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Ma Zhanshan; Simplified Chinese: (马占山) or Wade-Giles: Ma Chan-shan, (Traditional Chinese: 馬占山; 1885 - 1950) was a Chinese general who initially opposed the Imperial Japanese Army in the invasion of Manchuria, briefly defected to Manchukuo, and then rebelled, and fought against the Japanese in Manchuria and in other parts of China.

Ma Zhangshan

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Biography

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Early life

Ma was born in Gongzhuling, in Jilin province, in a poor farm family. At the age of 20 he became a security guard of Huaide County. He was promoted to Guard Monitor of the 4th Security Guard Battalion for his good marksmanship and equestrianism, by Wu Junsheng, Commander of Tianhou Road Patrol and Defense Battalion of Mukden in 1908.

In 1913, Ma was appointed as Major and Company Commander of 3rd Company, 3rd Regiment, 2nd Brigade of the Central Cavalry Army in the Army of the Republic of China. In 1920, he was promoted to colonel and followed his patron, warlord Wu Junsheng.

He started his military career in Zhang Zuolin's Northeastern Army, serving as a brigade commander of 5th Cavalry Brigade, 17th Cavalry Division then as brigadier of 3rd Infantry Brigade of the Heilongjiang Army. After Zhang's death in 1928 Ma was nominated as Heilongjiang Provincial Bandit Suppression Commander, and Heilongjiang Provincial Cavalry Commander-in-chief in 1928.

Invasion of Manchuria

After the Mukden Incident, when the Kwantung Army invaded the provinces of Liaoning and Jilin, Governor Wan Fulin of Heilongjiang Province was in Beijing, leaving no one in authority in the province to take charge of defenses against the Japanese. Zhang Xueliang telegraphed the Nanjing Government to ask for instructions, and then appointed Ma Zhanshan to act as Governor and Military Commander-in-chief of Heilongjiang Province on October 10, 1931. Ma arrived in the capital Qiqihar on October 19 and took office the next day. He held military meetings and personally inspected the defense positions while facing down parties advocating surrender, saying “I am appointed as Chairman of the province, and I have the responsibility to defend the province and I will never be a surrendering general”.

The Japanese invaders repeatedly demanded to repair the Nenjiang River Bridge, that had been dynamited in earlier civil strife to prevent an advance by a rival Chinese warlord. These demands were refused by Ma Zhanshan. The Japanese, determined to repair the bridge sent a repair crew, guarded by 800 Japanese soldiers. Nearby were 2,500 Chinese troops and a Battle of Nenjiang Bridge ensued. Each side charged the other with opening fire without provocation, and thus began the Jiangqiao Campaign. Although eventually forced to withdraw his troops in the face of Japanese tanks and artillery, Ma became a national hero for his resistance to the Japanese, which was reported in the Chinese and international press. Ting Chao and other senior commanders followed Ma's example at the industrial city of Harbin in Jilin province and elsewhere, and his successes inspired the local Chinese to aid or enlist in his forces. On November 18, Ma evacuated Qiqihar. However, after the General Ting Chao was driven from Harbin, Ma's forces suffered serious casualties and were soon driven over the Soviet border.

Manchukuo

Because of his fame and heroics efforts in resisting the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, Colonel Kenji Doihara offered Ma Zhanshan a huge sum to defect to the new Manchukuo Imperial Army. Ma agreed, and offered to tour the country to reconcile the local inhabitants to the new government. He flew to Shenyang in January 1932, where he attended the meeting that founded the puppet state of Manchukuo. Ma was ill at that time, and thus avoiding signing the Independence Declaration of Manchukuo. He attended the inaugural ceremony of Pu Yi as Emperor of Manchukuo in March the same year, and he was appointed as War Minister of Manchukuo and Governor of Heilongjiang Province under the new government. However, the Japanese did not fully trust Ma, and (as with other Manchukuo officials), he had to ask approval from his Japanese advisor about all matters of the province before taking any actions.

