Machining: Wikis

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New Guinea in 1943. Mobile Machine Shop truck of the US Army with machinists working on automotive parts.

Conventional machining, one of the most important material removal methods, is a collection of material-working processes in which power-driven machine tools, such as lathes, milling machines, and drill presses, are used with a sharp cutting tool to mechanically cut the material to achieve the desired geometry. Machining is a part of the manufacture of almost all metal products, and it is common for other materials, such as wood and plastic, to be machined. A person who specializes in machining is called a machinist. A room, building, or company where machining is done is called a machine shop. Much of modern day machining is controlled by computers using computer numerical control (CNC) machining. Machining can be a business, a hobby, or both.

The precise meaning of the term "machining" has evolved over the past 1.5 centuries as technology has advanced. During the Machine Age, it referred to (what we today might call) the "traditional" machining processes, such as turning, boring, drilling, milling, broaching, sawing, shaping, planing, reaming, and tapping, or sometimes to grinding. Since the advent of new technologies such as electrical discharge machining, electrochemical machining, electron beam machining, photochemical machining, and ultrasonic machining, the retronym "conventional machining" can be used to differentiate the classic technologies from the newer ones. The term "machining" without qualification usually implies conventional machining.

Contents

Machining operations

Making a shipboard manhole cover in the machine shop of the aircraft carrier USS John C. Stennis.

The three principal machining processes are classified as turning, drilling and milling. Other operations falling into miscellaneous categories include shaping, planing, boring, broaching and sawing.

  • Turning operations are operations that rotate the workpiece as the primary method of moving metal against the cutting tool. Lathes are the principal machine tool used in turning.
  • Milling operations are operations in which the cutting tool rotates to bring cutting edges to bear against the workpiece. Milling machines are the principal machine tool used in milling.
  • Drilling operations are operations in which holes are produced or refined by bringing a rotating cutter with cutting edges at the lower extremity into contact with the workpiece. Drilling operations are done primarily in drill presses but sometimes on lathes or mills.
  • Miscellaneous operations are operations that strictly speaking may not be machining operations in that they may not be swarf producing operations but these operations are performed at a typical machine tool. Burnishing is an example of a miscellaneous operation. Burnishing produces no swarf but can be performed at a lathe, mill, or drill press.

An unfinished workpiece requiring machining will need to have some material cut away to create a finished product. A finished product would be a workpiece that meets the specifications set out for that workpiece by engineering drawings or blueprints. For example, a workpiece may be required to have a specific outside diameter. A lathe is a machine tool that can be used to create that diameter by rotating a metal workpiece, so that a cutting tool can cut metal away, creating a smooth, round surface matching the required diameter and surface finish. A drill can be used to remove metal in the shape of a cylindrical hole. Other tools that may be used for various types of metal removal are milling machines, saws, and grinding machines. Many of these same techniques are used in woodworking.

More recent, advanced machining techniques include electrical discharge machining (EDM), electro-chemical erosion, laser cutting, or water jet cutting to shape metal workpieces.

As a commercial venture, machining is generally performed in a machine shop, which consists of one or more workrooms containing major machine tools. Although a machine shop can be a stand-alone operation, many businesses maintain internal machine shops which support specialized needs of the business.

Machining requires attention to many details for a workpiece to meet the specifications set out in the engineering drawings or blueprints. Beside the obvious problems related to correct dimensions, there is the problem of achieving the correct finish or surface smoothness on the workpiece. The inferior finish found on the machined surface of a workpiece may be caused by incorrect clamping, a dull tool, or inappropriate presentation of a tool. Frequently, this poor surface finish, known as chatter, is evident by an undulating or irregular finish, and the appearance of waves on the machined surfaces of the workpiece.

Basic machining process.
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Circle interpolating

The orbital drilling principle

Circle interpolating, also known as orbital drilling, is a process for creating holes using machine cutters.

Orbital drilling is based on rotating a cutting tool around its own axis and simultaneously about a centre axis which is off-set from the axis of the cutting tool. The cutting tool can then be moved simultaneously in an axial direction to drill or machine a hole – and/or combined with an arbitrary sidewards motion to machine an opening or cavity.

