Tank firing range?
  • WikiAnswers - What is the best tank Challenger 2 or Abrams M1A2 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Short range, small = small fuel tank.
  • Modern Tanks [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, it seemed that friendly fire incidents were a bigger threat to the Abrams than were the Iraqi main battle tank and anti-tank weapon systems.
  • General Dynamics M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank - History, Specifications and Picture - Military Tanks, Vehicles, and Artillery 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.militaryfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Others were put out of action when struck in critical places by heavy machine gun rounds.^ That and the tank's main gun is directly linked to a heavy machine gun in the turret.
  • Is the T-34 the Best Tank in History? [Archive] - Avalon Hill Boards 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC boards.avalonhill.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once the round is out of the gun, the sabots separate and fall away, and the penetrator (the dart) proceeds to the target.

^ As it passed through the interior, it hit enough critical components to knock the tank out of action.
  • ‘Something’ felled an M1A1 Abrams tank in Iraq – but what? [Archive] - Defence Talk Forum 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.defencetalk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The new Japanese tank the TK-X, page 1 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.abovetopsecret.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15][16]
.There have also been a number of Abrams crewmen killed by sniper fire during times when they were exposed through the turret hatches of their tanks.^ Well, there is an M1 Abrams Tank.
  • Think Progress » Elliott Abrams: Iranian People Wouldn’t Oppose A Military Attack On Their Country 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ Another feature is the ability to suck any fire out of the cabin in the case of a hard hit, through 2 huge vents in the back of the tank, blowing this out the top exhaust.
  • King Tiger vs. M1 abrams - Guru3D.com Forums 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC forums.guru3d.com [Source type: General]

^ Video #2 of 3: M1 Abrams providing direct fire support for dismounted infantry during.
  • M1A1 Video Clips > M1A1 Videos > VideoSear.ch 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC caricomstats.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Due to the vulnerability of tanks in urban combat, the Tank Urban Survival Kit, or TUSK, is being issued to some M1 Abrams.^ What is the better tank challenger 2 or abrams m1?
  • WikiAnswers - What is the best tank Challenger 2 or Abrams M1A2 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ M1 Abrams tank?
  • WikiAnswers - What is the best tank Challenger 2 or Abrams M1A2 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AM M1 Abram tank - battle tested!
  • Aussies Impressed! Pick M1 Abram over Challenger and Leopard!!! [Archive] - Forums of Pravda.Ru 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC engforum.pravda.ru [Source type: News]

.It is intended to improve fighting ability in urban environments.^ The Tank Urban Survival Kit, or TUSK, is a series of improvements to the M1A2 Abrams intended to improve fighting ability in urban environments.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

Future

.The tracked M8 Armored Gun System was conceived as a possible supplement for the Abrams in U.S. service for low-intensity conflict in the early 90's.^ The Abrams is a full tracked, low profile land combat system possessing a high degree of armor protection, lethal firepower, maneuverability and agility.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Tank, Combat, Full Tracked, 105 mm Gun, M1 General Abrams."
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It includes a 120mm smoothbore main gun, an NBC overpressure protection system, and an improved armor package.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Reference]

Prototypes were made but the program was canceled. .The 8-wheeled M1128 Mobile Gun System was designed to supplement the Abrams in U.S. service for low-intensity conflict.^ The Abrams is a full tracked, low profile land combat system possessing a high degree of armor protection, lethal firepower, maneuverability and agility.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ (Kanata, Ontario, Canada) M1 Abrams - gun stabilization system .

^ Three versions of the Abrams tank are currently in service the original M1 model, dating from the early 1980s, and two newer versions, designated M1A1 and M1A2.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Reference]

.It has been introduced into service and, though mobile, it has proven to be quite vulnerable.^ FMC first introduced the LVT-7 in 1972, but then converted that model into the AAV-7A1 after it was ordered to implement the Service Life Extension Program.

.The U.S. Army's Future Combat Systems' XM1202 Mounted Combat System was to replace the Abrams in U.S. service and was in development when funding for the program was cut from the DoD's budget.^ U.S. Army Awards General Dynamics $13 Million for Abrams Tank System Technical Support .
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ U.S. Army Ground Combat Systems - Weapon Systems Book 2002.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Would prohibit funding for an Advanced Lithium Ion Phosphate Battery System for Army Combat Hybrid HMMWV and Other Army Vehicle Platforms.
  • COMMITTEE ON RULES - H. Res. 685: H.R. 3326 – Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2010 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.rules.house.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The M1A3 Abrams is in the early design period with the U.S. Army.^ Three versions of the Abrams tank are currently in service the original M1 model, dating from the early 1980s, and two newer versions, designated M1A1 and M1A2.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The U.S. Army plans to build prototypes of a tougher, more high-​​tech M1A3 Abrams main battle tank by 2014, with an aim to field it by 2017 .
  • DoD Buzz | Army Future May Boast New M1, Strykers 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.dodbuzz.com [Source type: General]

^ Three versions of the Abrams tank are currently in service; the original M1 model, dating from the early 1980s, and two newer versions, designated M1A1 and M1A2.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

[17][18] The Army aims to build prototypes by 2014 and to begin to field the first combat-ready M1A3s by 2017.
.The U.S. Army's developing BCT Ground Combat Vehicle Program might permanently replace the M1 as well as many other U.S. army vehicles.^ The Apache was developed as Model 77 by Hughes Helicopters for the United States Army's Advanced Attack Helicopter program to replace the AH-1 Cobra.
  • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The M1A1D conversion is a key component in the Army's plan to field the First Digital Division and will also significantly add to the useful combat life of these vehicles.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Suspect you and this aid are correct and a 5–7 year BCT ground combat vehicle upgrade is unlikely unless we find someway to get out of Afghanistan more rapidly than it currently appears.
  • DoD Buzz | Army Future May Boast New M1, Strykers 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.dodbuzz.com [Source type: General]

However, the Army anticipates that the Abrams may remain in U.S. service until 2050.

Design

Countermeasures

Armor

Tankers drive an M1A1 Abrams through the Taunus Mountains north of Frankfurt during Exercise Ready Crucible in February, 2005.
.The Abrams is protected by armor based on the British-designed Chobham armor, a further development of the British 'Burlington' armor.^ The Abrams is protected by Chobham armor, a further development of British "Burlington" armor.
  • The new Japanese tank the TK-X, page 1 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.abovetopsecret.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The driving force behind the development of the M1 Abrams was crew survival, and the tank's shape comes from composite armor developed towards this purpose.
  • 105mm Gun Tank M1 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC afvdb.50megs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The hull and turret are protected by advanced armor similar to the Chobam armor developed by the British Ministry of Defense.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Reference]

.Chobham is a composite armor formed by spacing multiple layers of various alloys of steel, ceramics, plastic composites, and kevlar, giving an estimated maximum (frontal turret) 1,320–1,620 millimetres (52–64 in) of RHAe versus HEAT (and other chemical energy rounds) and 940–960 mm (37–38 in) versus kinetic energy penetrators.^ Against Chemical Energy (in mm of RHAe) .
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Chobham is a composite armor formed by spacing multiple layers of various alloys of steel, ceramics, plastic composites, and kevlar, giving an estimated maximum (frontal turret) 1320-1620 millimeters of RHAe versus HEAT (and other chemical energy rounds) and 940-960 mm versus kinetic energy penetrators.
  • The new Japanese tank the TK-X, page 1 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.abovetopsecret.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This armor greatly increased resistance against kinetic energy rounds.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

[19] .It may also be fitted with reactive armor over the track skirts if needed (as in the Urban Survival Kit) and Slat armor over the rear of the tank and rear fuel cells to protect against ATGMs.^ "Special armor" track skirts .
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Abrams Rear Protection Unit Armor Kit - Slat armor designed to protect the tank's rear from RPG attack.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The driving force behind the development of the M1 Abrams was crew survival, and the tank's shape comes from composite armor developed towards this purpose.
  • 105mm Gun Tank M1 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC afvdb.50megs.com [Source type: Academic]

.Protection against spalling is provided by a Kevlar liner.^ The depleted uranium provides a higher level of protection against anti-tank weapons.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

.Beginning in 1987, M1A1 tanks received improved armor packages that incorporated depleted uranium (DU) mesh in their armor at the front of the turret and the front of the hull.^ The M1A1 tank incorporates steel encased depleted uranium armour.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Abrams has been using Depleted Uranium (DU) armor since 1988.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The tank carries 55 rounds of 105mm ammunition: 44 in the turret bustle, three horizontally in spall-proof containers on the turret basket, and eight in a hull box.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

.Armor reinforced in this manner offers significantly increased resistance towards all types of anti-tank weaponry, but at the expense of adding considerable weight to the tank, as depleted uranium is 1.7 times more dense than lead.^ More tank kills than any other tank.

^ PM The T34 was the right tank at the right time, more so than all of the other tanks.
  • Is the T-34 the Best Tank in History? [Archive] - Avalon Hill Boards 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC boards.avalonhill.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The M1A2 SEP also has an improved armor package, which includes third generation steel encased depleted uranium armor, which makes it one of the best protected main battle tanks in the world.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

[20]
.The first M1A1 tanks to receive this upgrade were tanks stationed in Germany, since they were the first line of defense against the Soviet Union.^ That made the tank one of only two Abrams disabled by enemy fire during the Iraq war and one of only a handful of “mobility kills” since they first rumbled onto the scene 20 years ago.
  • ‘Something’ felled an M1A1 Abrams tank in Iraq – but what? [Archive] - Defence Talk Forum 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.defencetalk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What Killed M1 of the 1AD 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.paratrooper.net [Source type: General]

^ This means that M1A1 tanks could hit their targets, while Iraqi tanks couldn't hit, or, if they hit, couldn't damage M1A1 tanks.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It is the most radical departure in US tank design since WW II. The M1A1 tank was first committed to combat in 1991 during Operation Desert Storm.
  • Aussies Impressed! Pick M1 Abram over Challenger and Leopard!!! [Archive] - Forums of Pravda.Ru 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC engforum.pravda.ru [Source type: News]

.US-based tank battalions participating in Operation Desert Storm received an emergency program to upgrade their tanks with depleted uranium armor immediately before the onset of the campaign.^ All loaned tanks were returned to the US Army after Desert Storm.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Reference]

^ MektonZero 04-10-2006, 08:13 PM BTW, the Abrams uses depleted uranium armor.
  • Is the T-34 the Best Tank in History? [Archive] - Avalon Hill Boards 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC boards.avalonhill.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The upgrade involves rebuilding to a 'like new' condition, similar to the US Army Abrams Integrated Management Program (AIM).
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

.M1A2 tanks uniformly incorporate depleted uranium armor, and all M1A1 tanks in active service have been upgraded to this standard as well, the added protection from the depleted uranium armor is believed to be equivalent to 24 inches (610 mm) of RHA.^ The M1A1 tank incorporates steel encased depleted uranium armour.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The M1A1 armed with the Rheinmetall-designed 120-mm smoothbore gun is possibly the best (and most expensive) combination of firepower, mobility and protection of any tank in Western service (the German Leopard 2 MBT has also been described in similar terms).
  • Aussies Impressed! Pick M1 Abram over Challenger and Leopard!!! [Archive] - Forums of Pravda.Ru 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC engforum.pravda.ru [Source type: News]

^ MektonZero 04-10-2006, 08:13 PM BTW, the Abrams uses depleted uranium armor.
  • Is the T-34 the Best Tank in History? [Archive] - Avalon Hill Boards 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC boards.avalonhill.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The strength of the armor is estimated to be about the same as similar western, contemporary main battle tanks such as the Leopard 2. In the Persian Gulf War, Abrams tanks survived multiple hits at relatively close ranges from Iraqi Lion of Babylon tanks and ATGMs.^ M1A1 Abrams main battle tanks advance up the road .
  • Abrams tank Stock Photo Images. 27 Abrams tank royalty free images and photography available to buy from over 100 stock photo companies. 10 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Semi-beaded M1 Abrams main battle tank .

