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Ash plumes on Kamchatka Peninsula, eastern Russia
Hurricane Katrina near Florida peninsula

MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a payload scientific instrument launched into Earth orbit by NASA in 1999 on board the Terra (EOS AM) Satellite, and in 2002 on board the Aqua (EOS PM) satellite. The instruments capture data in 36 spectral bands ranging in wavelength from 0.4 µm to 14.4 µm and at varying spatial resolutions (2 bands at 250 m, 5 bands at 500 m and 29 bands at 1 km). Together the instruments image the entire Earth every 1 to 2 days. They are designed to provide measurements in large-scale global dynamics including changes in Earth's cloud cover, radiation budget and processes occurring in the oceans, on land, and in the lower atmosphere. Three on-board calibrators (a solar diffuser combined with a solar diffuser stability monitor, a spectral radiometric calibration assembly, and a blackbody) provide in-flight calibration.

Specifications
Orbit 705 km, 10:30 a.m. descending node (Terra) or 1:30 p.m. ascending node (Aqua), sun-synchronous, near-polar, circular
Scan Rate 20.3 rpm, cross track
Swath 2330 km (cross track) by 10 km (along track at nadir)
Dimensions
Telescope 17.78 cm diam. off-axis, afocal (collimated), with intermediate field stop
Size 1.0 x 1.6 x 1.0 m
Weight 228.7 kg
Power 162.5 W (single orbit average)
Data Rate 10.6 Mbit/s (peak daytime); 6.1 Mbit/s (orbital average)
Quantization 12 bits
Spatial Resolution 250 m (bands 1-2) 500 m (bands 3-7) 1000 m (bands 8-36)
Design Life 6 years
Solar irradiance spectrum and MODIS bands.

MODIS has used the Marine Optical Buoy for vicarious calibration.

Contents

MODIS Bands

Band Wavelength
(nm)
Resolution
(m)
Primary Use
1 620-672 250m Land/Cloud/Aerosols
Boundaries
2 841-890 250m
3 459-479 500m Land/Cloud/Aerosols
Properties
4 545-565 500m
5 1230-1250 500m
6 1628-1652 500m
7 2105-2155 500m
8 405-420 1000m Ocean Color/
Phytoplankton/
Biogeochemistry
9 438-448 1000m
10 483-493 1000m
11 526-536 1000m
12 546-556 1000m
13 662-672 1000m
14 673-683 1000m
15 743-753 1000m
16 862-877 1000m
17 890-920 1000m Atmospheric
Water Vapor
18 931-941 1000m
19 915-965 1000m
Band Wavelength
(µm)
Resolution
(m)
Primary Use
20 3.660-3.840 1000m Surface/Cloud
Temperature
21 3.929-3.989 1000m
22 3.929-3.989 1000m
23 4.020-4.080 1000m
24 4.433-4.498 1000m Atmospheric
Temperature
25 4.482-4.549 1000m
26 1.360-1.390 1000m Cirrus Clouds
Water Vapor
27 6.535-6.895 1000m
28 7.175-7.475 1000m
29 8.400-8.700 1000m Cloud Properties
30 9.580-9.880 1000m Ozone
31 10.780-11.280 1000m Surface/Cloud
Temperature
32 11.770-12.270 1000m
33 13.185-13.485 1000m Cloud Top
Altitude
34 13.485-13.785 1000m
35 13.785-14.085 1000m
36 14.085-14.385 1000m

MODIS data availability

Raw MODIS data stream could be received in real-time using a tracking antenna, thanks to the instrument's direct broadcast capability [1].

Alternatively, the scientific data is made available to the public via several World Wide Web sites, such as:

  • WIST — Warehouse Inventory Search Tool;
  • LAADS Web — Level 1 and Atmosphere Archive and Distribution System (LAADS) web interface.

Most of the data is available in the HDF-EOS format — a variant of Hierarchical Data Format prescribed for the data derived from Earth Observing System missions [2].

Image based on observations from MODIS.

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ "Direct Broadcast at MODIS Website". http://modis.gsfc.nasa.gov/data/directbrod/. Retrieved 2009-06-02. 
  2. ^ "HDF-EOS Tools and Information Center". http://hdfeos.net/. Retrieved 2009-06-02. 
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