By adjusting the offset, a cutting tool of a specific diameter can be used to drill holes of different diameters as illustrated. This implies that the cutting tool inventory can be substantially reduced.

The term orbital drilling comes from that the cutting tool “orbits” around the hole center. The mechanically forced, dynamic offset in orbital drilling has several advantages compared to conventional drilling that drastically increases the hole precision. The lower thrust force results in a burr-less hole when drilling in metals. When drilling in composite materials the problem with delamination is eliminated.[1]

Overview of machining technology

Machining is not just one process; it is a group of processes. The common feature is the use of a cutting tool to form a chip that is removed from the workpart, called swarf . To perform the operation, relative motion is required between the tool and work. This relative motion is achieved in most machining operation by means of a primary motion, called "cutting speed" and a secondary motion called "feed'". The shape of the tool and its penetration into the work surface, combined with these motions, produce the desired shape of the resulting work surface.

Types of machining operation

There are many kinds of machining operations, each of which is capable of generating a certain part geometry and surface texture.

In turning, a cutting tool with a single cutting edge is used to remove material from a rotating workpiece to generate a cylindrical shape. The speed motion in turning is provided by the rotating workpart, and the feed motion is achieved by the cutting tool moving slowly in a direction parallel to the axis of rotation of the workpiece.

Drilling is used to create a round hole. It is accomplished by a rotating tool that is typically has two cutting edges. The tool is fed in a direction parallel to its axis of rotation into the workpart to form the round hole.

In boring, the tool is used to enlarge an already available hole. It is a fine finishing operation used in the final stages of product manufacture.

In milling, a rotating tool with multiple cutting edges is moved slowly relative to the material to generate a plane or straight surface. The direction of the feed motion is perpendicular to the tool's axis of rotation. The speed motion is provided by the rotating milling cutter. The two basic forms of milling are:

  • Peripheral milling
  • Face milling

Other conventional machining operations include shaping, planing, broaching and sawing. Also, grinding and similar abrasive operations are often included within the category of machining.

The cutting tool

A "numerical controlled machining cell machinist" monitors a B-1B aircraft part being manufactured.

A cutting tool has one or more sharp cutting edges and is made of a material that is harder than the work material. The cutting edge serves to separate chip from the parent work material. Connected to the cutting edge are the two surfaces of the tool:

  • The rake face; and
  • The flank.

The rake face which directs the flow of newly formed chip, is oriented at a certain angle is called the rake angle "α". It is measured relative to the plane perpendicular to the work surface. The rake angle can be positive or negative. The flank of the tool provides a clearance between the tool and the newly formed work surface, thus protecting the surface from abrasion, which would degrade the finish. This angle between the work surface and the flank surface is called the relief angle. There are two basic types of cutting tools:

  • Single point tool; and
  • Multiple-cutting-edge tool

A single point tool has one cutting edge and is used for turning, boreing and planing. During machining, the point of the tool penetrates below the original work surface of the workpart. The point is sometimes rounded to a certain radius, called the nose radius.

Multiple-cutting-edge tools have more than one cutting edge and usually achieve their motion relative to the workpart by rotating. Drilling and milling uses rotating multiple-cutting-edge tools. Although the shapes of these tools are different from a single-point tool, many elements of tool geometry are similar.

Cutting conditions

Relative motion is required between the tool and work to perform a machining operation. The primary motion is accomplished at a certain cutting speed. In addition, the tool must be moved laterally across the work. This is a much slower motion, called the feed. The remaining dimension of the cut is the penetration of the cutting tool below the original work surface, called the depth of cut. Collectively, speed, feed, and depth of cut are called the cutting conditions. They form the three dimensions of the machining process, and for certain operations, their product can be used to obtain the material removal rate for the process:

{R}_{MR} = vfd\,\!

where

  • {R}_{MR}\,\! — the material removal rate in mm3/s, (in3/s),
  • v\,\! — the cutting speed in m/s, (ft/min),
  • f\,\! — the feed in mm, (in),
  • d\,\! — the depth of cut in mm, (in).
Note: All units must be converted to the corresponding decimal (or USCU) units.