^ AM M1 Abram tank - battle tested!
  • Aussies Impressed! Pick M1 Abram over Challenger and Leopard!!! [Archive] - Forums of Pravda.Ru 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC engforum.pravda.ru [Source type: News]

.M829A1 "Silver Bullet" APFSDS rounds from other M1A1 Abrams were unable to penetrate the front and side armor (even at close ranges) in friendly fire incidents as well as an incident in which another Abrams tried to destroy an Abrams that got stuck in mud and had to be abandoned.^ Ideally it cuts through the armor and destroys what's on the other side.

^ M1A1 Abrams firing APFSDS round.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Abrams front armor is not what the Army advertises.
  • T-55 and T-62 vs Abrams M1A2 [Archive] - Battlefront Forum 22 September 2009 22:49 UTC www.battlefront.com [Source type: Original source]

[21]

Camouflage

A group of M1A1s enter the Twin Bridges training area prepared for a mock battle in the Republic of Korea during Foal Eagle '98, seen with their factory single green paint scheme.
.Unlike earlier US military vehicles from World War II through Vietnam, which used a scheme of dark brownish green known as "olive drab" with large white stars, prototypes and early production M1 (105 mm gun) & M1-IP models used the flat medium green paint; and the large white insignia stars have transitioned to much smaller black markings.^ M1 Panther II vehicles were used in Bosnia, and also in Iraq.
  • Vodnik's Dragon Panther II review 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC strony.aster.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Armorama :: In-Box Review: M1 Panther II MDCV by Pawel Krupowicz 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.armorama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Panzer III is the common name of a medium tank that was developed in the 1930s by Germany and used extensively in World War II. The official German designation was Panzerkampfwagen III (abbreviated PzKpfw III) translating as "armoured battle vehicle".
  • Super Bowl of militaries: who would win? - Page 2 - Straight Dope Message Board 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: General]

^ Iraqi Resistance fighters fired rockets at US military vehicles in al-Fallujah, wounding a number of American occupation soldiers, according to eyewitnesses in the area.
  • Aussies Impressed! Pick M1 Abram over Challenger and Leopard!!! [Archive] - Forums of Pravda.Ru 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC engforum.pravda.ru [Source type: News]

.Some units painted their M1s with the older MERDC 4-color paint scheme but the turn-in requirements for these tanks required repainting them to solid green.^ These armor packages can be applied to either the side or front of Abrams tanks to provide additional protection as required by the mission.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This added some complication to the logistics of the unit due to the tank's weight.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Right, another M1 from the LRIP program, painted in the old MERDC cammo scheme, at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

.Therefore, even though a large number of the base model M1s were camouflaged in the field, few or none exist today.^ The German Press Agency reported that the rocket barrage coincided with the arrival of a large number of US invader vehicles at the base, having been dispatched from occupied Baghdad.
  • Aussies Impressed! Pick M1 Abram over Challenger and Leopard!!! [Archive] - Forums of Pravda.Ru 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC engforum.pravda.ru [Source type: News]

^ Major Nelson / Xbox Live The Top 20 LIVE Games of 2009 — After a few days of number crunching, here are the most popular games on the LIVE Service for 2009 based on connectivity.
  • Megite Technology News: What's Happening Right Now 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.megite.com [Source type: General]

.M1A1s (120 mm gun) came from the factory with the NATO 3 color camouflage Black/Med-Green/Dark-Brown CARC paint jobs.^ M1A1 Abrams, firing the M256 120 mm gun.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The main gun is a 120 mm smooth bore cannon which is equipped with a laser range finder to help it find its target even in the darkest surroundings.

^ FEATURES: Detailed diecast body is grey and green camouflage with a black underside.
  • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed] Today M1A1s are given the NATO three color paint job during rebuilds. .M1s and M1A1s deployed to Desert Storm were hastily painted desert tan.^ During Operation Desert Shield/Storm, the Marine Corps borrowed 60 M1A1s (called the M1A1 Heavy Armor) from the US Army.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It is 1/24 scale, painted to look like an abrams from operation desert storm, MOTORIZED, and has independent suspension!
  • M1A2 ABRAMS TANK - MOTORIZED: A LEGO® creation by Zackhariah Macasaet : MOCpages.com 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.mocpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some, but not all, of these tanks were re-painted to their "authorized" paint scheme.^ I was told that in the first gulf war all that was left of the crew of some Iraqi tanks was some teeth and bits of dog-tag.
  • T-55 and T-62 vs Abrams M1A2 [Archive] - Battlefront Forum 22 September 2009 22:49 UTC www.battlefront.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nearly all sources claim that no Abrams tank has ever been destroyed as a result of fire from an enemy tank, but some have certainly taken some damage which required extensive repair.
  • T-55 and T-62 vs Abrams M1A2 [Archive] - Battlefront Forum 22 September 2009 22:49 UTC www.battlefront.com [Source type: Original source]

^ MILITARY PICTURES FOR ALL FANS OF MILITARY ARMOUR MILITARY PHOTO'S THAT PACK A PUNCH. If you're looking for military photo's of tanks,artillery,submarines,aircraft and much much more this military photo site is for you.
  • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

M1A2s built for Middle Eastern countries were painted in desert tan.
.Some M1 series tanks are being painted desert tan for service in Iraq and some are not.^ Wraith_calling 04-11-2006, 03:31 PM The Merkava Series is probably the best desert tank built.
  • Is the T-34 the Best Tank in History? [Archive] - Avalon Hill Boards 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC boards.avalonhill.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ M1-series tanks are deceptively quiet and may be difficult for infantrymen to hear as they approach.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For the M1A2 Upgrade Program, over 600 M1 Abrams tanks are being upgraded to M1A2 configuration.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

Replacement parts (roadwheels, armor skirt panels, drive sprockets, etc.) are painted overall green, which can sometimes lead to vehicles with a patchwork of green and desert tan parts.

Active protection system

.In addition to the advanced armor, some Abrams are equipped with a Missile Countermeasure Device that can impede the function of guidance systems of semi-active control line-of-sight (SACLOS) wire and radio guided anti-tank missiles (Russian AT-3, AT-4, AT-5, AT-6 and the like) and thermally and infrared guided missiles (ATGM).^ It has the latest command and control system, second-generation thermal sights and improved armor.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The M1A2SEP, or systems enhancement package, features improved computer processors, color displays for the crew, a higher-resolution second-generation forward-looking infrared sight that replaces the TIS, an under-armor auxiliary power unit (UAAPU), and a thermal management system.
  • 105mm Gun Tank M1 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC afvdb.50megs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The driving force behind the development of the M1 Abrams was crew survival, and the tank's shape comes from composite armor developed towards this purpose.
  • 105mm Gun Tank M1 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC afvdb.50megs.com [Source type: Academic]

[22] This device is mounted on the turret roof in front of the loader's hatch, and can lead some people to mistake Abrams fitted with these devices for the M1A2 version, since the Commander's Independent Thermal Viewer on the latter is mounted in the same place, though the MCD is box-shaped and fixed in place as opposed to cylindrical and rotating like the CITV.

Damage control

.In the chance that the Abrams does suffer damage resulting in a fire in the crew compartment, the tank is equipped with a halon fire-suppression system that automatically engages and extinguishes fires in seconds.^ The tank is equipped with an automatic Halon fire extinguishing system.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The tank is equipped with an automatic Halon fire extinguishing system which is activated within 2 milliseconds of a fire outbreak and extinguishes a fire within 250 milliseconds.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The M1A1 and variant Abrams tanks have special systems dedicated for moving and firing...and they are basically 100% accurate in doing this.
  • King Tiger vs. M1 abrams - Guru3D.com Forums 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC forums.guru3d.com [Source type: General]

.Fuel and ammunition are in armored compartments with blowout panels to protect the crew from the risk of the tank's own ammunition cooking off if the tank is damaged.^ Compartmented fuel/ammunition.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Armor bulkheads separate the fuel tanks from the crew.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Armour bulkheads separate the crew compartment from the fuel tanks.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

Armament

Primary armament

M68A1 rifled gun
.The main armament of the original model M1 was the M68A1 105 mm rifled tank gun firing a variety of high explosive anti-tank, high explosive, white phosphorus and an anti-personnel (multiple flechette) round.^ "Tank, Combat, Full Tracked, 105 mm Gun, M1 General Abrams."
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Main Armament The turret can accept the standard 105mm M68 series gun or the German Rheinmetall 120mm L44 smoothbore gun ( American designation M256 ).
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I challenge you to make a tank that also had the turret move and fired actual lego projectiles (maybe 1x1 round plates).
  • M1A2 ABRAMS TANK - MOTORIZED: A LEGO® creation by Zackhariah Macasaet : MOCpages.com 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.mocpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This gun is a license-built version of the British Royal Ordnance L7 gun. .While being a reliable weapon and widely used by many NATO nations, a cannon with lethality beyond the 3-kilometer (1.9 mi) range was needed to combat newer armor technologies.^ Sam mcloughln / PalmAddicts IPhone = iCan't Live Without — I use my iPhone for so many things all throughout the day.
  • Megite Technology News: What's Happening Right Now 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.megite.com [Source type: General]

^ AH-1 Cobra helicopter gunships were used widely against Syrian armor and fortifications.
  • Super Bowl of militaries: who would win? - Page 2 - Straight Dope Message Board 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: General]

^ Being quite intelligent, he tinkered with many of the pre-apocalypse weapons and gadgets, making a very good set of items for himself.
  • Writing.Com: The Archive 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.writing.com [Source type: Original source]

To attain that lethality, projectile diameter needed to be increased. .The M68A1's performance in terms of accuracy and armor-piercing penetration is on par with the M256A1 up to 3 kilometers (1.9 mi) out[citation needed], but beyond that range the 105 mm projectile lacks the kinetic energy to defeat modern armor packages.^ Against Kinetic Energy (in mm of RHAe) .
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The M60 has reached the end of its service life and lacks the capability to survive and to defeat the threats expected to be encountered on the modern battlefield.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The AC-130 is powered by four Rolls-Royce T56-A-15 turboprops and has an armament ranging from 20 mm Gatling guns to 105 mm howitzers.
  • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

M256 smoothbore gun
A Marine M1A1 Abrams, fires its main gun into a building to provide suppressive counter fire against insurgents in Fallujah, Al Anbar Province, Iraq during the Second Battle of Fallujah, 2004.
.The main armament of the M1A1 and M1A2 is the M256A1 120 mm smoothbore gun, designed by Rheinmetall AG of Germany, manufactured under license in the United States by Watervliet Arsenal, New York.^ M1A1 Abrams, firing the M256 120 mm gun.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The main weapon of the M1A1 is the M256 120mm smoothbore cannon, designed by the Rheinmetall Corporation of Germany.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The main armament is the 120 mm smoothbore gun, US designation code M256, developed by Rheinmetall GmbH of Germany.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

