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Makassar
ᨀᨚᨈ ᨆᨀᨔᨑ
Kota Makassar
City of Makassar
Losari Beach (top), Masjid Raya Makassar (center), Makassar skyline (bottom left), and Hasanuddin International Airport (bottom right)

Seal
Nickname(s): Kota Daeng
Motto: Sekali Layar Terkembang Pantang Biduk Surut Ke Pantai
Makassar is located in Sulawesi
Makassar
Location of Makassar in Sulwesi
Coordinates: 5°8′S 119°25′E / 5.133°S 119.417°E / -5.133; 119.417
Country Flag of Indonesia.svg Indonesia
Province South Sulawesi
City November 9, 1607
Government
 - Mayor Ilham Arief Sirajuddin
 - Deputy Mayor Supomo Guntur
Area
 - Total 175.77 km2 (67.9 sq mi)
Population
 - Total 1,130,384
 - Density 6,431.04/km2 (16,656.3/sq mi)
Time zone WITA (UTC+8)
 - Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+8)
Area code(s) +62 411
Twin Cities
 - Qingdao People's Republic of China
 - Hakodate Japan
 - Wellington New Zealand
 - Aden Yemen
 - Makasan Thailand
Website www.makassarkota.go.id

Makassar, (Makassarese Language: ᨀᨚᨈ ᨆᨀᨔᨑ sometimes spelled Macassar, Mangkasar) is the provincial capital of South Sulawesi, Indonesia, and the largest city on Sulawesi Island. From 1971 to 1999, the city was formally named Ujung Pandang, after a precolonial fort in the city, and the two names are often used interchangeably. The port city is located at 5°8′S 119°25′E / 5.133°S 119.417°E / -5.133; 119.417Coordinates: 5°8′S 119°25′E / 5.133°S 119.417°E / -5.133; 119.417, on the southwest coast of the island of Sulawesi, facing the Makassar Strait.

Its area is 175.77 km2 and has population of 1.25 million.

Contents

History

The first European settlers were the Portuguese sailors. Beginning in the sixteenth century, Makassar was the dominant trading center of eastern Indonesia, and soon became one of the largest cities in island Southeast Asia. The Makassarese kings maintained a policy of free trade, insisting on the right of any visitor to do business in the city, and rejecting the attempts of the Dutch to establish a monopoly over the city. Further, tolerant religious attitudes meant that even as Islam became the dominant faith in the region, Christians and others were still able to trade in the city. With these attractions, Makassar was a key center for Malays working in the Spice Islands trade, as well as a valuable base for European and Arab traders from much further afield.

Economy

Pinisi boats at the port of Paotere in Makassar

The city is southern Sulawesi's primary port, with regular domestic and international shipping connections. It is nationally famous as an important port of call for the pinisi boats, sailing ships which are among the last in use for regular long-distance trade.

During the colonial era, the city was famous for being the namesake of Makassar oil, which it exported in great quantity. Makassar ebony is a warm black hue, streaked with tan or brown tones, and highly prized for use in making fine cabinetry and veneers.

Contact with Australia

Makassar is also a major fishing center in Sulawesi. One of its major industries is the trepang (sea cucumber) industry. Trepang fishing brought the Makassan people into contact with the Yolŋu people of Northern Australia.

C. C. MacKnight in his 1976 work entitled Voyage to Marege: Macassan Trepangers in Northern Australia has shown that they began frequenting the north of Australia some time around 1700 in search of trepang (sea-slug, sea cucumber, Beche-de-mer) an edible Holothurian. They left their waters during the North-west Monsoon in December or January for what is now Arnhem Land, Marege or Marega and to the Kimberley region or Kayu Djawa. They returned home with the South-east Trades in April. A fleet of between 24 and 26 Macassan prahus was seen in 1803 by the French explorers under Nicolas Baudin on the Holothuria Banks in the Timor Sea. In February 1803, Matthew Flinders in the Investigator met six prahus with 20-25 men each on board and was told that there were 60 prahus then on the north Australian coast. They were fishing for trepang and appeared to have only a small compass as a navigation aid. In June 1818 Macassan trepang fishing was noted by Phillip Parker King in the vicinity of Port Essington in the Arafura Sea. In 1864 R.J. Sholl, then resident magistrate for the European settlement at Camden Sound (near Augustus Island in the Kimberley region) observed seven ‘Macassan’ prahus with around 300 men on board. He believed that they made kidnapping raids and ranged as far south as Roebuck Bay (later Broome) where ‘quite a fleet’ was seen around 1866. Sholl believed that they did not venture south into other areas such as Nickol Bay (where the European pearling industry commenced around 1865) due to the absence of trepang in those waters. The Macassan voyages appear to have ceased sometime in the late nineteenth century and their place was taken by other sailors operating from elsewhere in the Indonesian Archipelago.

Transportation

Makassar has a public transportation system called 'pete-pete'. A pete-pete (known elsewhere in Indonesia as angkot) is a mini-bus that has been modified to carry passengers. The route of Makassar's pete-petes is denoted by the letter on the windshield. Makassar is famous for their "becak" (pedicab) which is smaller than the "becak" in the island of Java. In Makassar, people who drive pedicab are called Daeng. Because so many pedicabs are in Makassar, the city has been nicknamed "Kota Daeng" or the city of Daengs. The city airport is Hasanuddin International Airport which is actually located outside the Makassar city administration area. It is formally located in the regency of Maros. In addition to "becak" and "pete-pete", the city has government-run bus system, and taxis.

Landmarks

There are some landmarks of Makassar such as Losari Beach, Fort Rotterdam, Gereja Katedral,Trans Studio World, Monumen Mandala, Karebosi Link, Celebes Convention Centre, Mesjid Raya

Traditional food

Makassar has several famous traditional foods. The most famous is Coto Makassar. It is a stew made from the mixture of nuts and spices with beef parts which include beef brain, tongue and intestine.

In addition, Makassar is the home of pisang epe, or pressed bananas. These are bananas which are pressed, grilled, and covered with palm sugar sauce and sometimes eaten with Durian. Many street vendors sell pisang epe, especially around the area of Losari beach.

Attraction/Tourist Destination

Starting from 9 September 2009, Makassar has the biggest indoor theme park in Southeast Asia and in the world which is known as Trans Kalla. The theme park was created by a joint company between Trans TV,an Indonesian TV company, and Jusuf Kalla (Indonesia's vice president]) company (Kalla Group). Beside the Theme Park, it also has a Resort, a Marina,a Bank Office,an Exclusive Shopping Mall which will be completed around 2012. The theme park is located in Tanjung Bunga. The local governement is planning to build a CPI which includes the Presidential House near the theme park.

See also

References

  • McCarthy, M., 2000, Indonesian divers in Australian waters. The Great Circle, vol. 20, No.2:120-137.
  • MacKnight, C.C., Voyage to Marege. Macassan Trepangers in Northern Australia, Melbourne University Press, 1976.
  • Reid, Anthony. 1999. Charting the shape of early modern Southeast Asia. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books. ISBN 974-7551-06-3. pp. 100-154.
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