MTV-82 (МТВ-82 in Russian) is a Soviet four-axle tramcar. MTV stands for Moscow Tram Vehicle. The first prototype of MTV-82 tramcar was built on the military Factory No. 82 (it corresponds to 82 number in the vehicle index) in 1946. The mass production started in 1947 on the Factory No. 82 and it was transferred to Rīgas Vagonbūves Rūpnīca (RVR - Latvian acronym; Рижский Вагонный Завод, РВЗ - Russian full name and acronym) in 1949. In 1961 mass production of MTV-82 in Riga ceased, it was replaced in production by its direct successor, RVZ-6 tramcar. In total, Factory No. 82 and RVR produced 453 and 1707 MTV-82s respectively. These tramcars worked until 1983 in Moscow, Kiev, Gorky, Sverdlovsk, Vladivostok and many other Soviet cities and towns. The Soviet tram drivers and repairmen liked MTV-82 very much for its simplicity, reliability and durability. Most of MTV-82s were in operable state before scrapping, but renovation of Soviet trams was fatal for many types of "old-fashioned" Soviet tramcars (see also LM-49).
MTV-82 is a broad gauge (1524mm) high-floor four-axle tramcar. It has a full metal hull which is mounted on a massive steel carriage with two double-axle bogies. The hull has two doors at both ends, which have pneumatic gear for opening and closing. The main brake system is also pneumatic. MTV-82 is equipped with four 55 kW electric motors and is capable of a maximum speed of 55 kilometers. The controller for engines uses direct system for electric current regulation. Initially the MTV-82 did not have a low-voltage subsystem, but this was added later for external braking and turn light signalization. The vehicle has 40 seats and is able to transport nearly 120 passengers with a full load. The MTV-82 is 13611 mm in length, 2550 mm wide, and nearly 3000 mm height. The overall weight without passengers is 17.5 metric tons.
Shortly after the end of World War II a strong need in new trolleybuses became persistent. It was caused to a plans to change tram routes on trolleybus routes in many of the USSR cities. According to this issue the Motor and Automobile Research institute developed a unified model of buses and trolleybuses, which resembled ones produced by General Motors.
The legendary endurance and reliability of MTV-82 trams makes them ideal as a service tram, or other form of special use. After being retired, or removed from a passenger service many MTV-82 trams were transferred into service trams. They could be used as towing trams, hoppers, freight trams, etc. In the cities of Odessa, and Zaparozh'je a couple of MTV-82 trams were rebuilt into unique double ended (2 cab) version. In Odessa, such 2-cab trams were in use of the picturesque single track route # 19 (with one mash). In Zaparozh'e they were used on mashless route # 5.
Three MTV-82s survive. Moscow and Ekaterinburg have two operable MTV-82 in their tramway systems. Nizhny Novgorod tram & trolley museum has a third operable MTV-82 in its tramcar collection. These MTV-82s do not serve as usual tramcars, but can be hired for city excursions (but this is quite a long, formal and bureaucratic procedure in today's Russia). A group of tramway enthusiasts from many cities of Russia with guests from Estonia and United States hired Nizhny Novgorod Museum MTV-82 for their meeting in 2004.
Odessa Transport Authority found unique solutions to existing MTV tramcars in their possession. One of them is engine #914, which was converted into an open "retro-style" excursion tram. Its design was reengineered to commemorate Pullmans of the early 20th century, along with historical dark-red livery. Even now, engine #914 is running both along the "excursion routes" and Route 5, the most picturesque tram route in Odessa.