The M256A1 is a variant of the Rheinmetall 120 mm L/44 gun carried on the German Leopard 2 on all variants up to the Leopard 2A5. Leopard 2A6 replaced the L/44 barrel with a longer L/55.
The M256A1 fires a variety of rounds. .The M829A2 was developed specifically to address the threats posed by a Soviet T-90 or T-80U tank equipped with Kontakt-5 Explosive Reactive Armor.^ Improvements to the basic M1 Abrams were planned from the very beginning of its development to keep pace with the new Soviet tank designs.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ From where did the Bundeswehr get T-80U? quote: Did you know that if a russian T-72 dont have reactive armor, you can kill them using HEAT-T (training rounds without explosives)?
  • M1A2 vs. Merkeva, Leopard II - Topic Powered by Eve Community 22 September 2009 22:49 UTC forums.military.com [Source type: General]

^ These tanks may have regular or even explosive reactive depleted uranium armor plates, and the cannon size may also vary.
  • King Tiger vs. M1 abrams - Guru3D.com Forums 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC forums.guru3d.com [Source type: General]

.It also fires HEAT shaped charge rounds such as the M830, the latest version of which (M830A1) incorporates a sophisticated multi-mode electronic sensing fuse and more fragmentation which allows it to be used effectively against armored vehicles, personnel, and low-flying aircraft.^ For example, the current role in Iraq has proved that the Abrams is very susceptible to low velocity shaped charge weapons such as the RPG. Reports I have seen have mentioned 15 Abrams being declared beyond economic repair including 3 fatalities to crew whilst within the vehicle.
  • Modern Tanks [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From where did the Bundeswehr get T-80U? quote: Did you know that if a russian T-72 dont have reactive armor, you can kill them using HEAT-T (training rounds without explosives)?
  • M1A2 vs. Merkeva, Leopard II - Topic Powered by Eve Community 22 September 2009 22:49 UTC forums.military.com [Source type: General]

^ The study found that in some cases, the heavily armored MRAP vehicles , with their bomb-deflecting V-shaped hulls , might not be the answer that many believe they are.
  • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Abrams uses a manual loader, due to the belief that having a crewman reload the gun is faster and more reliable.^ Reply justacarolinian says: October 23, 2009 at 12:57 pm Yeah, uh, the Abrams easily out ranges the Challenger with it’s gun, and is more accurate, in spite of the Challenger having a rifled barrel.
  • ABRAMS TANKS « Pundit Kitchen: Lol News and Lol Sarah Palin, Barack Obama, John McCain, Joe Biden and more 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC punditkitchen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Besides the substantial gains in performance, the Textron Lycoming AGT-1500 turbine engine was far more reliable than the diesel tank engines then in use with the Army.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Both UK and US Tanks were affected by sand ingress, but the Abrams proved more reliable than the Challenger overall.
  • Modern Tanks [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

.April 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] and because autoloaders do not allow for separate ammunition storage in the turret.^ Two identical sprues F (one molded with sprue E and one separately) contain storage rack rails and some other details for Panther II turret "plug".
  • Armorama :: In-Box Review: M1 Panther II MDCV by Pawel Krupowicz 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.armorama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.January 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The fourth tank crewman on the Abrams also provides additional support for maintenance, observation post/listening post (LP/OP) operations, and other tasks.^ M1 Grizzly, M1 Breacher, Assault Breacher Vehicle (ABV) The Grizzly provides a hasty capability for breaching complex obstacles of mines, wire, posts, rubble, and tank ditches to create a lane for other vehicles to follow.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The contract includes a $145 million option to upgrade 60 additional M1A2 Abrams tanks.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This modification funds tank urban survivability kits, maintenance, field reset, and field service representative support for the Australian Land Forces' M1A1 Abrams program.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

.The new M1028 120 mm anti-personnel canister cartridge was brought into service early for use in the aftermath of the 2003 invasion of Iraq.^ Just as they had done in the Iran-Iraq War, the Iraqi Army used it's tanks as fixed anti-tank and artillery pieces, digging them into the ground to reduce target signature.
  • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Brigades entered Iraq together with the Anglo-American invasion in 2003.
  • Aussies Impressed! Pick M1 Abram over Challenger and Leopard!!! [Archive] - Forums of Pravda.Ru 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC engforum.pravda.ru [Source type: News]

^ He came to wide prominence around the world during the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, during which he was the Iraqi Information Minister.
  • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It contains 1,098 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) tungsten balls which spread from the muzzle to produce a shotgun effect lethal out to 600 meters (2,000 ft). .The tungsten balls can be used to clear enemy dismounts, break up hasty ambush sites in urban areas, clear defiles, stop infantry attacks and counter-attacks and support friendly infantry assaults by providing covering fire.^ The largest area of technical risk to the program is the development of the Embedded Battle Command software which is intended to provide friendly and enemy situational awareness and shared command & control information throughout the combined arms team.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The Abrams can fire an advanced kinetic energy tungsten penetrator round against vehicles and a multipurpose round for infantry support.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Its fire power is instantaneous, it has direct, fire it can give me covering fire as I move, it intimidates the enemy, it has viewing equipment that I can use to locate the enemy.
  • Modern Tanks [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

The canister round is also a highly effective breaching round and can level cinder block walls and knock man-sized holes in reinforced concrete walls for infantry raids at distances up to 75 meters (246 ft).[23]
In addition to this, the new XM1111 (Mid-Range-Munition Kinetic Energy) is also in development. .Essentially a cannon-fired guided round, it has a range of roughly 12 km and uses a KE warhead which is rocket assisted in its final phase of flight.^ For example, they are used as a warhead option for the Hydra 70 2.75 inch rocket.
  • M1 Abrams Shotgun.............PULL! - THR 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.thehighroad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I believe canister rounds were used extensively in Vietnam, fired from M48 tanks and the like.
  • M1 Abrams Shotgun.............PULL! - THR 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.thehighroad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The weapons, fire control, rounds, range, and armor are far superior.
  • King Tiger vs. M1 abrams - Guru3D.com Forums 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC forums.guru3d.com [Source type: General]

.This is intended to be the best penetrator yet, an improvement over the US 3rd generation DU penetrator (estimated penetration 790 mm (31 in)).^ Estimated penetration performance (M829A1): 610 mm at 2,000 meters.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Estimated penetration performance: 765 mm at 2,000 meters.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Estimated penetration performance: 730 mm at 2,000 meters.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

Secondary armament

U.S. Army M1A2 Abrams tanks maneuver in the streets as they conduct a combat patrol in the city of Tall Afar, Iraq, in February, 2005.
The Abrams tank has three machine guns:
.
  1. A .50 cal. (12.7 mm) M2HB machine gun in front of the commander's hatch.^ The modifications increase the M1A1 Abrams tank's fighting capability by providing soldiers with an electronic graphic of the battlefield that features icons identifying friendly and enemy forces and provides a tank commander's thermal sight for the .50 caliber machine gun.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ A gun shield and a thermal sight system are added to the loader's top-mounted 7.62 mm machine gun, and the mount for commander's .50-caliber heavy machine gun is modified to allow the weapon to be operated from within the turret with the hatch closed (the original M1 and M1A1 had this capability, but it was lost on the M1A2 due to the reconfiguration of several turret systems).
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ A .50 caliber Browning M2 HB machine gun is located at the commander's station.
    • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

    .On the M1, M1IP and M1A1, this gun is on a powered mount and can be fired using a 3× magnification sight, known as the Commander's Weapon Station (CWS for short), while the vehicle is "buttoned up" with all its hatches closed to protect the crew.^ Improved commander's weapon station (CWS).
    • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (Belvedere, Kent, England, UK) M1 Abrams - commander's weapon station and hatches .

    ^ A gun shield and a thermal sight system are added to the loader's top-mounted 7.62 mm machine gun, and the mount for commander's .50-caliber heavy machine gun is modified to allow the weapon to be operated from within the turret with the hatch closed (the original M1 and M1A1 had this capability, but it was lost on the M1A2 due to the reconfiguration of several turret systems).
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    .On the M1A2 & M1A2SEP, this gun is on a flex mount (seen at right), the Commander having to expose himself to fire the weapon manually.^ The TC's weapon station in the M1A2 was changed to a non-rotating cupola with a manually-operated mount for the .50cal MG. The M1A2 was also fitted with an intervehicular information system (IVIS), which allowed digital transmission of data between friendly units.
    • 105mm Gun Tank M1 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC afvdb.50megs.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Starting with the M1A2 this powered platform and sight gave way to a larger commander's cupola and a manually operated machine gun mount.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The smoke grenades (UKL8A1, UKL8A3, M76, M81, or M82) are fired from the control panel at the commander's weapon station.
    • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

    .With the forthcoming TUSK addon kit, an M2HB or a Mk 19 grenade launcher can be mounted on the CROWS remote weapons platform (similar to the Protector M151 remote weapon station used on the Stryker family of vehicles).^ Prime(s): Rothenbuhler Engineering (Sedro Woolley, WA) Mk 19 40mm Grenade Machine Gun - mounts .

    ^ STERLING HEIGHTS, Mich., September 25, 2009 General Dynamics Land Systems has been awarded a $24 million contract to supply Commanders Remote Operated Weapons Stations, version two, (CROWS II) kits to the U.S. Army TACOM Lifecycle Management Command.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The M250 (6 grenades each mount) or M257 (8 grenades each mount) smoke grenade launchers are located on either side of the turret.
    • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

    .The upgrade variant called M1A1 Abrams Integrated Management (AIM) equips the .50 caliber gun with a thermal sight for accurate night and other low-visibility shooting.^ M1A1 Abrams Integrated Management tanks.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ A sophisticated fire control system provided main gun stabilization for shooting on the move and a precise laser range finder,thermal-imaging night sights, and a digital ballistic computer solved the gunnery problem, thus maximizing the utility of the 105mm main gun.
    • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A digital applique command and control package was installed in the M1A1, resulting in the M1A1D. M1A1s also underwent overhaul to factory standards in an effort to reduce maintenance costs, and this program was dubbed the Abrams Integrated Management (AIM) progam.
    • 105mm Gun Tank M1 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC afvdb.50megs.com [Source type: Academic]

    [24]
  2. .
  3. A 7.62 mm M240 machine gun in front of the loader's hatch on a skate mount.^ The loader has a 7.62 caliber M240 machine gun on a Skate mount.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The tank commander's hatch is ringed by vision periscopes and the Commander's Weapon Station cupola is equipped with an M2 HB caliber .50 machine gun.
    • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Prime(s): Rothenbuhler Engineering (Sedro Woolley, WA) Mk 19 40mm Grenade Machine Gun - mounts .