Stages in metal cutting

Machining operations usually divide into two categories, distinguished by purpose and cutting conditions:

  • Roughing cuts, and
  • Finishing cuts

Roughing cuts are used to remove large amount of material from the starting workpart as rapidly as possible, in order to produce a shape close to the desired form, but leaving some material on the piece for a subsequent finishing operation. Finishing cuts are used to complete the part and achieve the final dimension, tolerances, and surface finish. In production machining jobs, one or more roughing cuts are usually performed on the work, followed by one or two finishing cuts. Roughing operations are done at high feeds and depths — feeds of .04-1.25 mm/rev (0.015-0.050 in/rev) and depths of 2.5-20 mm (0.100-0.750 in) are typical. Finishing operations are carried out at low feeds and depths - feeds of 0.0125-0.04 mm/rev (0.0005-0.0015 in/rev) and depths of 0.75-2.0 mm (0.030-0.075 in) are typical. Cutting speeds are lower in roughing than in finishing.

A cutting fluid is often applied to the machining operation to cool and lubricate the cutting tool. Determining whether a cutting fluid should be used, and, if so, choosing the proper cutting fluid, is usually included within the scope of cutting condition.

Today other forms of metal cutting are becoming increasingly popular. An example of this is water jet cutting. Water jet cutting involves pressurized water in excess of 90,000 PSI and is able to cut metal and have a finished product. This process, is called cold cutting, and it increases efficiency as opposed to laser and plasma cutting.

See also

References

  1. ^ Orbital Drilling Goes Mainstream for the Dreamliner, Aerospace Engineering & Manufacturing, SAE International Publications, March 2009, p. 32

Further reading

  • Groover, Mikell P. (2007). "Theory of Metal Machining". Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing (3rd ed ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. pp. 491–504. ISBN 0471744859. 
  • Oberg, Erik; Jones, Franklin D.; McCauley, Christopher J.; Heald, Ricardo M. (2004), Machinery's Handbook (27th ed.), Industrial Press, ISBN 978-0831127008. 
  • "Machine Tool Practices", 6th edition, by R.R.; Kibbe, J.E.; Neely, R.O.; Meyer & W.T.; White, ISBN 0-13-270232-0, 2nd printing, copyright 1999, 1995, 1991, 1987, 1982 and 1979 by Prentice Hall.

External links


Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

Conventional Machining, one of the most important material removal methods, is a collection of material-working processes in which power-driven machine tools, such as lathes, milling machines, and drill presses are used with a sharp cutting tool to mechanically cut the material to achieve the desired geometry. Machining is a part of the manufacture of almost all metal products. It is not uncommon for other materials to be machined.

Machining is advantageous to processes like molding and casting in terms of required setup time and cost, and as such is often used in a prototyping capacity.

Contents

Processes

Machining principally consists of three basic cutting operations:

  • Turning performed on a Lathe, which makes the raduis of the metal smaller
  • Milling performed on a Mill, using various cutting tools
  • Drilling on various machines, primarily Drill Presses

Turning

Chucks and Faceplates

Lathe chucks are used greatly for holding what is going to be machined. There are two types of chucks, an indepentent chuck or the universal chuck.

Tooling

Milling

Workholding

Cutting tools

End Mills

Face Mill

Process

Convention vs. Climb Milling

Drilling

Other Processes

Boring

Sawing

Grinding

Scraping

Broaching

Planing

Theory

Because machining is not a single process but a group of processes, no single principle is applicable to every aspect of machining. However, all machining processes do have in common the removal of chips or "swarf" by the relative motion of a cutting tool against the workpiece or part. The means by which this motion is achieved varies by machine type, but can generally be broken down into two types of motion:

Primary motion is the result of a machine tool's speed. In the case of a simple drilling operation, this is the spinning of the drill bit. A secondary motion is provided by a tools feed. In the example of a drilling operation, this is the plunging of the drill bit into the material.

Determining optimal speeds and feeds is a major component of best machining practices. A huge number of variables are factors in determining these properties: materials of both workpiece and cutting tool, geometry of the cut, the coolant or cutting fluid used, finish and tolerance required, and the rigidity and power of the machine tool being used.

Chip Removal

Speeds and Feeds

Effects on Materials

Residual Stress

Work Hardening

Use

Industry

Hobby


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