As his new status as Governor of Heilongjiang Province did not give Ma the power or wealth he anticipated, or had enjoyed as an independent warlord, he decided to rebel, using Japanese money to raise and reequip his new volunteer force. He secretly transported weapons and ammunition out of the arsenals and evacuated the wives and families of his troops to safety. On 1 April 1932, he led his troops from Qiqihar supposedly on a tour of inspection. However, at Heihe on April 7 he announced the reestablishment of the Heilongjiang Provincial Government, and his independence from Manchukuo. Ma reorganized his troops into 9 brigades at the beginning of May, and then he established another 11 troops of volunteers at Buxi, Gannan, Keshan, Kedong and other places. This force was styled the “Northeast Anti-Japanese National Salvation Army” and Ma appointed as nominal Commander-in-chief, over the other volunteer armies in the region, commanding a total fighting force of about 300,000 men at its peak strength.

The units under Ma undertook ambushes along the major roads and badly mauled Manchukuo and Japanese troops in several engagements. In the “Ma Chan-shan Subjugation Operation” the Kwangtung Army transferred a large mixed force of Japanese and Manchukuo troops to encircle and destroy Ma's Army. Ma Zhanshan's troops, though seriously depleted in the fierce battles, escaped due to the laxity of the Manchukuo troops. In September Ma Zhanshan arrived in Longmen County and established relationship with the Heilungkiang National Salvation Army of Su Bingwen. In the “Su Ping-wei Subjugation Operation”, 30,000 Japanese and Manchukuo troops forced Ma Zhanshan and Su Bingwen to retreat across the border into the Soviet Union in December. Most of these troops were then transferred to Rehe.

Second Sino-Japanese War

Ma himself stayed abroad in the Soviet Union, Germany and Italy only returning in June 1933. He went to Chiang Kai-shek ask for armies to fight against the Japanese but was refused assistance. Ma then settled in Tianjin until October 1936 when Chiang Kai-shek suddenly sent him to the front of the Chinese Civil War. At Xi'an at the time of Xian Incident, he suggested to Zhang Xueliang not to kill Chiang Kai-shek while the country was in trouble and signed on the “Current Political Situation Declaration” issued by Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng. Zhang Xueliang appointed Ma Zhanshan as the Commander-in-chief of the “Anti-Japanese Aid Suiyuan Cavalry Group Army”, which was suspended afterwards when Zhang Xueliang was detained by Chiang Kai-shek.

After the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, Ma Zhanshan was appointed as Commander of the Northeastern Advance Force in charge of the four northeastern provinces Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang and Rehe. Ma Zhanshan established a headquarters in Datong in August 1937 and led his troops to fight the Japanese in Chahar, Suiyuan Datong and Shanxi and he cooperated with Fu Zuoyi's troops in the defense of Suiyuan and in the Yinshan War.

Ma Zhanshan abhorred the nonresistance policy of the Kuomintang government and he sided with the Chinese Communist Party in its anti-Japanese policy. He visited Yanan in 1939 in order reach an accommodation with the Chinese Red Army. Ma Zhanshan was appointed as Chairman of the Provisional Government of Heilongjiang in August 1940 by the Chinese Communist Party, and held that title in secret to the end of the war.

After the defeat of Japan, the Kuomintang government appointed Ma Zhanshan as Northeast Deputy Security Commander. He took office in Shenyang, but a half year later he retired to his home in Beijing saying he was ill. He crossed over to the Communist Party in January 1949 after persuading General Fu Zuoyi to allow the city to be taken bloodlessly by the Communists. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, Chairman Mao Zedong invited him to attend the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference in June 1950, but he failed to attend because of illness and he died the same year on November 29, 1950, in Beijing.

See also

References

Books

  • Dupuy, Trevor N. (1992). Encyclopedia of Military Biography. I B Tauris & Co Ltd. ISBN 1-85043-569-3.  
  • Elleman, Bruce (2001). Modern Chinese Warfare. Routledge. ISBN 0415214742.  
  • Jowett, Phillip S. (2004). Rays of The Rising Sun, Armed Forces of Japan’s Asian Allies 1931-45, Volume I: China & Manchuria. Helion & Co. Ltd.. ISBN 1874622213.  
  • Mitter, Rana (2000). The Manchurian Myth: Nationalism, Resistance, and Collaboration in Modern China. University of California Press. ISBN 0520221117.  
  • Wang, Ke-Wen (1997). Modern China: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Nationalism. Routledge. ISBN 0815307209.  

External links


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