    .Some of these have been fitted with gun shields during the ongoing conflict in Iraq as seen in the image at right, as well as night-vision scopes for low-visibility engagements.
  4. A second 7.62 mm M240 machine gun in a coaxial mount to the right of the main gun.^ The loader has a 7.62 caliber M240 machine gun on a Skate mount.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ A 7.62 mm M240 machine gun is also mounted co axially on the right hand side of the main armament.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The tank commander's hatch is ringed by vision periscopes and the Commander's Weapon Station cupola is equipped with an M2 HB caliber .50 machine gun.
    • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The coaxial MG is aimed and fired with the same computer fire control system used for the main gun.^ The gunner searches for targets and aims and fires both the main gun and the coaxial machine gun.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The loader loads the main gun and the coaxial machine gun ready box; he aims and fires the loader's machine gun.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Aimed using the M1's ballistics computer.
    • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

    [25]
  5. (Optional) A second coaxial 12.7 mm M2HB machine gun can be mounted directly above the main gun in a remote weapons platform as part of the TUSK upgrade kit.
.The turret is fitted with two six-barreled smoke grenade launchers (USMC M1A1s use an eight-barreled version).^ M250 smoke grenade launcher.
  • Armorama :: In-Box Review: M1 Panther II MDCV by Pawel Krupowicz 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.armorama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sprue A contains upper hull and two smoke grenade launcher parts.
  • Armorama :: In-Box Review: M1 Panther II MDCV by Pawel Krupowicz 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.armorama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The M250 (6 grenades each mount) or M257 (8 grenades each mount) smoke grenade launchers are located on either side of the turret.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

.These can create a thick smoke that blocks both vision and thermal imaging, and can also be armed with chaff.^ This GPS has dual x10 and x3 day optics or x10 and x3 thermal imaging night vision, a Hughes laser rangefinder, and sight stabilization.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Thermal Imaging System creates an image based on the differences of heat radiated by objects within the field of view.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Abrams' thermal sights were unhampered by the clouds of thick black smoke over the battlefield that were the result of burning Kuwaiti oil wells.
  • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The engine is also equipped with a smoke generator that is triggered by the driver. When activated, fuel is sprayed on the engine manifold, creating the thick smoke. .However, due to change from diesel as a primary fuel to the use of JP-8, this system is disabled on most Abrams today, because JP-8 causes the tanks to catch fire when sprayed on the manifold.^ Remote control M1A2 Abrams Tank product features All driving wheels suspension system Main Cannon fires 6mm BB up to 25 meter range 320 degrees turret rotation 2-level forward speed control 3 Frequency 9 Band for change .
  • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Besides the substantial gains in performance, the Textron Lycoming AGT-1500 turbine engine was far more reliable than the diesel tank engines then in use with the Army.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The M1A2 Systems Enhancement Package platform is the latest, most technologically advanced Abrams tank.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

.For the US Army in previous years, the Abrams usually maintained the provision for storing an M16 rifle or M4 carbine inside the turret in case the crew is required to leave the tank under potentially hostile conditions; while the crewmen were supplied with the M9 Beretta pistol as a personal sidearm.^ The thermal management system provides air conditioning to keep the crew compartment under 95°F (25°C) and the temperature of the electronics under 125°F (52.7°C).
  • 105mm Gun Tank M1 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC afvdb.50megs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The driving force behind the development of the M1 Abrams was crew survival, and the tank's shape comes from composite armor developed towards this purpose.
  • 105mm Gun Tank M1 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC afvdb.50megs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank is the named after the late Gen.Creighton W. Abrams,former Army Chief of Staff and commander of the 37th Armored Battalion.
  • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Considering the current (often dismounted) role of American armored crewmen and contemporary operating environments, though, current US Army crews maintain a rifle or carbine for each crewman.^ US armor commanders maintained an unprecedented 90% operational readiness for their M1A1 Abrams Main Battle Tanks.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The USMC actually wanted to consider the Valient but the US Army made it clear that would never happen.
  • M1A2 vs. Merkeva, Leopard II - Topic Powered by Eve Community 22 September 2009 22:49 UTC forums.military.com [Source type: General]

^ US armor commanders maintained an unprecedented 90% operational readiness for their Abrams Main Battle Tanks.
  • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During Iraqi Freedom some crews were also issued M136 AT4 shoulder-fired anti-tank weapons under the assumption that they might have to engage heavy armor in tight urban areas where the main gun could not be brought to bear.^ Heavy Anti–armor Weapons Infantryman .
  • Army.com - MOS 20 September 2009 17:19 UTC www.army.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Anti-tank Weapons .
  • M1A1 Abrams (USA) - Military Pictures - Air Force Army Navy Missiles Defense 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.defencetalk.com [Source type: News]

^ Also introduced during the production run was an eye-safe carbon dioxide laser that was able to operate under the same conditions as the gunner's TIS, and steel-encased depleted uranium was added to the tank's armor starting in October 1988.
  • 105mm Gun Tank M1 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC afvdb.50megs.com [Source type: Academic]

Aiming

Soldiers conduct a counter improvised explosive device (CIED) mission in Baghdad, December 2007.
.The Abrams is equipped with a ballistic fire-control computer that uses user and system-supplied data from a variety of sources, to compute, display, and incorporate the three components of a ballistic solution - lead angle, ammunition type, and range to the target, to accurately fire the tank.^ Range data from the laser rangefinder is transferred directly to the fire control computer, which automatically calculates the fire control solution.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ His sight displays target range information, ready-to-fire, and other systems indications.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The fire control computer automatically takes data to calculate the fire control solution.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

.These three components are determined using a YAG rod laser rangefinder, crosswind sensor, a pendulum static cant sensor, data concerning performance and flight characteristics of each specific type of round, tank-specific boresight alignment data, ammunition temperature, air temperature, barometric pressure, a muzzle reference system (MRS) that determines and compensates for barrel droop at the muzzle due to gravitational pull and barrel heating due to firing or sunlight, and target speed determined by tracking rate tachometers in the Gunner's or Commander's Controls Handles.^ The operator manually inputs the data on the ammunition type and temperature, and the barometric pressure.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ He is responsible to the commander for the maintenance of the tank's armament and fire control equipment.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The operator aims the rangefinder on the target and fires the laser.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

.All of these factors are computed into a ballistic solution and updated 30 times per second.^ All of which are more controllable for footprint and overpen than some mile-per-second APFSDS. 2.
  • M1A2 vs. Merkeva, Leopard II - Topic Powered by Eve Community 22 September 2009 22:49 UTC forums.military.com [Source type: General]

^ The laser beam is reflected back from the target into the receiver and the time of travel to and from the target provides an accurate range measurement for the fire control computer.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Either way it calls into question the sanity and intention of anyone giving him more than thirty seconds of air time.
  • Think Progress » Elliott Abrams: Iranian People Wouldn’t Oppose A Military Attack On Their Country 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

.The updated solution is displayed in the Gunner's or Tank Commander's field of view in the form of a reticle in both day and Thermal modes.^ The M1A2 gave the tank commander an independent thermal viewer, allowing the crew to use hunter-killer tactics where the commander could scan for targets while the gunner was already engaging.
  • 105mm Gun Tank M1 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC afvdb.50megs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The gunner's primary sight included a day sight, the thermal imaging sight, laser rangefinder, and an extension for the TC so he could view what the gunner was seeing.
  • 105mm Gun Tank M1 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC afvdb.50megs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The commander and gunner are seated on the right hand side, the loader is on the left and the driver is seated at the center front of the tank.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

.The ballistic computer manipulates the turret and a complex arrangement of mirrors so that all one has to do is keep the reticle on the target and fire to achieve a hit.^ You cant fire at something you cant see.........so if me ass takes cover before you punch in my position on your computer(same with abrams) you cant hit me.
  • Modern Tanks [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

.Proper lead and gun tube elevation are applied to the turret by the computer, greatly simplifying the job of the Gunner.^ Then a computer applies necessary angles, and the gunner opens fire.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nice Abrams, just one question: is the turret/gun controllable (rotation and elevation)?
  • M1A2 ABRAMS TANK - MOTORIZED: A LEGO® creation by Zackhariah Macasaet : MOCpages.com 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.mocpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Washington Army National Guard soldier, performing the critical job of "boresighting;" the alignment of all the tank's sights to the center of the axis of the bore of the main gun on an M1A1 Abrams in Mosul, Iraq in January 2005.
.The fire-control system uses these data to compute a firing solution for the gunner.^ The fire control computer automatically takes data to calculate the fire control solution.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The range data from the laser range finder is transferred to the fire control computer.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ (Ramat Hasharon, Israel) Merkava and M60 - fire control, optical and electronic systems, electrical drive systems .

.The ballistic solution generated ensures a hit percentage greater than 95 percent at nominal ranges.^ The M829A3 round will provide the M1A1 and M1A2 Abrams tanks with greater armor penetration capability than previous generation depleted uranium penetrator rounds while increasing accuracy, which translates as greater lethality at extended ranges.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ I don't know the fuel consumption rate or fuel tank size, but the Abrams does have greater range than the Challenger 2.
  • Modern Tanks [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

.Either the commander or gunner can fire the main gun.^ The gunner searches for targets and aims and fires both the main gun and the coaxial machine gun.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ During engagements, he assists the gunner and commander by scanning for targets and sensing fired rounds.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The loader loads the main gun and the coaxial machine gun ready box; he aims and fires the loader's machine gun.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

.Additionally, the Commander's Independent Thermal Viewer (CITV) on the M1A2 can be used to locate targets and pass them on for the gunner to engage while the commander scans for new targets.^ Commander's independent thermal viewer (CITV).
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Commander's Independent Thermal Viewer (CITV) provides a hunter killer capability.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Independent Thermal Viewer from Texas Instruments provides the commander with independent stabilized day and night vision with a 360 degree view, automatic sector scanning, automatic target cueing of the gunner's sight with no need for verbal communication, and back-up fire control.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

.In the event of a malfunction or damage to the primary sight system, the main and coaxial weapons can be manually aimed using a telescopic scope boresighted to the main gun known as the Gunner's Auxiliary Sight (GAS).^ The gunner searches for targets and aims and fires both the main gun and the coaxial machine gun.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The gunner has a x8 auxiliary sight.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The gunner aligns the reticule in the Gunner's Primary Sight with the target.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

.The GAS has two interchangeable reticles; one for HEAT and MPAT (MultiPurpose AntiTank) rounds and one for APFSDS and STAFF (Smart Target-Activated Fire and Forget) ammunition.^ M1A1 Abrams firing APFSDS round.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Abrams can fire an advanced kinetic energy tungsten penetrator round against vehicles and a multipurpose round for infantry support.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The 120 mm gun fires the following ammunition: the M865 TPCSDS-T and M831 TP-T training rounds, the M8300 HEAT-MP-T and the M829 APFSDS-T which includes a depleted uranium penetrator.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

.Turret traverse and main gun elevation can be accomplished with manual handles and cranks in the event of a Fire Control System or Hydraulic System failure.^ Hydraulically stabilized turret/gun system.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A sophisticated fire control system provided main gun stabilization for shooting on the move and a precise laser range finder,thermal-imaging night sights, and a digital ballistic computer solved the gunnery problem, thus maximizing the utility of the 105mm main gun.
  • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main Armament The turret can accept the standard 105mm M68 series gun or the German Rheinmetall 120mm L44 smoothbore gun ( American designation M256 ).
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

.The commander's M2 .50 caliber machine gun on the M1 and M1A1 is aimed by a 3x magnification sight incorporated into the Commander's Weapon Station (CWS), while the M1A2 uses either the machine gun's own iron sights, or a remote aiming system such as the CROWS system when used as part of the TUSK (Tank Urban Survival Kit).^ The tank commander's hatch is ringed by vision periscopes and the Commander's Weapon Station cupola is equipped with an M2 HB caliber .50 machine gun.
  • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A .50 caliber Browning M2 HB machine gun is located at the commander's station.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Are you refering to the M1, M1A1 or the M1A2?
  • Modern Tanks [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

.The loader's M240 machine gun is aimed either with the built-in iron sights or with a thermal scope mounted on the machine gun.^ The loader has a 7.62 caliber M240 machine gun on a Skate mount.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The second award, valued at $12 million funds Loader's Thermal Weapon Sights and Counter-Sniper Anti-Materiel Mounts.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The modifications increase the M1A1 Abrams tank's fighting capability by providing soldiers with an electronic graphic of the battlefield that features icons identifying friendly and enemy forces and provides a tank commander's thermal sight for the .50 caliber machine gun.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

Mobility

Tactical mobility

Marines from 1st Tank Battalion load a Honeywell AGT1500 gas turbine back into the tank at Camp Coyote, Kuwait, February 2003.
.The M1 Abrams is powered by a 1,500 shaft horsepower (1,100 kW) Honeywell AGT 1500 (originally made by Lycoming) gas turbine, and a six speed (four forward, two reverse) Allison X-1100-3B Hydro-Kinetic automatic transmission, giving it a governed top speed of 45 mph (72 km/h) on paved roads, and 30 mph (48 km/h) cross-country.^ Allison X1100-3B Cross-Drive Transmission.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ AGT-1500 turbine engine .
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Avco Lycoming AGT-1500 1,500 hp (1,119 kw) gas turbine engine .
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

.With the engine governor removed, speeds of around 60 mph (97 km/h) are possible on an improved surface; however, damage to the drive train (especially to the tracks) and an increased risk of injuries to the crew can occur at speeds above 45 mph (72 km/h).^ Its top speed of 170 knots (196 mph, 315 km/h) was faster than utility and attack helicopters of the 1960s and even many of today.
  • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Obviously speed is important to a tank, but is not AS important as it was - you would have to be driving a very fast tank to get behind something inpenetrable in the couple of seconds a computer will take to track the target.
  • Modern Tanks [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

.The tank for all intents and purposes was built around this engine.^ STS funds engineering studies on Abrams tanks with the purpose of identifying improvements and conducting the change-out of obsolete parts, while keeping Abrams tanks current to their base configurations.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ STS funds engineering studies and investigations on Abrams tanks with the purpose of identifying improvements and change-out of obsolete parts, while keeping Abrams tanks current to their base configuration.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Declining reliability causes the engine to account for around 64% of the Abrams tank reparable O&S costs.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

[26] .The tank can be fueled with diesel fuel, kerosene, any grade of motor gasoline, JP-4 jet fuel, or JP-8 jet fuel; the US Army uses JP-8 jet fuel in order to simplify logistics.^ Besides the substantial gains in performance, the Textron Lycoming AGT-1500 turbine engine was far more reliable than the diesel tank engines then in use with the Army.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ M1A1 tanks were built for the US Army and the US Marines, and 555 co-produced with Egypt.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Abrams fuel consumption is a definite worry for the army's logistics.
  • M1A2 vs. Merkeva, Leopard II - Topic Powered by Eve Community 22 September 2009 22:49 UTC forums.military.com [Source type: General]

.The Royal Australian Armoured Corps' M1A1 AIM SA uses diesel fuel; it is cheaper and makes practical sense for Australian military logistics.^ The 59 M1A1 AIM tanks will be shipped to Australian Land Forces in two increments: June and December 2006.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The M1A1 AIM tanks will be configured with additional mission-critical technologies to bolster crew situational awareness (SA).
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It doesn't make sense to use the penetrator part of the solution with an ATGM, ATM, or UGATM, it's an "off" target kill.
  • ‘Something’ felled an M1A1 Abrams tank in Iraq – but what? [Archive] - Defence Talk Forum 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.defencetalk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Driving controls
.The gas turbine propulsion system has proven quite reliable in practice and combat, but its high fuel consumption is a serious logistic issue (starting up the turbine alone consumes nearly 10 US gallons (38 l) of fuel).^ The fuel consumption of the M1 is horrendous it has a gas turbine and drinks and drinks fuel.
  • Modern Tanks [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Would prohibit funding for a Hybrid Propulsion Power Generation for Increased Fuel Efficiency for Surface Combatants.
  • COMMITTEE ON RULES - H. Res. 685: H.R. 3326 – Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2010 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.rules.house.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The Abrams fuel consumption is a definite worry for the army's logistics.
  • M1A2 vs. Merkeva, Leopard II - Topic Powered by Eve Community 22 September 2009 22:49 UTC forums.military.com [Source type: General]

[27] .The engine burns more than 1 US gallon (3.8 l) per mile and 12 US gallons (45 l) per hour when idle.^ Challenger around 1 to 2 gallons per mile.
  • Modern Tanks [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Abrams around 8 to 9 gallons per mile.
  • Modern Tanks [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Besides the substantial gains in performance, the Textron Lycoming AGT-1500 turbine engine was far more reliable than the diesel tank engines then in use with the Army.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

[28] .The high speed, high temperature jet blast emitted from the rear of M1 Abrams tanks makes it difficult for the infantry to proceed shadowing the tank in urban combat.^ AM M1 Abram tank - battle tested!
  • Aussies Impressed! Pick M1 Abram over Challenger and Leopard!!! [Archive] - Forums of Pravda.Ru 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC engforum.pravda.ru [Source type: News]

^ Well, there is an M1 Abrams Tank.
  • Think Progress » Elliott Abrams: Iranian People Wouldn’t Oppose A Military Attack On Their Country 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

^ The M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank is the named after the late Gen.Creighton W. Abrams,former Army Chief of Staff and commander of the 37th Armored Battalion.
  • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The turbine is very quiet when compared to diesel engines of similar power output and produces a significantly different sound from a contemporary diesel tank engine, reducing the audible distance of the sound, thus earning the Abrams the nickname "whispering death" during its first REFORGER exercise.^ The Abrams's engine is more powerful but it is so thirsty!
  • Modern Tanks [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

^ STS funds engineering studies on Abrams tanks with the purpose of identifying improvements and conducting the change-out of obsolete parts, while keeping Abrams tanks current to their base configurations.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Besides the substantial gains in performance, the Textron Lycoming AGT-1500 turbine engine was far more reliable than the diesel tank engines then in use with the Army.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

M1 Abrams offloading from Landing Craft Air Cushioned vehicle.
.Honeywell was developing another gas turbine engine with General Electric for the XM2001 Crusader program that was also to be a replacement for the AGT-1500 engine already in the Abrams tank.^ AGT-1500 turbine engine .
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The AGT 1500 engine has served the Abrams tank well.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The M1 is equipped with an AGT 1500 gas turbine engine from Lycoming Textron.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

[29] .The new LV100-5 engine is lighter and smaller (43% fewer parts) with rapid acceleration, quieter running and no visible exhaust.^ The new engine is lighter and smaller with rapid acceleration, quieter running and no visible exhaust.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Last news on the new engine: The US Army has selected Honeywell International Engines and Systems and General Electric to develop a new LV100-5 gas turbine engine for the M1A2.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

[30] It also features a 33% reduction in fuel consumption (50% less when idle) and near drop-in replacement.[31] .The Abrams-Crusader Common Engine Program was shelved when the Crusader program was canceled, however Phase 2 of Army's PROSE (Partnership for Reduced O&S Costs, Engine) program calls for further development of the LV100-5 and replacement of the current AGT-1500 engine.^ AGT-1500 turbine engine .
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ PM Abrams has developed a two-phased program to improve engine readiness and lower costs.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The AGT 1500 engine has served the Abrams tank well.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

[32] .Future US tanks may return to reciprocating engines for propulsion, as 4-stroke diesel engines have proven quite successful in other modern heavy tanks, e.g.^ Besides the substantial gains in performance, the Textron Lycoming AGT-1500 turbine engine was far more reliable than the diesel tank engines then in use with the Army.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The US Army decided to cancel future production of the M1A2 SEP from FY2004, but in June 2005 ordered the upgraded of a further 60 M1A2 tanks to SEP configuration.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The M1A1 Abrams is still the backbone of the US heavy armored force; 4,796 M1A1 tanks were built for the US Army, 221 for the US Marines and 555 co-produced with Egypt.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

the Leopard 2, Challenger 2 and Merkava.
.Using a high power density 330 cc (20 cu in) Wankel rotary engine modified to use diesel and military grade jet fuel, TARDEC developed a 220-pound (100 kg) Auxiliary Power Unit designed to fit into the M1 Abrams, replacing an existing battery pack that weighs about 500 pounds (230 kg).^ Diesel, Mogas, Jet fuel .
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Considering the Abrams m1 tank weighs about 60 tons and that this lifting power can be used for more than just lifting, this suit is the ultimate damage-dealer, and was considered illegal to use in war by the UN. Tiger Squad is primarily deployed into violent riots and anti-gang missions.
  • Writing.Com: The Archive 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.writing.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Improvements to the basic M1 Abrams were planned from the very beginning of its development to keep pace with the new Soviet tank designs.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

The new APU will also be more fuel efficient.[33] The installation of the first APUs is expected to start in 2009.
.A provision exists that the Abrams be able to transport passengers in tank desant with the turret stabilization device off.^ The M1 and M1A1 Abrams tank have a GPS-LOS with a single axis stabilized head mirror.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A specially modified 43 ton, remote-controlled Abrams tank stripped of its turret with an Omnitech's Standardized Teleoperation System and a mine-clearing blade or roller.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Abrams tank also has%u2026 vision devices that proved effective not only at night, but also in the dust and smoke of Kuwaiti daytime.
  • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One Infantry squad carrying only their battle gear may ride the rear of the turret.^ The M1A1 carries 40 rounds of 120mm ammunition; 34 in the turret bustle and six in a rear hull box.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Despite the name, Tiger Squad only has one officer.
  • Writing.Com: The Archive 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.writing.com [Source type: Original source]

The soldiers have the option of using ropes and equipment straps as a field-expedient Infantry rail to provide handholds and snap links to secure themselves to the turret. .The Squad leader, team leaders, grenadiers sit on the left and right sides of the turret, while the riflemen, and automatic riflemen sit at the rear.^ The commander and gunner sit on the right of the turret, and the loader on the left.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The commander is seated on the right hand side of the turret.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The commander and gunner are seated on the right hand side, the loader is on the left and the driver is seated at the center front of the tank.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

.If and when enemy contact is made, the tank conceals itself allowing the infantry to dismount.^ Tank Infantry Phone (TIP) - Allows infantry and armor soldiers to work together in combat.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An exterior telephone allows supporting infantry to communicate with the tank commander.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ US tanks took many close direct hits from Iraqi Soviet-made T-72 and T-72M tanks, but enemy rounds were simply not able to penetrate the M1A1 tank's armor.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

[34]

Strategic mobility

A U.S. Army M1A1 after being offloaded from a US Air Force C-17 at Balad Air Base, Iraq in 2004.
.Strategic mobility is the ability of the tanks of an armed force to arrive in a timely, cost effective, and synchronized fashion.^ It's a good tank but definetly not as good as US armed forces claim.
  • ‘Something’ felled an M1A1 Abrams tank in Iraq – but what? [Archive] - Defence Talk Forum 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.defencetalk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Due to the shear size and weight of the Abrams, the C-5 Galaxy, the largest cargo aircraft in the US Air Force inventory, was only able to handle one tank at a time.
  • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States Air Force is the only Air Force in the world with the ability to project power rapidly, precisely, and globally using strategic bombers.
  • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Abrams can be carried by a C-5 Galaxy or a C-17 Globemaster III.^ Air transportability: C-5 Galaxy or C-17 Globemaster III heavy cargo aircraft.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 20 November 2009 8:51 UTC www.inetres.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Air Force Air Mobility Command C-5 Galaxy, C-17 Globemaster III and contracted AN-124 Condor aircraft delivered the majority of MRAPs until this week.
  • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The limited capacity (two combat-ready in a C-5, one combat-ready tank in a C-17) caused serious logistical problems when deploying the tanks for the First Gulf War, though there was enough time for 1,848 tanks to be transported by ship.^ This meant that nearly all of the Abrams tanks deployed in the Gulf War were shipped by cargo ship.
  • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This effort is focused on two initiatives that provide the force with the biggest "bang for the buck" in terms of O&S cost reduction, readiness improvement, and sustainment of combat overmatch.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Spring isn't too good in the Soviet Union either though...it's the time of mud (there is a Soviet word for it that escapes me ATM).
  • Super Bowl of militaries: who would win? - Page 2 - Straight Dope Message Board 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: General]

.The Abrams is also transportable by truck, namely the M1070 Heavy Equipment Transporter (HET).^ (Detroit, MI) M1070 Heavy Equipment Transporter (HET) - CLT-754 transmission .

^ (Scranton, PA) M1070 Heavy Equipment Transporter (HET) .

^ (Indianapolis, IN) M1070 Heavy Equipment Transporter (HET) - engine .

.The HET can operate on highways, secondary roads, and cross-country.^ Unlike on road, when cross country you are continually slowing down and speeding up depending on the ground, or you will get a boot in the back of the head.
  • Modern Tanks [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

The HET accommodates the 4 tank crewmen.[35]
The government-owned Lima Army Tank Plant in Lima, Ohio, currently manufactures the Abrams,[1] the Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant in Warren, Michigan manufactured it from 1982 to 1996. It costs upwards of US$5 million a tank[3]

Variants and upgrades

U.S Army M104 Wolverine Heavy Assault Bridge
Grizzly Combat Mobility Vehicle (CMV)
Assault Breacher Vehicle launching a line charge
  • XM1: Experimental model. .Nine test-beds were produced in 1978.
  • M1: First production variant.^ The IPM1 was produced to take advantage of various improvements from the M1A1 program, before the full M1A1 was ready for production.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank is made by General Dynamics Land Systems Division of USA. The first M1 tank was produced in 1978, the first M1A1 in 1985 and the first M1A2 in 1986.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    Production began in 1979 and continued to 1985 (3,273 built for the US). .
    • M1IP (Improvement Production): Produced briefly in 1984 before the M1A1, contained upgrades and reconfigurations.
  • M1A1: Production started in 1986 and continued to 1992 (4,976 built for the US Army, 221 for USMC, 755 for Egypt, 59 M1A1 AIM SA sold to Australia).^ M1A1 tanks were built for the US Army and the US Marines, and 555 co-produced with Egypt.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Production of M1A1 tanks for the US Army is complete.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]
    • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Over 8,800 M1 and M1A1 tanks have been produced - 3,273 M1 tanks were produced for the US Army.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    .
    • M1A1HC (Heavy Common): Added new depleted uranium armor mesh, pressurized NBC system, rear bustle rack for improved stowage of supplies and crew belongings, and M256 120 mm smoothbore cannon.
    • M1A1-D (Digital): A digital upgrade for the M1A1HC, to keep up with M1A2 SEP
    • M1A1-AIM (Abrams Integrated Management): A program whereby older units are reconditioned to zero hour conditions; [2] and the tank is improved by adding Forward-Looking Infra-Red (FLIR) and Far Target Locate sensors, a tank-infantry phone, communications gear, including FBCB2 and Blue Force Tracking, to aid in crew situational awareness, and a thermal sight for the .50 caliber machine gun.^ M1A1 Abrams, firing the M256 120 mm gun.
      • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

      ^ The Army initiated an innovative M1A1 rebuild program in 1999 known as Abrams Integrated Management (AIM).
      • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

      ^ The upgrade involves rebuilding to a 'like new' condition, similar to the US Army Abrams Integrated Management Program (AIM).
      • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

      .General Dynamics has been awarded contracts by the US Army to supply this variant.^ The U.S. Army TACOM Lifecycle Management Command has awarded General Dynamics Land Systems, a business unit of General Dynamics (NYSE: GD), a multi-year contract to upgrade 435 M1A1 Abrams main battle tanks.
      • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

      ^ Vehicle deliveries to General Dynamics are scheduled for January through October 2007, with vehicle hand-off to the U.S. Army expected in January 2008.
      • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

      ^ The U.S. Army also awarded General Dynamics a $10.5 million contract for Stryker Brigade Combat Team logistics support.
      • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

      [24]
    • .
    • M1A1 KVT (Krasnovian Variant Tank): M1A1s that have been visually modified to resemble Soviet-made tanks for use at the National Training Center, fitted with MILES gear and a Hoffman device.
    • M1A1M: An export variant ordered by the Iraqi Army.^ Besides the substantial gains in performance, the Textron Lycoming AGT-1500 turbine engine was far more reliable than the diesel tank engines then in use with the Army.
      • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

      ^ By the summer of 1990 several variations of the M1 had replaced the M60 in the active force and in a number of Army Reserve and National Guard battalions.Many believed the Abarms to be the first American tank since World War II that was qualitatively superior to Soviet models.
      • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ The order was made under a multi-year contract awarded in February 2008 which authorized the modernization of 435 M1A1 tanks that have been in the Army's inventory for more than 20 years.
      • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

      [36]
    • .
  • M1A2 (Baseline): Production began in 1992 (77 built for the US and more than 600 M1s upgraded to M1A2, 315 for Saudi Arabia, 218 for Kuwait).^ That's 600% more than when I was there.
    • Young Manhattanite: 08/01/2007 - 09/01/2007 20 September 2009 17:19 UTC youngmanhattanite.com [Source type: General]

    ^ M1A2 tanks have been built for the US Army, 315 for Saudi Arabia and 218 for Kuwait.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ For the M1A2 Upgrade Program, over 600 M1 Abrams tanks are being upgraded to M1A2 configuration.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    .The M1A2 offers the tank commander an independent thermal sight and ability to, in rapid sequence, shoot at two targets without the need to acquire each one sequentially.^ Yes, we agree that the M1A2 is an awesome piece of artillery – thermal sights, rear-protecting slats, remote weapons station – but it isn't what we want.
    • Son of Bosey: Nanganallur temple mistakenly purchases Abrams Tank for 'Thiruvizhaa' 10 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.bosey.co.in [Source type: General]

    ^ The modifications increase the M1A1 Abrams tank's fighting capability by providing soldiers with an electronic graphic of the battlefield that features icons identifying friendly and enemy forces and provides a tank commander's thermal sight for the .50 caliber machine gun.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The temple priests admiringly inspect the rear armour slats on their newly acquired Abrams M1A2 temple tank.
    • Son of Bosey: Nanganallur temple mistakenly purchases Abrams Tank for 'Thiruvizhaa' 10 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.bosey.co.in [Source type: General]

    [37] .
    • M1A2 SEP (System Enhancement Package): Has upgraded 3rd generation depleted uranium encased armor with graphite coating (240 new built, 300 M1A2s upgraded to M1A2SEP for the USA, 250 for Egypt in 2 Egyptian co-production batches of 125 each).
  • M1 Grizzly Combat Mobility Vehicle (CMV)[3][4]
  • M1 Panther II Remote Controlled Mine Clearing Vehicle [5]
  • M104 Wolverine Heavy Assault Bridge [6]
  • M1 Panther II Mine Clearing Blade/Roller System.
  • M1 Assault Breacher Vehicle: Assault variant for the USMC. Based upon the M1A1 Abrams chassis, the Assault Breacher Vehicle has a variety of systems installed, such as a full-width mine plow, two linear demolition charges, and a lane-marking system.^ (Menomonee Falls, WI) M1 Abrams - mine clearing blades .

    ^ M1A1 Abrams tanks to the M1A2 Systems Enhancement Package Version Two configuration.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The M1A1 tank incorporates steel encased depleted uranium armour.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    .Reactive armor has been fitted to the vehicle providing additional protection against HEAT-based weapons.^ From where did the Bundeswehr get T-80U? quote: Did you know that if a russian T-72 dont have reactive armor, you can kill them using HEAT-T (training rounds without explosives)?
    • M1A2 vs. Merkeva, Leopard II - Topic Powered by Eve Community 22 September 2009 22:49 UTC forums.military.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The top panels of the tank are designed to blow outwards in the event of penetration by a HEAT projectile and access doors which are kept in the closed position provide protection for the crew.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The depleted uranium provides a higher level of protection against anti-tank weapons.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    The turret has been removed and is replaced by a welded steel superstructure. .A M2HB .50 machine gun in a remote weapons station is mounted on the commander's cupola and a bank of grenade launchers are fitted to each side of the superstructure to cover the frontal arc are provided for self-protection.^ The TC's weapon station in the M1A2 was changed to a non-rotating cupola with a manually-operated mount for the .50cal MG. The M1A2 was also fitted with an intervehicular information system (IVIS), which allowed digital transmission of data between friendly units.
    • 105mm Gun Tank M1 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC afvdb.50megs.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Yes, we agree that the M1A2 is an awesome piece of artillery – thermal sights, rear-protecting slats, remote weapons station – but it isn't what we want.
    • Son of Bosey: Nanganallur temple mistakenly purchases Abrams Tank for 'Thiruvizhaa' 10 September 2009 15:50 UTC www.bosey.co.in [Source type: General]

    ^ The modifications increase the M1A1 Abrams tank's fighting capability by providing soldiers with an electronic graphic of the battlefield that features icons identifying friendly and enemy forces and provides a tank commander's thermal sight for the .50 caliber machine gun.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    [38][39]
  • M1 Armored Recovery Vehicle. Only a prototype produced.

Specifications of variants

M1 M1IP M1A1 M1A2 M1A2 SEP
Produced 1979–85 1984 1986–92 1992–present
Length 32.04 ft (9.77 m)
Width 12 ft (3.7 m)
Height 7.79 ft (2.37 m) 8.0 ft (2.4 m)
Top speed 45 mph (72 km/h) 41.5 mph (66.8 km/h) 42 mph (68 km/h)
Range 310 mi (500 km)   288 mi (463 km) 243 mi (391 km)  
Weight 61.4 short tons (55.7 t) 62.8 short tons (57.0 t) 67.6 short tons (61.3 t) 68.4 short tons (62.1 t) 69.5 short tons (63.0 t)
Main armament 105 mm M68 rifled 120 mm M256 smoothbore
Crew 4 (commander, gunner, loader, driver)
Note: All of the above produce a power of 1,500 shp (1,100 kW).

Tank Urban Survival Kit

M1A2 with TUSK.
M1A1 Abrams with an Abrams Integrated Management System and the Tank Urban Survivability Kit conducting a patrol in Baghdad, 2007.
.The Tank Urban Survival Kit, or TUSK, is a series of improvements to the M1 Abrams intended to improve fighting ability in urban environments.^ The Tank Urban Survival Kit, or TUSK, is a series of improvements to the M1A2 Abrams intended to improve fighting ability in urban environments.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The driving force behind the development of the M1 Abrams was crew survival, and the tank's shape comes from composite armor developed towards this purpose.
  • 105mm Gun Tank M1 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC afvdb.50megs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ To this end, General Dynamics, in partnership with the Army's project manager, Heavy Brigade Combat Team, created the Abrams TUSK. An add-on kit for M1A1 and M1A2-series tanks to enhance crew survivability in urban environments, TUSK consists of a Loader's Armor Gun Shield (LAGS), a Tank Infantry Phone (TIP), Abrams Reactive Armor Tiles (ARAT), a Remote Thermal Sight (RTS) and a Power Distribution Box (PDB).
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

[40] .Historically, urban and other close battlefields have been the worst place for tanks to fight—a tank's front armor is much stronger than that on the sides, top, or rear, and in an urban environment, attacks can come from any direction, and attackers can get close enough to reliably hit weak points in the tank's armor, or get sufficient elevation to hit the top armor square on.^ The driving force behind the development of the M1 Abrams was crew survival, and the tank's shape comes from composite armor developed towards this purpose.
  • 105mm Gun Tank M1 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC afvdb.50megs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Almost as much as all the other armies in the war combined...from both sides (including the Japanese and Germans).
  • Super Bowl of militaries: who would win? - Page 2 - Straight Dope Message Board 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: General]

^ The IAF Cobras destroyed dozens of Syrian armored fighting vehicles, including some of the modern Soviet T-72 main battle tanks.
  • Super Bowl of militaries: who would win? - Page 2 - Straight Dope Message Board 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: General]

.Armor upgrades include reactive armor on the sides of the tank and slat armor (similar to that on the Stryker) on the rear to protect against rocket-propelled grenades and other shaped charge warheads.^ Armor upgrades include reactive armor on the sides of the tank and slat armor (similar to that on the Stryker) on the rear to protect against rocket-propelled grenades and other shaped charge warheads.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The driving force behind the development of the M1 Abrams was crew survival, and the tank's shape comes from composite armor developed towards this purpose.
  • 105mm Gun Tank M1 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC afvdb.50megs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This upgrade also includes reactive armor or explosive reactive armour (ERA), to be applied on the Abrams' side skirts, to lessen the damage from explosions caused from ATGMs warheads, exploding shells, grenades, or dropped bombs.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

.A Transparent Armor Gun Shield and a thermal sight system are added to the loader's top-mounted M240B 7.62 mm machine gun, and a Kongsberg Gruppen Remote Weapon Turret carrying a .50 caliber machine gun (again similar to that used on the Stryker) is in place of the tank commander's original .50 caliber machine gun mount, wherein the commander had to expose himself to fire the weapon manually.^ It has the latest command and control system, second-generation thermal sights and improved armor.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A gun shield and a thermal sight system are added to the loader's top-mounted 7.62 mm machine gun, and the mount for commander's .50-caliber heavy machine gun is modified to allow the weapon to be operated from within the turret with the hatch closed (the original M1 and M1A1 had this capability, but it was lost on the M1A2 due to the reconfiguration of several turret systems).
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The loader has a 7.62 caliber M240 machine gun on a Skate mount.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

.An exterior telephone allows supporting infantry to communicate with the tank commander.^ An exterior telephone allows supporting infantry to communicate with the tank commander.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ AM I see recently they were procuring external telephones for the M1's, so supporting infantry can talk to the tank commander.
  • Modern Tanks [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The problem the tank has is that it has difficulty seeing and requires infantry support to protect it.
  • Modern Tanks [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

.The TUSK system is a field-installable kit that allows tanks to be upgraded without needing to be recalled to a maintenance depot.^ The TUSK system is a field-installable kit that allows tanks to be upgraded without needing to be recalled to a maintenance depot.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This modification funds tank urban survivability kits, maintenance, field reset, and field service representative support for the Australian Land Forces' M1A1 Abrams program.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ OCPA-2005-03-09-165522.jpg Tank Urban Survival Kit (TUSK) As I understand it this is a suggested upgrade from lessons learnt.
  • Modern Tanks [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

.While the reactive armor may not be needed in most situations in maneuver warfare, items like the rear slat armor, loader's gun shield, infantry phone (which has already seen use on Marine Corps M1A1s as early as 2003), and Kongsberg Remote Weapons Station for the .50 caliber machine gun will be added to the entire M1A2 fleet over time.^ And he's in full dark armor most of the time.
  • Writing.Com: The Archive 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.writing.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The tank commander's hatch is ringed by vision periscopes and the Commander's Weapon Station cupola is equipped with an M2 HB caliber .50 machine gun.
  • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This used the tank for the fast moving warfare seen in the invasion of Poland, the Battle of France and Barbarossa.
  • Modern Tanks [Archive] - WW2 in Color History Forum 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.ww2incolor.com [Source type: Original source]

.On August 29, 2006, General Dynamics Land Systems received a US Army order for 505 Tank Urban Survivability Kits (TUSK) for Abrams main battle tanks supporting operations in Iraq, under a US$45 million contract.^ This reset and upgrade program involved two contracts between the US Army TACOM and General Dynamics Land Systems.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ November 7, 2006 - General Dynamics Land Systems, a business unit of General Dynamics (NYSE: GD), has been awarded a $38 million U.S. Army contract to reset 89 M1A1 Abrams main battle tanks.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ November 30, 2006 - The U.S. Army has awarded General Dynamics Land Systems, a business unit of General Dynamics (NYSE: GD), two contracts totaling $359 million for Abrams main battle tank work.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

.The add-on kit will be provided for M1A1 and M1A2-series tanks to enhance crew survivability in urban environments.^ The Tank Urban Survival Kit, or TUSK, is a series of improvements to the M1A2 Abrams intended to improve fighting ability in urban environments.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The driving force behind the development of the M1 Abrams was crew survival, and the tank's shape comes from composite armor developed towards this purpose.
  • 105mm Gun Tank M1 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC afvdb.50megs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ To this end, General Dynamics, in partnership with the Army's project manager, Heavy Brigade Combat Team, created the Abrams TUSK. An add-on kit for M1A1 and M1A2-series tanks to enhance crew survivability in urban environments, TUSK consists of a Loader's Armor Gun Shield (LAGS), a Tank Infantry Phone (TIP), Abrams Reactive Armor Tiles (ARAT), a Remote Thermal Sight (RTS) and a Power Distribution Box (PDB).
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

.The kit ordered by the Army consists of a Loader's Armor Gun Shield (LAGS), a Tank Infantry Phone (TIP), Abrams Reactive Armor Tiles (ARAT), a Remote Thermal Sight (RTS) and a Power Distribution Box (PDB).^ The M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank is the named after the late Gen.Creighton W. Abrams,former Army Chief of Staff and commander of the 37th Armored Battalion.
  • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gun Tank M1A1 Abrams 1-4 .
  • 105mm Gun Tank M1 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC afvdb.50megs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The second award, valued at $12 million funds Loader's Thermal Weapon Sights and Counter-Sniper Anti-Materiel Mounts.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

Deliveries are expected to be complete by April 2009.[41]
.Under a separate order, the US Army awarded General Dynamics Armament and Technical Products (GDATP) US$30 million to produce reactive armor kits to equip M1A2. The total contract value could reach $59 million if all contract options are exercised.^ In May 2004 the U.S. Army awarded General Dynamics a $121 million contract to retrofit 65 of the unit's M1A2 tanks.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The program could total in excess of $320 million if all options are exercised.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The combined potential value of both contracts is $41.8 million if all options are exercised.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

The reactive tiles for the M1 will be locally produced at GDATP's Burlington Technology Center. Tiles will be produced at the company's reactive armor facility in Stone County Operations, McHenry, Miss. .On December 8, 2006 the U.S. Army added Counter Improvised Explosive Device enhancements to the M1A1 and M1A2 TUSK, awarding GDLS U.S. $11.3 million, part of the $59 million package mentioned above.^ The contract is an addition to a $58 million 2008 award to General Dynamics to design, develop, convert, implement and test a hybrid configuration of the M1A1, M1A2 and M1A2 System Enhancement Package (SEP) tank variants.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The U.S. Army TACOM Life Cycle Management Command has awarded General Dynamics Land Systems, a business unit of General Dynamics (NYSE: GD), a multi-year contract valued at $81 million to upgrade 30 M1 Abram tanks to the M1A2 Systems Enhancement Package Version 2 (SEPv2) configuration.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ June 20, 2005 - The U.S. Army TACOM Lifecycle Management Command has awarded General Dynamics Land Systems, a business unit of General Dynamics (NYSE: GD), a $141 million contract to upgrade 60 M1A2 Abrams tanks to the latest System Enhancement Package (SEP) configuration (M1A2 SEP).
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

.In December GDLS also received an order amounting about 40% of a US$48 million order for loader's thermal weapon sights being part of the TUSK system improvements for the M1A1 and M1A2 Abrams Tanks.^ Deliveries for the second contract, for loader's thermal weapon sights for M1A1 and M1A2 Abrams tanks, are scheduled to be completed by May 2008.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ M1A1 Abrams Integrated Management tanks.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

^ M1A1 Abrams tanks to the M1A2 Systems Enhancement Package Version Two configuration.
  • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

[41]

Operators

.
Operators of the M1 Abrams are shown in blue.
  •  Australia - 59 M1A1 AIM SA tanks were bought from the United States in 2006, to replace the Leopard AS1 in 2007.[42]
  •  Egypt - 1005 M1A1 main battle tanks co-produced by the USA and Egypt for the Egyptian army.^ M1A1 tanks were built for the US Army and the US Marines, and 555 co-produced with Egypt.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ M1A1 Abrams Integrated Management tanks.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ AIM is a joint program to refurbish M1A1 Abrams main battle tanks.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    [43]
  •  Iraq - 140 M1A1Ms on order, to be delivered by 2011. Currently 22 are leased for training.[36][44][45][46]
  •  Kuwait - 218 M1A2s[47]
  •  Saudi Arabia - 373[48] eventually to be upgraded to M1A2S
  •  United States - More than 9000 built, 7000 of which at the Lima facility[49]
    • 1,174 M1A2 (Army inventory)[50]
    • 4,393 M1A1 (Army inventory)[50]
    • 403 M1A1 (Marine Corps inventory)[50]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/facility/lima.htm
  2. ^ Pike, John. Lima Army Tank Plant (LATP). Globalsecurity.org, 21 August 2005. Accessed on 9 July 2009. (Production cost of M1A2, upgraded)
  3. ^ a b "Department of Defense - Annual Report FY99".
  4. ^ Abrams fact file. U.S. Army
  5. ^ M1: 498 km (310 mi), M1A1: 465 km (288 mi), M1A2: 391 km (243 mi)
  6. ^ M1 Abrams Main Battle tank. FAS.org, 14 April 2000
  7. ^ Hunnicutt 1984, pp. 6, 149, 408.
  8. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/ground/mbt-70.htm
  9. ^ "According to the Army’s Office of Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans, 23 Abrams tanks were destroyed or damaged in the Persian Gulf area. Of the nine Abrams destroyed, seven were due to friendly fire, and two were intentionally destroyed to prevent capture after they became disabled. Other Abrams tanks were damaged by enemy fire, land mines, on-board fires, or to prevent capture after they became disabled." From Early performance assessment of Bradleys and Abrams, p. 24.
  10. ^ "A Company, 3-66 Armor, Abrams (Bumper # A-33)". TAB H -- Friendly-fire Incidents. http://www.gulflink.osd.mil/du_ii/du_ii_tabh.htm. "At approximately 4:30 AM on 27 February, an anti-tank guided missile (probably fired from a Bradley) struck A-33 in the engine compartment. The crew, uninjured, was evacuating the disabled tank when two DU rounds hit the tank in the left side of the hull and exited through the right side. The tank commander, driver, and gunner sustained injuries from fragments. The loader, who was already outside the tank, was uninjured. A-31 crew members assisted in rescuing A-33's crew." ; Sketch depicting the path of a DU 120 mm round through the hull of Abrams C-12. OSD.
  11. ^ Komarow, Steven. "Tanks take a beating in Iraq", USA Today, March 29, 2005.
  12. ^ Conroy, Jason & Martz, Ron. Heavy Metal: A Tank Company's Battle To Baghdad. Potomac Books, 2005, p. 158.
  13. ^ Zucchino, David: Thunder Run: The Armored Strike to Capture Baghdad. Grove Press, 2004, pp. 20-30, 73.
  14. ^ "Youtube: M1A2 Abrams struck by Vehicle-Borne IED". http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4AzATwj1V5I. Retrieved 2009-10-18. 
  15. ^ "Technical Intelligence Bulletins May - June 2003". Wlhoward.com. http://www.wlhoward.com/id554.htm#prof. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  16. ^ http://www.fprado.com/armorsite/US-Field-Manuals/abrams-oif.pdf#prof
  17. ^ http://www.armytimes.com/news/2009/09/SATURDAY_army_tanks_092609w/
  18. ^ http://www.marinecorpstimes.com/news/2009/09/marine_abrams_092709w/
  19. ^ R. P. Hunnicutt, Abrams: A History of the American Main Battle Tank
  20. ^ "BBC: US to use depleted uranium". BBC News. 2003-03-18. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/2860759.stm. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  21. ^ Clancy, Tom: Armored Cav: A Guided Tour of an Armored Cavalry Regiment. Berkeley Books, 1994, pages unknown (will be updated).
  22. ^ "Defense Update.com". Defense Update.com. 2006-04-25. http://www.defense-update.com/features/du-1-04/soft-kill-west.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  23. ^ Hilmes (2004), p. 79
  24. ^ a b General Dynamics Awarded $34 Million for M1A1 Abrams Tank Upgrades, General Dynamics Press Release, Sterling Heights, Michigan, September 5, 2008; available at generaldynamics.com
  25. ^ M1A1/M1A2 Main Battle Tank, USA, Army-technology.com.
  26. ^ "Heavy duty: overhaul under way for Abrams tank engine". Accessmylibrary.com. 2006-09-01. http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-17629659_ITM. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  27. ^ Fabio Prado. "Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams". 64.26.50.215. http://64.26.50.215/armorsite/abrams.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  28. ^ Komarow, Steven (2006-03-09). "USA Today article". USA Today article. http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2006-03-08-military-fuel_x.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  29. ^ "GE Press Release: GE and Honeywell Begin Testing of LV100-5 Engine For Abrams-Crusader Common Engine Program". Geae.com. 2001-08-27. http://www.geae.com/aboutgeae/presscenter/military/military_20010827.html. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  30. ^ GE - Aviation: LV100 at the Internet Archive
  31. ^ GE - Aviation: LV100 Advantages at the Internet Archive
  32. ^ 02-May-2005 04:18 EDT (2005-05-02). "AIM Program’s M1A1 Tank Refits and Rebuilds Continue". Defenseindustrydaily.com. http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/aim-programs-m1a1-tank-refits-and-rebuilds-continue-0440/. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  33. ^ "TARDEC Auxiliary Power Unit for a tank". Engineeringtv.com. http://engineeringtv.com/blogs/etv/archive/2008/07/08/tardec-auxiliary-power-unit-for-tank.aspx. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  34. ^ U.S. Army Warrior Ethos And Combat Skills Handbook. Morris Book Publishing, LLC. 2009. ISBN 978-1-59921-819-9. 
  35. ^ http://www.army.mil/factfiles/equipment/wheeled/m1070.html
  36. ^ a b "Armor: Iraq Getting M-1A1 Tanks". Strategypage.com. 2008-08-03. http://www.strategypage.com/htmw/htarm/articles/20080803.aspx. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  37. ^ [1] M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank, Federation of American Scientists
  38. ^ "ABV Assault Breacher Vehicle engineer armoured vehicle tank". http://www.armyrecognition.com/united_states_army_heavy_armoured_vehicles_tank_uk/abv_assault_breacher_vehicle_engineer_armoured_vehicle_tank_data_sheet_description_information_uk.html. Retrieved 2010-02-05. 
  39. ^ Abramson,Mark, "ABVs ready to break Afghan ground", Stars and Stripes, February 1, 2010.
  40. ^ Cramer, Eric W. "TUSK to Update Abrams for Urban Battle". Defense AT&L: July-August 2005.
  41. ^ a b Tank Urban Survivability Kit (TUSK). defense-update.com.
  42. ^ "Australian National Audit Office report on the DMO project Land 907". Anao.gov.au. http://www.anao.gov.au/director/publications/auditreports/2007-08.cfm?item_id=A80C477D1560A6E8AA0CE1B9B0FB5AA8. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  43. ^ http://www.army-technology.com/projects/abrams/
  44. ^ "Procurement: Iraq Buys What It Knows". Strategypage.com. 2008-12-18. http://www.strategypage.com/htmw/htproc/articles/20081218.aspx. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  45. ^ "Iraqi military plans major arms purchase". Your Defence News, 16 December 2008.
  46. ^ M1 Abrams Tanks for Iraq. Defense Industry Daily, 15 March 2009.
  47. ^ M1 Abrams. Militarium.net (Polish to English translation)
  48. ^ The 2006 Saudi Shopping Spree: $2.9B to Upgrade M1 Abrams Tank Fleet
  49. ^ John Pike. "Lima Army Tank Plant (LATP)". Globalsecurity.org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/facility/lima.htm#prof. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  50. ^ a b c John Pike. "M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank". Globalsecurity.org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/ground/m1-specs.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 

References

  • King of the Killing Zone by Orr Kelly, 1989. W.W. Norton Company.
  • Rostker, Bernard: Environmental Exposure Report:Depleted Uranium in the Gulf. .DoD Publication, 1998.[7].
  • United States General Accounting Office:Operation Desert Storm: Early Performance Assessment of Bradley and Abrams. Washington, January 1992.PDF.
  • Halberstadt, Hans.^ The gunship squadrons are part of the Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC), a component of United States Special Operations Command (SOCOM).
    • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ As the Gulf War shifted pace from Operation Desert Shield to Operation Desert Storm, and the preparatory bombardment lifted, U.S. Abrams tanks spearheaded the attack on Iraqi fortifications and engaged enemy tanks whenever and wherever possible.
    • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ General Dynamics Land Systems, a business unit of General Dynamics (NYSE: GD), has been awarded a $12.6 million contract for Abrams Tank Systems Technical Support (STS).
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    Desert Storm Ground War. Osceola, WI, Motorbooks International, 1991. 128 pp.
  • Hilmes, Rolf (1 December 2004). ."Arming Future MBTs - Some Considerations". Military Technology (Mönsch). 
  • Hunnicutt, R. P. "Patton: A History of the American Main Battle Tank."^ The M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank is the named after the late Gen.Creighton W. Abrams,former Army Chief of Staff and commander of the 37th Armored Battalion.
    • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank - Brief Historic Data.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Under the M1A2 Systems Enhancement Package Version 2 (SEP V2) Reset program, besides an increase of the reliability and durability of the Abrams main battle tank, the focus is to bring future technology improvements to ensure compatibility with the Army's Future Combat Systems.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    1984, Presidio Press; ISBN 0-89141-230-1.
  • Forty, George: Tank Action. .From the Great War to the Gulf, Allan Sutton Publishing Ltd., Phoenix Mill 1995.
  • Zaloga Steven J., & Sarson, Peter: M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 1982-1992.^ The M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank is the named after the late Gen.Creighton W. Abrams,former Army Chief of Staff and commander of the 37th Armored Battalion.
    • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Improvements to the basic M1 Abrams were planned from the very beginning of its development to keep pace with the new Soviet tank designs.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank - Brief Historic Data.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    Osprey Military, New Vanguard. .Reed International Books Ltd, 1993.
  • "M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank".^ The M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank is the named after the late Gen.Creighton W. Abrams,former Army Chief of Staff and commander of the 37th Armored Battalion.
    • Military T Shirts,military gifts,military articles for the lover of all things military 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Improvements to the basic M1 Abrams were planned from the very beginning of its development to keep pace with the new Soviet tank designs.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank - Brief Historic Data.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    FAS Military Analysis Network. .http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/land/m1.htm.^ Oops… forgot to post that those are ABC’s polling numbers… http://www.pollingreport.com/BushJob1.htm .
    • Think Progress » Elliott Abrams: Iranian People Wouldn’t Oppose A Military Attack On Their Country 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: News]

    .Retrieved January 17, 2004.
     
  • "TUSK to update Abrams for urban battle".^ In August 2006, General Dynamics Land Systems was awarded a contract to produce 505 tank urban survivability kits (TUSK) for the US Army Abrams tanks.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The Tank Urban Survival Kit, or TUSK, is a series of improvements to the M1A2 Abrams intended to improve fighting ability in urban environments.
    • Main Battle Tank - M1, M1A1, and M1A2 Abrams 13 January 2010 16:24 UTC www.fprado.com [Source type: Reference]

    Army News Service. http://www4.army.mil/ocpa/read.php?story_id_key=6985. Retrieved April 6, 2005. 
  • Army Times - Two soldiers die in attack on Abrams tank, October 29, 2003
  • DoD News: DoD Identifies Army Casualty - Dec 25, 2005 attack
  • DoD News: DoD Identifies Army Casualties - June 04, 2006 incident

External links


Simple English

M1 Abrams
[[File:|300px]]
M1A2 Abrams
Type Main battle tank
Place of origin  United States
Service history
In service 1980–present
Used by  United States
 Egypt
 Iraq
 Saudi Arabia
 Kuwait
Wars Gulf War (Operation Desert Storm)
War in Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom)
Iraq War (Operation Iraqi Freedom)
Production history
Designer Chrysler Defense
Manufacturer  United States
Unit cost US$6 million [2]
Number built Over 10,000[1]
Variants XM1, prototype
M1, first production model
M1A1, bigger gun
M1A2, technology upgrades
Specifications
Weight 67.6 Short Tons
Length Gun forward: 32.04 ft (9.77 m)[3]
Hull length: 26.02 ft (7.93 m)
Width 12 ft (3.66 m)
Height 8 ft (2.44 m)
Crew 4 (commander, gunner, loader, driver)

Armor Composite, Steel, depleted uranium mesh
Primary
armament
105 mm rifled cannon (M1)
120 mm 120 mm smoothbore cannon (M1A1, M1A2)
Secondary
armament
1 x 12.7 mm machine gun
2 x 7.62 mm machine guns
Engine multi-fuel turbine engine
1,500 shp (1,120 kW)
Power/weight 24.5 hp/metric ton
Suspension Torsion bar
Ground clearance 0.48 m (1 ft 7 in) (M1, M1A1)
0.43 m (1 ft 5 in) (M1A2)
Fuel capacity 500 us gallons
Operational
range
280 mi
Speed Road: 42 mph (67.7 km/h)
Off-road: 30 mph (48.3 km/h)

The M1 Abrams is a modern main battle tank in United States service as well as exported to several countries. It is a well armed, well protected, and fast tank designed for modern armored ground warfare.[4] Notable features of the M1 Abrams include the use of a powerful engine, layered armor, and a low profile. It is one of the heaviest tanks in service, weighing almost 70 short tons.

The M1 Abrams entered U.S. service in 1980, replacing the M60 Patton.[5] Three main versions of the M1 Abrams have been deployed, the M1, M1A1, and M1A2, incorporating improved armament, protection and electronics. These improvements, as well as periodic upgrades to older tanks have allowed this long-serving vehicle to remain in front-line service. The M1A3 is currently under development. It is the principal main battle tank of the United States Army and Marine Corps, and the armies of Egypt, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Australia, and in 2010 Iraq. The M1 Abrams is anticipated to be in U.S. service until the 2050s, approximately 70 years after entering U.S. service.

Notes

  1. Pike, John. Lima Army Tank Plant (LATP). Globalsecurity.org, 21 August 2005. Accessed on 9 July 2009. (Production cost of M1A2, upgraded)
  2. "Department of Defense - Annual Report FY99".
  3. Abrams fact file. U.S. Army
  4. M1 Abrams Main Battle tank. FAS.org, 14 April 2000
  5. Hunnicutt 1984, pp. 6, 149, 408.

References

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